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Within these pages is a brief insight in to alternative youth culture and a few individuals who explore, exploit and abuse it. A range of art forms including surf, skate, poetry and tattooing, explored in favour of creativity and the promotion of print. It is a great time for print. This example exists without pretence or artifice, it is a contemporary take on traditional methods: simple, distributable, and if nothing else, disposable. Please do enjoy this simple publication. It is with the intention to inspire and interest that it was created. Have a read. Pass on, create and destroy. Harry Wade



Stay Rad Skates

viii. Travels of Western men x. xiv.

Pull Out Poster



xx. xxiv.

Words. Harry Wade

Michael Lay

Alex Edwards Jack Whitefield

Images. Harry Wade Rudy Jacques Michael Lay Jack Whitefield Tom Bold

Design. Harry Wade Matthew Travis

Cover Image. Jack Whitefield Contact. Harry Wade


STAYING RAD Catching up with Stay Rad, an artist who takes influence from classic skateboard vibes and keeps a heavy DIY work ethic. He is an artist whose paintings, illustrations and zines have led him away from the constraints of the big city cliché, and determined to make his latest exhibition “as far away from typical private shows as possible.” How does he find creating art and what influences him?

What led you in to creating artwork like you do? I’ve always created “art” ever since I can remember; it’s just something I’ve always done. I just did it in my spare time around skateboarding and hanging with the homies. I guess that is what has led me to create art like I do now, skateboarding and friends.

I’m working with a really dope photographer and skateboarder from New York, Marco Hernandez, his work inspires me and its great to be able to work together. Magazines, books, zines, Jean Michel Basquiat, David Shrigley, Malarky and Kyle Platts are among a few artists that I’m really into. I just received this gnarly zine called HELLO by Tylor Macmilian, his work is savage, so I’m stoked on that.

How long have you been working as you are now? Well I have been creating a lot more over the past few years, since leaving London and getting a studio set up has definitely changed the way I work. I was working under the moniker ‘wearealloutlaws’ for just over a year, however, the majority of the art was heavily influenced by skate culture/youth culture so I changed to ‘Stay Rad Skates’. What were you doing previous to this? (Weren’t you tattooing for a while?) I did a whole bunch of stuff man, but yeah I was an apprentice tattooist, but it didn’t quite work out, if you fuck it up you can’t just throw it in the bin. Let’s just say I prefer being tattooed than actually tattooing. Where do you find your inspiration? Skating? Yeah skateboarding is a massive influence on me. Aesthetically ‘Heroin Skateboards’ have always been a huge influence for me and a company called ‘Blast Skates’ is just starting out, Matthew Bromley, who is one of my favourite illustrators right now, runs it. Once you get sucked into the world of skateboarding that’s it, you see everything differently; there is no escape. What else do you find influences you personally? Other influences I would say has to be 35mm photography,

Is skateboarding the main focus of your artwork? Yeah it evolved into that. It wasn’t intentional. It just evolved to this point where it is the main focus. I think that skating for the past 13 years and creating art since I was a kid it was inevitable!

“Once you get sucked into the world of skateboarding that’s it, you see everything differently; there is no escape.”

How do you feel about the skater owned art and distribution companies in the UK? I’ve noticed some English skaters going over to America to work? The scenes changed quite a lot recently. Yeah I feel the scene has changed massively. It is very fashionable to be a skateboarder or wear companies clothing now. I know there is a fair bit of beef on both sides of the spectrum over the huge companies involved and the whole street league thing, but I don’t get too involved with all that. Your online identity seems quite aloof, and doesn’t give much information away; do you find it easier to work that way? (Laughs) I wouldn’t say I find it easier. It’s more to do with removing myself from the work. I don’t want the work to be associated with my face, or where I went to school. I’m bored of seeing selfies on Instagram, or reading how bad someone’s hangover is and when they are taking a shit


or its consistency on Facebook. I want people to see my art for what it is, and not who I am. The art scene must be an extremely hard thing to infiltrate, how do you find it throughout zines and alternative art? Do you really want to break any sort of scene or just keep creating art like you do at the moment? The art scene is definitely hard to infiltrate. I started making zines as another platform of getting my work out to people and gaining as much exposure as possible, as well as blogging on the social networking sites, and that has really been working out quite nicely really. I also do Faceculture Zine alongside James Armstrong. The zine was put together with the intention of getting us collaborative exhibitions, and that led to a collaborative exhibition called Faceculture. I don’t know about breaking a scene as such, I just like making art and it has started to get a bit of recognition and one thing is slowly leading to another and who knows how far it will go. When is your next exhibition? How did the last one go? The last

