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VOL. CLXXV NO.117

SUNNY

TUESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2019

HANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE

Study finds that border wall harms U.S. economy

WINTER WONDERLAND IN HANOVER

HIGH 18 LOW -6

B y LORRAINE LIU The Dartmouth

MICHAEL LIN/THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF

The current border wall between the U.S. and Mexico — constructed over the last 13 years under the Secure Fence Act of 2006 — barely affects migration patterns between the two countries and harms the U.S. economy, according to a working paper recently published

The winter storm that hit various regions across North America this weekend blanketed the campus.

by Dartmouth professor of economics Treb Allen and his colleagues at Stanford University. The study analyzed the substantial expansion of the border wall between the U.S. and Mexico from 2007 to 2010. The researchers found that the total effect of the wall SEE BORDER WALL PAGE 5

OPINION

LEUTZ: RAZOR THIN RAGE PAGE 4

ZAMAN: YELLOW VESTS, NOT-SOWHITE PAGE 4

ARTS

REVIEW: THE THIRD SEASON OF ‘TRUE DETECTIVE’ IS BACK TO ITS ROOTS PAGE 7

ANA TIJOUX AND FLOR DE TOLOACHE PUT A TWIST ON LATINX MUSIC PAGE 8 FOLLOW US ON

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Researchers study hysteresis in vaccination decisions

B y Cassandra thomas The Dartmouth

Va c c i n e s w e r e f i r s t introduced two centuries ago as a disease prevention mechanism. Since then, medical professionals have used them routinely for their consistently safe and beneficial effects. However, recent research by mathematics professor Feng Fu and graduate student Xingru Chen has demonstrated that

decreasing vaccination rates in developed countries are worsened by the hysteresis effect. Hysteresis is a phenomenon in which a system is continually affected by its past, even if previous forces have been long removed, according to both Chen and Fu. In terms of vaccination, this means that once people question the efficacy of vaccines, it can take decades for vaccination rates to recover to their original

levels. Chen and Fu’s study revealed that this pattern exists globally. Chen and Fu model the vaccination dynamics as a two-stage game. In the first stage, people make decisions about whether or not to get vaccinated, which will later determine their risk of infection. In the second stage, health outcomes determine individuals’ payoffs. Fu stated that their research was prompted by

Alumni Gym extends hours due to cold weather B y GRayce gibbs The Dartmouth

D u e t o H a n ove r ’s ch i l l y temperatures and fewer outdoor activity options, winter term means extended hours for campus facilities such as the Alumni Gym. On Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays, the gym stays open for an extra hour until 10 p.m., as opposed to 9 p.m. during the fall,

alarming trends that revealed a comeback of childhood diseases like measles and mumps. Typically, these are treated with the measles, mumps and rubella vaccines. But vaccination rates have not been able to recover since a false claim was made that suggested a link between autism and the MMR vaccine. Health economics professor at The Dartmouth Institute Ellen Meara said that as an individual who

cares about public health, she has been watching the diving vaccination rates with concern and interest. “We have great evidence that vaccines work and prevent illnesses that can create a lot of morbidity and even death in children,” Meara said. “And we have really no scientific evidence suggesting that they are unsafe in the way that resistance SEE VACCINES PAGE 3

THERE’S SNOWPLACE LIKE HOME

spring and summer terms. “In the winter, we know that it’s harder for people to do things outdoors and we have less light, so we add some hours to the gym so students, faculty, staff and gym members have more opportunities to come into the gym,” said senior associate athletic director for physical SEE HOURS PAGE 2

MICHAEL LIN/THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF

Hanover was faced with two feet of snow over the long weekend.


PAGE 2

TUESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2019

THE DARTMOUTH NEWS

Q&A with Russian professor Lynn Patyk focuses on terrorism in the U.S. at that time. I started working as a research assistant for someone that had worked on Russian professor Lynn Patyk President Bill Clinton’s national believes that things that appear to security council and had been in be unambiguous moral evils — like charge of counter-terrorism. I found terrorism — are more complicated out that Russian individuals had than we make them out to be. Her been credited with creating modern research focuses on the ways in terrorism in the middle of the 19th which modern terrorism has been century, during their revolutionary shaped by literary narratives. In struggle against the tsar, autocracy her first-year seminar, Russian 7.01 and authoritarianism. They received “Who is the Terrorist?” and Russian a lot of popular support and 10, “Russian Civilization,” Patyk sympathy from Western European teaches how “early and American thinkers” like publics and Russian authors “It is part of our from their own Mikhail Bulgakov goal as educated public as well. and Fyodor The idea that citizens to become Dostoevsky can the terrorist shed light on knowledgeable before c ould be a Russia’s political we make judgments heroic figure ethos. She aims astonished me to trace terrorism about situations, and it became back to its earliest especially when we a contrast roots — a mode of after the Sept. hear a line from a popular dissent. 1 1 a t t a c k s. politicians and the Right after How d i d mass media.” the attacks, I yo u b e c o m e stopped doing interested my research i n R u s s i a n -LYNN PATYK, RUSSIAN on terrorism and Easter n because I felt E u r o p e a n PROFESSOR like what had studies and happened to how did that the country lend itself to made it your research into terrorism? difficult for me to approach the LP: I grew up during the late Cold subject objectively. Then I realized War, in the 1980s, and Russia was there were all sorts of misconceptions our main adversary. I was really and stereotypes about terrorists, interested in pulling the Iron and it was all the more important Curtain back. We had very little that I provide a historical context. contact with the Russians. I didn’t Terrorism is a strategy of violence know any Russians. I had never that seems inexcusable and an heard the Russian language before. atrocity when it targets innocent Instead of just having the image of victims, but historically, it has been the Russians as it was broadcasted used by groups as a means of fighting in mass media and in our political against an overwhelming power and discourse, I wanted to go over there capturing the public’s imagination and find out what they were really and international attention. My like. I had a sense that the image of mission became to wake the public up the Russian people as our enemies to the fact that everyone uses violence was profoundly mistaken and and states use violence against their distorted. I was a Russian major at own people to repress dissent and Middlebury College, and I went and in genocidal campaigns. We get lived in Russia for a semester. After so up in arms and devote so many I graduated, I went back for a year resources to fighting terrorism, which to teach English. is a relatively small threat in terms of the economic impact and number of Youweredoingyourdissertation casualties it has. What interests me on terrorism during the late about insurgent terrorism is that the 1990s. How did expectations imaginative presence is at odds with for your work change when the realities of it. the Sept. 11 attacks occurred? LP: I started my research on With most of your students terrorism in 1996, and there had being a part of Generation been some major terrorist attacks Z, how do you think they

