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Sen. Jeanne Shaheen discusses Russian meddling


By JACOB CHALIF The Dartmouth







Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) gave a talk at the College on Tuesday to an audience of about 165 people.






Two alumni join Jared Duker Lichtman ’18 inaugural Knight- earns Churchill Scholarship Hennessy Scholars By GIGI GRIGORIAN

The Dartmouth Staff


The Dartmouth Staff

Leehi Yona ’16 and Asaf Zilberfarb ’17 will join the inaugural class of KnightHennessy Scholars, Stanford University announced on

Feb. 15. The program grants 49 students from around the world a scholarship for any Stanford graduate degree. The scholarship also offers leadership training and a SEE SCHOLARS PAGE 5



Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) criticized Russia’s interference in foreign affairs and urged the U.S. to respond strongly, both in domestic policies and in rhetoric, during a talk in Alumni Hall on Tuesday morning. Shaheen sits on the Senate Committee on Armed Services and Committee on Foreign Relations and has been a leading voice in Congress to investigate Russia’s election meddling. Her talk, titled “Russian Interference in American Politics and Cyber Threats to Our Democracy,” had an attendance of around 165 people, according to Martha Austin, associate

This month, Jared Duker Lichtman ’18 was awarded the prestigious Churchill Scholarship to study pure mathematics at the University of Cambridge’s Churchill College. He will study at Cambridge for one year while earning his master’s degree in mathematics.

Q&A with Hillel Rabbi Edward Boraz By MARIA HARRAST

The Dartmouth Staff

Rabbi Edward Boraz has served as the rabbi for both the Dartmouth and the Upper Valley Jewish Community congregations for the past 20 years. He is the executive director of Dartmouth Hillel and runs Project Preservation, an annual service trip to restore Jewish cemeteries in Eastern Europe. After

Lichtman is one of 16 Churchill scholars to be selected from the U.S. for the 2018-2019 program. While studying at Cambridge next year, Lichtman said he hopes to explore new topics in mathematics that he has never encountered before. “Math is becoming more and more interdisciplinary as time progresses, and there are some subfields in math that are very

strong in the U.K. that aren’t as well represented in the U.S.,” he said. “This would be a great opportunity to learn more about those areas and get a feeling for what’s out there.” The Churchill Scholarship is awarded to American students who have excelled in science, math and engineering and are SEE CHURCHILL PAGE 2


studying psychology and earning a law degree at Loyola University in Chicago, he applied his studies towards his rabbinical practices. Boraz will be stepping down from his positions at Dartmouth and in the Upper Valley Area on July 1 to serve as the rabbi of a small congregation in Wausau, Wisconsin. SEE RABBI PAGE 3


Students enjoy an unseasonably warm day in Hanover.




Lichtman to pursue Shaheen cautions against foreign master’s in mathematics interference in domestic issues “That’s a very useful subject in number theory,” Pomerance said. “The serious about continuing their career in theoretical study of those numbers is a STEM field, assistant dean of faculty pretty tough.” for scholarship advising Jessica Smolin Since their second project built said. The scholarship was established in upon their previous research, Lichtman the 1950s and funds a year of study for said it “arose naturally from the first a master’s program in a STEM field. [project].” According to the Winston Churchill “[The second project] was a very Foundation website, applicants should hard paper,” Pomerance said. “With have significant experience in advanced [Lichtman]’s industriousness and fearlessness, we were able to attack it research and independent work. “They’re looking for the absolute and solve that problem.” top future scientific researchers of the After these projects, Lichtman began U.S.,” Smolin said. “It’s a huge honor research for his honors thesis in the field of probabilistic to win it, and the number theory competition is “What distinguishes under Pomerance’s extraordinarily [Lichtman] is that supervision and fierce.” submitted the paper After the he’s [used] his natural for publication this Churchill talents and he has a term. Scholarship, Lichtman also Lichtman said tremendous amount completed his he plans to of energy. He sticks bachelor’s degree pursue his Ph.D. in math in fall 2017 in mathematics to something when and is now pursuing in the U.S. and it doesn’t work out. his master’s degree eventually go He keeps on trying it, at the College. into academia. A t maybe from a different He will complete this degree in the D a r t m o u t h , angle.” spring and begin Lichtman his studies at beganhisstudies Cambridge this fall. in the math -CARL POMERANCE, A l t h o u g h department RETIRED MATH t h e C h u rch i l l taking calculus Scholarship is not as classes. In his PROFESSOR commonly known freshman as the Rhodes spring, he took Scholarship, a probability class with now-retired math professor Smolin said both are “incredibly Carl Pomerance. Lichtman said he competitive.” However, the Churchill approached Pomerance for mentorship, Scholarship attracts a smaller applicant and they have since worked on three pool because it is limited to STEM. She noted that the Churchill projects together. Pomerance cited Lichtman’s Scholarship often selects “students “gumption” as a driving force of his who have previously either applied for or been successful in the Goldwater success. “What distinguishes [Lichtman] Scholarship,” which Lichtman earned is that he’s [used] his natural talents when he was a junior and is also limited and he has a tremendous amount of to those interested in pursuing a career energy,” Pomerance said. “He sticks to in scientific research. something when it doesn’t work out. The last Dartmouth student to win He keeps on trying it, maybe from a the Churchill Scholarship was Patrick Ward ’05 who received it in 2005. different angle.” The pair began their first project Discussing general advantages of together during Lichtman’s sophomore the program, Smolin said that Churchill year. This research, which was later scholars have the benefit of studying published, explored the accuracy of abroad. “A lot of STEM students are in the Fermat primality test. “We got some numerical results to academic programs that may not allow show that it’s a very low probability of them to spend significant time abroad,” the test ‘lying’ when you get to bigger Smolin said. She also noted that the Churchill numbers,” Pomerance said. The second project explored the Scholarship allows STEM students distribution of smooth numbers, which to focus on research for a year before are whole numbers whose prime factors continuing their studies, often in Ph.D. programs. are small. FROM CHURCHILL PAGE 1