show went great. I had fun doing it and hopefully people enjoyed it too. I just wanted to get as far away from a typical private show as possible, you know like ambient classical backing music and canopies … (Laughs). We also had my dude Rex Domino doing his rap/hip-hop/spoken word music live too, which was rad. As far as future shows, all I can say at the moment is that it’s being talked about and hopefully I may have a couple of solo shows in and around London which will be rad. What would you like to achieve with your work? What mark do you want to leave? That’s hard to say, my take on my art is that as long as I’m learning and creating then I’m happy. As far as achieving, I don’t really know, maybe putting together a little skate company would be sick! I’ve never really given it much thought. Maybe for just being rad. (Laughs) What about some fun shit … What’s your favourite skate part? I have seen you skate and I think it’s some Tom Penny part? Flip – Sorry? The Gonz! Video days man! It was groundbreaking at the time and

still looks fresh now. Whatever Tom Penny does is ill. His style has always been consistently rad. Currently whatever Magenta put out, and the Bronze Hardware edits get me really hyped! Also whatever Pontus Alv is up to is always going be a good watch. What about your favourite board graphic? Probably an old Heroin nosebleed concave deck I had, it was a beast. Thanks dude.

Stay Rad can be found at Instagram @stayradskates

MICHAEL L AY We must have eaten our weight in burgers that day. The red brick of the harbour and fast windy wash of the murky water is a transition found in many ports in the North of England. Not many have the rich heritage of the Albert Docks in Liverpool. The beer and conversation was flowing in the Baltic Fleet pub with Michael Lay, we were here to discuss his surfing sabbatical in pursuit of poetry here in Liverpool. In the shadow of the old overhead railway that ran the length of the docks, he mused finding success through poetry and surfing, and how each help to contextualise life in and out of the water. Thankfully the hum of central Liverpool and cold beer was helping us to contextualise this little meeting. Mike spoke of craving the Atlantic and is moved when speaking of Cornwall and the ocean. Yet his persona strikes a passionate balance between poetry and surfing; he looks distinctly like he would be comfortable in the ocean.

Mike rides Slide 65 9’ 6” (layback Model) Neon Wetsuits Rhythm Clothing x

I know as an artist you probably won’t want to explain your poetry, but what would you say is your main influence? I see mostly Cornwall. What about surfing? I actually quite enjoy explaining my poems, at readings especially. I think a bit of context can help a reader or listener to understand a poem, I try to make my work stand alone but poetry isn’t prose, you’re not given the whole story. I would say my main influence is probably Cornwall but only because it has done the most to shape my experience of the world, I’m actually writing a lot more about Liverpool now, I think I write to remember, to get memories on the page so they don’t slip away into the mind, and surfing is a part of that. Who has influenced you? The first poem I properly got was ‘The Lovesong of J. Alfred Prufrock’ by T.S Eliot. It’s super long and far removed from what I am into now but it’s just full of humanity. The next and probably biggest influence is a Scottish poet called W.S Graham, he lived with his wife in Cornwall for the last 30 years of his life in pretty full on poverty, but his writing is just honest, about real places and people. There are others outside of poetry, Harold Pinter, Hemingway and Laurie Lee, they all light my fire in different ways. What led you down the poetry avenue? It seems incredibly niche. I came to Liverpool to do Creative Writing and English but I had never written a poem in my life, I was writing stories and articles and stuff before. When we started doing poetry it just felt so free,

