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Volume XI Issue II

November 2017

Diplomacy Hosts “Prayer for Peace”

Nuclear Correspondence: Pyongyang’s Letter to Australia

Felipe Bueno Editor-in-Chief “This will be our reply to violence: to make music more intensely, more beautifully, more devotedly than ever before.” These words, uttered by the great American composer Leonard Bernstein, served as the inspiration for Seton Hall University’s Prayer for Peace Concert: The Power of One Voice. The second in a trilogy of classical music concerts dedicated to peace, Friday October 27’s Prayer for Peace was hosted by the School of Diplomacy and International Relations and the College of Communication and the Arts. The Prayer for Peace brought together the Seton Hall University Chorus and the larger Seton Hall University community with the MidAtlantic Opera Orchestra at the New Jersey Performing Art Center’s Prudential Hall. The concert was conducted by Assistant Professor and Director of Choral Activities Jason Tramm, and Organized

Adin Dion Staff Writer

The SHU Chorus and MidAtlantic Opera Orchestra perform.

by Associate Dean of External Affairs, Elizabeth Halpin. As friends, family, faculty, and students congregated together for this celebration of a single voice’s ability to instigate peace, Dean Halpin took the stage to give her opening remarks. “We live in dividing times.” She began, “We often seek dividing words. Today we will receive music and words that invite us to move beyond, seeking what unites, longing for what keeps us alive

Photo Courtesy of Vince Marchese.

and together.” Professor Tramm then took the stage to introduce a special guest and honoree of the evening: Luna Kaufman. Ms. Kaufman was a young Jewish girl in Poland when she was incarcerated in a death camp near Warsaw. Along with 70 of her family members, she was subjected to the horrors of the holocaust. One day, during what she was later told was the American Liberation of Poland, she saw

a light which she thought was her salvation. Instead, it was the owners of a manufacturing plant purchasing the people in her concentration camp to serve as slaves in a German Factory. Of her 70 family incarcerated, only her and her mother survived. After her liberation, Ms. Kaufman moved to New Jersey and became an educator, activist, author, and lecturer. Ms. Kaufman’s connection Continue on page 11..

North Korea yet again made a statement to posture its nuclear power. This time in a letter, the hermit kingdom responded to sanctions, President Trump’s rhetoric, and its resolve to maintain arms. Australia’s parliament received this letter, despite it being addressed to the “Parliaments of Different Countries.” Contrary to the intended goal of the letter, world leaders remain no more abreast of the situation than before they received the letter. In recent months, the DPRK has attempted to increase its status as a nuclear power with the capability to launch attacks against the continental United States and its territories. This, along with blatant human rights abuses, reports Reuters, led to severe sanctions against the already isolated country. This round of sanctions has the potential to affect the country more than usual, as this round focused on financiers who illegally send money into the country.

With most of its outside support coming from China, who is trying to distance its self from the Kim regime, North Korea is running out of options. The mix of sanctions, and development of hydrogen bombs and long range missiles, according to CNN, could very well incite the country to issue further threats. Guam, Japan, and Australia all raised threat levels. It appears, however, nothing in the letter gave the international community any increased reason for concern. CNN reported that Australian Foreign Minister Julie Bishop noted that use of a letter is itself an indicator of fear in the DPRK. North Korea usually communicates with the outside world in other ways. CNN also noted that by the country writing the letter, Australian officials believe they are showing that they are feeling the pressure from an allied military and sanctions. The contents of the letter essentially criticized the actions of President Trump. After DPRK officials threatened to Continue on page 4..

Merkel Sets Limit on Accepted Refugees Concern Remains Over Ethics of

Kyrgyzstan Presidential Election Taylor Cain Staff Writer

Deep divisions could lead to an EU split.

Vincent Verdile Staff Writer German Chancellor Angela Merkel, the leader of the Christian Democratic Union, alongside Horst Seehofer, the leader of the Christian Social Union, announced that they are

aiming to limit the number of refugees admitted into Germany every year, reports CNN. The two parties set the number of refugees who will be allowed into Germany at 200,000. However, both parties agreed that no person will be “turned

Inside Focus on Pornography On page 6& 7

Photo Courtesy of Admiral Peter Kikareas.

away” even if the limit is reached. This announcement comes months after Chancellor Merkel refused to accept an upper limit on the number of refugees admitted per year. Merkel has been praised for her “open

Continue on page 2..

Kyrgyzstan’s ruling party candidate, Sooronbai Jeenbekov, won the presidential election on October 15 with more than 54 percent of the vote. His primary opponent, Omurbek Babanov, received almost 34 percent of the vote, while nine other candidates split the remaining votes. A runoff election is not necessary since one candidate received an outright majority of the votes, RadioFreeEurope reports. Incumbent President Almazbek Atambaev was unable to seek a second

term due to 2011 constitutional changes that limit presidents to one six-year term. Atambaev endorsed Jeenbekov, a longtime political ally, during the campaign, and Jeenbekov promised to “preserve what has been achieved, to strengthen what has been started” by the Atambaev administration. Both Jeenbekov and Babanov served as prime minister during President Atambaev’s tenure, which RadioFreeEurope says “[raises] expectations of policy continuity in a country that has to balance the often-competing interests between neigh-

Int’l News


Diplo News

Catalonia: Autonomy at Risk as Madrid Threatens Direct Rule

U.S.Turns Its Back as Kurds Suffer in Silence

Diplomacy Students Visit D.C.

On page 2.

On page 10.

On page 11.

bors Russia and China.” Russia remained neutral in the election, but Kyrgyz President Atambaev and Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev exchanged public corruption accusations following Nazarbaev’s endorsement of Babanov in September. President Atambaev criticizes President Nazarbaev and the Kazakh government for intervening in Kyrgyzstan’s internal affairs, BBC reports. Babanov had close ties with Kyrgyzstan’s neighbors prior to serving as prime minister in 2012. “Elsewhere in the region the only intrigue is Continue on page 5..

Diplo News DULCE Corner On page 12.

November 2017 Page 2

International News

German Refugees

Continued from page 1.. door migration policy” that an Union law. By avoiding started in 2015, allowing the change in the German more than 1.4 million asy- constitution, which Merkel lum seekers into Germany, refuses to consider, it will allow the pressure of the reports CNN. The right-winged Alter- refugee crisis to be moved native for Germany party to an international stage. A national school rewent further than a number limit, stating that even port, released by the Gerthose with legitimate asy- man Education Ministry, lum claims should be sent found that there is a direct back as the “predominantly correlation between the Muslim newcomers do not increase in migrant school fit into German culture,” children and a decrease in performance. according to The Washing- academic ton Post. The Alternative From 2011, the share of party for Germany man- foreign fourth graders rose aged to win 12.6 percent of from one-third to 34 perthe German vote, making cent in 2016. Furthermore, them the third largest party the number of children in the Bundestag. who passed the writing reThe Washington Post re- quirement decreased to 55 ports that German policy- percent from 65 percent in makers shifted their focus just five years. Michael Groger, canin order to further the integration of asylum seekers didate for Alternative for into German society. Their Germany Salzgitter, befour priorities are getting lieves “an asylum seeker jobs for the refugees, teach- is a temporary guest,” and ing them German, educat- “does not have to be inteing them in German civics, grated.” These views are and avoiding permanent affirmed by German citliving within ghettos creat- izens like Gulcan Dia, an employee for a pro-refued for overflow. Mandfred Weber, the gee charity, who witnessed leader of the European “permanent fighting” bePeople’s Party, believes tween asylum seekers forcGermany should “apply ing the police to respond, [a] refugee policy similar reports by the Wall Street to Canada,” reports Po- Journal. litico. The German basic law allows all of those Contact Vincent at fleeing political persecution to seek protection within German borders. In order to ensure this law is not violated, the policy can be created through Europe-

Audrey Azoulay Announced as New Chief of UNESCO Bianca Taipe Staff Writer Former Cultural Minister of France, Audrey Azoulay, was elected to lead the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Agency (UNESCO) on October 13, reports the New York Times. US News reports that Azoulay beat her opponent in the final 30-28 vote after she won a runoff with a third finalist from Egypt. Controversy arose during the election concerning Azoulay’s late entrance into the race. Azoulay ran against Qatari diplomat Hamad bin Abdulaziz al-Kawari, for UNESCO’s leading position. The appointment of UNESCO’s new leader was announced nearly a day after the Trump Administration’s decision to withdraw the United States from UNESCO, said the New York Times. According to The Japan Times, the United States was motivated to withdraw due to the organization’s supposed anti-Israel bias. The timing of UNESCO’s new leader announcement was fairly hectic considering Trump’s latest decision. The Trump administration’s withdrawal contributed to the further weakening of UNESCO following their lack of

Azoulay has been elected the next head of UNESCO.

funding, and Israel’s decision to withdraw. In response to the organization’s recent controversies, Azoulay shared brief remarks upon winning the election: “In this moment of crisis, I believe we must invest in UNESCO more than ever, look to support and reinforce it, and to reform. And not leave it,” US News states. Azoulay, 45, is UNESCO’s second female chief. A graduate of the Ecole Nationale d’Administration and the Paris Institute of Political Studies, the new leader of UNESCO began her career on an international news channel. According to The Washington Post, the new chief ’s connection to the Arab world stems from her Moroccan father’s position as an influential adviser to the Moroccan monarchy. Azoulay is determined to reform the agency in its unsteady

state. The U.N.’s Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Agency was founded in 1945 following World War II. Located in Paris, France, the U.N. agency is best known for its prestigious World Heritage List of outstanding cultural and natural sites. Since its founding, UNESCO promotes education and sustainable development for all countries, but with a strong focus on Africa. In July 2017, UNESCO’s World Heritage Council passed a resolution denouncing Israeli activity in the Old City of Jerusalem, resulting in backlash, and ultimately the beginning of trouble for UNESCO, reports the Times of Israel. Since the outburst of UNESCO’s Arab-sponsored resolutions, the organization faced turmoil that led to the withdrawal of both the United States and Israel.

