VOL. CLXXIV NO.106
SUNNY HIGH 83 LOW 57
A NUGGET IN TIME PAGE M3
THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS: YOU’RE JUST AS WEIRD AS I AM
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13, 2017
Woman killed, son in custody after DartmouthHitchcock Medical Center shooting
PETER CHARALAMBOUS/THE DARTMOUTH STAFF
First responders arrived at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center Tuesday afternoon in response to an active shooter report.
By THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF A 70-year-old woman was killed at DartmouthHitchcock Medical Center i n L e b a n o n Tu e s d a y afternoon, prompting an active shooter alert and the evacuation of the hospital.
A suspect, the victim’s son, was taken into custody that afternoon and is expected to be arraigned Wednesday morning. The investigation is ongoing, and the hospital has returned to nor mal operations. No other patients, visitors or staff were physically
CARDS, CULTURE AND COMMUNITY PAGE M7
PHOTO ESSAY: CROSSCONTINENTAL ORIGINS PAGE M10
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HANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE
College considers future of golf course By JULIAN NATHAN The Dartmouth Staff
College officials are “evaluating the operation of the course and considering options for the future” as part of an institutional effort to redirect about $20 million from administrative costs to the “core academic mission,” according to an email statement to The
injured as a result of the incident. The suspect, Travis Frink, 49, arrived at DHMC at 1:15 p.m. and signed in at the visitors desk. He then went to the fourth floor of the intensive care unit, where the victim, Pamela Ferriere, 70, was a patient. At 1:24 p.m., Lebanon police received a 911 call reporting shots fired at
DHMC. “The facts gathered to this point reveal that the purpose of Mr. Frink’s visit to the hospital today was to kill his mother,” New Hampshire Attorney General Gordon MacDonald ’83 said in a press conference Tuesday evening. A “Code Silver” alert was issued over the hospital intercom, urging patients
and employees to evacuate the building. In a staff-wide email Tuesday afternoon, DHMC said that an active shooter was believed to still be in the building but was “contained.” The email said police were looking for a 6’1” male with salt and pepper blonde hair, wearing a red camouflage shirt. About an hour after SEE DHMC PAGE 2
Dartmouth from College spokesperson Diana Lawrence. However, she added that the College “[does] not currently have plans to sell the underlying property. Any changes to property ownership at the College occur after substantial consultation and would consider the long-term value of the SEE GOLF PAGE 2
PETER CHARALAMBOUS/THE DARTMOUTH STAFF
Police blocked traﬃc leading to Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center Tuesday afternoon.
THE DARTMOUTH NEWS
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 13, 2017
Suspect apprehended College evaluates golf course options after DHMC shooting
selling the club might complicate officials hired a consultant in 2012 potential future expansion efforts. to explore potential improvements property to the College.” Yount said that decreasing to the course, including building Dartmouth executive vice memberships at the Hanover a restaurant at the club and a president and chief financial officer Country Club are “not necessarily” clubhouse building accessible from Rick Mills said that College officials tied to any national trend of Lyme Road, such efforts would began discussing the possibility decreasing membership at golf “not be the first place we’d invest of closing or selling the country clubs across the country, adding capital.” club in the that many alumni Yount said that he was “caught c o n t e x t “[The College does] who sit on boards of of f guard” by the College’s of larger golf clubs around announcement because despite discussions not currently have the country have the fact that Friends of Dartmouth a b o u t plans to sell the noticed increases Golf has made “substantial” reducing in membership. investments to benefit the College’s n o n - underlying property. He explained golf teams, the organization was a c a d e m i c Any changes to that while he does not notified of the possibility of the spending. not intend to “point club’s closure or sale in advance. property ownership In an fingers,” he believes Mills said that members of e m a i l at the College occur t h a t C o l l e g e the College administration would s t at e m e n t , after substantial a d m i n i s t r a t o r s welcome the input of alumni and Dartmouth could “absolutely” others interested in preserving the men’s golf consultation and implement other course as part of a constructive team coach would consider the measures t o dialogue the College considers the Richard k e e p t h e c l u b future of the club. long-term value of P a r k e r open, describing Yo u n t s a i d t h a t n e i t h e r w r o t e h e the property to the t h e C o l l e g e ’ s Hanlon nor any member of h o p e s t h e college.” statement that it is the administration has directly College is considering closing addressed alumni’s concerns about able to keep or selling the club the College’s announcement. the course in -DIANA LAWRENCE, as “premature.” “Those of us who have reached place. Yount said that out to President Hanlon have COLLEGE SPOKESPERSON Hanover o f f e r i n g m o r e received his auto-reply on the High School s e r v i c e s a t t h e issue,” Yount said. golf team golf club, such as He emphasized that he and coach John d i n i n g o p t i o n s, other alumni would welcome an Donnelly a c l u b h o u s e overture from any administration wrote in a c c e s s i bl e f ro m official looking to preserve the an email Lyme Road and course, and that his intent was “not statement that he is worried about six- or nine-hole-courses for players to criticize” but instead to “work where his golf team will practice that cannot commit to playing a full together to find a way to preserve if the club closes, adding that it 18-hole course the property.” would struggle to find