although there are certainly rules within poetry and you can’t just write whatever the fuck you like, however you want to write it. I like to think that in prose words are the building blocks to a story whereas in poetry words are the paints to an image. Has life in Liverpool changed your perception of life in Cornwall and your poetry? I definitely miss surfing, that is the biggest thing, I often say things like ‘I can’t wait to get back to the sea’ although Liverpool is a bloody port, my flat is even built on reclaimed dockland. It’s just not the same, I think I crave the Atlantic and the wild, I can generally last a month without surfing before getting properly grumpy. In terms of poetry, living in a city has taught me a lot about people, when I first started I focused on landscapes and that sort of thing, but now I try to write more about human interactions within a given place. Place is still really important and Liverpool has that strong sense of place like Cornwall. What coverage have you had? Feedback etc. (Laughs) Yeah I published a book with my Mum’s publishing business called Upon High Hedges, my writing and her photographs, Al Alvarez read it and sent me a really nice and encouraging email. I’d just finished writing an essay on The New Poetry, an anthology he edited in the 60’s, so was pretty blown away. Other than that I have entered the Avalon Prize for Poetry here in Liverpool a couple of times and placed 3rd and 2nd, I got highly


commended in the Poetry Book Society Student Competition, it was really cool getting comments from George Szirtes for that one. I’m also getting published in the 2013 edition of In The Red, a really great literary magazine based in Liverpool. Do you find it easier being younger and approaching poetry? Does it have a large or niche readership? Being young is epic, I’m really into it, but for poetry I think experience is so important. It is not something that there is a manual or set of rules for, you need to spend time working out how you fit into it and your way of writing poems, I am certainly at the very beginning of that journey. Poetry’s readership is a funny old thing, it is hugely prevalent in our culture and society, every child studies it at school, but the only poems that are read are by dead poets; the readership for contemporary poetry is tiny. My lecturer told us that Seamus Heaney had the

biggest selling collection of 2012 ... he sold 2,500 copies, a typical good selling collection might sell 600 copies. What have you been doing recently with surfing? Just doing it again really, getting back in the sea and not thinking about anything. I’m riding lots of different boards and looking forward to the summer. The surfing lifestyle company, Rhythm, have been firing me some sick threads recently and I’m excited to be working with them in the future, also the Cornish based wetsuit company Neon, who are pretty new but making the most stylish suits I have ever seen. Do you find your writing being influenced by your surfing? I know people like Sam Bleakley talk about jazz influencing his writing; do you find meters or influence through something external like that? At this stage I don’t really see any huge parallels between the two, surfing is what I want to do every day when I wake up,

everyday for the rest of my life, writing is what I want to do when I get home, perhaps to make sense of the day. Sam is a huge inspiration to me though, I should have mentioned him earlier, and he is a real thinker. It seems like he thinks about his life, his surfing and his writing in such a considered, intelligent way. I have to remember to keep writing poems, so that one day I might be able to think more clearly about my life and what I do, if I stop writing I think things could start getting boring. That sounds pretty vague and weird right now but I think it’s genuine. Right on. Through creative context Mike has succeeded in contemporary poetry, but admits he wants to wake up to surfing for the rest of his life. Later that evening songs of Western men echoed through Liverpool docks.


Questions for Rudy Jacques, surf photographer and founder of AVTHENTIC. He explains his love for surf photography, the progressing scene and how AVTHENTIC is more than just a surf brand.

Can you tell me a little bit about yourself? My name is Rudy, I’m 26 and I come from Oleron, a small island off the Atlantic Coast. I could not have dreamt of a better place to grow up. People who live in the continent always say that there is nothing to do during winter, but if you are a surfer, it is just a rad place to live in. When did you start documenting surfing and when did it become the AVTHENTIC brand? I have been living and working in Paris for 7 years now and pretty much started documenting surfing seriously 7 years ago. I felt the need to keep in touch with the surfing act because I was stuck in the city. So I was very enthusiastic in taking a lot of photographs and filming my friends each time

I got back to the beach: then, I could spend hours and hours working on these images and editing clips. It has always been a process of frustration but it worked to help me feel better. Like a little bit of fresh air. No pressure. It started with my friend Steven Dunn Videau and then Clovis Donizetti, we met in Biarritz. Two pals that inspired me so much, both on a human and on a surfing basis. It was so fun while it lasted. Actually, I have not taken a single photo for months. Avthentic would rather be dead than something I feel forced to do. It is not a brand, it is not driven by rules but values.

and some people from all around the world ordered a copy, which was so exciting. It is made out of nothing except passion and the fact that people from other countries could be interested in The Avthentic Story was just crazy. No money, no promotion, no $$ ambition. So I am just proud of how it was done and glad of how it turned out.