B y anne george The Dartmouth

feel connected to the acts of terrorism of the 20th century? Is it just history to them and do you feel a divide when discussing the events? LP: On the first day of class, I want to find out why my students are interested in terrorism, what degree of historical knowledge they have and what personal interest they have. Most of my students don’t have any real memory of what Sept. 11 was and what the historical experience was. The connection to terrorism is much less than that of previous students, but at the same time, I was really surprised to talk to people who had personal connections to terrorism. It is much more of a looming threat than an actual threat for this generation, after the security measures that were instituted after the Sept. 11 attacks. How should we distinguish between acts of terrorism and other violent crimes? LP: That’s the central question and problem that my course tries to wrangle with, and it’s a really difficult one. Often, my students come in with a clear and narrow definition of what terrorism is, and in all of our discussions, it is overwhelmingly this idea that there is an external other attacking us. My hope is to help students expand and complicate their notion of what terrorism is to include other actors, particularly government ones and majoritarian terrorism, like right-wing extremism. The one I use for my work is that you have to look at an act in its context and realize that the way it is being characterized by authorities and the media is what it will be called in the end, so even if it is just as deadly — like school shootings — then it won’t be treated like terrorism.

Hinman extends hours in early weeks of the term

during the winter term, in the spring it will only be open until education and recreation Joann 10 p.m. on weeknights because Brislin, who assists in planning the students are able to exercise gym’s schedule. outside. “It makes intuitive sense that The Hinman Mail Center as the weather changes in New also has extended hours during England, we’re going to make the winter ter m, though not adjustments to because of the try to give our colder weather. p o p u l a t i o n “It makes intuitive On weekdays e v e r y sense that as the for the first two opportunity weeks of the weather changes that we can,” ter m, Hinman Brislin said. in New England, stays open until K i e r a 6 p.m. as opposed we’re going to make Vr i n d t e n to the typical 5 ’20 s a i d adjustments to try to p.m. s h e s t a r t e d give our population Mail and working in delivery services the g y m every opportunity that manager Valery during her off we can.” Ladygin said ter m in the that the Hinman fall to “keep Mail Center b u s y ” a n d -JOANN BRISLIN, SENIOR usually has earn money. ASSOCIATE ATHLETIC extended hours Vr i n d t e n at the beginning DIRECTOR FOR PHYSICAL works in the of ever y ter m g y m t h r e e EDUCATION AND because of an nights a week increase in RECREATION for threethe number h o u r s h i f t s, of packages it including receives. on Saturday Monday, Jan. nights from 7 7 was the peak p.m. to 10 p.m. day of package arrivals this term, “I don’t really see a big with Hinman receiving over 2,000 difference with the extra hour packages, mainly textbooks, — I’m here doing homework according to Ladygin. anyway,” Vrindten said. “I think He said that Hinman used to that’s one of the perks of the job. stay open until 7 p.m. during the I don’t mind it because people are extended hours period, but statistics usually good at leaving on time.” showed that only one or two people According to Vrindten, the peak would come in after 6 p.m. gym time is around 5 p.m., but she “The extended hours are better said a “good number” of people for the students,” Ladygin said. come in late. “We are here for the students. I Though the gym still closes at 11 know how important it is for a p.m. Monday through Thursday student to get their textbooks.” FROM HOURS PAGE 1

What do you hope your students take away from your class? LP: I hope that they remember that things that look like unambiguous moral evils are much more humanly complicated. It is part of our goal as educated citizens to become knowledgeable before we make judgments about situations, especially when we hear a line from a politician and the mass media. We have to become aware of how our culture shapes us and that we bring a host of preconceptions to every discussion. This interview has been edited and condensed for clarity and length.

CORRECTIONS We welcome corrections. If you believe there is a factual error in a story, please email editor@thedartmouth.com.

MICHAEL LIN/THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF

The Alumni Gym has extended hours for the winter because of the cold weather.


TUESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2019

Researchers emphasize importance of altruism

are even worse,” he said. “Instances of the diseases are not huge, so toward vaccinations suggests. It does people don’t confront these diseases very often. Now they don’t fear feel like a public health crisis.” Chen and Fu expressed frustration diseases, but they fear vaccines and their side effects. in the confusion Vaccines became between disease “The reasons the victim of their and the side effects own success.” of vaccinations, people refuse to To i n c r e a s e which perpetuates get vaccines for vaccination levels, fear of vaccines. E q u a l l y the[ir] children may t h e re s e a rch e s pointed to problematic is the vary in different decreasing herd free-rider problem, countries and immunity, which in which people means that people refuse vaccines different regions. forgo vaccinations because they rely But the [hysteresis] and rely on the on the majority of fact that a great their community to phenomenon is proportion of their get treatment. global.” community will get “Even if side vaccines instead. effects are minor, “One way it makes people -XINGRU CHEN, to overcome e x a g g e r a t e GRADUATE STUDENT t h e hy s t e r e s i s the risks of the effect is just to vaccine,” Fu said. increase altruistic “Because of the massive preemptive vaccination of behavior,” Fu said. “The vaccine childhood diseases, people don’t see compliance problem is essentially a the diseases that often. So people free-riding problem.” Meara also noted that introducing replace the fear of disease with the fear of the vaccine. If you want to evidence and information to those boost the vaccination levels, it [will who are resistant toward vaccines happen] slowly because people get can be much more effective than shaming those individuals. stuck in a hysteresis loop.” “One of the To amplify the things I found problem, public “One way to really interesting misconce ptions is a local provider s u r r o u n d i n g overcome the who is making an v a c c i n e s a r e hysteresis effect effort to not shame amplified due is just to increase clients who have a to what Fu fear of vaccines, calls an “echo altruistic behavior. but instead to share chamber” where The vaccine information and people surround evidence,” Meara t h e m s e l v e s by compliance said. “Instead of others who will problem is pushing it, what she only reconfir m essentially a freedoes is she reaches their biases. out individually D e s p i t e riding problem.” to parents to let the scope and them know [about magnitude of disease outbreaks.] this trend, Chen -FENG FU, Apparently, that a n d F u w e r e MATHEMATICS kind of soft deter mined to PROFESSOR approach can be use their expertise really effective in in mathematical bringing someone modeling to tackle around.” a global problem. Though it may be difficult to “We are doing research using mathematics to explain some social boost altruistic behavior and break phenomenon,” Chen said. “But the hysteresis loop, Chen and Fu’s I think it’s beyond our ability to research has highlighted a global persuade the audience and normal health issue and proved the necessity people to do something. We also of mathematical modeling in realreceived hate emails after we world problem solving. “It’s important for future scientists published the paper.” Fu said that mothers were mainly to learn not just mathematics but [an] interdisciplinary approach responsible for the hate mail. “I can understand, because to real world problems,” Fu said. MMR side effects like fever and “Models can be very profound and rashes look terrible, but the measles have [a] huge impact [on] reshaping and mumps and whooping cough our thinking of global problems.”

THE DARTMOUTH NEWS

PAGE 3

WEATHER OUT THE STORM

FROM VACCINES PAGE 1

MICHAEL LIN/THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF

Temperatures dropped to as low as 35 degrees Fahrenheit below zero in some parts of New Hampshire.


PAGE 4

THE DARTMOUTH OPINION

CONTRIBUTING COLUMNIST PETER LEUTZ ’22

CONTRIBUTING COLUMNIST RANIYAN ZAMAN ’22

Razor Thin Rage

Yellow Vests, Not-So-White

Gillette’s most recent ad shows how fragile some Americans still are. Gillette, a men’s razors and shaving products brand, recently released an ad that questioned its own slogan this past Monday. In a campaign against toxic masculinity, the commercial asked consumers if “this was really the best a man can get,” calling for them to set a better example for the next generation of men. Adriana Cohen, writing at Real Clear Politics, called the ad a continuation of the “war on men.” As a member of the male community, I do not feel as if I am at war and would like to personally apologize to anyone who actually is at war for the laughably ridiculous comment. In contrast to Cohen and many others, I continue to be a supporter of free speech, and respect Gillette for risking economic consequences to make a statement, continuing the conversation about sexism and sexual assault. It is a conversation that clearly needs to continue given the extreme backlash to an ad that is far from insulting. Cohen was certainly not alone in her outrage with Gillette’s new ad campaign. In fact, the mere two-minute-long commercial left many in a rage. Against the spirit of basic decency pleaded for in the ad, social media exploded with images of Gillette razors in the garbage and pledges to never buy another. Manly. The right, whose favorite activity has been accusing liberals about how easily they are offended, now feels that a call for respectful behavior is an act of war. We now live in a world where a controversy has been drummed after a shaving company asks its viewers to respect women, and one another. This reality is precisely the concern reasonably asserted by Gillette this past Monday. Poetically timed exactly a week before Martin Luther King Jr. Day, a holiday dedicated to a man who lived a life of peaceful protest for equality, conservative men across the nation threw down their razors in disgust and marched to the local drug store in search of a new Bic razor, one that represents masculinity that will wait for no woman. Pathetic. Perhaps the longest government shutdown in history has both sides of the aisle on edge, and the Gillette ad is just an opportunity to vent that frustrated energy. However, basic decency and respect shouldn’t be a political

issue — it should be a given. If men are being unfairly blamed for our country’s legacy of sexism and sexual harassment, then who else is to blame? Furthermore, if this culture of sexism and sexual harassment no longer exists, then why do we have a president who quite famously bragged about grabbing women “by the p—y?” It’s time to wake up, fellas. By respecting women, masculinity is empowered not threatened. It is important to note that those opposed to Gillette’s new commercial are a vocal minority. In fact, in a Morning Consult survey of over 2,000 American adults who were shown the ad immediately prior to being surveyed, 71 percent agreed that Gillette “shares their values,” up from 42 percent before seeing the commercial. Clearly, the opposition has been overstated. As a result, the study concluded that the economic repercussions of the Gillette ad will be negligible, and sales will only see a factional falter, if any at all. This result is not far outside the norm. Other major companies have taken a stand on social issues and reaped the rewards. This past fall, Nike released an ad campaign led by Colin Kaepernick. Swooshes were cut out, ripped off and straight-up set ablaze, while Nike’s value increased by $6 billion and the stock price soared. The modern consumer appreciates a company that is willing to take a stand on social issues. Regardless of backlash, Gillette’s new ad campaign followed profit based precedent set by Nike. Sexism is no doubt an outdated ill of society, and getting rid of it should be made a priority. However, this can’t be accomplished when activism is propped up by outdated arguments. For instance, there is no chorus of “boys will be boys” playing on repeat deep in the subconscious thinking of men across America. In fact, the only time I’ve ever heard that phrase is in conversations about sexism. It is points like these that threaten to invalidate entire arguments about the dangers of sexual harassment. Though frustrating that sexism, gender inequities and gender-based violence are not outrageous to everyone, our arguments exposing these issues must be carefully calculated to not just inspire those already on board, but to have the message reach those who need to hear it most.

