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Volume X Issue VI

April 2017

Election Diplomacy Elects Abel and Vallejo to SGA Results In Loss For the Dutch Right

Casts Doubt on Populism’s Appeal in Europe By Nicholas Elden Staff Writer

On March 16, Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte defeated far-right populist candidate Geert Wilders in the most recent parliamentary election. Rutte is now focused on building a coalition to secure at least 76 seats of the 150 possible Dutch Parliament seats. The victory of Rutte continues to garner the support of European Union leaders during an election year where populist insurgent parties have a serious chance of rocking the establishment. German Chancellor, Angela Merkel spoke out about the election and said, “The Netherlands are our partners, friends, neighbors. Therefore, I was very happy that a high turnout led to a very pro-European result, a clear signal.” This statement preludes Merkel’s hope to secure re-election in September. The nature of having a left-wing majority in power goes to ensure that human right concerns, environmental concerns, and social justice will be expanded. With more multilateral governing, the heads of the European system can stand against the anti-immigration platform that goes to shut down mosques and even ban the Quran. The importance of open and left-sided government is paramount to Netherland’s biggest industries like tourism and agriculture. Without immigration, these indusContinued on page 4...

Efrain Vallejo

By Mariah McCloskey Web Editor Jacob Abel and Efrain Vallejo were elected to represent the School of Diplomacy in the Student Government Association Senate for the 2017-2018 academic year. The two senators-elect which was part of the Reform Party, who were able to elect 12 out of their 18-candidate ticket. Endorsements from two Diplomacy organizations, The Global Current and the Seton Hall United Nations

Jacob Abel

Association (SHUNA), helped Abel and Vallejo to best their competitors, Gabrielle Goldworm and Colin Kilbourne. The official results were announced on the morning of March 30, while unofficial results were announced around 7 p.m. on March 28, the second day of the election. As long as the results were unofficial, they could be challenged for up to 24 hours after the first announcement. “I would just like to

thank everyone that supported Efrain and I throughout the campaign,” said Abel, an incumbent freshman senator. Vallejo, currently an ad hoc senators on the Finance Committee, did not respond to requests for comment, but Abel said he and Vallejo would “also like to let all Diplomacy students know that we are here for them if they have any issues or questions.” Their first order of business would be to start “extra office

hours and attending club meetings so that Diplomacy students can get to know us,” he said. Kyla Stewart, a freshman Diplomacy major, said she felt the new Diplomacy senators would “be more accessible and receptive” to her concerns. The executive board was swept by the Simon-Reed ticket. Christina Simon was elected president, Violet Reed as vice president, Michael Continued on page 11...

Capture of Libyan Oil Ports Leads to Civilian Abuse By Mohammed Syed Staff Writer Libya’s population of 1.5 million has been under fire for the last two years, in growing tensions and violence heightened by the Mediterranean refugee crisis and the competing government’s conflict over capturing Libya’s oil ports. The oil ports of Sidra and Ras Lanuf have been captured and claimed by militias twice in the last month. The Benghazi Defence Brigade (BDB), an Islamist wing, took the ports from Khalifa Haftar, the leader for the insurgency of the Libyan National

Army (LNA). As the BDB handed the ports to the current Government of National Accord (GNA), Haftar and his forces reclaimed

Inside International News

Focus on the Narcotics Trade Pages 6&7

Courtesy of Wikimedia

El Sharara oil field, in Libya before new conflicts,

Basque Separatists Promise to Disarm On page 3.

the ports, in an offensive backed by rivaling militias in the east. The United Nations-backed GNA, created in 2015, has been un-

OPINION Words From Our Seniors On page 8. Diplomacy Suffers Under Trump Budget On page 9.

successful in reconciling conflict in the region. The conflict over the

Continued on page 2...