Photo Courtesy of Al Jazeera.

The new leader promises that her work will “focus on restoring its credibility,” following the withdrawals of two of its members, states the Washington Post. UNESCO was founded in an effort to restore peace after two world wars, an effort that Azoulay promised to uphold in her new position, despite the ongoing conflict between Arab member states and Israel’s allies. UNESCO’s general assembly confrimed Azoulay by official vote at the close of October. This confirmation vote is typically a formality which will not affect the end result of the election. Contact Madison at

Catalonia: Autonomy at Risk as Madrid Threatens Direct Rule Madison Feser Staff Writer Thousands of police officers are patrolling the streets, Spain is threatening direct rule, businesses are relocating outside of the region, and internal opposition divides the people—this is life inside post-referendum Catalonia. According to Al Jazeera, Spain has officially dissolved Catalonia’s regional government and will be hosting new elections on December 21. BBC reports that Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy recently announced that Article 155 of the Constitution, which allows Madrid to exercise direct control over a region in a time of crisis, will be invoked for Catalonia. Effectively, this move led to the dismantling of the regional government. Additionally, it will strip Catalonia of its autonomy. Spain’s National Courts

also plan to investigate independence supporters on possible charges of sedition, reports NBC. The October 1 referendum was a vote, deemed illegal by Spanish officials, held to determine if Catalonia would secede from Spain. Despite attempts by the police to prevent the vote by seizing ballot boxes, closing polling stations, and forcibly preventing citizens from casting ballots, Catalonian President Carles Puigdemont signed a document officially declaring independence for the autonomous region on October 10, reports BBC. While Puigdemont withheld immediate implementation of the document to allow for negotiation with Madrid, he refused to revoke the declaration by the October 19 deadline set by Spanish officials amid pressure from the Popular Unity Candidacy party. The pro-Catalan independence group threatened to withdraw support for

Puigdemont’s administration and host new elections if he wavered from definitive affirmation of the region’s independence, according to The Star. Theo Francken, the Belgian minister of asylum and migration, has said, ““Catalans that fear they might be prosecuted in Spain can ask for political asylum in Belgium. And that includes Prime Minister Puigdemont,” reports Al Jazeera. While no one from Catalonia has applied for political asylum, numerous Basques have applied for it before. With negotiation talks off the table, and Catalonia’s independence firmly declared, Spain is desperately trying to regain control of the region that accounts for one-fifth of the country’s economy. An increased police presence of 26,000 officers are stationed in Catalonia to prevent protests and discourage further displays of independence,

NBC reports. However, an increased police presence is the least of Catalonia’s worries. Ramon Maiz, a professor of political science at the University of Santiago de Compostela, told NBC that the government’s response is appropriate given the situation. “The reason the [Spanish] government has responded is that there has been a completely illegal process,” he said. “You would expect if a region anywhere in the world, whether it is Texas or Hamburg, tries to become independent, the central government will take steps to prevent this.” In response, CUP leaders say they will defy implementation of Article 155, which was implemented after October 27, and refuse to recognize Spanish authority in the region. Reuters reports that several hundred Catalan municipalities, teachers’ unions, and firefighters are among those who have voiced their

opposition to direct rule. Although a majority of Catalans are against direct rule, many do not want to break from Spain either. The results of the October 1 referendum are widely disputed as the 92 percent vote in favor of secession was based on a 43 percent turnout, with a majority of anti-independence Catalans staying home, according to The Independent. Although lack of voter turnout can also be attributed to the forced closure of polling stations and widespread police crackdown, polls taken prior to the referendum show that over half of the 7.5 million Catalans wanted to remain part of Spain, CBC News reports. Although no country has expressed support for Catalan independence, the Scottish government voiced its concerns over Spain’s growing involvement in Catalonia. In a letter to Spanish authorities, NBC News reports, Scotland warns that oust-

ing and arresting democratically elected leaders violates European democratic ideals. The European Union told Catalonian officials that an independent Catalonian republic will not be considered a member of the EU according to NBC News. Should they seek EU membership, Catalonia will have to reapply. In response, hundreds of businesses within Catalonia have relocated to other parts of Spain to avoid losing access to the European common market. The loss of Catalonia would be a blow to the Spanish economy, but the nation has resources to recover. However, as the Independent reports, Catalonia, a main contributors to the economy leaving the region, along with lack of EU and international support, faces major obstacles as leaders try to establish their newly declared independence. Contact Bianca at

International News

November 2017 Page 3

Chinese Trade with North Korea Slumps Isla LaMont Opinion Editor Chinese trade with North Korea fell sharply as sanctions increased. China says the U.N. Security Council agreed to the successive rounds of trade restrictions, which were designed to incentivize North Korea to deescalate nuclear activities. Beijing is considered Pyongyang’s “economic lifeline,” as it supplies approximately 85 percent of all external trade. According to Reuters, the sanctions could cut off onethird of North Korea’s total annual exports. China’s General Administration of Customs states that imports from North Korea fell 37.9 percent in September, continuing a seven-month long period of economic decline, reports the Washington Post. Exports are declining more modestly with a 6.7 percent drop in September. According to the Wash-

ington Post, 90 percent of North Korea’s publically reported exports will eventually be cut. However, experts believe that while trade is indeed slowing, China’s self-reported data should be taken with caution. The impact felt by North Korean industries varies by sector. Fuel and textiles are taking the biggest hit. According to the Washington Post, the garment industry was specifically targeted and is projected to bring an annual $700 million loss for North Korea. Additionally, all coal and liquefied natural gas imports from North Korea were banned. Furthermore, China’s central bank prohibited domestic financial institutions from continuing business with North Korea, and all joint ventures between the two countries will be shut down in the upcoming months. In comparison, the seafood industry reports that smuggled products are still crossing the border, while a spokesman for the Chi-

nese customs department said that “there are no records of seafood imports from North Korea.” There are also reports that Russia may be supplying North Korea with fuel, and that Pyongyang uses shell companies to outsmart restrictions, according to Reuters. The Diplomat explains that North Koreans mostly earn their income from market activities, describing the class of “the new rich” as enjoying an “entrepreneur-bureaucrat symbiosis.” Keeping this upper class happy is of high strategic importance for Kim, since the current reform under which he holds power was made possible by unsuccessful attempts to curb market activities in the late 2000s. Kim may ultimately be unable to justify the current Byungjin policy, which simultaneously pursues both economic development and nuclear capability. Therefore, the Diplomat reports, some experts theorize that in addition to economic sanctions, the

With China’s support, the UN has agreed on two rounds of sanctions.

U.S. and China must align to empower the North Korean people via information channels. The Diplomat also noted that the United States claims responsibility for the slump, having put economic and political pressure on Beijing following Pyongyang’s six nuclear tests, and over a dozen ballistic, missile tests. Japan, an ally of the U.S., is especially vulnerable to these attacks due to its geological proximity. The Daily Caller confirms that the Trump ad-

ministration threatened to cut bilateral trade between the U.S. and China if the sanctions are not fully implemented. Deputy Assistant Director of the Central Intelligence Agency for the Korea Mission Center, Yong Suk Lee, stated that China has only ever put pressure on North Korea when “[they] were absolutely convinced the U.S. was ready to go to war on the Peninsula,” and praised President Trump for his “tough rhetoric.” NPR reports that the tension between the U.S.

Photo Courtesy of Phil Crean.

and North Korea can be felt in President Trump’s rhetoric, calling Kim Jong Un “rocket man” and threatening to “totally destroy” North Korea. Kim replied by calling Trump a “mentally deranged U.S. dotard,” and comparing him to a “frightened dog.” The U.S. toughened its very own sanctions against North Korea as of October. Contact Isla at

Hurricane Ophelia Wreaks Havoc on British Isles Megan Beauchamp Staff Writer On Monday, October 16, Britain and Ireland were faced with lashing 80mph winds and battering rain as Hurricane Ophelia made its way to the British Isles. The storm left parts of Northern Ireland battling with extreme weather conditions, some of which the country has not been faced with in decades, CNBC reports. The Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland were at a standstill, the Guardian adds, as chools, hospitals, and transit services closed in preparation for the storm. In its path, it left over 380,000 homes without electricity and claimed the lives of three people. All the victims died due to fallen trees; in two circumstances a tree struck a vehicle and killed the drivers, Clare O’Neill, 58, in Waterford, and Fintan Goss, 30, in Louth. In the third, the victim, Michael Pyke, 31, tragically died as a tree fell onto him in Tipperary, says The Guardian. Coincidentally, the arrival of Hurricane Ophelia marked the anniversary of the Great storm of 1987. This super storm hit the

The storm dumped heavy rain on North Carolina before continuing on its northeastward course.