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ISSUE

TUESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2019

LAYOUT: Abby Mihaly

SUBMISSIONS: We welcome letters and guest columns. All submissions must include the author’s name and affiliation with Dartmouth

College, and should not exceed 250 words for letters or 700 words for columns. The Dartmouth reserves the right to edit all material before publication. All material submitted becomes property of The Dartmouth. Please email submissions to editor@thedartmouth.com.

Those combating climate change fail to acknowledge the role of class. It was a weekend of protests. While after the first protest, activists urged France to Americans turned out for the third Women’s implement “a real ecological policy, and not a March in three years, France saw thousands few piecemeal fiscal measures.” Raising taxes of Yellow Vest protesters rally for the 10th on major corporations, demonstrators suggest, weekend in a row. (Make of that what you would be a good place to start. Too often, inaction on climate change is will.) The Yellow Vest protests originated in outrage toward a diesel fuel tax that French framed as a denial of science, but it’s not that President Emmanuel Macron — the target simple. A survey conducted by the University of Michigan indicates of the protesters and, in their eyes, the embodiment of the “But environmentalism that even as early as July of last year, gap between the wealthy elite nearly two-thirds of and lower class — says is and policies that lift Americans believe in meant to minimize fossil-fuel the working class man-made climate use. aren’t mutually change. Presumably, a The American right has majority of the Yellow jumped on the protests as an exclusive — in fact, if Vest protesters do. And excuse to remain apathetic climate change goes if apathy resulted from about global war ming, innocuous ignorance weaving an increasingly unacknowledged and about the issue, that popular narrative that unalleviated, then the would in turn suggest suggests that policies to world’s poor will be that educating others remedy climate change will on climate change primarily hurt people at the hurt first and hardest.” would be the solution. bottom. In December, U.S. But if that were the President Donald Trump case, why haven’t we tweeted out support for ending the Paris Agreement in the wake of the seen any changes yet? The truth is that like so Yellow Vest protesters’ violence. Conservative many things, climate change has an overlooked outlets and writers have somehow rebranded class struggle embedded into it that complicates environmentalism as “eco-elitism,” and a efforts to counter it. Environmentally-hostile New York Times opinion piece titled “Is policies often exist to serve corporate interests Environmentalism Just for Rich People?” — who may, at least in American politics, questions environmentalism’s compatibility play a huge role in donations and campaign with looking out for low-income demographics. funding. By allowing them to avoid taxes and But environmentalism and policies that lift not requiring them to adopt environmentallythe working class aren’t mutually exclusive — in friendly policies, Congress favors outsized fact, if climate change goes unacknowledged influences in Washington — at the expense of and unalleviated, then the world’s poor will the environment and low-income populations. be hurt first and hardest. An abundance of It’s a similar story in France. It’s been established by now that the Trump research provides insight into this phenomenon, administration (and from the findings of a World the wing of the GOP Bank report that shows how that it overwhelmingly “climate change will be felt “The truth is that and increasingly earliest and poor severely in like so many things, encroaches upon) often the poor nations of the world climate change has doesn’t get along with that contributed the least to the facts, but in the case problem” to a federal report an overlooked class of climate change, it’s released only last November. struggle embedded likely that this isn’t out Even in America, the report states, climate change will into it that complicates of a lack of knowledge or a misunderstanding. exacerbate existing class efforts to counter it.” Rather, it’s a specific inequalities and endanger and well-thought-out low-income communities who already experience delayed recovery plan to appease big money, and its specificity from natural disasters and high disease rates. and thought is exactly what makes it a hostile Hurricane Harvey hit minorities and low- political gesture. And while education on income communities hardest, ThinkProgress climate change could certainly help the public illustrated in the disaster’s aftermath, since understand the gravity and impact of the issue, those are the types of communities most there’s no reason why Republicans in Congress likely to live in flood-prone areas with weak aren’t already convinced. Macron has, in the infrastructure. It stands to reason that fighting face of France’s continued protests, suspended climate change is not exactly a cause reserved the fuel tax increase and raised the minimum wage. But America isn’t seeing the same for the elite. This is not a lesson that Yellow Vest demands for environmental and economic protesters need to learn, though. Official justice, perhaps because Trump’s working-class documents released by the movement’s rural supporters are more likely to believe the organizers call for ambitious climate action, myth that the two conflict with one another. but in a way that places the financial burden Once again, Trump proves that he doesn’t not on France’s working class, but on the major actually care about the people who voted for corporations that emit the most carbon and him, and once again, the GOP proves that on use the most fossil fuels. Less than a week climate change, it knows; it just doesn’t care.


TUESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2019

THE DARTMOUTH NEWS

Dartmouth economics professors look into southern border wall

between the U.S. and Mexico unauthorized immigrants. would substantially raise the annual “Even though we cannot say for expansion was that it reduced the income for both college educated sure that all of these ID card holders number of Mexican citizens living and less educated U.S. workers. are unauthorized, most of them in the United States by 0.6 percent, “It might be even better to just are,” Cabellero said. “Because there or roughly 82,600 people. expand trade with Mexico, which are no other reasons or incentives to Allen said would have the get these cards if you have any other this decrease same effect on official form of identification.” in migration “The primary impact migration but Lewis pointed out that the n e g a t i v e l y is that [the decrease also a positive migration flow data is “good” impacts the impact on [the even though it does not perfectly in migration] moves U.S. economy. U.S. economy],” represent Mexican immigrants in “ T h e economic activity into said economics the U.S. p r i m a r y Mexico and away from professor “There is this patter n of impact is that E t h a n L e w i s, migration that [is] long established [the decrease the U.S. That lowers who provided between particular parts of Mexico in migration] the U.S. real GDP.” empirical advice and particular parts of the U.S, so m o v e s for Allen’s paper. it’s hard to really criticize that,” economic T h e Lewis said. “The data they are using activity into -TREB ALLEN, ECONOMICS s t u d y b a s e d is this Matrícula Consular data, Mexico and PROFESSOR i t s w o r k o n which are not necessarily a random away from the the Matrícula sample of Mexicans [because] you U.S.,” Allen C o n s u l a r have to apply to get these Matrícula said. “T hat database — a Consular [cards].” lowers the U.S. confidential Allen said his team began its real GDP.” database from the Mexican research on the border wall prior According to Allen, the 0.6 gover nment that documents to the 2016 presidential election, percent reduction in Mexican the infor mation of Mexican adding after the election, the team immigration accounts for the immigrants and had g reater total of both authorized and their movements “Given our estimates, incentives u n a u t h o r i z e d i m m i g r a n t s , along the U.S.to write the we found that there is with a majority of them being Mexico border. p a p e r. T h e unauthorized immigrants coming The Matrícula no one that benefits researchers into the U.S. Consular is submitted by a large amount The paper also estimates that a f o r m o f their first for low-skilled U.S. workers who identification that from the construction draft at the do not have a college degree, the allows Mexicans of the wall.” end of 2018 to wall expansion under the Secure t o engage the National Fence Act raised their average i n e c o n o m i c Bureau of annual income by 36 cents. College- activities the U.S. -TREB ALLEN, ECONOMICS Economic educated U.S. workers, however, such as opening a Research, and PROFESSOR lost an equivalent of $4.35 in annual bank account. it is currently income. Both college-educated and “ Yo u c a n going through less-educated Mexican workers l o o k a t t h e peer review lost on average $2.99 and $1.34 in demographics, what’s the fraction process. annual income respectively. of men versus women, what’s the Lewis said he hopes the paper “Given our estimates, we found fraction of ages, [and there’s also] could shed light on the current that there is no one that benefits a little bit of information about debates about border walls and by a large amount from the their education and skill levels,” immigration. construction of Allen said. “All “I hope [the paper] is the wall,” Allen those seems to informative,” he said. “It’s not “It might be even said. “There’s s u g g e s t t h a t necessarily going to be decisive. no evidence that better to just expand the population There’s a lot of people that want we find in the trade with Mexico, t h at g e t s t h e to do things in spite of the fact, but data that even the I D c a rd s a re I think it puts some weight on the small reduction which would have skewed toward side that [expanding border walls] of the number of the same effect on [lower-skilled], would not be an effective policy.” Mexican workers male, younger Genna Liu ’19, a research scholar migration but also a living in the i m m i g r a n t s in the economics department, U.S. has a large positive impact on t h a t s u g g e s t assisted Allen in his border wall positive impact [the U.S. economy].” [that] they are research. She said she helped on the wages of unauthorized.” clean and combine the data U.S. workers.” Maria and collaborated with research Allen’s paper -ETHAN LEWIS, C a b a l l e r o , a assistants at Stanford University. includes a section student at Liu added that the research ECONOMICS PROFESSOR Ph.D. on counterfactual the Heinz College experience not only developed her policies that of Information skillset but also helped her adopt considers the S y s t e m s a n d a perspective in thinking about economic impact if the U.S. had Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon border issues. undertaken two other policies. University, used the same Matrícula “Working on the project inspires Results show that a more extreme Consular dataset in Allen’s border me to look more into the issues of border wall expansion would wall research for another project, immigration and thinking of ways barely benefit U.S. workers, while and confirmed that large numbers that I can help answer questions in a decrease in the costs of trade of Matrícula Consular holders are that field,” she said. FROM BORDER WALL PAGE 1

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DARTMOUTHEVENTS

THE DARTMOUTH EVENTS

THE LIFE CYCLE OF A FOCO BANANA

TUESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2019

RACHEL LINCOLN ’20

TODAY

5:00 p.m. - 6:15 p.m.

Lecture: “Youth, Design, and Juvenile Justice Reform,” with ChiByDesign founder and activist Chris Rudd, sponsored by the Rockefeller Center for Public Policy, Rockefeller 003

4:30 p.m. - 5:30 p.m.

Film: “Mutating Insects: Digital Media and the Posthuman in Lucrecia Martel,” sponsored by the Spanish and Portuguese department, Haldeman 046

7:30 p.m. - 9:00 p.m.

Tuesday Trivia, sponsored by the Collis Governing Board and Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, One Wheelock

TOMORROW 4:30 p.m. - 6:30 p.m.