CORRECTIONS We welcome corrections. If you believe there is a factual error in a story, please email


provost and executive officer and institutional contact for federal government relations. Originally scheduled for Feb. 9 but canceled due to a late budget vote that kept Shaheen in the capital late the previous night, the talk on Tuesday began with introductory remarks by College President Phil Hanlon. Shaheen then spoke for about 15 minutes, followed by a question and answer session moderated by interim provost David Kotz ’86. During her talk, Shaheen said she believes foreign interference in domestic issues through online influence and misinfor mation campaigns is one of the biggest threats facing the U.S. She argued that since “advanced technology has essentially rendered states borderless,” the U.S. must amend its security apparatus to address these new threats. She called for the creation of a clear command structure to be in charge of cybersecurity at the Department of Defense a n d t h ro u g h o u t t h e f e d e r a l government. In the talk, Shaheen mentioned two purposes of Russian cyber campaigns: “to inflame divisive social issues in the U.S. and to get followers hooked on Russian influence accounts as a way to spread other Kremlin-friendly messages.” She said during the talk that Russian foreign intervention is motivated by Russian President Vladimir Putin’s interest in recreating in some for m the Russian Empire, and in order to do that he has to undermine Western democracies. She emphasized that Russia has tried to interfere not only in U.S. elections, but also in elections throughout Europe. Russia tried to sway public opinion leading up to events such as the United Kingdom’s Brexit vote, the French 2017 elections, domestic struggles in Ukraine and the ongoing Catalonian independence movement in Spain, she said. Shaheen stressed that this Russian interference is occurring constantly, not only during periods leading up to elections. As an example, she referenced a recent article in The New York Times that reported that automated Russian Twitter bots sought to inflame divisions in the U.S. following the school shooting in Parkland, Florida. She discussed the many ways that Russia has used online tools and services to influence public

opinion in the U.S. and expressed interest in bringing “ G o n e a r e t h e d a y s o f her to campus, according to an propaganda posters,” Shaheen email statement from College said in her talk. “We’re in a new spokesperson Diana Lawrence. age where hostile actors can take Shaheen also stressed the root within our own borders and importance of educating people, become something that even our especially young people, on issues government can’t easily detect.” of misinformation. She pointed to In place of propaganda posters, Italy as a model example. There, countries like Russia have been according to Shaheen, the school using various online methods system is working to help young to inf luence public opinion. people identify fake news and According to Shaheen, these other disinformation that they may methods include misinformation encounter online. campaigns At several points t h r o u g h during the “ f a k e n e w s ” “Gone are the days of talk, Shaheen websites, the propaganda posters. was critical use of social of President We’re in a new age media “bots” Donald Trump’s that p o s t where hostile actors hesitance en masse to can take root within to impose inflate issues additional and divisions our own borders and sanctions on t h a t w o u l d become something Ru s s i a . S h e otherwise also criticized that even our be relatively the “partisan m i n o r a n d government can’t attacks” of the h a c k i n g easily detect.” Federal Bureau American of Investigation organizations and the to gather data -SEN. JEANNE SHAHEEN, Department on American of Justice since (D-NH) voters. the attacks Shaheen “would help the has previously Kremlin achieve spoken on its goal of sowing cybersecurity, discord among specifically on Americans and the security weakening our problems country.” posed by “I thought Kaspersky that the speech Lab, a Russian was very well company that infor med and serves an she gave a really estimated 400 impassioned million users a n d p owe r f u l worldwide. In critique of her talk, Shaheen said that since one of the most pressing issues Kaspersky Lab houses all of its facing our country today,” said servers in Moscow, it is required Dartmouth College Democrats by Russian law to make available president Jennifer West ’20, who to Russian intelligence services attended the talk. all data that is shared between In an interview after the event, servers and computers that house Shaheen said she hopes her talk Kaspersky Lab software. Late will spark a discussion on campus last year, Shaheen succeeded in about the role of the U.S. in the passing legislation that banned world and the importance of Kaspersky software from use on the rule of law. She also hopes all government computers. that students will be concerned One of the reasons Shaheen about statements they hear that said she came to the College is may be designed to undermine that Dartmouth is home to some of the FBI, the Department of the leading cybersecurity experts Justice or DOJ special counsel in the country. She referenced in Robert Mueller’s investigation into particular the work of computer Russian interference in the 2016 science professors Hany Farid and presidential election. Additionally, Venkatramanan Subrahmanian. Shaheen said she hopes her talk D a r t m o u t h ’s I n s t i t u t e o f “will help people think about what Security, Technology and Society, they’re viewing on social media in which researches cybersecurity a way that makes them question issues, reached out to Shaheen whether stories they’re reading are following her Kaspersky legislation accurate or not.”