S.Sudanese Gunmen Attack Children In Ethopia 28 Dead, 43 Captured By Gabrielle Goldworm Staff Writer The conflict-fraught Gambela province in Ethiopia has once again come under attack by South Sudanese gunmen, who killed 28 people and captured 43 children over the course of two days, according to a BBC report. Chol Chaney, an Ethiopian government official, attributed the March 15 attack to Murle bandits, referring to members of the South Sudanese Murle ethnic group. The Ethiopian government reported the assailants have “not yet crossed into South Sudan,” and there is no immediate need for Ethiopian military forces to cross the border. This comes at a time when the civil war in South Sudan continues to worsen, further destabilizing the nation and the areas it borders. The raids in question began on March 12 and continued well into the following Monday in the Gambela province’s remote Gog and Jol areas, which share a border with South Sudan. Feuding groups from both sides of the border often cross over to raid neighboring communities, according to BBC. A similar incident took place a year ago, which prompted Ethiopia’s army to cross over into South Sudan to search for kidnapped children. The latest attacks come roughly a year after similar raids on the country’s Jikawo and Lare areas, where more than 200 people were killed and

Continued on page 2...

Foreign

Diplo News

Francesca Regalado: Diplos Take Historic Trip To Havana, Cuba

School Announces Pope John Paul II Fellowship

On page 5.

On page 12.

Correspondents


International News

April 2017 Page 2

Capture of Oil Ports in Libya Leads to Abuse of Civilians Continued from page 1...

Courtesy of Reuters

Up to 15,000 people are fleeing Libya through Tunisia’s main border post every day, provoking warnings of a humanitarian crisis.

oil-ports and other territory has been magnified across the nation, affecting residents and migrants alike. United Nations Envoy to Libya, Martin Kobler, voiced his “deep concern” on reports of violations being committed in the nation. He hopes that parties can unify and find common ground on a single message. “I remind all parties that those responsible for such acts -- including hos-

tage-taking, torture, extrajudicial executions, indiscriminate bombing and the desecration of corpses -- are liable to criminal accountability, including being brought before the International Criminal Court,” Kobler said. He continued, “Credible, effective and accountable security institutions are urgently needed to end the deteriorating security situation.” UNICEF released a report titled, A Deadly

Journey for Children: The Central Mediterranean Migrant Route, in February. The report states that at least 256,000 migrants have been recorded crossing into Libya as of September 2016 – of whom at least 54,000 are women and children. Key findings from the survey include that three-quarters of migrant children interviewed “have experienced violence, harassment, or aggression at the hands of adults.” Nearly half of the women interviewed have

also experienced sexual violence during their migration. 2016 was the deadliest year on record for migrant crossings in the Mediterranean, with deaths totaling at least 3,800 according to the U.N. An estimated 34 detention centers operate and have been identified in Libya. The Libyan Government Department for Combating Illegal Migration runs 24 of these, which hold between 4,000 and 7,000 detainees. International Organizations

By Daniel D’Amico Staff Writer On March 10, a unanimous court ruling approved the South Korean National Assembly’s December vote to impeach former President Park Geun-hye. According to Korean law, a new president must be elected within sixty days of the ruling. The vote, announced by Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn, has been scheduled for May 9. Hwang, who has been serving as acting president, does not intend to run for the position. According to the New York Times, “Park was the first South Korean leader forced from office under popular pressure since the country’s founding president, Syngman Rhee.” Park has been accused of bribery, extortion and abuse of power. She is also suspected of collaborating with a confidante to collect tens of millions of dollars from big businesses like Samsung, some of which are believed to be bribes for political favors. While she could not be

indicted as president, Park has now been summoned for questioning concerning the criminal accusations. The former president was also accused of covering up the court’s allegations. Some regard her, however, as a victim of some sort of “leftwing witch hunt,” as reported in the Economist. There are currently two confirmed deaths from clashes with the police as a result of protests. With the current acting president not running for reelection, other contenders have emerged. The Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system, the United Statesbuilt anti-ballistic missile system, remains a key campaign issue. One candidate, Moon Jae-In, is a 64 year-old lawmaker and ex-leader of the Democratic Party currently leading in polls at 32 percent. Moon believes in delaying the deployment of the THAAD system and in unity with North Korea. An Hee Jung is a 51 year-old two-term governor of South Chungc-