United Kingdom 30 years ago, causing major damage and resulting in 18 deaths. At the time, the public was ill prepared for the storm, unlike Ophelia. According to The New York Times, Met Éireann, the Irish national weather service, issued a ‘status red’ Sunday

night before the storm hit, giving notices about potential power outages and possible flying debris probable to cause serious injuries or be life threatening. Regions including Cork, Kerry, Galway, Wexford, Limerick, and Mayo were also forewarned. Similarly,

Photo Courtesy of Jeff Schmaltz at NASA.

the Met Office, Britain’s meteorological service, issued an amber warning for Northern Ireland, as well as the south and west of Wales, predicting road, rail, and air closures. BBC News reports that flood warnings and alerts were also announced, and peo-

ple were strongly advised to stay away from shorelines as winds picked up. Many feared that Ophelia would be the worst storm Ireland has seen since 1961, The Independent reports. 56 years ago, Hurricane Debbie battered Ireland, taking 18 lives in

its wake. Though the death toll of Ophelia is considerably lower, there was still valid cause for concern since this comes as the tenth storm in a slew of hurricanes to hit the Atlantic Ocean. According to Met Éireann, the initial location of the storm was identical to that of Hurricane Debbie - The Azores Islands. Though Ireland was substantially more affected than other parts of the UK, the country is working to regain a sense of normalcy. The Irish Times reported that the Electricity Supply Board Networks restored power to every home affected by Ophelia, including those in the very rural areas of West and Southern Ireland. Along with major power outages, many homes left were without water. In the immediate aftermath of the story, The Irish Times also reported that 109,000 people were left without water. On Monday however Irish Water confirmed that the number of people still left without water is now down to 65 households. Contact Megan at

November 2017 Page 4

International News

North Korea’s Letter to Australia

Continued from page 1.. destroy the U.S., President the world, not Trump. Trump reiterated at the The DPRK’s foreign UN that the U.S. has paministry threatened tience for peace, but can Australia, claiming that also destroy North Korea, supporting the U.S. would should war break out. be suicidal. CNN further This comment appears added that although many to have partially moticountries place the actual vated the recent actions probability of a North of North Korea. Rather Korean attack as low than appear weak, the risk, it is agreed that the DPRK feels as though it regime will either doumust return the rhetoric. ble down and refine its Another source from military capability, or give CNN says that Australian up its arms. For now, it Prime Minister Malcolm is unclear what direction Turnbull called the letter North Korea will take. “basically a rant about how bad Donald Trump Contact Adin at is.” He wanted to clarify that it was North Korea threatening the safety of

Turnbull dismissed the vague letter.

Photo Courtesy of Global News.

Pakistani Military Rescues Family from Taliban Vincent Verdile Staff Writer Joshua Boyle and Caitlan Coleman, along with their three children, were rescued from the Taliban-affiliated Haqqani network by Pakistani forces on October 12, according to CNN. After a phone call with his son, Boyle’s father Patrick relayed to CNN that all five captors were killed in a firefight, while Joshua suffered from shrapnel wounds. According to The Guardian, the raid was possible due to American intelligence provided to Pakistan. Shortly before his departure from Pakistan, disclosed by a senior official through CNN, Boyle allegedly refused to board an American plane fearing his arrest. He and his family landed safely in Toronto, Canada on the night of October 13. Their three children, all born in captivity, were

left with the absence of a fourth sibling. During a brief statement by Boyle at the airport, he claimed their captors ordered the murder of his and Coleman’s fourth child. In addition to denouncing the Haqqani Network for their wrongdoing, Boyle believed their captors were “not guided by Islam” and “undoubtedly pagans.” He had previously been married to Zaynab Khadr, an outspoken defender of the September 11 attacks, and the sister of Omar Khadr, a Canadian citizen held at Guantanamo Bay, reported by the NY Times. While studying in school he became fascinated with Islam, and acted as an advocate for Khadr’s release, resulting in his marriage with Zaynab Khadr. In July 2017, the Canadian government officially apologized for detaining Omar Khadr, and awarded him $8.1 million, according to the NY Times. The detain-

ment was found to violate Canadian law, as Khadr was only 15 years of age when he used a grenade that blinded a Marine. Caitlan Coleman, an American citizen, was pregnant during her trip with Boyle to Afghanistan. Although still not entirely clear, Boyle has stated that they were there to help the local Taliban-controlled populations with humanitarian relief when they were kidnapped, according to the NY Times. Less than a week following their rescue, Coleman was rushed to the hospital, according to the New York Post. During her captivity, she was allegedly raped, but Zabiullah Mujahid, a Taliban spokesperson, denied the allegations. Furthermore, he claimed the death of her fourth child was due to a lack of “doctors and medication.” This rescue comes days after President Trump announced good news

would be coming from a “country that totally disrespects the United States.” The New York post also reported that following the successful release of the family, President Trump praised the Pakistani government for “working very hard,” and finally believes “Pakistan is starting to respect the United States again.” According to the India Times, President Trump believes he is developing a “real relationship” with Pakistan. This comes weeks after speaking firmly against the government, stating they had been taking “tremendous advantage” over the United States. Despite there still being American hostages within Taliban controlled territory, Attorney General Jeff Sessions holds “deep gratitude” for getting Coleman and her family home. Contact Vincent at

Harvey Weinstein Scandal Globalizes Sexual Assault Awareness Alyssa Tolentino Staff Writer On October 5 2017, a New York Times investigation by Jodi Kantor and Megan Twohey revealed sexual harassment allegations against film producer Harvey Weinstein dating back to 1990. Since the story broke, social media has brought it to a global scale, shining a light on the issue of sexual assault. Kantor and Twohey uncovered that for years Weinstein had invited women to hotels for what they thought were work reasons, but he sometimes had different interests. Among the women coming forward are Ashley Judd, Gwyneth Paltrow, and Angelina Jolie. In response, Weinstein sent The New York Times a statement in which he apologizes for the pain caused by his behavior and is committed to a path of recovery. On October 10, however, Sallie Hofmeister, Weinstein’s spokeswoman, denied the allegations of nonconsensual sex and any acts of retaliation against women who denied Weinstein’s advances. Weinstein was not charged with any crimes but was fired from Wein-

Harvey Weinstein faces allegations of decades of harrassment of women in the film industry.

stein Company, which he cofounded, on October 8, after initially taking a leave of absence. According to The New York Times, Weinstein called and emailed top Hollywood figures, asking them to speak up in his defense but had no success. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences ousted him, a rare action for the organization that awarded his studio five Oscars for best picture. Hollywood was initially reluctant to talk, but the story quickly became all anyone could talk about. Meryl Streep, Kate Winslet, Glenn Close, and Judi Dench were among the women who spoke out without having personal accusations against Wein-

stein. In addition, Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton have condemned the acclaimed producer on social media. Politicians like New York Governor Andrew Cuomo are now under pressure to return donations from the producer. Conversations about harassment and male sexual predication in the workplace spurred as a result. The hashtag #MeToo spread through Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram like wildfire as women, and some men, shared their experiences with sexual assault and sexual harassment. The viral movement showed the world how widespread the problem really was. The National Post re-

ports that Hélène David, minister responsible for Canada’s Council of the Status of Women, said the #MeToo hashtag generated a “social hurricane” in Quebec. Shortly following it’s social media surge, a La Presse investigation alleged that Éric Salvail, TV and radio host, sexually harassed eleven male and female colleagues. Within hours, his shows were cancelled. Gilbert Rozon, president and founder of Just for Laughs comedy festival, followed after nine women came forward. In both cases, industry insiders now say the men’s alleged misconduct was an open secret but it took the #MeToo movement for the floodgates top open.

Photo Courtesy of Cryptic Images.

In 2006, Tarana Burke, a victim of sexual assault, founded the “Me Too” movement to help women and girls—particularly women and girls of color—who had also survived sexual violence. When she launched her movement, it became abundantly clear as interest grew that the need for “Me Too” was bigger than she first thought. “This is necessary,” she remarked, because “people are crying for it.” There are many international responses across the globe, each coming from different perspectives. According to PRI, France’s equivalent of #MeToo is #BalanceTonPorc, or “Squeal on your pig.” Begun by French

journalist Sandra Muller, she encouraged women to post the names and details of sexual harassment in the workplace. Leta Hong Fincher, author of “Leftover Women: The Resurgence of Gender Inequality in China” said, “You have to understand there is still a lot of progress, what you see today, more and more ordinary women saying, ‘yes I was sexually harassed.’ That’s a huge improvement over several years ago.” Still, a staterun newspaper in China has come under fire in recent days for publishing a commentary claiming that sexual harassment is a Western problem. According to USA Today, the scandal is raising eyebrows in Nigeria because few there would have thought an entire business empire could collapse as a result of sexual harassment revelations. Nigerian women say they cope with all manner of inappropriate comments and less-thansubtle requests for sex at work. Journalist Adaobi Tricia Nwauboni, however, says, “perhaps we need to start doing that to get them to stop?” Contact Alyssa at

International news

November 2017 Page 5

Concern Remains Over Ethics of Kyrgyzstan Presidential Election

SDPK presidential candidate Sooronbay Jeenbekov casts his ballot at a polling station in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