another m i g h t at t r a c t “No athlete, Yount suggested local facility with a practice area more members. that regardless comparable to that of the country H e a d d e d regardless of sport, of whether or club. that the club wants to invest their not the club is Friends of Dartmouth Golf, c ur rently h as closed or sold, time in a college a g roup of Dartmouth golf only 80 parking t h e C o l l e g e ’s prog ram supporters, council s p a c e s a n d that is considering announcement member Kenan Yount ’06 said speculated that closing its facilities might make it that he first heard that College creating more more difficult officials were considering closing parking spaces rather than improving for coaches to or selling the country club through m i g h t a l l o w them.” recruit new alumni involved in golf. He said the club to host athletes. that he and other alumni were larger events that “ N o a t h l e t e, “disappointed and stunned” by might make it -KENAN YOUNT ’06, re g a rd l e s s o f the news and decided to author more profitable. FRIENDS OF DARTMOUTH sport, wants to an open letter “strongly urging” However, Yount invest their time College President Phil Hanlon and cautioned that GOLF COUNCIL MEMBER in a college that the Board of Trustees to reconsider in the absence of is considering closing or selling the country club. more financial closing its The letter’s authors d a t a from facilities rather acknowledged the club’s annual t h e C o l l e g e than improving deficit but argued that the club has administration, them,” Yount “significant noneconomic value,” it is difficult to said, adding pointing out that the course is determine which measures might that prospective athletes “might used not only by both the men’s be most effective. inter pret this to mean that and women’s golf teams but also Mills said that while College Dartmouth is shifting its priorities.” by the cross-country team, the Hanover High School golf team CORRECTIONS and local junior golf programs. The authors also noted that the We welcome corrections. If you believe there is a factual error in a story, course hosts physical education please email firstname.lastname@example.org for corrections. classes, networking events for the Tuck School of Business and alumni fundraisers. The letter also Correction Appended (Sept. 12, 2017): The article “Q&A with references the club’s 123 acres of Rockefeller deputy directory Sadhana Hall” was updated to clarify Hall’s open-air real estate, explaining that background. FROM GOLF PAGE 1
Dartmouth College campus was not locked down and classes were the shooting, the suspect was not canceled. apprehended “without incident” A t t h e Tu e s d a y e v e n i n g by Lebanon and Canaan police as press conference, DHMC chief he attempted to leave the grounds executive officer and President of the hospital, Joanna Conray MacDonald said. said that DHMC “These are the Fo l l o w i n g a n staff have extensive sweep of most challenging participated in the DHMC campus times for first active shooter by law enforcement, training and an “All Clear” was responders.” drills, which issued at DHMC at helped the 5:45 p.m., returning evacuation run -COL. CHRIS the facility to normal smoothly. WAGNER, HEAD OF operations. “ To d a y w a s The crime scene is NEW HAMPSHIRE an incredibly still being investigated, s t r e s s f u l d a y, M a c D o n a l d s a i d , STATE POLICE and a tragic day adding that more for the affected than one shot was family ... we had fired during the the best outcome incident. Frink was charged with possible, however,” she said. first degree murder and will be Head of New Hampshire arraigned Wednesday morning at State Police Col. Chris Wagner Grafton County Superior Court. lauded the preparedness of first The New Hampshire State responders and law enforcement Police Major Crime Unit is personnel at the press conference. continuing to investigate and is “These are the most challenging requesting information about the times for first responders,” he said. suspect’s whereabouts prior to the Interim director of Safety and incident. Security Keysi Montás sent four Local schools in the area campus wide emails updating were temporarily locked down students, faculty and staff as the Tuesday afternoon. The main incident developed. FROM DHMC PAGE 1
RAY LU/THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF
New Hampshire Attorney General Gordon MacDonald ’83 held a press conference Tuesday afternoon at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center.
MIR ROR 9.13.2017
KIM: YOU'RE JUST AS WEIRD AS I AM |6
CARDS, CULTURE AND COMMUNITY |7
COLLEGE ON THE (NORTHEASTERN) HILL | 8 TANYA SHAH/THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF
2 //MIRR OR
Overheards: Trips Special ’20 trip leader: “My trippees called me s—thouse.” ’19: “The pizza driver is late because he hit a dog on the way here. This pizza is a blood diamond.”
’18: “Always bring a pocket knife to wedding tails.” ’19: “I don’t think giving my fish a female name is saving the world, but I do think it’s a step in the right direction.”
ELIZA MCDONOUGH/THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF
Tap...tap...is this thing on? Your three intrepid editors-slash-best friends-slash Stockholm Syndrome victims have returned to Robinson Hall for a final term of brainstorming, editing and mocking editor in chief Ray Lu ’18’s soulcrushingly awful musical choices (they eagerly await the return of his 45-minute-long dance remixes). The three were scattered across the country this summer: May, working at a feminist publishing company in Manhattan; Annette, back to her seaside home of Portland, Maine; and Lauren, doing her best Didion impression in Los Angeles. However, thanks to Snapchat and Lauren and Annette’s raucous finsta accounts, they kept in close touch and eagerly counted down the days until their reunion. Finally, the trio is back eating sad Collis takeout dinners in front of the computer and harassing unassuming young journalists! In honor of the ’21s embarking on their Dartmouth journeys (we are so jealous you all have four years ahead of you), this week’s theme is origins. We hope you enjoy it!