and UNICEF only have access to almost half of them. The centers have issues including overcrowding, sub-standard sanitation, the spread of disease, lack of access to healthcare, malnourishment, and lack of protection from weather. Militias had developed their own detention centers to profit from migrants. Each militia usually has its own facility, and detains refugees on perceived grounds, where they cite possible disease and criminal intentions as a cause for detention. Migrants have reported instances of dehumanization, often through forced labor and name-calling, and have undergone circumstances of random torture and punishment. Sub-Saharan Africans have reported being treated worse than Arab migrants have from Egypt, Syria, and Gaza. Due to the amount of conflict facing the region, Libya’s parliament, based in the East, has called for

early election following the disintegration of the U.N.-brokered peace deal with rivaling militias in Tripoli. The Tobruk-based government had voted to withdraw support for the Tripoli-backed GNA after militias backed by Western Libyan factions seized the oil ports from Haftar. The Tobruk House of Representatives sent an open letter to the Libyan electoral commission, requesting for “all the necessary arrangements to prepare for presidential and parliamentary elections before February 2018.” The recapture for the ports signifies a potential resurgence of oil and gas production, one of the only sources of revenue for the Libyan economy. But the Tobruk parliament, the U.N. backed Tripoli government, and the National Salvation Government all claim right to the revenue.

heong polling at 17 percent. He was an aide to former president Roh Moo-hyun and supports the THAAD deal. Another supporter of the THAAD deal is Ahn Cheol-Soo, who is a 55 yearold former doctor, computer businessman, and member of Parliament. He stepped down as the co-chair of People’s Party after a scandal which decreased his popularity, and is currently polling at 9 percent. Ahn also believes in the expansion of small and medium-sized enterprises. Lee Jae-Myeong, a prominent Democratic Party candidate, is a 52 year-old mayor of Seongnam, a city southeast of Seoul. He gained popularity by being an outspoken critic of former President Park and is polling at 8 percent. Lee is against the THAAD deal and is known for his criticism of the various family-run corporations, or chaebol. The next president will have many obstacles to face, such as the corruption and persuasive

influence of the chaebol. Another struggle is that of the U.S. and Chinese dispute over influence in South Korea. There is also the issue of how to deal with North Korea as their ability to deploy nuclear missiles improves. With this comes the THAAD deal to put the U.S. missile defense system in South Korea by the end of the year. According to Slate, this defense system is in response to North Korean missile tests and is capable of combatting short and intermediate range missiles. The presidential candidates and public opinion are divided over whether they want this deal to come to fruition. Three of the parties, however, have found some common ground. They formed a coalition in an attempt to limit the presidential term to four years with possible re-election. In addition to the main election, there will most likely be a party primary and run-off within the next two months. Contact Danny at damicodb@shu.edu.

Contact Mohammed at syedmoha@shu.edu.

South Sudanese Gunmen Kill 28, After Impeachment of Park Geun-hye, Kidnap 43 in Ethiopia South Korea Searches for New President Continued from page 1...

160 children were kidnapped, according to a report by Al Jazeera. The incident last year was also blamed on the Murle people. In its aftermath, residents of Gambela demonstrated their outrage, calling for justice for the victims and greater security in the area. South Sudan has been mired in conflict since President Salva Kiir, an ethnic Dinka, fired his deputy Riek Machar, an ethnic Nuer, which split the nation along ethnic lines since December 2013. The fighting has forced over 3 million South Sudanese to flee their war-torn country, with more than 1 million of them escaping to neighboring Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, and Ethiopia. The outpouring of refugees has caused tensions to rise along ethnic lines in neighboring nations. The regional governments have all expressed concerns over whether the fighting may spill over into their country.