Continued from page 1.. whether the ruling president will get 99 percent or 105 percent of the vote,” a senior diplomat told The Guardian. Kyrgyzstan’s election was a regional anomaly because Jeenbekov, despite being a candidate from the ruling party, was not guar-

anteed to win. It was not anticipated that he would get an outright majority in the first round of voting. RadioFreeEurope reports that “a September poll by the Western-backed NGO Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society” had Jeenbekov at 41 percent and Babanov at 39 percent, 10 points away from

a majority. The transfer of power from President Atambaev to Jeenbekov will be the first transfer under the 2011 constitution, and the first peaceful transfer following two violent revolutions in the past 12 years, according to The Guardian. Both revolutions ousted the presiding

Photo Courtesy of Roman Gainanov of Xinhua.

president: the 2005 “tulip revolution” replaced Askar Akayev with Kurmanbek Bakiyev, who was subsequently thrown out of office in 2010. However, Kyrgyzstan’s political climate has deteriorated in recent years due to the government’s ill-treatment of political opposition, according to

Human Rights Watch. The Atambaev administration had been criticized for its repression of free speech and media, and threats to citizens who criticized President Atambaev on Facebook. Human Rights Watch also expressed concern over Kyrgyzstan’s human rights violations, includ-

ing media suppression and the torture of detainees by law enforcement. In a statement on October 19, they asked the incoming Jeenbekov administration to allow journalists and human rights monitors to operate safely in the country. Additionally, they called for the administration to support and protect survivors of abuse, and address violence against women. Though the election marked a peaceful transition in power, international election observers criticized the high amountsof vote-buying, Human Rights Watch reports. The Jeenbekov campaign was accused of vote-buying, according to the BBC, and the Babanov campaign was given three warnings by the Central Elections Committee for violating campaign rules by vote-buying. Contact Taylor at

Robert Mugabe’s Short-lived Goodwill

Mugabe’s appointment to WHO goodwill ambassador caused worldwide controversy.

Shannielle Thompson Staff Writer The recent appointment of President Robert Mugabe to the post of “goodwill” ambassador for the World Health Organization (WHO) on Wednesday October 18, 2017, sent shock waves around the world and ultimately resulted in its revocation four days later. According to CNBC, President Mugabe’s appointment was announced at a fully attended conference on non-communicable diseases (NCD)

in Uruguay, where Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO’s newly appointed director and former minister of health and foreign affairs in Ethiopia, “praised Zimbabwe as a country that places universal health coverage and health promotion at the center of its policies to provide healthcare to all.” In a report by the New York Times, the director went on to express “honor” in being joined by Mugabe on this initiative. The reason, he explained, was that the leader could use his platform and influence in the African region as a model for other

leaders in the promotion of the fight against NCDs, like asthma and heart attacks. The comments were soon after met with criticism from donors, various healthcare professionals and the general public via multiple mediums. Canadian Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, expressed to the press that he thought the appointment was “a bad April Fool’s joke”. NCD Alliance, WHO’s partner on various initiatives concerning NCD’s released an official statement expressing “shock” at the decision while Hillel Neuer,

Photo Courtesy of Al Jazeera.

the executive director of UN Watch took to Twitter: “@DrTedros I urge you to cancel your appointment of Mugabe as W.H.O. ‘good-will ambassador’ — he ruined Zimbabwe’s health.” As pressures mounted and a myriad of calls were noted for the renunciation of his decision, Ghebreyesu sought to both reaffirm his position in making global health an internationally inclusive initiative as well to rescind the appointment. The decision was posted on the organization’s official website on Sunday, October 22, 2017.

From the website, his decision states that “I have listened carefully to all those who have expressed their concerns and heard the different issues that they have raised.” The statement also served as a notice that the move was a mutual agreement between WHO and the government of Zimbabwe as a “decision [that] is in the best interests of the World Health Organization.” President Mugabe has yet to personally break silence on the issue. However Zimbabwean Foreign Minister Walter Muzembi, accepted the decision, but not before noting the mounting publicity the organization has received since the inclusion of the president in its affairs. The relationship between the two can be traced back to Ghebreyesus’ campaign for his current position. The Guardian reports that President Mugabe served as the head of the African Union and played a pivotal role in Ghebreyesus’ uncontested election over other African leaders. As a result, Ghebreyesus has become the first African leader to serve in his current capacity as director of the UN World Health Organization. If his position was to be

granted longevity, President Mugabe would have joined the likes of Michael R. Bloomberg, former NYC mayor, Mr. James Chau, writer and recipient of BBC World News award for his show Horizons, Yohei Sasakawa, Chairman of The Nippon Foundation and Peng Liyuan, actress and China’s 2006 Minister of Health Ambassador for HIV/AIDS Prevention, as current Goodwill Ambassadors. These are all people who all have a noted track record of being “goodwill” health advocates, philanthropists and promoters. President Mugabe, 93, is now in his 37th year as leader of Zimbabwe. His tenure has since been marred by accusations of his destruction of the economic and healthcare sectors in the country. He has been on the receiving end of U.S. sanctions for “alleged” human rights violations and, according to an Independent report, utilizes foreign health systems over that of his country when it comes to his personal healthcare. Contact Shannielle at ThomShann@student.shu. edu

November 2017 Page 6

Pakistan Shamel Dishack Staff Writer Pornography in Pakistan, like in many countries with a religious majority, is a touchy subject. Like its neighbors, Pakistan adopted a conservative stance on pornography that seeks to preserve what it sees as the religious and cultural integrity of its youth. Initially, the government’s position on online pornography consisted of selective restrictions and occasional bans. Although the population can access pornography electronically, the government can regulate online traffic by occasionally censoring websites that are deemed either blasphemous or critical of the government. For a while, pornography was widely accessed by the people with no policy towards a total internet ban. However, in November 2011, the Pakistan Telecommunications

Authority’s (PTA) decided to block pornographic websites. In September 2011, a hacker defaced the Supreme Court’s and PTA’s websites to demand a series of reforms, one of which was a request for a ban on pornogra-

most-visited websites in Pakistan, but now the government has grown more ambitious in its crusade against online pornography, reports the Tribune. In 2016, the National Assembly passed the New Cybercrime Law, the Prevention of

court warrants. Going further, the Islamabad High Court (IHC) wanted pornography to be a more specific online crime in the act. In March 2017, authorities in the court noted that blasphemy and pornography were

Focus On (PTCL) and Transwold. Since January of this year, the government has blocked approximately 430,000 websites deemed inappropriate and blasphemous, with the ban blanket so wide that many of the blocked websites are not actually

“The implementation of a total ban is currently an ongoing process carried out by the Government, PTA, and underwater internet cable providers such as Pakistan Telecommunications Company Limited (PTCL) and Transwold.” phy, reports the Tribune. Following this scandal, the Pakistani government answered the call for a ban, and the chief justice ordered the PTA, which is responsible for the flow, development, and maintenance of telecommunications, to begin blacklisting porn websites frequently visited by Pakistani citizens. From there, the list continued to grow. When the PTA began implementation in November 2011, they started with the thousand

Electronic Crimes Act, with unanimous support from the Senate, the president, and the Supreme Court. The purpose of this legislation was to address the growing powers of cyberterrorism and online black market forums, and treats acts against modesty as a domestic threat. The legislation also gives the government investigative powers to establish agencies that monitor traffic flow, keep records of observed crimes, and initiate arrests through

not carefully labeled in the new cybercrime law, and subsequently directed the Advocate General to complete the legal requirements for these changes to be made. The efforts of the government to ban pornography did not stop at that point. The implementation of a total ban is currently an ongoing process carried out by the Government, PTA, and underwater internet cable providers, such as Pakistan Telecommunications Company Limited

pornographic by nature, according to Dawn. In reaction to these actions, human rights groups and proponents of net neutrality have objected with dismay. They see the provisions in the act as being vague enough to curtail freedom of speech and expression. Additionally, there are concerning political implications, as the government now has the ability to shut down any website under allegations of indecency and moral corruption. The Digital

Rights Foundation has voiced its antagonism towards the act because of its potential misuse by the government for the aforementioned reasons. The government, in response, disregards these claims as derived from international actors with particular agendas against Pakistani nationalinterests. There is no denying that many officials in Pakistan view pornography as morally reprehensible and socially corruptive. To the Pakistani authorities, the internet provides an avenue for its people to access unlimited and free pornography, and thus must be met with restrictions and limitations. However, despite studies and practice revealing that bans are ultimately ineffective, the government continues its policies. Contact Shamel at

India Daniel O’Shea Staff Writer In August 2015, the largest democracy in the world, India, was forced to grapple with the sensitive issue of pornogrphy. The topic caused immense political tension, not due to opposing views of morality, but instead, due to the democratic belief of individual freedom. According to the New York Times, the issue began when a lawyer named Kamlesh Vasqni called

upon India’s Supreme Court to ban pornographic websites. He viewed pornography as a catalyst to destroy social morality and encourage sex crimes. However, the Court decided that banning pornography was not a decision it could properly adjudicate. The decision, instead, fell on the shoulders of the elected Indian government. Although Vasqni’s opinions could not sway the Supreme Court, his work pushed the issue into the hands of Indian

Background image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

policymakers. As a result of Vasqni’s efforts, the Indian government did what the Supreme Court could not do: it decided to ban porn. This governmental mandate was covertly implemented and lacked any announcement. Consequently, it was a surprise to most of the Indian populace. BBC, in an article released a week after the ban’s enactment, described it as “a quiet, almost innocuous government order.” Unfortunately, the order’s

Pornography’s spread is aided by the Internet.

consequences were far from innocuous. According to The Guardian, despite the ban’s quick and discreet implementation, it was extremely thorough in its censhorship, as it blocked more than 800 pornographic websites under the guise of preventing a social nuisance. As a result, intense public outrage ensued and India was thrown into political disarray as those who opposed the ban passionately faced off with those who supported it.