’21: “What gender is Piglet?” ’20: “For those of us merely hooking up, KAF IS a real date.”
’20: “If you go to semi AND formal in one term then it’s a serious relationship.”
’21: “Nothing is more sexual than the Salty Dog Rag.”
’21: “Who is Phil Hanlon?” ’20: “Reds is just a facetimey activity you have to go to to show that you still exist.”
’21: “‘Dank’ is like ‘cool’ but less cliché. Swag just means being yourself.”
’21: “Why dab when you can swag?”
’21: “I’m going to miss being alive.” ’21 1: “I always felt like a jock?” ’21 2: “What sports did you play?” ’21 1: “Chess club.”
follow @thedmirror 9.13.17 VOL. CLXXIV NO. 106 MIRROR EDITORS LAUREN BUDD ANNETTE DENEKAS MAY MANSOUR EDITOR-IN-CHIEF RAY LU PUBLISHER PHILIP RASANSKY EXECUTIVE EDITOR ERIN LEE PHOTO EDITORS ELIZA MCDONOUGH HOLLYE SWINEHART TIFFANY ZHAI
’21: “Whenever I meet new people I always make sure I have a plan to kill them if needed.”
’21: “I can’t poop in the forest. For some reason I get poop shy even though there’s no one around me. I usually poop twice a day so it’s been very hard for me.”
’21: “Suburban moms are the most discerning in terms of athletic wear.”
A Nugget in Time STORY
By Cristian Cano
TIFFANY ZHAI/THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF
Upon arriving to Dartmouth, many students worry about how to survive in “The Middle of Nowhere, USA” — or, as we more commonly refer to it, the town of Hanover. This quaint New Hampshire town may lack the fast food chains, reasonably priced hair salons and reliable cell service that larger cities offer, but one piece of civilization that Hanover proudly showcases is its movie theater. The Nugget Theater, conveniently located on Main Street, is where casual moviegoers and cinephiles alike can view the latest films on the big screen. The Nugget Theater has been a staple of Dartmouth for just over a century, celebrating its 100th anniversary last year, but what are its origins? To answer this question, the Mirror visited the Rauner archives. As it turns out, the history of the Nugget begins with an unlikely alliance between a Texan football player, a wealthy first cousin of John D. Rockefeller and his Wild West son. “Texas Bill” Cunningham, who graduated in 1918, was a football player with a love of films. As a freshman, Cunningham learned of the affluent and elderly F. W. Davison, one of John D. Rockefeller’s first cousins. Word quickly spread that Davison was planning on building a new garage — after all, automobiles were becoming increasingly popular, and a garage would surely attract visitors to the Hanover Inn. What caught Cunningham’s attention, however, was a rumor that Davison was considering constructing a movie theater instead but was hesitant because of the financial risk. Immediately, Cunningham knew his mission would be to persuade Davison that building a movie theater was the best choice. Cunningham faced resistance not only from Davison, but also from student
groups that were, in Cunningham’s words, “purveyors of standard entertainment.” These groups included the Dramatic Association and Glee Club, but perhaps the greatest resistance came from members of the Dartmouth Christian Association. At least one night a week, the DCA would provide entertainment, often in the form of a poetry reading or violin performance, and a movie theater posed a threat to their events’ attendance. Unhindered, Cunningham continued his efforts to change Davison’s mind. Fortunately for him Davison’s son, Frank Davison Jr., who had supposedly been living the cowboy life in Montana, returned to Hanover and supported the construction of a theater. Davison Jr., who desired to bring with him a piece of the Wild West, named the theater after the Gold Rush. Together, Cunningham and the Davisons worked to finalize the theater’s plans and the Nugget Theater opened on Sept. 13, 1916. The Nugget’s design was very intentional, Cunningham recalled in a pamphlet he authored, titled “The Birth of The Nugget.” Every aspect of the theater was sturdy: the floors were made of cement, seats of wood and iron were bolted into the concrete and the walls were created from galvanized iron. “The old man [Davison], knowing his students better than I did, wanted nothing in it that wasn’t screwed down or otherwise made too secure either to lift or to throw,” Cunningham wrote. In the Nugget’s early days, Cunningham played the piano for the still-silent films and Davison Jr. was the cashier. Contrary to the stereotypical image of silent movies being a refined entertainment experience, movies at the Nugget were rowdy and viewers always needed to watch out for their own safety.