Boraz leaves Dartmouth to serve at a congregation in Wisconsin FROM RABBI PAGE 1

wWhen did you first know you wanted to become a rabbi? EB: I have always been very dedicated to my religious community. I didn’t really know about becoming a rabbi, but several meaningful experiences, such as my bar mitzvah, learning in a synagogue setting and being a Torah leader, were all very formative. I was always connected to the Jewish community, particularly to temple or synagogue life, even throughout college and in my adult life. I taught a confirmation program for students, and I continued to work with students who were studying for their bar or bat mitzvah even as I was studying law. When I was in college, I was working in a nursing home as an activities therapist and activities director, and part of my responsibilities were to lead Sabbath services and high holiday services. I had this background, but that didn’t translate into being a rabbi. What translated into being a rabbi was through a profound experience when I was 36 and practicing law. A very dear friend of mine lost his life in a tragic automobile accident — he was hit by a drunk driver. That led me to think about the meaning of my life and what I wanted to do going forward. I was in a position where I could think about what my life would mean going forward, and I recognized that Judaism was a very constant and fulfilling part of my life. The rabbi at my community said to me that I would’ve been a good rabbi and that I should’ve been a rabbi, and other people were coming up to me during this transition period and saying similar things. That led me on this journey to explore becoming a rabbi, and things

really fell into place.

What defines your general approach as a rabbi, and how might it differ when you’re working specifically with Dartmouth students? EB: It’s amazing how the things that influence you when you are young stay with you. I majored in psychology when I was in college. I was heavily influenced by the work of Carl Rogers, who developed a theory called clientcentered therapy. Rogers observed that many people have it within themselves to transcend, and the role of the therapist is really not to view the person as sick but to have the tools themselves to overcome the things that are bothering the person. The role of the therapist is to be supportive, to provide empathy and feedback, perhaps pick up on things that the client may not be hearing. Through that process, the person could in fact transcend. That idea stayed with me, and I would say that one of the core principles of my rabbinate is that religion is here to help people. While it is true there is a commandment component, at the end of the day, religion is there to help people enjoy life and to lead a meaningful life. It’s for them to work that out for themselves. Here at Dartmouth, that’s what I’ve tried to do — to be knowledgeable and to be helpful. For the students here, this is their Hillel. The students here at the Hillel and at the Upper Valley Jewish Community really do have the skills within themselves to figure out the kind of Jewish community they want to create. It’s been a student-centered Hillel, borrowing that from Rogers, and that’s been my approach.

What is a project that you are either currently working on or have worked on in the past that you are most proud of ? EB: Two things come to mind. What people know me well for is Project Preservation. Every year we have been able to make these trips to engage in a very serious study of the Holocaust, really about genocide, and we welcome a diverse group. We really want a diverse group to come and share each group’s suffering and relationship as it were to genocide. We explore the question of how could a country as advanced as Germany, even given their economic struggles that they had, how could they engage in something like this in Western civilization? We explore that question in 10 weeks, and we go to Auschwitz and then a Jewish cemetery, because many of these cemeteries are certainly neglected. We respond to the loss by doing the work that would’ve been done had these people not been sent to gas chambers and killed in killing fields. That’s really a team effort, and some alumni have certainly been more than incredibly generous in their support. I’m also proud of the one-onone work I’ve done with students. Dartmouth is a very rigorous place and the students take their studies very seriously. I have a great deal of respect for them. I don’t worry about the future of Judaism and I don’t worry about the

future of the country. So many of these students who are coming out of this are really good people, and they care not only about the Jewish community, but they also care about the world.

What are your plans after Dartmouth, and why are you deciding to step down? EB: The only reason I’m stepping down is because each institution has aspirations to grow, and each of them needs a full-time rabbi. Dartmouth is an incredibly complex environment, and Jewish students here really need their own rabbi. I think the local Jewish community, which is also wonderful, needs their own rabbi. The structure in which I was hired — we’ve outgrown it. I thought that for them to really take on the challenges that are presented would require me first to step down. They needed to evaluate what they would be looking for in a new rabbi going forward. I think with some new energy and some new thoughts and ideas that it will continue to grow. It will primarily grow because of the nature of the communities and the commitments that each has towards growth and developing a caring community. Do you have plans to continue as a rabbi in the future? EB: Yes, I’ve accepted a position in Wisconsin. I’m going to be moving to the Midwest, and it’s a small, very

warm, very vibrant congregation. I’ve always wanted to serve in a reform congregation because that’s where I got my training. Part of the reason for the reform movement is that when the rabbis graduate, they go and serve reform congregations, and I’ve never done that. I’m very excited for this new chapter. Is there anything else you’d like to add? EB: I just wish all the best for Dartmouth College Hillel. Every one of the College presidents whom I’ve had the pleasure to serve under has just been really wonderful in terms of support for Jewish life, particularly President James Wright, who was inaugurated when I first came here. Wright was always kind of in my consciousness because he was always so calm and so balanced. Then President Jim Kim really encouraged us to get to the next level, to always improve, and fortunately for him and for the world, he left to become the president of the World Bank. President Phil Hanlon is a very, very good man and doing a good job under difficult times. It’s been an honor to serve under him and under the previous presidents, in addition to the former deans of the Tuck Foundation and now under the current chaplain and dean of the Tucker Center. This interview has been edited and condensed for clarity and length.








12:00 p.m. - 1:00 p.m.