Lecture: “Central American Migration and U.S. Policy in the Northern Triangle,” with former Ambassador James D. Nealon, sponsored by the Dickey Center for International Understanding, the Latin American, Latino, and Caribbean studies program, and the Rockefeller Center for Public Policy, Haldeman 41

7:00 p.m. - 8:45 p.m

Film: “Orlando Consort: Voices Appeared,” sponsored by the Hopkins Center for the Arts, Spaulding Auditorium, Hopkins Center

11:15 p.m. - 12:00 a.m

Performance: “Chilly Bros II: Electric Boogaloo,” with the Dartmouth Brovertones and Dog Days, sponsored by the Greek Leadership Council, Epsilon Kappa Theta

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TUESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2019

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THE DARTMOUTH ARTS

Review: The third season of ‘True Detective’ is back to its roots B y willem gerrish The Dartmouth

Here’s a disclaimer: the first season of “True Detective” is my favorite season of television ever made. Starring Matthew McConaughey and Woody Harrelson, the first eight-episode iteration of HBO’s crime anthology series is a near-perfect evaluation of human character in the face of death, evil and chaos. Though the writing is at times heavy-handed and the subtle undercurrent of complicated mysticism never really comes to fruition, that first season is still an engrossing masterwork of intrigue and filmmaking. McConaughey and Harrelson give career-best performances, Nic Pizzolatto’s writing takes brilliant, unexpected turns, and Cary Joji Fukunaga’s sumptuous filmmaking pulls viewers into the Louisiana bayou and doesn’t let them go. After the first season’s final episode left me clutching my head in awed disbelief, I eagerly awaited the show’s second season, only to be left in utter disappointment. HBO doubled down on stars for the second season, casting Colin Farrell, Taylor Kitsch, Rachel McAdams and Vince Vaughn in a new slate of episodes set in the fictional city of Vinci, California. It’s hard to pinpoint what exactly went wrong after such a remarkable first effort, but Pizzolatto’s

second season is a dull slog through a meandering plot that ends up somewhere between uselessness and pure boredom. The performances are solid (though Vince Vaughn is entirely unconvincing as a brooding mobster) but pale in comparison to McConaughey and Harrelson’s scintillating efforts, and the plot’s lack of direction leads to the feeling that it’s all just needless violence and depression. Notably absent is Fukunaga, who directed every episode of the first season and pulled off such remarkable set pieces, like the astounding six-minute, single-take tracking shot at the end of the first season’s fourth episode — an extended shot so tense and dynamic that it should be studied in film schools for generations. Without Fukunaga’s deft visual artistry, the world of the second season feels flat and lifeless, a quality that only piles on to the season’s wellestablished woes. After “True Detective” tanked so miserably in season two, the show seemed slated for oblivion. But last week, after a nearly four-year wait, the first two episodes of the third season aired on HBO, and “True Detective” has come waveringly back to life. If one of the second season’s biggest problems was its jarring complexity exacerbated by the casting of four main roles, Pizzolatto has gone in the opposite direction for his third season

and whittled the characters down to one big star: Oscar-winner Mahershala Ali as Detective Wayne Hays. Much like McConaughey’s troubled Rustin Cohle of season one, Hays is a dark and contemplative officer who is clearly haunted by more than a few demons. And it’s not just Hays as a character who harkens back to the first season. While season one plays out over two time periods, this season plays out over three: 1980, 1990 and 2015. The first timeline tracks the primary details of this season’s crime: the disappearance of two young children in the depths of the Ozarks. Then, in 1990, Hays is deposed over a wrongful arrest lawsuit, and new details emerge that complicate the case from 10 years past. Finally, an elderly Hays speaks to a true-crime TV crew in 2015 and finds himself tortured by the lingering phantoms of a 35-year-old crime he can’t forget. These three prongs intertwine beautifully, with fluid visual transitions (the soft moonlight in 1980 hardens into a glaring TV spotlight in 2015) and alarming conversational segues (a young Hays turns to the camera and delivers the musings of his elder self). Just like the interview-andmemory format of the first season’s dual time periods, these interdecadal narrative shifts allow for the show’s harrowing picture to fill in from multiple nexuses, all leading to the dreadful

pinpoint where everything fits together. Of course, I’m speculating a bit here because I’ve only seen two of the third season’s eight episodes (the rest will unfold on a typical episode-a-week basis), but even so, the inkblots are already beginning to bleed toward each other. What I can say with confidence now is that the third season is a marked improvement on that dreadful sophomore effort. Though it is highly derivative of Pizzolatto’s first effort, that’s not necessarily a bad thing — after all, season one was a veritable masterpiece, so dressing it up in new clothes is still bound to make for some entertaining television. Furthermore, Ali’s acting is much nearer to peak-McConaissance greatness than anything that dribbled out of McAdams, Farrell, Vaughn or Kitsch. Ali’s eyes are the draw here, and they speak volumes. Evoking confidence, conflict and terror, these eyes are the inextricable link between three different versions of the same man. They’re the haunting motif of generations of personal demons. I commend Ali for conveying so much, often without speaking a word. Despite this welcome return to form for “True Detective,” I still have to hold my praise in check because the driving force behind season one’s legendary status is absent and sorely missed. Fukunaga continues to remain distanced from creator and writer

Pizzolatto, and his disappearance from behind the camera has proven that he might very well be the only person capable of spinning Pizzolatto’s impressive but imperfect scripts into sheer cinematic rapture. The direction in season three is capable and the lighting continues to astound for its velveteen, three-dimensional textures, but there’s none of that extra subtlety and flair that Fukunaga infused into the show. In season one, the Louisiana setting was so masterfully evoked that it felt like a character of its own. Here, the Ozarks feel like nothingness, a grayscale background that could be swapped out for any other region of blue-collar American life and bare, spindly trees. Most of all, the first two episodes of this third season of “True Detective” show solid potential. With the reestablished elements of season one and the nuanced acting of Mahershala Ali, this season has set itself up to come much nearer to prestige television than the drivel of Pizzolatto’s second effort. That being said, much remains to be seen and heard for this season to prove itself, and without Fukunaga behind the camera, it would take something truly miraculous to match the formidable example of the first season. I am tentatively hopeful though, and I look forward to seeing what twists and turns Pizzolatto has in store for the final six episodes.