The violence in South Sudan has also prevented the planting and harvesting of crops, creating a nation-wide food shortage that the United Nations has classified as a “Level 3” humanitarian emergency, and one of the worst food crises in the world. The border between Ethiopia and South Sudan has been characterized as “porous” by international relations authorities since the devastating attack of last year, and it remains fairly easy for rebel groups to cross over and commit acts of violence. Of the hundreds of children kidnapped from various regions in Ethiopia in the past two years, a mere 100 have been recovered, according to Al Jazeera. It is unknown what actions, if any, the Ethiopian and South Sudanese governments may take to secure their borders in the aftermath of the latest tragedy. Contact Gabby at goldwoga@shu.edu.


International News

Apirl 2017 Page 3

U.S. Open to New Approach on North Korea AfterTillersonVisits Asia

Courtesy of Reuters U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, left, urged Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida to settle historical disputes with South Korea and focus on addressing the threat of North Korea.

By Santiago Losada Staff Writer During a moment of increasing tensions in Asia, United States Secretary of State Rex Tillerson made his first major foreign visit to the region. On March 16, while in Tokyo, Tillerson announced that there needed to be a different approach to handle North Korea’s increasing nuclear threat. During the past 20 years, the United States has provided $1.35 billion to North Korea to encourage it to abandon its nuclear program. The New York Times reports

that Mr. Tillerson will highlight this issue in Seoul, South Korea and Beijing, China, the next stops of his trip to Asia. North Korea has been the most pressing issue for the United States and its allies in Asia recently because of its frequent launching of ballistic missiles and because it is close to testing a missile that could reach the United States. Officials in the U.S. administration have said that all options are on the table, although Tillerson hinted that Washington’s response would be to continue the full imple-

mentation of United Nations sanctions and would press China to use its leverage over the regime of North Korea. President Trump stated that he would consider inviting Kim Jong-un, the North Korean leader, to Washington, but the idea of direct negotiations is very unlikely unless North Korea agrees to give up its nuclear weapons program. The Guardian stated that Trump’s demand for China is to do more to control North Korea. Tillerson has also said that “we will be having discussions with China as

to other actions that they should be undertaking.” Although China has supported U.N. resolutions condemning North Korea’s nuclear and missile tests, it is unlikely that Beijing will support any measure that will lead to the fall of the North Korean regime. If North Korea became a failed state, that could lead to a huge increase in refugees and the presence of U.S. and South Korean troops on the North Korean border. China has also been reluctant to help because of the deployment of a controversial U.S. anti-missile

system in South Korea. According to ABC News, a North Korean diplomat said on Thursday that North Korea needs to act in self-defense against U.S.- South Korea military drills. While Washington claims the maneuvers are routine and defensive, North Korea views the drills as a way to use nuclear weapons for a pre-emptive strike. Tillerson has also stressed the critical importance of the cooperation between Japan and South Korea. While in Tokyo, both Tillerson and Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida reiterated that the U.S.-Japan mutual defense treaty also covers the Japanese-administered islands in the South China Sea that are also being claimed by China. Since both Japan and South Korea host thousands of U.S. troops, Washington has been urging its allies to increase security cooperation despite their historically strained relations. Although cooperation between the two is necessary, the Japan-South Korea relationship has been hindered over the failure to implement an agreement in 2015 in which the Japanese government

would compensate South Korean victims of sexual slavery inflicted by the Japanese military during World War II. Although there will be a new approach to dealing with North Korea, details of that plan are not known. Nikki Haley, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, has rejected China’s suggestion of the U.S. and South Korea suspending military drills if North Korea suspends its missile testing. NPR reports that all options are on the table to deal with North Korea. Haley believes that North Korea is an irrational actor that does not listen to reason. After a Security Council meeting on March 8, the ambassador reiterated how the recent actions of North Korea should not be taken lightly. The United States Mission to the United Nations reports that the global community needs to understand that every country is in danger from the actions of North Korea. Haley also told the Security Council that the U.S. would reevaluate how it will handle North Korea going forward.