Photo Courtesy of PTI.

This outrage and controversy, as can be seen in BBC’s and The Guardian’s reports, left its footprint, especially on social media. The hashtags #Pornban and #NextBanIdea began trending on Twitter as activists such as Chetan Bhagat, a famous Indian author, took to the social media site to proffer their opinions. At the time of the ban’s occurrence, Bhagat tweeted that India should “Ban non-consent. Not sex.” He also said that “[The] porn ban is anti-freedom, impractical, not enforceable... Let’s not manage people’s private lives.” In a more satirical manner, many everyday Indians flooded Twitter with suggestions for the Indian government as to what it should ban next. One man suggested on Twitter that “all pants and trousers” should be banned and “khaki shorts” should be obligatory. The total opposition was of such a magnitude that less than a week after the sites were banned,

the government began to draw back its initial order. Eventually, India’s elected governmental body settled on only banning sites that supported child pornography and, according to the India Times, torrent sites, which enable files often containing copyrighted or even pornographic material to be mass shared efficiently and covertly. To this day, it is a crime to visit these sites, and doing so can result in fines and/or imprisonment. In subtly passing this ban, the democratic values that are an inherent part of Indian society were called into question. The underlying topic of pornography forced the nation to acknowledge a societal issue, labeled by BBC as a growing culture of intolerance, which is largely unique to democratic nations. Simply put, it is the issue of determining at what point “moral” censorship becomes an infringement on freedom. Contact Daniel at daniel.

Pornography Nathaniel Purtell Staff Writer In January 2017, Iran’s domestic policy on the censorship of pornography affected the rest of the world. The Telecommunication Company of Iran, often called “telecom,” misdirected traffic from porn sites to fake addresses resulting in a blank page, reports the Verge. This attack spread from the original telecom in Iran to servers in Hong Kong and various other countries. The incident brought the Islamic Republic’s strict ruling against obscene materials to the attention of the international community. As a result of its restrictive media policies, and due to its state control of all telecommunications, Iran effectively damaged how the internet works. According to the Independent, in its attempt to censor local servers, Iran changed the “road signs” of the internet, pointing servers

Abigail Cordaro Staff Writer Online pornography is strictly forbidden in China, but remains a multi-billion dollar industry evading the authorities. In recent years, Vox reports, the Chinese government tightened regulations and crackdowns on the producers, distributors, and profiteers of the industry, who risk maximum sentences of a lifetime in prison for these illegal activities. The most high-profile series of government crackdowns began in 2015, when China’s anti-pornography office issued a notice that it was striking back in light of a series of viral incidents involving homemade explicit content, according to The Wall Street Journal. The incident that sparked the crackdown was a clip of a couple having sex in a Uniqlo dressing room, which went viral, inspiring online parodies and driving thousands of couples to take selfies in front of the store where the

from all over the world including major internet companies like India’s Bharti Airtel, Russia’s RETN, Indonesia’s Telekomunikasi and Hong Kong’s Hutchison - away from their intended destinations. These intended

November 2017 Page 7


revolution of the 1970s, after which the Ayatollah became the supreme authority in the country. Previously, the secular regime allowed all manners of outside influence into the nation. Women rarely covered their hair,

sor from the University of Michigan to test the extent of Iran’s extensive censorship. They discovered that over half of the sites on Alexa’s top 500 most-visited websites were blocked. Additionally, a high percentage of

censored solely because of its name. Iran’s policies on pornography extend even beyond the web. Iran has a history of arresting pornographic actors, actresses and directors, reports the Guardian.

“Iran changed the ‘road signs’ of the internet, pointing servers from all over the world away from their intended destinations. These intended destinations were a list of 256 websites that Iran deemed to be ‘pornogrpahic.’” destinations were a list of 256 websites that Iran deemed to be “pornographic.” Iran’s policy on pornography is a result of the government’s Islamic foundation. In the Islamic Republic, the Ayatollah, or supreme religious leader, has vast influence on the moral direction of the country. The Islamic faith considers modesty to be of upmost importance, and the obscenity found in pornography is seen as a moral threat to the populace. This is a result of the Islamic

incident took place. The notice declared that “So-called ‘indecent videos’ are harming social virtue, promoting pornography, severely disturbing order on the internet and trampling on the moral and legal bottom line,” and was posted on China’s National Office Against Pornographic and Illegal Publications website, reports The Wall Street Journal. Last year, the Chinese government attempted to crackdown on porn distribution by filing a lawsuit against four executives of Shenzhen Qvod Technology Co. Ltd. The famous trial was livestreamed on the Sina web portal from a Haidian District Court in Beijing, attracting millions of viewers and thousands of comments. The Wall Street Journal reported CEO Wang Xin faced allegations of aiding in the distribution of thousands of pornographic videos; the four executives were charged with “profiting from the dissemination of pornography.” Such

and Western ideals about beauty and sexuality became mainstream in a society that was recently made rich for their oil reserves. While the country became significantly wealthier, the deeply religious conservatives in the country gained power and influence, including the return of the once-exiled Ayatollah, leading to more conservative policies. According to the Washington Post, in 2013 two anonymous Iranian citizens teamed up with a computer science profes-

sites in the “art,” “society,” and “news” categories were also blocked. The country’s pervasive media censorship is made possible by its telecom setup, reports the Washington Post. Nearly all internet traffic passes through a centralized facility in which censorship filters are applied. These filters are so stringent that, in an experiment carried out by the researchers, a file titled sex.htm was created and hosted outside of the U.S. to test the filter’s effectiveness. The file was


crimes in China carry a maximum sentence of life in prison, however, Wang Xin plead guilty and received a sentence of three-and-a-half years and was fined $150,000, according to Quartz. In the two-day trial that took place last January, prosecutors argued Qvod executives were aware that their video platform was often used for watching porn, and that they did nothing to monitor or prevent it. Mr. Wang retorted in his defense that the company was only responsible for producing the platform, not for policing how it was used. He famously stated “We believe there’s nothing shameful about technology,” and his vigorous defense was widely applauded online, reports The Wall Street Journal. With over 650 million internet users in China and hundreds of websites, the Chinese government attempts to hold online platform creators accountable for the content their users post as a strategy to outsource censorship to

the websites themselves. The Wall Street Journal further notes that Beijing increasingly used criminal courts to try to regulate online behavior, silence criticisms of the government, and crack down on porn and illicit content. Qiao Mu, a media expert at Beijing Foreign Studies University said the issue of Qvod’s executive trial should have been addressed by internet regulators rather than a criminal court. Despite notices and criminal cases, Quartz reports, it is extremely difficult to monitor and enforce anti-pornographic laws when there are a multitude of ways for providers and users to watch and share explicit content, whether it’s homemade or pirated from Japan. In 2004, China saw the creation of a few large porn distributing services including 99 Erotica Forum and Erotica Juneday, however, most have been shut down by the government. The business model for these services in China operated so that

The penalty of assisting in the production of pornography is death, leading to an intricate underground black market of pornography production and distribution. The demand for such a market is only heightened by the youthful population, says Dr Naser Fakouhi, the head of anthropology at Tehran University. With roughly 70 percent of the population under the age of 35, Iran is experiencing a youth bulge. An overall increase in the average marrying age has only

they could avoid detection from authorities. However, what led to the detection and ultimate downfall of these services was the use of domestic Chinese banks on these sites. Today, the online forum Caoliu is one of the only major porn sites reamining. The site is based in Colorado, charges no fees to users, and has no staff based in China, making it out of reach for Chinese authorities, according to Quartz. Additionally, since 2015, livestreaming apps have exponentially increased in popularity and are now a $4.3 billion dollar industry in China. Thousands of young Chinese women called “anchors” stream themselves doing every day activities and sexual acts for their viewers, who pay them virtual “gifts,” while the platforms receive a share of the revenue, reports Quartz. Livestreaming services are required by law to monitor their content, and have recently im-

exacerbated this trend, as this is a society in which premartial sex is generally discouraged, both socially frowned upon and legally outlawed. More controversial than its restrictions on pornography is Iran’s blocking of political content that it disagrees with, reports the Washington Post. The ability to sanction and block pornographic materials also sets the path for the government to block materials it sees as against its interest. During the 2011 Arab Spring, most countries in the Maghreb blocked politically-motivated content that was used to organize democratic movements. In a time when the political environment has been thrown into disillusion through the use of internet media, questions are arising about the sustainability of the country’s restrictive nature. Contact Nathaniel at

posed strict rules on anchors such as banning them from wearing stockings or eating bananas “erotically.” According to Vox, the Chinese government’s latest notice, which was issued in June, threatened to ban three of its largest live-streaming services. The notice singled out the companies Sina Weibo, iFeng, and AcFun. It stated all live-streaming services must suspend operations on non-licensed platforms, but the three large services do not stream on unlicensed platforms. Although the threat had an impact on the firms, neither the owners nor users seemed particularly alarmed. Vox reports that the vagueness of the notice indicates that the government is simply trying to manage the live-streaming industry, not crush it. The existence of porn on China’s internet may be forbidden, but it will not be eradicated anytime soon. Contact Abigail at abigail.


November 2017 Page 8

Immigration:The World’s Silent Crisis

Two young girls are carried to the shores of Lesvos, Greece.