Workshop: Dartmouth Energy Collaborative Bi-Weekly Pizza Lunch, discussing resources needed to understand and solve the world’s energy problems, with Feldberg librarians and Thayer School of Engineering professor Amro Farid, Byrne Hall C03, Tuck School of Business

5:00 p.m. - 6:00 p.m.

Talk: “How to Be a Muslim: An American Story,” a conversation with author Haroon Moghul, Rockefeller Center 003

5:00 p.m. - 6:30 p.m.

Talk: “The Elections in Egypt between Fiction and Politics,” with Khaled Al Khamissi, author of bestseller “TAXI,” Bartlett Hall 201


8:15 a.m. - 3:00 p.m.

Tuck Business, Government & Society Conference: “Building the World We’ll Lead,” Georgiopoulos Classroom, Raether Hall

3:30 p.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Talk: “Imperial Zealots: Scottish Missionaries and the BritishAmerican Frontier, 1763-1800,” with Boston College professor Craig Gallagher, Bryant Room, Rauner Library

6:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m.

Film: “The Shape of Water,” directed by Guillermo del Toro, Loew Auditorium, Black Family Visual Arts Center

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Two alumni selected for Knight-Hennessy Scholarship FROM SCHOLARS PAGE 1

housing community. Yona and Zilberfarb both expressed excitement and said they were humbled by the acceptance. Zilberfarb said that though the Stanford scholarship is exciting, it is just the beginning. “It’s a milestone, obviously it’s a very proud moment,” he said. “But this is really when the hard work begins.” Yona will pursue a Ph.D. in environment and resources at the Stanford School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences and Zilberfarb will pursue a aster’s degree in international policy studies at the Stanford School of Humanities and Sciences. “I’m excited to be among a cohort of people who are just equally passionate about so many issues and just so incredibly talented, and to be able to learn from them,” Yona said. The program accepted students from 20 countries pursuing 28 Stanford graduate programs. Yona added that around one-fifth of the program is comprised of firstgeneration students like herself. According to Yona, a Ph.D. is an essential next step for a career that includes both a science and an advocacy element, whether as a professor or government official.

After graduating from Dartmouth, I definitely think I have the desire to Yona pursued a master’s degree be a voice of hope even if it’s a very in environmental science at Yale cautious one, for a better future for University and will graduate this my country,” he said. spring. Since Zilberfarb’s graduation At the College, he was a student from the College last spring, he has director for the War and Peace Fellows been working at Parthenon-EY, a program and said that meeting with consulting firm in people in the State Boston. Department and “It’s a milestone, “[Stanford the Department has] professors obviously it’s a very of Defense, as well a n d m e n t o r s proud moment. as journalists and whose work I’ve scholars, helped r e a d w h e n I But this is really form his future was studying at when the hard work aspirations. Dartmouth, whose “Just interacting names I’ve read begins.” with them on a in newspapers,” regular basis Zilberfarb said. -ASAF ZILBERFARB ’17 through the [War “[I’m looking and Peace Fellows] forward to] the program definitely opportunity to opened my eyes interact with those scholars in different to a lot of opportunities and career fields and experts in this specific field prospects,” Zilberfarb said. that I’m so passionate about.” Zilberfarb was also a Paganucci Prior to attending Dartmouth, Fellow through the Tuck School of Zilberfarb, an Israeli, worked for Business’ Center for Leadership and three years as a platoon leader and worked with a migrant children’s intelligence analyst for the Israel school in Beijing and on funding issues Defense Forces. Zilberfarb said relating to China’s migration policies. the Israeli-Palestinean conflict is His thesis showed that in-group important to him and an issue in which preferentialism exists in Israeli politics he hopes to find a career. and tested whether Israelis respond to “[The Israeli-Palestinian conflict] is ethnic and religious cues. something that I want to be involved “Ethnic identities and religious in helping solve … I don’t think I identities really matter in Israeli have the solution to everything, but politics and very much help shape

attitudes towards the IsraeliPalestinian conflict,” Zilberfarb said. At the College, Yona co-founded Divest Dartmouth in 2012 and built her research confidence through various Dartmouth programs, such as Stamps Scholars and a Senior Fellowship — a program that allows seniors to complete a project instead of their major. As a Stamps Scholar, Yona designed her own Arctic studies fellowship. Through the Senior Fellowship program, she worked to find leverage points for change within the United Nations climate change negotiation, bridging her research and her passion for advocacy. She said the fellowship helped her prepare for graduate school and that she wrote two books for young climate change activists. “It just gave me so much confidence in my ability as a researcher,” Yona said. Yona is still involved with the Dartmouth Alumni for Climate Action group, the alumni branch of Divest Dartmouth. “If all we do is research and don’t take that research to inform what we do today, then our research actually does a disservice,” said Yona, emphasizing that the College should divest. Though it is easy to praise research, she said that “it’s a matter of walking our talk.” Yona acknowledged the influence

of faculty mentors environmental studies professor Ross Virginia, who brought Yona on a research trip to Greenland the summer after her freshman year, and environmental studies professor Anne Kapuscinski, who has continued advising Yona on her career even after graduation. Assistant dean of faculty for scholarship advising Jessica Smolin said it is exciting to have such a major new scholarship emerge. She said she imagines Dartmouth students will continue to be involved and apply for the Knight-Hennessy Scholarship. Zilberfarb said he learned about the program when the scholarship’s admissions director visited the College campus. Smolin said the information session was incredibly well-attended, with almost 100 students. “There was a lot of excitement about it, a lot of enthusiasm,” she said. Since the program is new, Smolin said the scholarship office is still learning how to best advise students during the application process and that she is looking forward to seeing how the program develops in the next few years. “Our job is to promote the scholarship and maintain ties with the admissions people so we find out what’s going on and what changes are happening so we can help advise students through that process,” Smolin said.