pressed, and anyone who disobeyed and participated in Basque culture was subject to kidnapping and torture. ETA was founded as a student resistance movement against the oppression of the Basque people. The death of Franco, however, did not end their campaign. ETA led the deadliest part of its campaign in the late 1970s, killing nearly 100 people every year. 300 of those murder cases remain unsolved to this day. After the July 1997 kidnapping

and murder of 29-yearold Miguel Angel Blanco, local councilor for the Basque’s ruling Popular Party, over 6 million people across Spain took to the streets in protest. The massive movement against ETA violence led to the group’s first declaration of ceasefire in 1998. Despite the many failed ceasefires and broken promises of disarmament, ETA has not killed anyone in Spain since 2009 or in France since 2010. Contact MadisonFeser at fesermad@shu.edu.

Contact Santiago at losadasa@shu.edu

Basque Separatist Group Promises To Disarm By Madison Feser Staff Writer Operating in northern Spain and southern France, the Basque separatist group, ETA, killed over 820 people, staged hundreds of shootings, and orchestrated dozens of kidnappings since its founding in 1959. Now, they promise complete disarmament by April 8. ETA, which stands for Basque Homeland and Freedom, has declared indefinite ceasefires three times in their nearly 60 years of existence, but it was not until 2011 that the violence really ended. According to The New York Times, this unreliability, coupled with past conditions of disarmament, has led Spanish officials to view ETA’s announcement with caution. Previous attempts made by the Spanish and French governments to disarm ETA have failed, due to ETA conditioning their surrender of weap-

ons with altered prison sentences of their incarcerated fighters, reports The Washington Post. Spanish officials warn ETA that they will not make concessions, and that complete disbanding of the militant group should follow the disarmament. The Washington Post reports that during a Populist Party meeting, Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy said that, in addition to ETA’s disarming and disbanding, “the government of Spain will do what it has always done — to apply the law, which is the same for everybody.” The Interior Minister of Spain, Juan Ignacio Zoido, agreed with Rajoy, tweeting that “what ETA must do is dissolve itself and disappear. It has had time to disarm and it must know that it won’t get anything in exchange,” according to BBC. No concessions will be made, and anyone incarcerated for their involvement with

ETA will continue serving their full sentences. Reports from proBasque separatists with close ties to ETA, Basque Country officials, and both Spanish and French authorities seem to favor the likelihood of successful disarmament, but ETA does not show strong signs of disbanding. Txetx Etcheverry, a member of the French Basque Separatist community, told The Associated Press that ETA wants to disarm and discuss other issues essential to Basque peace, including the future of imprisoned ETA members. He never mentioned the possibility, however, of disbanding the already weakened group. ETA, which both the United States and European Union consider a terrorist organization, has lost much of its power in recent years due to government raids resulting in hundreds of arrests and

the seizure of weapons stashes, according to Reuters. Spanish officials say that if the April 8 disarmament holds, it will serve mainly as a symbolic gesture, considering ETA lost its status as a national threat after the arrest of its leader, Mikel Irastorza, in November. Now an economically powerful semi-autonomous region in Spain and France, the Basque Country suffered under Franco’s regime. The Basque language was banned, the culture sup-

Courtesy of Reuters/Vincent West

The ETA announced a permanent ceasefire in 2011, but the governments of Spain and France refused to take part in the separatist group’s disarmament.


April 2017 Page 4

International News

Puerto Rico’s Governor Submits New Economic Plan to Combat Debt

Courtesy of U.S. Department of Interior

Governor Alejandro García Padilla of Puerto Rico, left, meets with constituents.