Thrown peanuts, apples and even partially melted snowballs were normal occurrences. Charles Dudley ’29, who grew up in Hanover and frequented the Nugget as a teenager, was one victim of these flying projectiles. “Charlie remembers being knocked almost unconscious by a Macintosh,” wrote the Hanover Improvement Society in the Nov. 1, 1991 issue of the Nugget News-Herald. Another important — and chaotic — part of the Nugget experience was audience engagement. Today, certain shows such as “The Rocky Horror Picture Show” encourage and even expect audience participation, but in the Nugget’s infancy, every film was fair game for impromptu shouting and sound effects. If alumni’s accounts are to be trusted, the students’ rendition of the MGM lion’s roar was more convincing than the roar of an actual lion. Perhaps unsurprisingly, many of the comments made by students during films were less than wholesome, to say the least. Cunningham remembers male students shouting “Higher, higher!” whenever an actress’s skirt was slightly raised on screen. And in one melodrama, when the villain had finally succeeded in forcing the heroine to drink from a vial of poison, a student promptly raised the question: “And now, Babe, what’ll you have for a chaser?” The Nugget was even the site of a riot (of sorts). After word spread of actress Lenore Ulric’s “steamy” performance in the 1917 film “Tiger Rose,” crowds chose to skip the Dartmouth Christian Association’s event with the president of the international YMCA to see the movie — or rather, attempt to see the movie. The massive crowds were enough to warrant Hanover’s small police department to try to hold crowds back, to
little success. “The local police force, all two of it, was trying to stretch a rope and was getting nowhere,” Cunningham wrote. Overall, the early days of the Nugget were successful both in a monetary sense and in its effort to add to the experience of Dartmouth students. After earning $17,000 in its first year of operation, Cunningham joked that the Nugget should have instead been named the “Gold Mine.” Even after switching leadership from the Davison family to the newly formed Dartmouth Improvement Society in 1922, the Nugget continued to be a popular hangout for decades to come. It was perhaps the same crass, carefree atmosphere that characterized the early decades of the Nugget that led to its downfall. On Jan. 28, 1944, a fire rumored to have been caused by students illegally smoking cigarettes on the balcony destroyed the Nugget. In 1951 a new theater was built where the building stands today. While the new Nugget still brings cinematic joy to Dartmouth students and the greater Hanover community, the experience is undoubtedly tamer than it was during the theater’s early days. But what ever happened to Cunningham, the Texan football player who started it all? After he left the College in 1920 — his stay extended for a couple of years because of the War — he never again set foot inside the Nugget Theater. His work, as both a founder of Hanover’s movie theater and the person who chronicled its story for posterity, was finished. “I never entered the place again. I’m a sentimental guy. I wanted to remember it as it was — my dream, my Nugget, my contribution to ... culture,” Cunningham wrote.
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Through the Looking Glass: You’re Just As Weird As I Am COLUMN
By Chaeyoon Kim
Bzzz. I feel the familiar gentle vibration in my hand. “Your Uber is arriving now. Your driver will wait two min before leaving. Enjoy the ride!” Surely enough, the gray Honda Civic turns in from the corner, lighting the dark street with its blinding headlights like a lighthouse in the dark sea. The driver starts up the usual Uber-small talk, “How was your day?” “It was fine — long day at work but glad it’s done, you know.” “Yeah, I get that.” “How about you?” “Same — long day but not too bad.” It’s silent for a few blocks. Then he starts up the conversation again, “Are you from around here?” “I’m originally from Korea, but I go to school in New Hampshire.” “Korea? That’s awesome!” He seems excited all of a sudden, and I’m not sure why. “Haha, thanks.” “Hey, is it true that you can’t get whatever haircut you want over there?” “Huh?” As the driver begins to ramble on about how he saw on the internet somewhere that my “leader” has all these weird rules about haircuts, I soon realize that he thinks I am from North Korea. I explain to him that I’m from South Korea, which is a different country from North Korea. I also tell him that what he saw is probably exaggerated by the media and I’d guess that people can get different kinds of haircuts if they wanted to. I sense an immediate decrease in his excitement. To be frank, I wasn’t very alarmed that this driver didn’t know that I was from South Korea. You’d be surprised how many people I run into that confound North and South Korea or ask me which one I am from. It even happened once during a Dartmouth sorority rush event. What completely blew my mind, however, was that this man legitimately thought that he had a North Korean person in his car, and he decided to use this rare opportunity to get a peak inside the mysterious country by asking about haircuts. Seriously, amidst all the crazy things that are going on right now with North Korea, he wanted to know if I can get a bowl cut if I wanted to. I was baffled. Born in Korea but having spent much of my life in the United States, I have seen many Americans time and time again point out all the things they find weird in other people’s cultures. They comment on French eating habits during my study abroad, complain about the squatting toilets when I went to teach English drill in China or just point out things that international students do in everyday life. I find it natural that people love to notice and comment on the weird things in other cultures rather than things they can relate to. Perhaps to my Uber driver, a regulatory limit to the length of his “bro flow” felt like a more foreign concept than massive amounts of nuclear weapons and military power controlled by a capricious national leader. Of course, this tendency to notice the differences is not unique to