What was the response like to the AVTHENTIC movie? Seems really good. Thank you. It received good feedbacks after the screenings

What people are you stoked on in the longboarding scene? I crossed the path of some UK sliders last summer in South

It seems your work is really personal. What inspires you? My family and my friends Steven and Clovis. Nathan Oldfield, Kyle Lightner, Neil Young, Henri Chinaski, Ian MacKaye, Dischord Records, John Frusciante.

All photos France 2012


Pictured. James Parry Michael Lay Matthew Travis



West France. Clovis told me that I was going to dig their surfing and introduced me to James Parry, Matthew Jackson Travis and Michael Lay. Those guys were absolutely ripping and having so much fun together. I actually did not know them before and found their approach so spontaneous, which seems to be pretty rare these days. It is even better to be stoked on people that you heard about not because they were under the spotlights. It can be your friends or your neighbours. The long boarding scene seems to be growing in the UK, in a really positive way, and in Europe and America. What are your thoughts on the growing scene? It still seems very intimate. It is good to see that it is always evolving. People are doing things on their own, creating brands, labels or zines. These scenes also pay attention to the past: surfing has had such an impact on a cultural level, that is something which is necessary to preserve and to transmit as you guys are doing with the Hip Wigglers Invitational. The UK scene seems to have this deep respect for the traditions we should all be inspired by. Thanks Bro.


BOLD WILL HOLD Skating with one of London’s youngest tattoo artists, whos modern take on traditional tattooing is leading him to create some of the best work of his career.

Sat at a leather-topped bureau, the walls of the low-lit room adorned with tattoo flash paintings and surrounding history, Alex Edwards, one of London’s youngest tattoo artists, delicately puts the finishing touches to a watercolour painting. He then clips it to the wall, adding to the pictorial history of tattoo art already hanging in his South London flat.

The area is part of ever-expanding London; it has seen a huge rejuvenation in the last few years, with new building work happening all the time. An influx of students from nearby Goldsmiths University and what have been called ‘middlegentrifiers’ – young creative’s pushing up rent in the ever growing suburbs, have not changed the 100-year-old market.

After being a part of the tattoo industry for over three years now, a move to another, busier shop and a heavy influx of clients, as well an eye opening trip to New York, he feels he is producing the best work of his career.

His humble, calm demeanour almost seems paradoxical as arms blackened with ink protrude from a plain white t-shirt, a traditional tattoo artist look. You could be forgiven for losing yourself in the artwork on the walls, which clearly shows his progression as an artist. Suddenly I’m reminded, “I have been tattooing since 2009, but I’ve been feeling settled at Kids Love Ink in Deptford for around a year and a half, I’m happy there - they’re my second family.” Tattooing has undoubtedly seen a huge increase in popularity over the last few years, with a huge commercialisation on both a celebrity and public level. However, Alex seems to think this popularity is doomed and will pass, (it seems) it is a recurring argument among tattoo artists. Alex’s trainers show all the signs

of someone who skates; worn toes and frayed laces is something you learn to spot after years of replacing trainers. Skateboards lay around his flat, some skated, some new. Alex explains his early interest in English skateboard artists, “when I was younger the first art that I found interesting was skateboard graphics, and I tried to replicate certain graphics and certain artists in that skateboard scene like James Jarvis and FOS. As I grew up I found tattooing the next thing that stood out to me, the next outlet for that sort of art.” The skate from Alex’s flat to Deptford High Street and the shop Alex calls his second home, Kids Love Ink, is a fun one. There is a smell of fresh fish and the sound of dub music bellowing from shop fronts as you roll past the high street market.

Rolling in to work each day seems an ideal way to arrive, but Alex assures me it is hard work for him to have this privileged position and to be taken seriously within the industry. He explains the work it has taken to get from a young hopeful to where he is today: “I had a years worth of drawings and paintings in my portfolio, I came to the first shop, I showed them my stuff and was offered an apprenticeship. I started doing a couple days a week, then I was waiting outside when they turned up for work, they couldn’t get rid of me. “At that time I was working five nights a week at a shoe shop, then the tattoo shop five days. It was pretty full on.” A strong smell of antiseptic spray twinned with the buzz and hum of a fast moving needle is, to most people, an indication you’re about to get a tattoo, or perhaps have had a serious sewing accident. Alex puts his position at an established tattoo shop down to persistence and hard work. Determined not to offend anyone Alex talks about how even with the popularity of tattoos, he rarely sees anyone coming to Kids Love Ink with the same passion. “A few people would ask do you have any jobs, and when we ask do you have any drawings or portfolio, they seem shocked that we would