By Joshua Corpuz Staff Writer On March 13, the federal oversight board of Puerto Rico unanimously agreed to a new economic plan that will restructure the $70 million debt the country is suffering from. The agreement outlines the new taxes that will be implemented on the island, such as excise tax on tobacco, higher traffic fines, tax on insurances, and an extension of a tax break for manufacturers. The plan is set to take effect over the next ten years and improve fiscal solvency on the island. The plan, known as

PROMESA, was submitted by Governor Ricardo Roselló in a preliminary version on March 9. It was rejected by the federal board for being “overly optimistic” in regards to the economic sanctions. Consequently, it led to a weekend long dialogue between the governor and the federal board. After some modifications and revisions, the plan was ultimately adopted. Reuters reports, “Approval by the board came with conditions: the government must reduce pension spending by 10 percent beginning in 2020, cut Christmas bonuses and implement employee fur-

loughs as soon as July 1 to stave off a short-term cash crunch.” However, pensions in Puerto Rico are an issue because retirement systems are nearly bankrupt due to the many years of mishandling by the governing bodies that promise rather generous pensions to workers. Therefore, over the next 30 days, the board will be negotiating with the government on how to cut pensions. A modification made by the board on the original plan lowered the numbers, thereby worsening the island’s 10-year projected funding gap to $67

billion from $56 billion. As a result, there will be $39.6 billion in new cash flows from spending cuts and revenue initiatives, a significant raise in finances from $33.8 billion in the original plan. Another revision set by the board are certain “milestones” the island government must meet. Governor Roselló “had to find ways to come up with $160 million more in government revenue than he had in a previous version of the plan” according to The New York Times. The governor has emphasized, however, that he will remain unchanged in his views on the following: how much to cut pensions for retired government workers, whether to constrain the current workforce to two and four day workweeks in order to save money, and whether to stop paying all public workers a Christmas bonus, while bondholders are not being paid. David Skeel, a board member, said, “Puerto Rico is about to capsize… The island is overwhelmed by debt. Puerto Rico is in real danger of running out of money for even the most basic essential services” as reported by ABC News. The governor told The Associated Press

that he was pleased with the plan and is confident his administration will find ways to head off the furloughs and the elimination of Christmas bonuses. “That’s my goal,” he said by phone. “We’re taking bold steps to making sure the economy gets jump started. We’re very much well on our way.” The governor’s representative to the board, Elias Sanchez, told The Associated Press that the territory’s government hopes to avoid at least the first round of furloughs by proving it will have $200 million in cash reserves by June 30. Although PROMESA will be revitalizing the debt crisis in Puerto Rico, Governor Rosselló said he will not pass public policy that would harm the poorest pensioners. “I don’t see any way I can reduce pensions of people already having a hard time getting medications and things,” according to Reuters. In regards to another reform in the economic status in Puerto Rico, the board supported government efforts to seek additional businesses from bondholders of Puerto Rico’s main power utility company, PREPA, which is more than $8 billion in debt. Later on, a subcommittee of the U.S. House

Committee on Natural Resources announced it will hold a hearing on 22 March on the state of the PREPA and bondholders question. According to Bloomberg, the plan “lays out a path for closing the territory’s chronic budget deficits. The blueprint leaves an average of less than $800 million annually for debt service over the next decade, a fraction of the more than $3 billion owed each year from 2018 through 2027.” The plan addresses the deeper concessions that the island will be collecting from its investors. The seven member federal board of Puerto Rico was established by Congress to guide Puerto Rico through its $70 million debt last year. Puerto Rico, however, gained a significant amount of debt because it kept on borrowing money over the years to show the federal government that its budget is balanced and organized. With the ten year plan to stimulate the economy and reform its economic crisis, Puerto Rico will hold its sovereignty over the plan and bring its budget back into balance and a smaller debt pool. Contact Joshua at Joshua.Corpuz@shu.edu.