Review: ‘Aquaman’ is over two hours of dumb, unadulterated fun

B y sebastian wurzrainer The Dartmouth Staff

“Aquaman” is the sixth film in the DC Extended Universe, following on the heels of four films that range from mediocre to atrocious (“Man of Steel,” “Batman v. Superman,” “Suicide Squad,” “Justice League”) and one of the best superhero films not just of the last decade but of all time (“Wonder Woman”). Unsurprisingly, the overall abysmal quality of the franchise has led countless think pieces to ponder how it might be fixed. While I profess to be no authority, I’ve always found that solutions demanding the original director’s cut of “Justice League” or advocating for an alternate-universe reboot both miss precisely what made Wonder Woman” exceptional. The overt feminism that drove the film was undoubtedly its most important cultural contribution, yet it crucially rested on the bedrock of solid storytelling and compelling characters. “Wonder Woman” stood out by focusing on the best possible version of an origin story for a single, engaging character; even the best solo films in the Marvel Cinematic Universe can’t possibly dream of returning to such streamlined simplicity. Simply put, the MCU has mastered the shared universe, and rather than try to beat them at their own game, the DCEU would be wise to

forge ahead using “Wonder Woman” as a model for future endeavors. For this reason alone, the prospect of “Aquaman” excited me when I left the movie theater after seeing “Wonder Woman” for the first time. Admittedly, my expectations plummeted in the intervening two years, but it seems that my initial enthusiasm was largely warranted. By and large, “Aquaman” manages to successfully integrate the lessons learned from “Wonder Woman.” Is it as good as “Wonder Woman”? Of course not. But it also must be said that the comparison doesn’t feel entirely fair. After all, different films have different aims, and using a universal metric to measure the quality of every film is myopic. “Wonder Woman” succeeds in no small part thanks to its sincerity and self-seriousness. Burdened with the challenge to make the first good femaleled superhero film, director Patty Jenkins clearly believed that Diana’s status as an icon of female empowerment made her story worth telling with the utmost humility and respect. Conversely, while “Aquaman” is sincere in its own way, it makes no effort to take itself seriously. It is a camp classic waiting to happen, a film that is simultaneously self-aware of its own ludicrousness and oddly proud of that very quality. During the build-up to a fight between Aquaman (the alias for his alter-ego Arthur Curry) and his

half-brother Orm (because superhero films do so love their Oedipal-esque family conflicts), the film cuts away to show us that an octopus has been playing the drums that have served as the scene’s dramatic accompaniment this whole time. Such unabashed bizarreness is characteristic of the entire film. Speaking of Arthur and Orm, what’s the plot of “Aquaman”? In the 1980s, Atlanna (Nicole Kidman), a princess from Atlantis, flees her home and is found by Thomas Curry, a lighthouse keeper (Temuera Morrison). They have a son, Arthur, who as a half-breed isn’t welcomed by the rather bigoted Atlanteans. Eventually Atlanna is forced to return home, gives birth to Orm and is subsequently executed when her husband learns about Arthur. Fast forward to after the events of “Justice League”; Orm is now King of Atlantis, hates pollution and decides to declare war on the surface world. But to do this, he has to get at least four of the seven underwater kingdoms to rally to his cause, even though two of them are basically extinct. Moreover, if Orm can rally a majority to his side, he’ll become “Ocean Master” — whatever that even means. So his betrothed, Mera (Amber Heard), recruits Arthur (Jason Momoa) to stop Orm before it’s too late. Together they go looking for the mythic Trident of Atlantis to prove that Arthur is the rightful king of Atlantis. And in the

midst of all that, there’s a subplot about a pirate known as Black Manta who wants revenge on Aquaman for failing to prevent his father’s death. Confused? That’s just the tip of the iceberg, ladies and gentlemen! “Aquaman” is what happens when a script keeps getting rewritten by writers who think, “You know what could really improve this? More lore!” That certainly explains why the plotting feels so convoluted and the dialogue so blunt. In particular, the Black Manta subplot really should have been excised well before cameras started rolling. It’s not bad, it just isn’t fluidly woven into the rest of the story. To their credit, director James Wan and his cast never seem encumbered by a script that is in desperate need of better writers. The narrative strains under the weight of its own excess, but Wan directs each scene with a light, deft touch. The action set-pieces are among the best in the DCEU, the humor mostly lands and the emotional beats actually manage to be heartfelt. Likewise, the actors approach the material with just the right combination of bemusement and gung-ho willingness. Momoa is far from the world’s most nuanced actor, but he has swagger, confidence and charisma to spare. Moreover, he knows to let his seasoned co-stars — Kidman, Morrison, Willem Dafoe — do the

heavy lifting. The film’s real standout, though, is Heard’s Mera; she’s charming, vulnerable and fierce, and Heard gives her a quiet determination that resonates. Patrick Wilson, on the other hand, is perfectly smarmy as Orm, but he’s a tad too one-note. Nevertheless, neither Wilson’s performance nor the unwieldy script can sink “Aquaman.” As flawed as it may be, it’s 2 1/2 hours of unadulterated fun. It’s a giant swashbuckling adventure that must have been a massive technical pain to bring to life, yet the final result feels effortless. It’s frothy (pun-intended) and lacks the substance that made “Wonder Woman” so special, but that’s just fine. I’m okay with my superhero fare sometimes just being fun for the sake of fun. More than anything else though, “Aquaman” indicates that the DCEU isn’t dead just yet. Prior to both of the screenings of “Aquaman” that I attended, the theater played a trailer for the DCEU’s next entry, “Shazam!” It looks to be following in the footsteps of “Wonder Woman” and “Aquaman,” focusing on an origin story with little to no overt connections to the larger shared universe. Whereas once I would have been immediately skeptical of “Shazam!,” I now feel a cautious yet distinct sense of optimistic anticipation. After all, one success is a fluke, two is good luck, and three is a pattern.