Americans. To demonstrate, here is a taste of some things I find odd as a foreigner in America: Food Anyone who knows me will tell you that I love and appreciate food. The combination of moving around so much from country to country as a child and the fact that my parents didn’t allow me to be picky about food led me to really value different food in other cultures. That being said, there are definitely some strange combinations of foods that are common in the U.S. that I would not have guessed to put together. Examples include chicken and waffles, bacon on donuts, fried Oreos and sweet potato and marshmallows (yet there are so many movies and TV shows about the cause of obesity in this country?). I also find snow cones an insult to all types of ice cream, gelato and sorbet around the world, and I have trouble getting myself to pay money to buy balled up snow that has syrup poured over it. Tipping I still fail to understand why restaurants won’t just pay their servers appropriate amounts of money and not have the customer try to figure out what the tip should be each time. Do you tip before tax or after tax? Is 15 percent standard or 20 percent? Do you tip for takeout? Do you tip if a bartender makes you a drink? Do you tip if a bartender just pours you a beer? Do you tip less in that case? Do you tip if the owner of the restaurant or bar serves you? I remember talking about the tipping culture with my French host mother once, and she expressed her confusions as well. She asked, “Why is it that you tip servers but not any other people that offer you a service — like a bus driver or a store salesman?” I had no answer for her. Drug advertisements On the rare occasions that I watch TV while here, I am always amused by the numerous pharmaceutical advertisements that never look like what they are advertising. If you had the TV on mute, you would never know what it was about. “Look, isn’t this happy family of three generations blissfully laughing at the dinner table just lovely? By the way, taking our drug can cause severe side effects that are probably worse than your original illness. They include headaches, hallucinations, never-ending diarrhea, heart attacks or death. Also, the drug hasn’t been fully tested or approved by the FDA yet, so we don’t actually know what will happen if you take it. Did you catch that? Probably not, since we sped up the tape to four times the normal speed of talking. Anyway, call now and buy our product — you will be just as happy as this laughing family, or regretting all of your life decisions on a toilet.” Just listening to it gives me anxiety. Star spangled everything I have always admired the incredible amount of nationalism that people in the U.S. appear to have. Children begin to
COURTESY OF CHAEYOON KIM
pledge allegiance to the flag every morning in school before they even know what the word allegiance means, people can list all the reasons why the U.S. is the greatest and people love to put the flag everywhere — on porches, streets, clothing or even plates and silverware. I drove through parts of rural Maine this summer on my way to a hike, and we drove through a half-mile stretch of a road that had hundreds of American flags on both sides of the street. People wear shirts, socks and bikinis patterned with the American flag. In Korea, a bikini with the Korean flag pattern would likely be considered offensive, whereas in the U.S. it’s a way to express love for the country. Ask an international student if they own a t-shirt with their national flag.
won, the coin that is worth 50 wons is called 50 won, the coin that is worth 100 wons is called 100 won and the coin that is worth 500 wons is called 500 won. The 10 won coin is the smallest and the 500 won coin is the largest. In the U.S., you have nicknames for your coins that aren’t always relevant to the value of the coin. Furthermore, the dime looks like it should be worth the least, but is in fact the second most valuable coin. The currency in the U.S. is called a dollar. One hundred cents make up a dollar. The coin that is worth one cent is called a penny, the coin that is worth five cents is called a nickel, the coin that is worth 10 cents is called a dime and the coin that is worth 25 cents is called a quarter.
Carding adults Turning 21 is always an awkward celebration for international students that have been drinking legally for years. (That the drinking limit is 21 is beside the point — the U.S. is possibly the most stringent country that I have lived in regarding alcohol. Honestly, it’s a great thing that everyone is so cautious about checking for IDs before serving alcohol, since no one wants to be responsible for serving alcohol to a minor.) That said, I just don’t understand why my 50-plus year old dad can’t purchase wine at the supermarket without his ID.
The list could go on (ask me how I feel about using Fahrenheit, trying to understand distances by imagining a chain of massive feet or that a temperamental rodent supposedly predicts if spring is around the corner), but I think I have made my point clear. Weirdness is in the eye of the beholder. The Dartmouth community includes members from all kinds of different backgrounds that originate from over 70 different countries. I guarantee that you can find something weird about each and every one of these community members, and they can do the same about you. Weird doesn’t mean inferior — it just means different. I hope that we can learn to celebrate and appreciate weirdness, because how boring would it be if we were all exactly the same?
Coins The currency in Korea is called won. The coin that is worth 10 wons is called 10
Native identities: cards, culture and community STORY
By Jaden Young
TIFFANY ZHAI/THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF
Native identity can be determined by a variety of methods, though some are controversial.