Judicial Gymnastics

The Laughing President

Rosemarie Aquilina opened the doors to a courtroom of catharsis.

Jacob Zuma damaged South Africa; the country should be glad he is gone.

“Sister survivors … the magic is in the power now be associated with this case forever as of your voice,” remarked Judge Rosemarie an outspoken advocate for victims of sexual Aquilina at former USA Gymnastics national assault. No matter how worthy their cause, team doctor Larry Nassar’s sentencing hearing. judges cannot be seen as activists lest they As she addressed the 156 women who testified threaten the impartiality of the entire justice against Nassar, her language and tone were system. unsettling. Her remarks sounded more like Aquilina’s dramatics were off-putting but something one would expect to hear coming paled in comparison to the cutting words she out of a megaphone at an activists’ march than directed at Nassar. “Our Constitution does not from the bench in a courtroom. Her theatrical allow for cruel and unusual punishment,” she comments toward victims like, “the monster said. “If it did, I have to say, I might allow what who took advantage of you is going to wither he did to all of these beautiful souls — these much like the scene in ‘The Wizard of Oz’ young women in their childhood — I would where the water gets poured on the witch and allow some or many people to do to him what the witch withers away” did nothing but put a he did to others.” spotlight on the judge herself. Though vitriol against Nassar is warranted, Aquilina’s decision to allow 156 victims to threats of violence are not, and especially speak was unusual but not technically improper. not from an impartial agent of the law. Victim impact statements are intended to give Sexual assault affects 80,000 inmates in the judge a sense of the the U.S. every year. Judges effect the crime has had should be fighting this conduct, on its victims. Aquilina, “No matter how not trivializing it. Suppose a however, appeared to use worthy their cause, guard or other inmate took the statements to offer the Aquilina’s remarks to heart judges cannot be victims, or survivors, an and assaulted Nassar. Then opportunity for catharsis. seen as activists suppose that suggesting sexual In a particularly telling lest they threaten assault became a common moment, she told a victim practice among judges. Should to “leave your pain here the impartiality of all of the innocent inmates and go out and do your the entire justice who were convicted because magnificent things.” a judge or jury made the system.” Aquilina’s supporters wrong call experience sexual have argued that there violence because a mistaken is no harm in letting these victims use the judge thinks they deserve it? courtroom in a therapeutic way. By the time Nassar is a despicable man. He used his the sentencing hearing takes place, the verdict position as a venerated doctor to manipulate is in, so why not let the victims speak? But at and abuse hundreds of young patients. As far what point does such an emotional outpour as the evidence goes, there is no argument to cross the line between a hearing and a therapy be made in his defense. session? Why, of all places, does a victim need But, as the adage beloved by kindergarten to air their grievances in a courtroom, which teachers goes, “two wrongs don’t make a is supposed to be a rational and unbiased right.” And Aquilina’s use of the courtroom place? If a victim’s statement provides concrete as a space for catharsis and the proliferation information — perhaps about how likely the of her personal views is a wrong. It is wrong perpetrator is to reoffend — then by all means not only because she acted unprofessionally they should be heard. But the courtroom is no but because in doing so she added complexity place for hours of emotional monologues for and controversy to a case that should have the sake of healing. The judge is not a therapist, been straightforward: Nassar was found guilty and victims’ feelings do not determine the of committing terrible and illegal acts. Throw magnitude of the offense. the book at him. Just don’t keep talking about It is also worrisome that Aquilina will it.