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THE DARTMOUTH ARTS

TUESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2019

Ana Tijoux and Flor de Toloache put a twist on Latinx music B y mia nelson

solely on “listening to [Tijoux’s] music and enjoying the atmosphere that the music created.” Although The Hopkins Center for the Marzi hasn’t seen many other Arts paired Ana Tijoux, a Chilean- shows at the Hopkins Center, she French folk singer and rapper, with recognized the rarity of having the all-female new wave “post- a performer come and present mariachi” band Flor de Toloache material in a language other than for an evening celebrating Latinx English. music this past Friday in Spaulding “It was really exciting to hear Auditorium. music that I otherwise wouldn’t Tijoux brought an infectiously normally be introduced to,” Marzi exuberant energy to the stage. She said. was effortlessly cool, drinking wine Marzi added that Tijoux’s on stage and encouraging audience music was especially evocative participation for her because in between her lack of “You look at [Tijoux] swaggering understanding rap songs. She and think, ‘I want that for the lyrics c l a i m e d t h at jacket and that stage allowed her her English to focus on presence.’” was “bad,” but emotions. she nonetheless “When you was able to don’t know the c o m mu n i c at e -GUS GUSZKOWSKI ’22 words, it’s easier to the audience to project your enough context own emotions for her music to onto the song be enjoyed even by those who do so it becomes a more reflective not speak Spanish. For example, process than just listening to Tijoux told the audience about one music,” she said. of her particularly personal and Tijoux got the audience involved emotionally resonant songs about in her musical performance, asking the “passing of someone dear.” the audience to try and make vocal Zoe Marzi ’22 said that once she effects to accompany her singing. was aware that Tijoux’s act would The student section was the most be in Spanish, she decided to focus boisterous and eager to play along. The Dartmouth

“The energy [in the room] was alive,” Kiera Jackson ’22 said. “Everyone was really willing to participate when [Tijoux] made us count ‘uno, dos, tres’ even though Dartmouth’s largely Caucasian population had no idea what they were doing or saying.” A majority of the audience were older Hanover residents, and some of them left during the intermission before the second act. For the most part however, the audience was eager to clap along and enjoy the music despite not understanding the words. “Everyone was so eager to please [Tijoux] because she was such a lovely performer,” Jackson said. Jackson added that the band members accompanying Tijoux were impressive as well. “The drummer was my favorite part of the show,” Jackson said. “[He] was kind of underrated because he was standing behind her,” Jackson said. Tijoux’s rap songs, according to the playbill, deal lyrically with political issues of colonialism and feminism. Her background as the daughter of Chilean exiles informs her music, which often tackles societal issues. Though the lyrics were entirely in Spanish, the emotion of the

PHOTO COURTESY OF ANA TIJOUX

Ana Tijoux performed her songs on social issues at the Hopkins Center for the Arts this past Friday.

PHOTO COURTESY OF ANDREI AVERBUCHI

Flor de Toloache blends mariachi sounds with various musical influences.

musical performance was sufficient have been performing, they have to give significance to Tijoux’s been on “The Late Show with songs. Stephen Colbert” and “Tiny Desk Gus Guszkowski ’22 said they Concert,” presented by NPR. enjoyed Tijoux’s performance “The very first song they played more than Flor de Toloache’s. was country-mariachi fusion, “[Tijoux] very much knew how which was interesting,” said to work the crowd,” Guszkowski Guszkowski. “Lots of melodies; said. “She got everybody very I got really excited when they hyped, and I had a lot of fun with played Prince in a mariachi flavor.” that.” Guzkowski added that they were M a n y r e s i d e n t s o f t h e appreciative of the traditional Humanities Living Lear ning Latin songs in the set list as well. Community attended the show, Guszkowski does speak Spanish, and the group reached a consensus which informed their appreciation that Tijoux was undeniably vogue. of the show. “She was almost aggressively “I don’t speak Spanish well cool,” Guszkowski said. “You enough to get a lot out of it,” look at her and Guzkowski think, ‘I want “Everyone was so said. “But I that jacket did appreciate eager to please and that stage being able to presence.’” catch words [Tijoux] because she Flor de and phrases was such a lovely Toloache was that helped t h e s e c o n d performer.” me understand act following what the songs Tijoux. A Latin were about.” G r a m m y - -KIERA JACKSON ’22 Flor winning band, d e To l o a c h e F l o r d e To l o a ch e m a rk e t e d choose their name because their themselves as “post-mariachi,” music creates a transcendent f u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l M e x i c a n vibrancy similar to the flowering mariachi music with influences of the Toloache plant, which still from jazz, hip-hop and soul. The gets used as a key ingredient in group also performed pop songs Mexico for love potions. as covers adding elements of T he g rou p’s ef fu s ive an d ranchero to their renditions. energetic performance did indeed The band is highly acclaimed, flower over the audience. For those having been nominated for a Latin who came to the show with little Grammy Award in 2015 for “Best background in Latinx music, it is Ranchero/Mariachi Album” for likely that Tijoux’s and Toloache’s their debut album. They won the performances acted as a love award for their second album, potion for further enjoyment of “Las Caras Lindas,” in 2017. In traditional and not-so-traditional the short amount of time they Latinx music.

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