Dartmouth’s 1769 charter created a college “for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land ... and also of English Youth and any others.” It would be many years before the college actually recommitted itself to that mission by trying to make up for historical lack of opportunities in higher education for indigenous people. Fulfillment of that promise involves answering a question that’s been at issue legally and culturally since colonization: Who gets to identify as Native? Tribes use a variety of methods to determine membership, including lineal descent based on historical documents and blood quantum — the fraction of someone’s ancestors who are documented as full-blooded Native Americans. For Native American Studies professor Maurice Crandall, methods of establishing tribal membership that rely on blood quantum are both a limiting remnant of colonialism and a necessary way to establish legal standing. “Historically, way back, your membership in a community was based on who your parents were or who you descended from,” Crandall said. “The idea of things like blood quantum is completely un-indigenous.” Formal systems of determining tribal membership, according to Crandall, came along with colonization, when legal rights were different for people of different races and, as the federal government made treaties with tribes, as a way to determine who was entitled to the results of those agreements. To Samantha Maltais ’18, who is Aquinnah Wampanoag, the legal dimension of tribal enrollment is still an important reality. “A big part of being native is that special political relationship you have with the United States government based in treaty rights and political sovereignty,” she said. Maltais said she tries to be cognizant of the privilege and sense of belonging that comes with being an enrolled member of a federally recognized tribe, relative to those
have one-fourth blood quantum as well as be a direct descendent of someone on the Indian Reorganization Act roll, created in the 1930s. For groups with blood quantum requirements, members marrying outside the community means enrollment numbers can shrink over time. “My kids don’t qualify,” Crandall said. “Most Indian people, you grow up knowing your blood quantum. It’s something that’s ingrained in you. I know that mine is three-eighths. That means my kids are three-sixteenths, so they miss that quarter cut-off by a sixteenth.” But for Crandall, native identities go beyond formal enrollment. “I tell my kids, ‘You know who you are, you know where you come from. Having that card isn’t the most important thing,’” he said. For Kalei Akau ’18, a Native Hawaiian, cultural fluency and community involvement held the utmost importance in claiming her native identity. Native Hawaiians aren’t federally recognized in the same way many Native American tribes are, and their membership is harder to define. “Thinking back to how I became the way I am and why I identify so strongly as being Native Hawaiian, it’s through the Hawaiian values that I’ve learned, through the family that have raised me to do the hula,” she said. “It’s hard to explain how Hawaiians define themselves, because it’s just how you live.” Proof of ancestry does carry some importance for native Hawaiians, however. It’s required to receive land allotments and
services intended for native Hawaiians, including the Kamehameha Schools. Another native Hawaiian at Dartmouth, Elizabeth Coleman ’21, attended this school. Coleman is Native Hawaiian and Cherokee, though she is not formally enrolled. Coleman is light-skinned, with fair hair. Growing up in Hawaii, her native identity wasn’t readily recognizable. “I don’t look Hawaiian, so people would always call me ‘haole,’ which has become a derogatory term for white people,” she said. “It was hard growing up, but I think that pushed me more to go towards learning about my culture and language.” For Coleman, having a card that verifies her Hawaiian ancestry reaffirms her identity. “It makes me feel good to know that I have that, and if anybody’s questioning me I can just pull out my card,” she said. “It’s empowering to have this and, hopefully, someday to have my Cherokee card. I know who I am, and I’ve come to terms like that, but it’s nice to have the proof.” Though she has heard stories about her Cherokee ancestry on her mother’s side, Coleman isn’t an enrolled member. After years of working to learn more about Cherokee culture, she is hoping to take a blood quantum test soon and take steps toward formal enrollment. “I feel like it’s wrong to claim to be something you’re not, and I don’t want to be that person,” she said. “It would be nice to know, and to have that peace of mind that I am actually Cherokee, and I think it would push me more to be more connected with that culture and that side of me.”
who don’t meet enrollment standards or are members of groups not recognized on the federal level. “For me, having that privilege as a political body that is identified, I know what makes me native, and it’s that little card that I carry,” Maltais said. “These tribal communities are no longer based on their geographical isolation, and it’s not just about culture or race — it’s a very political structure, and that’s just one of the legacies of colonialism we have to deal with today. It’s a struggle to reclaim that culture.” Crandall emphasized that, even if the specific methods are a holdover from colonial thought, the act of determining standards for membership is an important exercise in tribal sovereignty. “Tribal nations in the U.S. are sovereign, indigenous nations, and they get to decide their own enrollment, and as much as we may not like it, on the other hand it’s a good thing because tribes get to decide — it’s not mandated by an outside force,” he said. While stringent requirements for t r i b a l e n ro l l m e n t can to some extent preserve a group’s culture and allow members to benefit f ro m m o re t r i b a l resources, there are also drawbacks. To be an enrolled TIFFANY ZHAI/THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF member of Crandall’s tribe, the Yavapai- In the U.S., tribal nations are sovereign and get to decide their own enrollment. Though methods of identification can be Apache, people must controversial, this does mean that the decisions aren’t made by an outside force.