Jackson Lied Staff Writer The rising nationalism in Europe is being caused by a refugee crisis more extreme and permanent than ever seen before. According to the United Nations, there are currently more than 65.6 million forcibly displaced people. This crisis and our reaction to it is changing the way the European world conducts its international affairs, and how it deals with domestic policy. This shift in policy and extenuation of the issue is based on moral and economic reasons. This is a crisis that is direr than the world, par-

ticularly America, knows or is willing to admit. We know facts, but we so often gloss over the reality of what it is like to live as a person fleeing from unknowable strife. With only a bit more understanding, facilitated by fair and equal communication, we may finally be able to ensure the situation they arrive in is free from the pain they knew before. The moral side to the issue lies in how refugees are being interpreted to Europeans as foreigners and invaders. People grow too numb to the constant headlines reporting refugee deaths, which according to the U.N. reached upwards

Photo Courtesy of Achilleas Zavallis of UNHCR.

of 5,000 people last year. They are viewed as less, as simple numbers, on account of them not being of the right nation. The world may have, at least on the surface, cured itself of racism. But the stigma surrounding “outsiders” remain. Nationalism may be the new ‘ism’ to replace racism. In fact, two roughly successful nationalist campaigns were just run in Germany and Austria; In Germany by the AfD and in Austria by the incoming Chancellor Sebastian Kurz. However, if we heard the stories of refugees and other negatively viewed immigrants, if only we knew that

mothers and children are people despite their government given title and society given stigma, we could eradicate the issue of harmful nationalism and isolationism as it stands now. Economically, Europeans are under the impression that as their respective nations’ economies cannot accommodate a new and large burden in the form of welfare programs and the inherent benefits of citizenship. They are also afraid that a labor surplus will cause a deficit of jobs for hard-working, longtime citizens of their respective nation. Europeans are experiencing small, none, or

negative GDP growth. Italy, a country very much affected by this crisis in the Mediterranean, only experienced a GDP growth of .9% last year, according to the World Bank. This is making them want to look inward and not out, closing off their borders and being unwilling to allow outsiders in. The issue and the solution here yet again lies in communication and interconnection. If one side understood and accepted the true aspirations of the other side, all would come to understand that no one wants to steal jobs from one another, but only to make a fair and equal living, to provide for their family, and to live with as little trouble as possible. In the end, the lack of communication about morals and economics cannot be allowed to turn into nationalism, and nationalism cannot be allowed to fall into isolation. If it does, nationalism itself must not be allowed to stand. Miscommunication,

lack of intelligence, nationalism, and isolationism; can, have, and will lead to economic crisis and war. On the other hand, proper communication will lead to successful and mutually beneficial policy. To ensure this proper communication, society must be willing to face the issue in a common way. People are dying, and the international community, controlled by the nationalist and the wealthy, is too concerned with relative gain to worry over the deaths of strangers’ relatives. This toxic point of view must be solved by increased communication from smaller powers. It may also mean further investigation into the states that people are fleeing. Or simpler, it may just mean the telling of stories, by authors, poets, and journalists from one side to the other. No matter, communication is key. Contact Jackson at jackson.

A Clean Dream Act Will Boost U.S. Economy Bianca Taipe Staff Writer On September 5, 2017, the Trump administration instituted a six-month delay of the end of the Dream Act in order to grant Congress the ability to set legislation before March. With the elimination of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program (DACA), the United States will no longer benefit from the program’s positive impacts. The termination of the Dream Act will lead to the devastation of the U.S. economy and 800,000 undocumented youth at risk for deportation. Although the Trump Administration offered a deal, President Trump requested tougher immigration enforcement and demands for funding of his proposed border wall in exchange for the continuation of DACA. Democratic leaders, Rep. Nancy Pelosi and Sen. Chuck Schumer, are advocating for a clean Dream Act, which would offer undocumented

immigrants a pathway to permanent legal status without including harsh crackdowns on immigration. How did the U.S. benefit from the Dream Act since its initiation in 2012? According to the Center for American Progress, DACA recipients made positive and significant contributions to the economy. Earning higher wages promoted higher tax revenue which has resulted in economic growth for all Americans. The Dream Act provides temporary work permits that grant Dreamers the ability to work on-the-books for higher wages than under-the-table jobs. An increase in wages contributed to the boost of the Dreamers financial security, allowing them to purchase cars and homes. The National Association of Realtors reports that home purchases encourage the creation of new jobs and the infusion of new spending in local economies. Dreamers currently enrolled in DACA will eventually lose their work

permits as the program expires. A study conducted by the Center for American Progress estimates that the cumulative U.S. gross domestic product would shrink by $433.4 billion over the following ten years. California’s GDP alone would lose $11.2 billion due to a loss of over 100,000 DACA workers. In addition to the negative effects from the loss of workers, Trump’s plan to crackdown on immigration would cost the country nearly $7.5 billion in an event of a mass deportation, reports Time. The GDP loss would total to $433 billion over the following decade. Trump’s proposal to maximize immigration enforcement will not only be costly for the U.S., but the loss of workers will also greatly affect the nation’s GDP, potentially devastating the country’s economy. A survey conducted by the 2017 National DACA Study concluded that nearly 45 percent of Dreamers are currently enrolled in school, with 72 percent of those stu-

dents hoping to pursue higher education. DACA considers its recipients as “lawfully present,” which grants undocumented youth federal financial aid. Without financial assistance, it’s nearly impossible for students to attend college due to high tuition costs. With the end of DACA, the inability to afford college will become a barrier for immigrant youth, as shown by research from

the Brookings Institute. For Dreamers, pursuing a bachelor’s degree or higher would contribute to the improvement of future employment opportunities and earnings. As of now, DACA is no longer accepting new applications. Those who are already participants of the program will continue to sustain their benefits until their twoyear mark expires. Eliminating the Dream Act, or incor-

The Workers Defense Project protests DACA/DAPA opposition.

porating immigration enforcement as part of a deal in exchange for the program, would be harmful to the lives of Dreamers and the economy. Congress has until March of 2018 to pass a clean Dream Act that will allow 800,000 undocumented youth the ability to work, study and contribute to society without fear. Contact Bianca at bianca.

Photo Courtesy of United We Dream.


November 2017 Page 9

Workplace Protests Kaitlin Principato Staff Writer In light of Colin Kaepernick’s refusal to stand during the national anthem on August 14, 2016, athletes across the world have continued this wave of demonstration beginning with young athletes in high school. “To me, this is bigger than football and it would be selfish on my part to look the other way. There are bodies in the street and people getting paid leave and getting away with murder.” Kaepernick said, stated by Business Insider. Although Kaepernick has sparked intense media attention, this isn’t the first time the world has seen a protest in this manner. During the 1968 Olympics, in Melbourne Australia, two African-American medalists, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, raised their fists while standing on the podium. Viewers and other participants of this Olympic game were outraged by their actions. Other repercussions of Smith and Carlos’ actions included their exclusion from further competi-

tion and removal from the Olympic Village, as reported by The New York Times. Now similar protests are spreading to the international stage as German soccer team Hertha Berlin knelt in solidarity with NFL players protesting police brutality and social injustice within the U.S. According to Culture Trip, now that the NFL spread to England, this silent protest has spread internationally. During a game in London, players stood up quietly while respecting Britain’s “God Save the Queen.” However, when the national anthem played, players knelt and locked arms. This small difference in gesture sent a clear messages to all sport fans, both in London as well as the United States. The NFL serves as a primary entertainment source for military personnel across the world. Soldiers watching this game, only 3,000 miles away in Afghanistan, were appalled and heartbroken to see Americans disrespecting the flag while on foreign soil, which they vigorously fight to defend, stated by

Members of the Buffalo Bills take a knee during the national anthem.

Fox News. As this movement continues to gain momentum, the question becomes: is it appropriate for employees, in a private work sector, to air their beliefs in this forum? Employees, as well as many employers, commonly, but mistakenly, believe that the First Amendment to the US Constitution guarantees “freedom of speech” in the workplace. In fact, the First Amendment applies only to government action, which neither limits the rights of private employers to regulate employees’ speech nor does it provide any constitutional right for workers to express thoughts or

opinions at work. In short, reports by Holland Law Firm state, “free speech” is not constitutionally protected in the workplace of private employers. For professional athletes, using the field as a political platform is not respectable. The League should not allow these protests to continue on the field considering post 9/11 New York football teams wanted to honor fallen victims on their jersey but were forbidden to do so by the League. Similarly, after five police officers were brutally killed in Dallas, Cowboys players wanted to honor them in the same fashion but were also struck down.

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If players refuse to stand for the national anthem, they should be told to stay in the locker room during this time. If patriotic pro-American demonstrations cannot be performed on the field, why should kneeling for the anthem? Since the escalation of these protests, stadiums have not been filled, ratings have decreased, and advertisers are hesitant to show support. At this rate, the economics of the NFL will inevitably reduce profits. A survey conducted by Remington Research Group showed nearly 66 percent of Americans say NFL players should stand for the national anthem and 51 percent say they are

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watching less football than in previous years. Although athletes of all levels joined the movement to spread awareness on social injustice within the country, using the NFL as their political stage is not the appropriate outlet. The hypocrisy of their decision to allow certain forms of speech in the “workplace” and not others will almost certainly disadvantage the NFL, sets a dangerous precedent for all private employers, and will not accomplish the awareness of issues these players seek. Contact Kaitlin at kaitlin.