Wilders’ Loss in Dutch Elections Casts Doubt on Strong Appeal Of Right-Wing Populist Parties tries are merely staffed with native Europeans which creates a higher unemployment turnout of the overall population. In contrast, the French election may fear a differing government stance. For instance, the Dutch election results drove the euro higher and strengthened the ideology of Europe having a single currency. The current French President Francois Hollande called it a “clear victory against extremism” and went on to add that, “the values of openness, respect for others, and a faith in Europe’s future are the only true response to the nationalist impulses and isolationism that are shaking the world.” While France is look-

Continued from page 4... ing towards different party processes and strengthening state-interests in regards to immigration. However, Nicolas Bay, Secretary General of France’s far-right Front National, commended Wilders, tweeting that his “party progresses, it’s a real success.” As the vote drew near, Wilders lost all of his majority seats and his pledge to take the Netherlands out of the EU failed. The significance of a European Union without the Netherlands is major to the factions of tourism, global security and declines the already proven progress of a multilateral European system. Wilders’ Freedom Party declined in the polls. Mark

Rutte’s success stands as a beacon to all freedom and immigration friendly movements. The prime minister’s response to Nazi slurs against the Dutch made by Turkey’s President Erdogan was a positive highlight around the political spectrum. As further parliamentary seats are allocated, Dutch history suggests that the process will not happen overnight. In 2012, it took 54 days to form a coalition, considered to be the fastest in recent history. Rutte refuses to work with Wilders and his far-right Freedom Party, and will look more towards to Christian Democrats and the D66, both of which are pro-E.U. Contact Nicholas at eldennic@shu.edu.

Courtesy of Blandine Le Cain

French presidential candidate Marine Le Pen, center, greets a group of National Front party members gathered in Paris, France in 2012.


Foreign Correspondents

April 2017 Page 5

Beyond Mojitos and Guantanamera, Diplos Take Historic Trip to Cuba By Francesca Regalado Managing Editor HAVANA, Cuba – Havana felt like home. I arrived at José Martí International Airport with my Cuba seminar group on the tail end of a winter flu. But as soon as our group stood on the Malecón, Havana’s fivemile boardwalk, the warm sea air cured me instantly. Aside from tropical climes, Spanish colonization, and American influence, Cubans and Filipinos have one striking trait in common. In the Philippines, we call it diskarte – being resourceful enough to make the best out of a bad situation. In Cuba, I saw it in the driver who fashioned a gas tank out of a plastic bottle to repair his antique 50s-era car. I saw it in the cigar rollers who sold their five free Cohibas and Montecristos a day to tourists passing through the factory for cheap to add to their meager monthly salary of $30. I saw it in the cuentapropistas, or self-employed workers, who saved remittances from relatives in the Unit-

ed States until they could open their own paladares, or privately-owned restaurants. These paladares popped up only recently, when the government was forced by a stagnant economy to allow private businesses. The liberties granted so far have been minimal, but change is on the horizon. “This is a special time in the country’s development, considering this will be the last year a Castro will be in charge of the country,” said Andrew Jordan, a first-year graduate student. Fidel Castro, who led the Cuban Revolution in 1959, died in November at 90. His brother Raul, the current president, announced that he would step down from office in 2018 to pave the way for elections. The 24 students who took part in the seminar over spring break jumped at the opportunity to visit Cuba before it was altered by political and economic reforms – or, worse, closed off to American visitors by the Trump administration. To Daniel Bartley, a second-year

graduate student who has studied at length American foreign policy during the Cold War, Cuba is “one of the lasting symbols of that period in history.”

A Family Reunion For Joel Martinez, the Cuba trip was a true homecoming. His uncle, at 17 years old, defected from Cuba in 1967 after refusing to serve in the Castro government’s draft. Resettling in Newark, he arranged for his parents and sisters, including Joel’s mother, to join him in the United States as political refugees. Joel’s grandmother was especially excited for him to join the Cuba seminar. “For any of her grandchildren to make the trip to the ‘motherland’ and meet one of her siblings meant the world to her,” he said. Joel, a second-year graduate student, was encouraged by Dr. Benjamin Goldfrank to arrange the reunion. “It was important for him that the experiential aspect of the course was not lost on us,” Joel said.