The college on the (northeastern) hill STORY
By Eliza Jane Schaeffer
When I first came to Dartmouth, I encountered the typical unknowns: what I wanted to study, how to schedule a meeting with my dean, how to do my laundry, how to order pasta at Collis. But I also found myself confused by unspoken rules that most of my peers seemed to have understood since birth. I didn’t know that some people said “the South” with a sour taste in their mouths. I didn’t know that “ma’am’s” and “sirs,” which slip from my lips without thought, are often considered antiquated and unusual rather than expected and polite. I didn’t know that I was supposed to be impressed when I heard the name “Choate.” I didn’t know because — like over half of U.S. citizens but a mere quarter of domestic Dartmouth students — I didn’t grow up in the Northeast or in the West. I grew up in Lexington, Kentucky. Coming to Dartmouth, I knew I would experience a sharp learning curve. I knew I would be questioned on my fried chicken consumption, my thoughts on the necessity of shoes and my political opinions. But I wanted to see other parts of the country, to learn from difference and to know myself in another context. Ohioan Maeve McBride ’20 underwent a similar decision-making process in choosing to come to Dartmouth over Ohio State University, where many of her former classmates attend college. One year out from that decision, McBride is happy she chose Dartmouth. Despite the radical change in her environment, she told me that she still subscribes to the cultural norms with which she grew up, specifically mentioning Midwesterners’ infamously weak diet and exercise regimes and their famously strong commitment to community. “I’ll get care packages from family friends,” McBride said. “Not close family friends, but all sorts of family friends … that sort of community and caring about each other is what it really means to be a Midwesterner.” Connecticut native Shannon Rubin ’19
appreciates the opportunity Dartmouth provides to meet people from different backgrounds, interactions which she considers to be integral and formative parts of her college experience. “I’ve been exposed to a ton of thought from people who aren’t from my background, and I’ve found that to be incredibly valuable,” Rubin said. “A lot of what has shaped me as a person has been a result of the people I have met.” However, Rubin feels that Dartmouth students tend to self-segregate according to geographic and cultural boundaries, in part due to the organizational structure of FirstYear Trips. “If you’re from the Northeast, you’re going on trips with other people from the Boston area and the New York City area, which I think tends to segregate you from the rest of the school,” she said. Rubin saw these divisions endure well into her freshman, and even sophomore, year. But when I asked McBride if she finds herself only spending time with people from the Midwest, she was quick to say no. She has developed friendships with people from a variety of backgrounds, though more out of necessity than out of principle. Coming from Ohio, she does not have the option to only interact with people from her area. “It’s easier for someone from the Northeast to only hang out with people from the Northeast … For me it’s actual effort to find people from Ohio, whereas for [Northeasterners], it’s not as hard,” she explained. The South and Midwest, two of America’s most populous regions, claim a mere 15 percent and 10 percent of Dartmouth’s student body, according to senior media relations officer Amy Olson. Students from these areas account for a smaller proportion of matriculating students, as compared with their representation in the applicant pool. The reverse is true for students from “Coastal Elite” states like New York and Massachusetts. And though Olson assured me that geographic
Located in McNutt Hall, the Dartmouth admissions office prioritizes geographic diversity.
diversity is a priority and that “typically, all 50 The underrepresentation of Southerners states are represented in the entering class,” and Midwesterners on Dartmouth’s campus it seems unfair to compare California’s 140 may manifest as a mere mismatch of numbers, students enrolled in the Class of 2020 to West to be solved with an eraser and a pencil or Virginia’s one. a conversation in the admissions office. But This is not the result of targeted such simplistic solutions ignore the underlying discrimination but rather a gap in access causes of this problem: the deepening cultural to information. I have fissures in spoken with rural “Middle “At home, I don’t say I’m at our country, Americans” who never the tempting Dartmouth. I say I go to a thought to look farther pursuit of the than the borders of their small liberal arts school in familiar and state, who were not aware New Hampshire because the damaging that elite schools provide gaps in ex t e n s i ve n e e d - b a s e d there are people who look at infor mation financial aid, who were so me and say, ‘Wow, why’d you which create intimidated by the college inequities in go there?’ ... That image [of application process that access to higher they assumed it was not for elite schools] only being for education. them. rich people from the coast is W h e n “It’s much easier to get viewed as a into schools damaging.” whole, those like ours if underlying you go to a causes seem -MAEVE MCBRIDE ’20 high school frighteningly that knows large and how to curate a high-level nebulous. But they don’t have to be. Perhaps admissions packet, and I think it once we graduate, we can task ourselves can be harder to get those things with singlehandedly stitching America back in the Midwest,” McBride said. together. But for now, we each have four She and I grew up in a world years to foster a truly cohesive Dartmouth in which high schools funnel community. students into state universities, Those of us from the South and Midwest and in which attending an elite should be proud of where we came from. We college — or any college — is should share our experiences with our peers. a question of why rather than We should return home and encourage future why not. generations to follow our lead. Those from “At home, I don’t say I’m the Northeast and West should challenge at Dartmouth,” McBride said. themselves to seek out and learn from “I say I go to a small liberal difference, hard as it may be to embrace the arts school in New Hampshire unfamiliar when you have the luxury of the because there are people who known. look at me and say, ‘Wow, why’d It’s not often that you find yourself in a you go there?’ … That image place where you can walk 15 minutes to meet [of elite schools] only being for someone from one of the around 40 countries rich people from the coast is or nearly 50 states represented on Dartmouth’s damaging.” campus. Take advantage.