“I think it will go shit for a while, and all the shops that are just in it for the money will leave because the moneys not there, and it’ll just go back in to the hands of the true tattooists again, and that’s when it starts getting good for us basically.”

ask. People just assume you don’t draw and just want to be a tattoo artist.” He recoils, clearly worrying about offending, “I don’t want this to be a fucking rant on douchebags though, because that’s what every tattoo interview seems to be about.” A mixture of morality and business interests are evident in his tone. The tattoo shop looks distinct amongst the rest of the high street, and inside Alex’s face looks distinctly young amongst the other artists. The shop is full of tattoo history and artwork, a large amount of it Alex’s. The artist’s chairs are full and the buzz of needles fills the shop. Marcus Broome opened the shop in 2006 but it has made a more recent

move to accommodate for the extra artists that wanted to be part of the team. Alex explains how his work ethic changed after a trip to Queens, New York, to work at a partnered shop, Top Shelf Tattoo. “In New York it is very fast paced, tattooing has been like that since the early nineteen hundreds, it all started down there on the Bowery and downtown Manhattan. It is the American way of tattooing to concentrate on walk-in customers and artists need the ability to do that.” Alex explains how the shops are sometimes open twelve hours a day, “It is an amazing work ethic. It was eye opening for me, when I got back home to London I started

turning up to work about an hour and a half earlier than I used to just so I could draw and stuff you know?” After sitting in the tattoo shop I begin to understand this place as a leveller of modern society, with all walks of life intent on adorning themselves with a piece of art. Yet the traditions of the art appear strong, the flash artwork lining the walls, the constant buzz of needles, followed by suppressed guttural moans. The scratch of a pencil, as an endless litany of artwork is produced, ready to be scratched in to an anxiously waiting hopeful. An old tattoo adage “bold will hold” is framed on one of the walls. Within minutes the New York mentality is tested, someone enters and requests a tattoo, there is some initial chat about size and shape and then a design is on the skin. Alex grips the oddly calm girl and as blood and ink bubble from the needle tip, he explains his style of tattooing: “I’m not really sure what to call it, maybe some kind of modern traditional?

I try and keep my custom stuff as true to real images as I can, if I am doing a rose, it will have bold lines but keep the shape as realistic as I can. I just feel like the traditional designs need to be moving forward at some point.” The shop is a hive of activity as friends come just to hang out and a mixture of customers glide in and out of the shop. Has it always been like this? “When I started a few years ago that’s when the boom happened, I think now it’ll slowly get to the point where it’s not that cool to have a tattoo, because everyone’s got a sleeve and their throat tattooed. It’s probably not that cool to do that now.” After half an hour and some minor squirming another customer is cleaned, wrapped and sent on their way. In the coffee shop next door, also part of the tattoo shop, Alex and owner Marcus explain the recent boom and how they see themselves within it. “I think it will go shit for a while, and all the shops that are just in it for the money will leave because the moneys not there, and it’ll just go back in to the hands of the true tattooists again, and that’s when it starts getting good for us basically.”

Clearly proud of what they have here, whether there is boom at the moment or not, the work, clientele and atmosphere speaks for itself. “We have always been busy at the shop because the level of work that is coming out is always at a high standard, and that’s how it should be.” Left alone there is time to ask where he see’s himself progressing on a personal level, he is noticeably younger than the others, and there is undeniably more of Alex’s work on the walls of the studio than any other artist. “It has taken me a while to do different styles and work out what style I enjoy and what I want from a tattoo. I just want to keep moving in that direction, which for me is the right direction, and just get better and more successful. I’m very happy at Kids Love Ink, they’re very good to me, and I don’t feel any reason to leave because it’s just like a family there.” There is not much time for coffee; there are new clients all the time. I am reminded again of that traditional New York tattoo mentality by Alex, “As much as it (tattooing) is still art, it is also a business and if you aren’t tattooing and someone wants a

tattoo then you should be.” Among the contemporary and fluctuating fashions of London, a life time commitment to a traditional art form has led Alex Edwards ahead of others, with a modern take on a strong work ethic. From the artwork at home to work in the studio, to the way his eyes dart around the room inspecting other peoples tattoos, it is evident Alex Edwards is totally consumed by tattoos. Tattooing is a constantly changing art form and one with a fierce working hierarchy, it is evident it requires a strong work ethic to succeed in this industry.