“[Taking a shower] would [minimize] term, referring specifically to the insidious the risk of contracting the disease” — such influence of the Gupta family on Zuma was the advice for dealing with HIV and and his government. The Guptas, a wealthy AIDS prescribed by Jacob Zuma before his Indian family with substantial business accession to the presidency of South Africa interests in South Africa, have been accused in 2009. The ignorance accompanying the of influencing the designation and dismissal comment should have been warning enough of various government ministers. Evidence that Zuma would prove to be an incompetent suggests that Mcebisi Jonas, the former leader during his presidency. However, deputy finance minister, was offered R600 it was not. Now, as of Feb. 14, Zuma’s million by the family to take up the role almost decade-long stint of finance minister, so as president has come long as he altered the to an end. Under his “[Former South ministry’s personnel, leadership, South Africa African president ostensibly to be more has been devastated, conducive to the Gupta’s Jacob] Zuma has left and the post-Apartheid interests. It also seems dream of the “rainbow behind a South Africa likely that the firing of nation” has been severely that is economically finance minister Pravin threatened. The general Gordhan in 2017 was u n e a s e s u r ro u n d i n g stagnant, at its most brought on by his public Zuma’s accession to racially divided in clashes with the Gupta office in 2009 has proved family. Also, millions decades and wracked to have been merited. of dollars worth of Despite his populist by corruption.” public funds designed calls for “radical economic to support business in transformation,” mostly the Vrede Farm project regarding the black lower classes, Zuma, in were instead funneled into accounts of Atul reality, oversaw a drastic decline in South Gupta, despite the fact that he had provided Africa’s economic performance. A tenth no services to the project. It is thought that of the country now owns over 90 percent $2.6 million dollars of the money was spent of its wealth. This was partly helped by an on the wedding of Gupta’s niece. unemployment rate surpassing 25 percent. At Zuma was himself directly involved the end of 2016, the South African economy in heavy-handed corruption. This was was roughly the same size as it had been in exemplified in the absurd case of Zuma’s 2009; twice during Zuma’s tenure, in 2009 Nkandla estate. The president expropriated and 2017, the economy went into recession. $23 million worth of public funds in order to In addition, the president’s interactions with renovate his private residence in the province the finance ministry were almost a caricature. of KwaZulu-Natal under the auspices Zuma unexpectedly ousted the competent of a constitutionally-sanctioned security finance minister Nhlanhla Nene, only to upgrade. However, the new “security” eject his newly-appointed successor within features installed included a swimming pool, the space of a week, causing a sudden drop a visitors center, a cattle enclosure and an in the value of South Africa’s currency, the amphitheater. Fortunately the independence rand. of the South African court system ensured It appeared that throughout his term, that Zuma was eventually obligated to pay Zuma prioritized political populism over back the embezzled funds, but the incident sound economic management. This was nonetheless demonstrates the unlawful evident in his decision to eliminate fees extension of executive authority that Zuma for higher education, which will cost an attempted. estimated R15 to R50 million each year, Zuma has left behind a South Africa only adding to public debt. In aggregate, that is economically stagnant, at its most South Africa’s debt tripled over the length racially divided in decades and wracked of Zuma’s two terms, reaching R790 million by corruption. Politician and former antiin the second quarter of 2017. And, due to apartheid activist Cyril Ramaphosa has poor governance, the country’s debt was inherited Zuma’s tortuous legacy. Now, he downgraded to junk status by all but one must find ways to both reunite the African international rating agency. National Congress and the country as Beyond the realm of economics, a whole. However, the country remains educational quality has dipped, with an optimistic. Perhaps the new president will Organization for Economic Co-operation be the long-awaited spiritual successor to and Development league table placing the the late Nelson Mandela. Whether or not South African education system at 75th out this proves to be the case, South Africans of 76 countries. And the new disarray of the can be confident that Ramaphosa will be a health system recently became apparent with more competent leader than Zuma was. They the deaths of 143 mentally ill patients who can breathe a sigh of relief that a decade of died of malnourishment and thirst after being mismanagement has come to an end. moved into unregulated care homes. South Africa should be happy to say good While economic growth has been slow, riddance to the president whose middle name corruption has reached heretofore unseen is aptly “Gedleyihlekisa,” the isiZulu term levels within post-Apartheid South Africa. for someone who “smiles while causing you “State capture” has become a household harm.”

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Inaction Figures

Disciplined and Flummoxed

I didn’t bother to read the first reports In an attempt to move away from this of the mass shooting at Marjory Stoneman political and ideological tug-of-war, others Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida have suggested a public health approach when they were released. The breaking — to reducing mass shootings. This approach and heartbreaking — news failed to surprise could include gun purchasing background me. checks, protection orders from men under Mass shootings, defined as “four or more domestic violence probation, a purchasing people shot in one incident, not including ban for people under 21, trigger locks and the shooter,” in public spaces like schools safe storage, greater enforcement on straw happen far too often in America. In the first purchases, a ban on bump stocks, an increase two months of 2018 alone, there have been in research on “smart” guns that would 31 mass shootings across the United States. require a passcode to be used and more. But as news article after news article appeared Yet this public health approach is merely a in my news feed, and after I read an article rebranding of what the Democrats call gun containing short biographies of each of the control. Proposed laws for these tightening 17 victims, I relented and delved into the measures would likely have trouble getting details of the incident. My natural response enacted, especially at the Congressional level to the tragedy of the shooting was, “What where many may want to preserve the sanctity can be done to stop this once and for all? of the second amendment. What can I do? What can the government Others look outside government for the do?” I came to a disappointing conclusion: answer, suggesting that schools, communities not much. and individual citizens have the power to Many suggest that legislative or prevent school shootings. They argue that government action can curb deaths from schools should teach their students social and both mass shootings and emotional skills, hire more gun-related deaths and counselors and use reporting injuries. There is evidence “Try to restrict systems to identify troubled that tighter gun control laws guns, and citizens’ students. Communities can lower firearm homicide doctors conduct mental freedom becomes have rates. In Connecticut, health screenings regularly, a 1995 law tightening limited. Try to social media companies can licensing requirements target individuals work on detecting threats and resulted in a 40 percent parents should be aware of decrease in the rate of gun with mental their children’s social media homicides and a 15 percent health issues, and presence, video game use decrease in the rate of and social lives. Yet these innocent people gun suicides. On the other suggestions are dependent on hand, Missouri’s repeal may be unfairly citizens, many of whom are of license requirements hindered while too apathetic to take tangible in 2007 resulted in an action because they believe increase of 25 percent in others slip through that a mass shooting could gun homicide rates and a the cracks.” not possibly affect them and 16 percent increase in gun assume that higher powers, suicides. such as the government, Yet any proposed laws will take care of these safety aiming for tighter gun measures instead. And when control measures are going people are willing to put in to have a difficult, if not the work, they are limited by impossible, time getting through Congress. the government itself. Public schools, which Our already-polarized political climate is only draw financial resources largely from property becoming more divided as Democrats and taxes, may not have the budget to implement Republicans fail to find a middle ground to these measures even if they wanted to. address the issue. Democrats demand stricter Teachers are constrained by the standards gun control, while Republicans appear to of their academic curriculum. Both social blame mental health issues. Democrats fire and governmental factors thus work against back by insisting that while mental health is these potential solutions. a problem, Republicans are only using this as No matter which way one looks at an excuse to avoid the topic of gun control. suggestions to minimize the horror of mass This bickering only results in inaction. To shootings, choosing one will result in a loss complicate the situation further, powerful of something else. Try to restrict guns, and organized interest groups like the National citizens’ freedom becomes limited. Try to Rifle Association contribute to the political target individuals with mental health issues, gridlock by funding Congress members and innocent people may be unfairly hindered against gun control. In the 2016 cycle, the while others slip through the cracks. Yet NRA spent a total of $834, 115 on 289 federal these potential tradeoffs cannot be used as candidates, with support ranging from $250 scapegoats for partisan disagreements. To all to $11,900 per candidate. How can we expect the optimists out there proposing solutions: these Congress members, who are supposed Please keep trying. But until people actually to represent their constituents’ interests, to care enough to take action and the politicos make the right decisions when the NRA plays untangle themselves, mass shootings and gun a part in supporting their careers? violence will continue.