MAY MANSOUR/THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF
The rise of the novel STORY
It’s hot. The sun stings my pale skin as I walk along the Palma de Mallorca’s oceanside avenue. There are two windmills perched on the hill behind a line low ’60s style bungalows — an ice cream shop, a cafe. The windmills are a nod to the past. They look strangely at home behind the bungalows, the people and the 21st century. As I walk past the twin windmills, an image pops into my head — a proud man on a horse, a short man standing next to him, a rural landscape and a windmill perched on small hill behind them. Don Quixote is the image that pops into my mind’s eye. But it’s not the Mallorcan sun or that I’ve read “Don Quixote” (guilty) that sparks the image, but the windmill. The title character is often depicted with a windmill in the background. Although I have yet to read the novel (I swear I will one day), my mind jumps to a man, to a character I only know by reference. In high school, I was taught that “Don Quixote” was the first novel ever written. Then during my freshman year I was taught that the french novel, “La Princesse de Clèves,” written by Madame de La Fayette in 1678, was considered the first. And this week I learned that “Robinson Crusoe” was the first English novel — an important distinction. “The novel has definitely taken over as the most popular literary form and
the one that most people have exposure to,” English professor Christie Harner said. The novel’s popularity and importance as a literary genre is to blame for continuing arguments surrounding the birthplace of the novel. “Part of it is always an attempt to get back to origins: what was the thing that became a precedent for other things? Part of it is also the competition between different linguistic traditions,” Harner said. T h e wo rd “ n ove l ” i s derived from the Latin word “novellus” or “novus” which translate into the word “new.” The novel is new. English and creative writing professor Andrew McCann seemed to agree. “I would argue that the novel is a modern genre,” McCann said. “In a way to talk about the ‘modern novel’ as opposed to another kind of novel is a little bit misleading.” McCann explained that the “novel” as we know it today is a “narrative that’s imaginative” and “fictional” and emerged in the 18th and 19th centuries. McCann, who specializes in British Ro m a n t i c i s m and Victorian literature, notes how writers such as Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, Charlotte Bronte and G e o r g e E l l i o t p l a ye d important roles in the development o f t h e n ove l as one of most widespread literary genres. “They focused t h e n ove l o n everyday life in the 19th century, and this is also a big part of the genre,” McCann said. “It tells a kind of democratizing ethos. It seems to focus on the lives of ordinary people, ordinary settings.”
KATE HERRINGTON/THE DARTMOUTH SENIOR STAFF
The novel is not the first time literature The emergence of the novel was an has acted as a democratizing agent. Professor important turning point in literary history, Brian Stock, the 1990 William H. Morton but plays an arguably equally important Fellow at Dartmouth, points to the invention role in society today. of the printing press as an a landmark event Do cliffhangers annoy you? Does it make in the history of literature as we know it you mad that you have to wait an entire week today. to get all your “Game of Thrones” questions Stock explains how the printing press made answered? Remember when we didn’t know it possible to reproduce larger amount of if Jon Snow had died for an entire year?! texts than ever before, and at a much cheaper Thank the rise of the novel for that one. cost. As texts became more accessible and Harner explained to me how readers in widespread, so did the Victorian period literacy. read a Dickens’ novel “Earlier on the “If you think about the arguably in the same p e o p l e wh o we re novel being tied to the way we watch TV literate or who could shows or movies today. read and write were individual and also to Authors with wide members of what individual time spent readerships spread you would call the across class lines, such by oneself reading, in a superior class,” Stock as Charles Dickens, lot of ways that hasn’t said. often serialized their S i m i l a r l y t o fundamentally changed.” novels instead of McCann, Harner publishing them in argues that the rise of their entirety as they the novel paralleled -CHRISTIE HARNER, ENGLISH are today. the “rise in interest “They read PROFESSOR in individualism.” approximately 30, 40 The novel, unlike pages and then they prior literary genres, focused on the waited often a month for the next installation,” individual for the first time. Harner said. “[The novel gave] a sense of the value Harner recounted how the process of and integrity of individuals regardless of serialization gave way for the cliffhanger when their their class position, so there’s a lot Sir Arthur Conan Doyle left readers in what of idealism driving a lot of this fiction,” I can assume were feelings similar to an end McCann said. of a “Game of Thrones” episode (disbelief, According to Harner, this hasn’t changed. pain, fury, a slight fever?) by ending a book The novel’s relationship with the individual with Sherlock Holmes dangling off a cliff. is the reason for its rise, but also the reason “Serialization created certain narrative it’s still so popular today. forms that we’ve now been accustomed to,” “If you think about the novel being tied Harner said. “Cliffhangers exist now obviously to the individual and also to individual time in television, in film, in all sorts of digital media, spent by oneself reading, in a lot of ways but also just exist at the end of a chapter.” that hasn’t fundamentally changed,” Harner Now I’ve come to think that novels are said. “We’re still a very individualistic like windmills — nods to the past that look society.” strangely at home in the 21st century.
Cross-Continental Origins Photo
B y Ishaan Jajodia