Abigail Cordaro Aidan Dion Bianca Taipe Daniel O’Shea Jackson Lied Judy Koren Kaitlin Principato Madison Feser Mark McGuire Megan Beauchamp Nathaniel Purtell Samuel Stolle Shamel Dishack Taylor Cain Vincent Verdile


November 2017 Page 10

Aidan Dion Staff Writer

U.S.Turns Its Back as Kurds Suffer in Silence

The referendum in Kurdistan received little mainstream coverage in the United States, despite it having the potential to plunge Iraq in chaos in the wake of a civil war. The United States turned its back on the allies that have risked annihilation in the war against ISIS. The Kurds fought bravely and decided to rule the land they defended. However, they unwisely betted heavily on U.S. support. This puts the United States at a cross roads. Turkey, Iraq, and Iran all have vested interest in maintaining a unified country. Kurds make up 19% of Turkey’s population, mainly near the border, reports the Central Intelligence Agency. A free Kurdish state would cause uprising in Turkey, causing concerns for an increase in the activity of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK).

A member of Iraqi Kurdish military planting the Iraqi Kurdish flag.

According to the Washington Post, Turkey is fearful of civil unrest, especially since the attempted coup in favor of a more secular government. Further, the majority of the U.S. Congress, on both sides of the aisle, advocate for a unified Iraq. Iran, who also has a Kurdish population, provided militia support to the Iraqi army. This unlikely coalition is rolling to the Kurds in U.S. tanks, reports Vice News. The U.S. chose to

maintain its relationship with Turkey, Iraq, and Iran, rather than to support the Kurds. Seemingly unlike the rest of the world, the average American has a very short attention span when it comes to global events. Few will remember that 30 years ago, the United States also turned its back on its Kurdish allies. This resulted in Saddam Hussein using mustard gas on his own people. In the days following

Photo Courtesy of Kamran Najm.

the referendum and the evacuation of Peshmerga forces, there were reports of violence against Kurdish civilians. As it appears we will see a repeat of similar events, it would not be ideal to broadcast this across the nation. The image of U.S. Democrats and Republicans alike turning their backs on the Kurds for the sake of politics helps neither political party. The best option now is to play neutral, support no one. This essentially

allows the Kurds to be overrun. The thought of leaving behind allies who trusted us for a second time is too much for most Americans to take. At this moment the two armies we trained, supplied, funded, and led will be at war. It is unfortunately out of the hands of the United States. Media coverage would bring little help, and only sew further internal anger. However, America burying its head in the

sand is also not the answer. The downfall of the United States as a super power will come when the people stop caring about foreign interests. This is the current trend. U.S. spheres of influence are shrinking and the Kurds will now feel the lack of support. Iran’s hegemony is growing without a clear U.S. presence in the region and the U.S. is still bound to the dangerous relationship with Turkey. This article isn’t a shot at Trump’s insults, Hillary’s lies, and the typical political shenanigans. This is a sad reminder of the situation we have been squeezed into by our constant attempt to both support our interests and play the moral high ground. ISIS has been subdued, now the real work begins. Contact Aidan at aidan.

Xi Jinping Supreme

Delegates meeting at the National People’s Congress in Beijing.

Samuel Stolle Staff Writer On October 18, the world media descended upon Beijing. The Communist Party of China was holding its biggest gathering in five years, and Xi Jinping, Chinese president and Communist Party General Secretary, took center stage. On the opening day, he gave a telling three and a half hour report outlining his agenda. During the marathon course of which – and to the note of the world media, such as the Guardian - former

Communist and Chinese leader Jiang Zemin fell asleep. For observers of China, the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China was a much-anticipated event. Similar to the national conventions held by parties in the United States during the 2016 presidential election, the Communist Party both sets its program and chooses its leadership at its congresses. However, since China’s Communist Party controls the state, its leaders and programs

Photo Courtesy of Xinhua.

either are or become state leaders and policies. Observers and experts watch for signs of new figures, new policies, and power struggles within the party. At this particular congress, all eyes were on Mr. Xi. He had much to gain and show. First, Mr. Xi received many opportunities to strengthen his control over the party by empowering his allies. According to the Economist, “About 70% of the nearly 400-strong Central Committee - the body from which the highest leaders are drawn - have

reached retirement age or have been purged for corruption.” It should be no surprise that most of current party leadership is filled with his allies and has solidified Mr. Xi’s rule. Surrounded by his allies, he has less reason to fear his rivals within the party, which means that he can pursue his own agenda more assertively. Second, Mr. Xi’s position was strengthened ideologically. For those who study China and the Communist Party, Mao Zedong’s “Mao Zedong Thought,” Deng Xiaoping’s “Deng Xiaoping Theory,” Jiang Zemin’s “Three Represents,” and Hu Jintao’s “Scientific Outlook on Development” are all key texts with a common theme. Each leader attempted to solidify their position and legacy through an ideological addition to the Communist Party’s base of Marxism-Leninism. Xi Jinping now has his “Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era.” The Communist Party’s People’s Daily wrote on October 20, “It is fair

to say that Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era is the latest achievement in adapting Marxism to the Chinese context, following the success of the Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory.” Elsewhere an editorial highlighting aspects of Mr. Xi’s opening speech, the People’s Daily praised Mr. Xi’s contributions, concluding “Socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era.” Not only does Xi Jinping have absolute control over the Communist Party, but he also now stands above Deng Xiaoping, who opened China’s economy to the world after Mao, in terms ideological contributions. The BBC notes, “None, besides party founder Mao Zedong, have had their ideology described as “thought,” which is at the top of the hierarchy, and only Mao and Deng Xiaoping have had their names attached to their ideologies.” If anything, Mr. Xi has now positioned himself equal to Mao Zedong in importance and certainly above

his two predecessors, Jiang and Hu. It is worth noting that before the congress even concluded, Chinese officials were already calling for the implementation of “Xi Jinping Thought.” On October 19, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang was reported by Chinese state news agency Xinhua, along with other officials, as calling for “efforts to fully comprehend and implement Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era.” Now that the 19th National Congress has ended, the results are clear for all to see. Xi Jinping stands supreme in China today. While it is certain he still has rivals within the party, Mr. Xi’s footing is firmer than ever before. For there had always been the marginal possibility he might be out-maneuvered and replaced - until the conclusion of this congress. Contact Samuel at samuel.

Diplomacy News

November 2017 Page 11

Diplomacy Students Visit D.C. Judy Koren Staff Writer On October 20, School of Diplomacy students, accompanied by Dr. Catherine Ruby, Mr. Kyle Younger and Graduate Assistant Lynn Wassenaar, traveled to Washington, D.C. for a field excursion. Following an early 5 a.m. departure, students began their daylong immersion in America’s political epicenter. The first visit of the day was the Rayburn House Office Building, which holds offices for members of the House of Representatives. John Jones, chief of staff to Congressman Emanuel Cleaver, met with the students, providing a detailed story about his successful career. Jones moved overseas to Denmark early in his career, where he served for the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Later in his career, Jones worked on former President Obama’s 2008

campaign, where he discovered working hard “is all that matters.” Jones also has a background in writing security, energy, and foreign affairs policy with Senator Chuck Schumer, and working on the Clinton-Kaine transition team. When asked about the multiple career opportunities he took and how they will influence his future in D.C., Jones implored the students to “focus on the now” to continue the path to more success. The students continued their travels to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, where they met with Dr. James Person. Dr. Person called himself a “student of North Korea,” referencing his specialization in the socalled “hermit country,” and its relationship to the United States. Dr. Person spoke at length on United States’ relations with North Korea, commenting on the rising tensions between the two countries. A notable point of

his speech was when Dr. Person commented on current questions regarding whether the DPRK has the nuclear capabilities necessary to attack U.S allies, Guam, or even the U.S. homeland. Dr. Person emphasized that instead of questioning whether North Korea can strike, we should instead ask why they would in the first place. Later in the day, Roberto Amorosino, senior human resources specialist at the World Bank, spoke to students about recruitment and the purpose of the organization. Amorosino listed two specific goals of the bank: one, to end extreme poverty, and two, promote prosperity in developing countries. The World Bank also “values diversity,” which is expressed through its 2020 gender-balance goal. The goal not only encourages greater workplace equality between men and women within the World Bank, but also seeks to exemplify a better model

to organizations in the hope they will adopt it as well. Amorosino also emphasized “research and learning,” referencing not only the work of the World Bank, but the broader responsibilities of a career in domestic and foreign service. After a half-hour break exploring the surrounding area, students headed to the United Nations Foundation. Dr. Catharin Dalpino, professor at Seton Hall University’s semester in Washington D.C. program, offered helpful advice on making a career in D.C. She emphasized that, in

order to get started in politics, “you absolutely need D.C. in your life.” Dr. Dalpino also highlighted that the skills one acquires in D.C. - such as negotiation tactics - are useful in other fields too. Finally, Dr. Dalpino quoted Woody Allen, saying, “showing up is 80% of it,” referencing the risks many students take when they drop everything and move to the nation’s capital without a job lined up. Overall, the students were given the opportunity to create contacts, network and learn more about the complex world that is Washington D.C.

Diplomacy students visited the UN Foundation on their DC trip.

After twelve hours, four stops, and many cups of coffee, the students, along with Dr. Ruby and Mr. Younger, boarded the bus back to Seton Hall University. Special thanks to the School of Diplomacy and International Affairs for coordinating the inspiring trip to the nation’s capital, and more to John Jones, Dr. James Person, Roberto Amorosino, and Dr. Catharin Dalpino for their hospitality. Contact Judy at judy.koren@

Photo Courtesy of Madison McHughe.