Alex can be found at


On a chesterfield sofa in his West Cornwall flat, Jack Whitefield discusses how he is escaping the rigid constraints of UK surfing. Applying his own creative process to surfing, this existential pursuit is leading him to live for the experience. After arriving back from Indonesia and California, a chat in his St. Ives home shows how he wants to do more than surf and show kids there is more to surfing than competitions.

What was it like growing up in St. Ives and surfing? St. Ives is great for a kid, loads of people doing different things, surfing and art are the main two that seem to dominate our town, its pretty easy going and there is a close community.

and little videos, but I think s I’m gonna get into these things loads more in the next 12 months, just because I have always done them but haven’t put time into it. And just surfing all the time gets boring. Oh and I’m shit at guitar.

When did you get your first board? How old when you started surfing? My first board was a 6ft pipedreams surfboard; it was funny. I spray painted the whole thing and slapped stickers all over it. I think I was 10.

What people are you stoked on at the moment in surfing/music/ whatever? Music wise I listen to a lot of psych and low-fi. I like Ty Segall, Crystal Syphon, Swell Maps, White Fence then other stuff like, Yardbirds, Sonic Youth, The Fall, Jesus and Mary chain, but anyone shredding really. Surfing wise I don’t care that much on who’s doing the biggest snap turn or whatever. Just if they’re doing something rad and fun to watch, then I get stoked. As long as it is actually them and they haven’t fabricated

Besides surfing what occupies your time creatively? I like to have quite a few things on the go, but I’m yet to become remotely good at any of them. I take a lot of photos, I enjoy it, and its rad to do when I’m traveling. I do a bit of painting

their image because its trendy at the minute. I get stoked off anyone being true to what they enjoy, if that makes any sense? What is the oddest place you’ve ever surfed? Don’t know, there are some fucking weird places at home we surf every so often, like little coves that only work for 13 minutes. I surfed a couple of weird sessions in Indo too. Favourite wave? Home or away? Its going to have to be my local beach Porthmeor when its 1ft windy offshore. Quite crowded (laughs) na it gets fun. A few waves in Cali are fun, and France. What board are you currently riding? A couple of short things 5’5 a 5’4 and a piece of foam, I’ve got a couple of different boards being made for summer.

“It would be nice for kids to see that there is more to surfing than contests and dubstep”

How do you find fitting in to the international surf scene being from UK/Cornwall? I’m not sure, I mean I don’t have anything to do with the UK surf industry anymore, and there’s not a lot going on in it that interests me, so I don’t know a lot about it. But the UK surfing level has gone up loads, a bunch of my friends are UK pro surfers and they shred, but outside of comps and surfing, the UK stuff is pretty boring. Not taking anything away from the surfers, I have full respect for them, they are surfing well. Yeah but its definitely not for me. I feel myself and my close friends fit in better when we travel, none of our sponsors have much to do with the UK. So when I get to travel and meet guys from Cali and Australia that are into the same shit as me, it’s nice.

What are your feelings about the current state of the surf scene? Apart from the actual surfing standard, the UK surf scene is the same as it always has been pretty much. I think a few guys have put a creative side to it like Mickey Smith’s videos and photos, and a select few companies expanding their creative minds, that stuff’s rad. The rest still seems the same old UK scene, feeding off its self and not letting in anything new. Just surfing as a sport, surf surf surf, there is no character or flavour. I think it’s just a sport to them, like football or anything else. I am not sure if its because most UK surfers just don’t enjoy things outside sport like music, art or photography, and think its lame, who knows maybe that’s why it will always be the same scene.

What do you see as your personal role within surfing? What mark would you like to make within surfing? I don’t really have any goals and I have no role in surfing really, it would be nice for kids or anyone to see that there is more to surfing than contests and dubstep, that would be nice. What are you planning next? I’m going to be young for a while, and do things I enjoy.

Find jack at

The Fold  

The Fold is a newspaper-print publication that explores alternative culture, with examples of surf, skate, poetry and art. It brings togethe...

The Fold  

The Fold is a newspaper-print publication that explores alternative culture, with examples of surf, skate, poetry and art. It brings togethe...