When thinking about where to go for — are largely untouched by the influence of college, I was drawn to America because of the interdisciplinary studies. much-vaunted liberal arts education. I did not While there are already classes in each know what I wanted to study, so a school like department that emphasize aspects of Dartmouth seemed a natural choice. Three other fields of study, the absence of more and a half years later, I’ve learned a little about cross-listed courses that explicitly engage a lot of things and wish I knew more about with other departments speaks to a failure connections between fields of knowledge. of interdisciplinary study at Dartmouth. When Dartmouth speaks of improving its For example, most economics classes do offerings, it is simply announcing its intent not seriously focus on the role of racial and to add more choice. This is not necessarily environmental exploitation in capitalist a bad thing. The emphasis on experiential systems, and while African and Africanlearning has allowed economics and public American studies and environmental studies policy students to travel abroad as part of majors are well aware of these forces, they their classes. But we should also enrich the may lack economics majors’ understanding offerings at Dartmouth to provide a liberal arts of, say, the fundamental principles behind education in line with changes to society. The free markets. sacred liberal arts education is not monolithic. Consider the potential behind a course Since antiquity, its aim has been to provide cross-listed between economics and students with the skills necessary to participate environmental studies. I am not particularly in civil society. Those needs have naturally invested in either of these fields of knowledge, changed over time. In our current world, we but I notice that on Dartmouth’s campus these need a greater emphasis on interdisciplinary students speak vastly different languages. Some studies. environmental studies majors will denounce Academics mention the importance burning fossil fuels while some economics of interdisciplinary studies, but they are majors will point out how unattainable almost exclusively limited to the humanities. such a goal is for the American economy. What’s more, fields like So environmental studies English and history are majors can denounce the “While there are focused on demonstrating evils of capitalism and how other areas of already classes in economics majors may knowledge contribute to each department that laugh off the idealism of their own concentration. their greener counterparts. The only inherently emphasize aspects This leads to a sort of interdisciplinary majors at of other fields of deadlock, in which neither Dartmouth — in the sense field of study actually that they contextualize study, the absence engages with what the a topic or area of study of more crossother is saying. Students via existing fields of listed courses that learn the maxims of their knowledge like economics, major and go into the world English, geography or explicitly engage with believing they possess the history — consist of other departments ultimate narrative on how African-American the world works, or doesn’t studies, environmental speaks to a failure work. What if there was studies, Latin American of interdisciplinary a class that explored the and Caribbean studies, of these two study at Dartmouth.” intersection Native American studies fields from both majors’ and women and gender perspectives? Instead of studies. These majors ostensibly emerged out having a class solely on Greenpeace and a of calls to balance power dynamics in academia class focused on Goldman, there could be that play out in society. These programs a class with content that covers the space in have made valuable contributions toward between. balancing historical narratives, nuancing I am not calling for an end to the separation and diversifying courses and complicating of majors. Subject areas exist for a reason. The how we define fields of knowledge. But their skills required to study English and computer influence on the intellectual experience of science are different. But disparate fields of Dartmouth’s students is highly selective. knowledge can and should benefit from more Many undergraduates go through Dartmouth interdepartmental classes. At the moment, not having taken a course that emphasizes there is little interest in developing original, interdisciplinary work; the closest they come perhaps idiosyncratic, courses that bridge the is checking the box for various distributive silos in which we have demarcated knowledge. requirements before graduation. This Granted, these courses would be nightmares leaves the influence of these programs and to assess and would be difficult for individual the potential of interdisciplinary study professors to teach. But the challenge they diminished. pose is matched by the intellectual reward Some would argue that because these majors they could yield. Instead of simply having are themselves inherently interdisciplinary, the humanities cross-pollinate each other there is no need to further extend the trend. into oblivion, we could have more courses But the elephant in the room is that majors that challenge students’ world-view, provoke representing the nexus of power structures in dialogue and mutually enrich fields of American society today — such as economics knowledge.

Not much can be done to reduce the number of mass shootings in America.

Dartmouth ought to have more interdisciplinary classes.