Prayer for Peace Continued from page 1.. with Seton Hall University began when she met Sister Rose Thering. She was inspired by Sister Thering’s efforts to fostering understanding and cooperation among Jews, Christians, and people of other religious traditions through advocacy and education.

“Who would have thought that a Jewish woman from Eastern Europe would have made her home in a Catholic Institution in New Jersey,” Ms. Kaufman told the audience with a warm smile. It was the University’s focus on unity that convinced Ms. Kaufman that they were on the same trajectory. This concept of unity

The Seton Hall chorus puts on a show at Prudential Hall.

in the face of opposition, of indivisibility in the face of polarization, was a central theme of the evening. Dean Halpin spoke to the Envoy on the composition’s significance to the event’s central message. “The way the pieces flowed one into the other, from darkness into light, was a call to action filled with hope, begging the audience to respond in

Photo Courtesy of Vince Marchese.

kind,” she stated. Dean Halpin highlighted the juxtaposition of the Schonberg piece with Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony. “A Jewish reflection on the devastation and inhumanity of the Holocaust, the first piece is startling, dissonant, soul crushing,” she said, “then from out of the darkness, comes Beethoven’s Ode to Joy with the warmth of the full orchestra and choir sound – a truly religious experience. This from a German – the perpetrators of the Holocaust - a German of Catholic upbringing showing the fullness of the human spirit.” Dean of the School of Diplomacy Andrea Bartoli told the Diplomatic Envoy that he viewed the concert as an opening into the uncertainties of diplomacy. “(Diplomacy) is not common ground as many people describe,” Bartoli stated, “but actually a forceful decision of finding reality together, its harmony, it’s a form of a future constructed together.” He not only viewed the concert as a

marvelous gift from Jason Tramm and the School of Diplomacy to the University, but also as a gift from the University to the

Kaufman spoke as special guest.

world at large. Contact Felipe at felipe.

Photo Courtesy of Vince Marchese.

Diplomacy News

November 2017 Page 12

Sergio Vieira de Mello Chair: Joao Honwana Eva Rian Co-Layout Editor For many students studying international relations, gaining practical knowledge of diplomacy and career options after the degree can prove difficult; in answer to that, the School of Diplomacy established the Sergio Vieira de Mello chair. In the spirit of de Mello, a renowned Brazilian UN diplomat known for his humanitarian efforts, the School has appointed various well-known diplomats to serve in this position over the years. Mr. Joao Honwana is the latest to join Seton Hall in this capacity, and in the month since he’s been here, he’s striven to enrich the student community with his knowledge of preventive diplomacy, mediation, and conflict resolution. From meeting personally with individual students and student groups, to providing assistance in professional development and arranging talks with UN officials, Mr. Honwana has a wealth of expertise to offer the student curious enough to enquire. Mr. Honwana’s impressive career is only further enhanced after hearing about his personal experiences. Born and

Joao Honwana has more than fifteen years of experience in the UN.

raised in Mozambique during a time of strife, he followed his brother into the military after graduation and participated in the country’s civil war, becoming a police commissioner in the newly established regime at the tender age of nineteen. During his youth, he also traveled to the Soviet Union to learn about aircraft and served as the head of the Mozambican Air Force. Mr. Honwana speaks freely about his experience with both nationalistic sentiment and the difficulties of maintaining infrastructure, as well as how going through war instilled in him the importance of peace. His decision to further study diplomacy and mediation

took him far and wide, from the Centre for Conflict Resolution in Cape Town to the Institute of Strategic and International Studies in Portugal. He cites his time in the latter country as of particular importance in broadening his worldview, as it allowed him to further understand the complexities of the relationship between Portugal and his homeland, once a Portuguese colony. The special expertise he developed in small arms while in Cape Town also led him to a position in the UN as head of the Department of Disarmament Affairs. His career at the United Nations would extend far past that, however, as he went on to serve not only as special represen-

Photo Courtesy of Evan Schneider.

tative of the Secretary General but also as the Director of the Africa I and II divisions in the UN Department of Political Affairs. Having retired just this past year, Mr. Honwana sometimes accidentally refers to the UN as “we” – which speaks to the volumes of experience and connections he has established in his time there, and how fundamentally his career trajectory and identity has been tied to the global organization. Whether hearing about his general views on the essential qualities needed in peacemaking, specific case studies of preventive diplomacy in Africa, or the things of note in current events, Mr. Honwana is a foun-

tain of information. Members of the SHU community had the chance to hear him give a talk, “UN Preventive Diplomacy in Action: Two Cases from Africa” on October 25th, during which he discussed his personal experience providing mediation during conflict in Mali, among other topics. However, for any who missed this event, there’s no need to fret; another talk specifically focused on career paths, “Joao Honwana: A Career in the UN,” is currently scheduled for November 15th to be held in Jubilee 132 from 4 to 5 pm. Mr. Honwana is openly enthusiastic about his wish to connect with the SHU student community

during his time here in the de Mello position; he often refers to his own youth when emphasizing the potential the current generation has to shape the world. Any students who wish to connect with Mr. Honwana, who is usually present at SHU on Wednesdays, should promptly make an appointment with Oluwagbemiga Oyeneye at oluwagbemiga.oyeneye@, including what topics he or she would like to discuss and times of availability. For those interested in hearing Mr. Honwana himself give advice to students interested in careers in diplomacy, as well as more on matters such as his family’s opinion of his career and “America First,” check out the Global Current, which can be found on Apple’s Podcasts app. Parts of an interview with Mr. Honwana will be aired on November 5th, 12th, and over Thanksgiving break, making for a good opportunity to learn more about the worldview and background of the fascinating man chosen as the 2017-2018 de Mello chair. Contact Eva at eva.rian@

DULCE Update: 20th Year Shifts Into High Gear Mark McGuire Staff Writer The October Diplomacy United Leadership and Communication Exchange (DULCE) meeting saw student leaders and faculty conduct their monthly forum in the Dean’s Conference Room of the Walsh Library, a difference from the Diplomacy Room in McQuaid Hall, the typical space where meetings are held. This change in scenery, which was originally unplanned, can be likened to the School of Diplomacy as a whole, which is always evolving in response to the ever-in flux circumstances of the world in an effort to adapt to the challenges of today in order to prepare students, faculty, and staff for the challenges of tomorrow. Dean Andrea Bartoli

opened the meeting, emphasizing this spirit of change by stating that the School of Diplomacy is not just closing the chapter of the last 20 years, but also beginning a new 20 years of memory making, transformation, and success. This new chapter will help shape the school, as Dean Bartoli stated, “for those who have not even been born yet.” Bearing this new beginning in mind, a number of updates were provided regarding a handful of initiatives DULCE announced at the organization’s September meeting, namely the Liaison Initiative, which aims to strengthen diplomacy-related organizations for the purposes of improving the extra-curricular opportunities for diplomacy students. Following these

updates, Mark McGuire and Michelle Perez spoke about an event that they are working on to run a cocktail night which allows current undergraduate and graduate diplomacy students to connect and network with alumni of the School. Michelle also spoke about the Graduate Diplomacy Council’s efforts to host an event entitled: “International Dinner - Mexico” which was designed to bring students together to enjoy each other’s company for a meal, the profits of which would go toward the victims of the September 2017 Central Mexico Earthquake. James Zvirbulis provided an update on the Undergraduate Diplomacy Student Association (UDSA) Rise Against Hunger project, stating that the organization has raised $1300 toward its $3000 goal, money which

will be used to pack thousands of meals for those less fortunate. Eva Rian also brought up an issue of a shortage of diplomacy student tutors at the Academic Resource Center (ARC) after which Michelle Perez, a member of the Sigma Iota Rho Honor Society, agreed to assist Eva by incentivizing members to sign up as student tutors and providing assistance in the meantime until the new tutors are in place. DULCE Facilitator, Mark McGuire, then provided an update on a meeting of his with Sergio Vieira de Mello Endowed Visiting Chair Joao Honwana, in which Mr. Honwana offered to reach out to a number of his U.N. connections to facilitate a range of on-campus events featuring U.N. personnel from the Department of Political Affairs (DPA). Mark

followed this introduction up with an informal poll of present students to gauge where exactly within DPA interest for such events lay. After a preliminary result was realized, the group decided that a poll would be sent out to DULCE members to sample a wider segment of the diplomacy student populace, after which Mark and Mr. Honwana would work to bring the officials to campus. Dr. Benjamin Goldfrank, Department Chair of the School of Diplomacy, iterated that he encourages students to take advantage of his office hours to provide feedback on their diplomacy classes so that the faculty can ensure that students are receiving the best education they possibly can. Judy Koren also mentioned that there will be

an event, sponsored by UDSA and UNA as part of Human Rights Month, which will take place on November 7 in the Jubilee Auditorium. Senior Associate Dean Courtney Smith also spoke about the effort being made to feature President of the United Nations General Assembly Miroslav Lajčák on campus in December, making Seton Hall the first university to officially host President Lajčák. Dean Bartoli also spoke about his desire to speak more at length about the Global Action Against Mass Atrocity Crimes (GAAMAC) state-led initiative at the next DULCE meeting to explore the endeavor further. Contact Mark at mark.

Nov 2017 master