Barbary Coast Jazz Ensemble promotes contemporary works By ELIZABETH GARRISON The Dartmouth

The Barbary Coast Jazz Ensemble’s winter concert will be Saturday, Feb. 24 at 8 p.m. in Spaulding Auditorium at the Hopkins Center of the Arts. Director Taylor Ho Bynum invites eight jazz leaders to play alongside the student musicians: Ken Filiano (acoustic bass), Tomas Fujiwara (drums), Mary Halvorson (guitar), Jim Hobbs (alto and soprano saxophone), Ingrid Laubrock (tenor saxophone), Bill Lowe (trombone and tuba), Tomeka Reid (cello), and Stomu Takeishi (electric bass guitar). The concert will feature an array of contemporary music, including Bynum’s own compositions. Bynum wanted to bridge the gap between Dartmouth and his own creative community. “It was a real priority for me to bring in artists to Dartmouth,” Bynum said. “The idea of community is very important to all creative practices but especially to this kind of music. For me, I wanted to make the point to connect my creative community with the students and community that I’m working with at Dartmouth. Both because I think these musicians are extraordinary and incredibly talented and critically acclaimed but they are also wonderful people. One of the joys is that you get to work with the people you love.”

For Bynum, inviting his mentors to play with Barbary Coast brought things full circle. “The trombone player who is playing with the band, [Lowe], I met when I was 16, and he was a teacher of mine,” Bynum said. “And now he’s giving me the gift of playing in my band, and I’ve realized all of a sudden that I’m the age he was when I met him. So for me, it’s about continuing the legacy of the mentors that I had and introducing the students to those mentors while trying to be a teacher and a mentor myself. It’s very important to me creating that through line, and I really think that’s what this music is about.” In addition to playing alongside the jazz ensemble on Saturday, the eight guest artists will also host workshops to teach students new techniques on their instruments. Noah Campbell ’21, who plays tenor saxophone and clarinet, joined Barbary Coast this past fall. Campbell was looking forward to attending Hobbs’ workshop and learning from the experience. “This weekend, I was listening to one of his albums to try and find what I could gain from him going into the lesson,” Campbell said. “And what I really admired was his sound and tone projection, because no matter what he was playing he could make his saxophone sound in all these different colors and tampers and I was like, ‘Wow


In the days leading up to the concert, guest artists hosted skill development workshops available to student musicians.

I want to do that!’” Campbell said his membership in the Barbary Coast has exposed him to great musical talent. “I never thought that there would be so much musical knowledge in one space at one time coming in and out of Dartmouth,” Campbell said. “I want to take full advantage of all the opportunities.” In his free time, Campbell composes his own music. Playing Bynum’s original compositions has served as a


Twenty Dartmouth students will perform as members of the Barbary Coast Jazz Ensemble in Saturday’s concert.

source of inspiration for developing his own writing skills. “In my spare time I’d write these little weird patterns and cycles of things that I would do, like a melody that’s in 10 [beats] over a rhythm that’s in six.” Campbell said. “When I met [Bynum] and we started playing his compositions, I saw a lot of similarities to what I was trying to do in my own writing and I was like “Oh! I’m not too far off from what he’s doing, and it’s really helped me guide my own writing.” Daniel Seo Tu’18 plays the baritone saxophone with Barbary Coast. Seo said Bynum’s improvisational directing style transformed the way he thought about jazz music. “[Bynum has] given me a totally new perspective on how to improvise and how to think about not just jazz but music in general,” Seo said. “Sometimes he brings in this improvisational conducting style in which he sets up different cues and just calls them in the moment ... I’ve never played that way before, so it’s given me this whole new perspective. Usually, when I’d improvise the tempo and the structure would still be there. But the way [Bynum] does it just completely removes all those boundaries.” The environment during rehearsal encourages and challenges students to experiment with the music, Seo said. “[Bynum] encourages every single one of us to explore,” Seo said. “He brings us outside of our comfort zones and a sense of adventure into music.” A common influence over the pieces in the concert is literature. Lowe’s

“Evening Song” drew inspiration from Harlem Renaissance author Jean Tommer’s 1923 novel “Cane,” a collection of vignettes that portrays the experience of African Americans in the deep south. Hobbs’ “Aware of Vacuity” captures the trickster spirit of the Monkey King from Wu Cheng’en’s 16th century Chinese novel “Journey to the West.” Bynum’s “Wolves and Blizzards” was inspired by the thematic and structural elements of British author David Mitchell’s novel “Cloud Atlas.” Bynum’s original piece “Real/ Unreal,” which will be premiering at this concert, was inspired by the science fiction writer Ursula Le Guin. “I just really loved [Le Guin’s] creativity in imagining other worlds and presenting complex ideas and questions in a very poetic and beautiful way without necessarily having to provide the answers.” Bynum said. “For me, that’s a driving role in art in general and what I try to do in my work as a composer. It doesn’t have to be settled whether it’s composed or improvised, finished or not, which musician does it feature, is it solo or ensemble based. All of those questions should be posed and not answered which is what I find exciting about the musical process.” The final piece in the concert is another Bynum original entitled “Sleeping Giant,” which was inspired by the possibilities presented by a path of hiking trails. For this finale, the Barbary Coast ensemble will play with Bynum and the eight guest artists for an improvisational performance of the piece.

The Dartmouth 2/22/18  
The Dartmouth 2/22/18