Courtesy of Joel Martinez

Joel Martinez, center, met for the first time his grandmother’s brother.

“That was one of the sad repercussions of poor U.S.-Cuban relations – how difficult it made life for families living apart,” Dr. Goldfrank said. Arranging the reunion, however, was a logistical challenge because Joel’s relatives, like many Cubans, had unreliable Internet connectivity. Fortunately, our tour guide, Adrián, was sympathetic to Joel’s goals and offered not only to let Joel use his phone to call his relatives, but also to drive Joel to their house. “I wasn’t entirely sure what to expect since it can

feel at times as though we are worlds apart,” Joel said. “That completely faded away when we saw each other and hugged for the first time.” He was particularly moved by the support of his classmates, who took pictures and videos of his family reunion. We had one free night to explore Havana by ourselves. Joel chose to spend it at his great-uncle’s house, where they bonded while sharing stories of his grandmother as a young woman and watching the World Baseball Classic match be-

tween Australia and Cuba. (Spoiler alert: Cuba won.) Political Controversy The trip was almost dampened by criticism of a class picture taken at the Plaza de la Revolucion in front of the Interior Ministry, which features a large mural of the Argentine revolutionary leader Che Guevara. The Seton Hall account had written, “How are you spending spring break?” to which one user replied, “Not spending it by taking pictures in front of a comContinued on page 11...

Imagining Pan-Arabism Through the Lens of Arab Idol By Gabrielle Hunt Staff Writer AMMAN, Jordan — For the past two months that I have been studying in Jordan while living with a host family, I’ve come to enjoy a Saturday ritual that is common in the Arab world: gathering around the television to watch “Arab Idol,” the “American Idol” spinoff that first premiered in 2011. One Saturday night in particular was more exciting than most. It’s February 25, the season finale, and my host family is jumping and cheering around the television; my host sister is even whistling. Yacoub Shaheen, a Palestinian Christian, has just been crowned the fourth winner of “Arab Idol.” For many — including my host family — his victory is about more than just winning a televised singing competition. Yacoub Shaheen is now the second Palestinian to win “Arab Idol.” The first winner of Palestinian origin, Mohammed

Assaf, won almost miraculously, as his participation in the competition was only made possible by escaping through tunnels from Gaza to make it to his audition. His win then led to an appointment as the first Palestinian goodwill ambassador for peace in the United Nations. I first became familiar with Assaf ’s story weeks prior at the opening of “No Refuge,” an exhibition by the Palestinian artist Khaled Hourani, held in Darat al-Funun, an art gallery in Amman’s art district, Jabal al-Webdeih. Hourani transformed Assaf ’s story into a series of miniature figurines all in his likeness, titled “A Hundred Assafs.” Assaf is described by Hourani as one of the “fastest growing icons of Palestinian identity,” as his position as Arab-Idol-turned-humanitarian-ambassador has become a Palestinian triumph, transforming art into an opportunity for social change. But as Hourani alludes to in “A Hundred Assafs,” the hardships of Palestinian life are hardly reflect-

ed by the brief and fleeting win of one Palestinian “Arab Idol.” Hourani’s description of the sculptures ends with poignant questions: “How many Assafs do we need? Can Assaf bear all these responsibilities and expectations?” As Shaheen, the Palestinian Christian, accepted his win by singing in the finale with the Palestinian flag draped around his shoulders — a flag whose colors were once banned from public display — I could feel that his win was a symbolic assertion of Palestinian existence and identity. But I also know that no victory can solve the very real burdens and hardships many Palestinians face every day. As I reflected on the hundreds of singing Mohammed Assafs in the gallery, juxtaposed with the scene of Yacoub Shaheen crying and singing, “My blood is Palestinian,” in Arabic, I could only wonder, “How many Shaheens do we need?” In addition to Shaheen’s Palestinian origin, my host family was espe-

cially excited about having a Christian winner. “Before the Gulf War, no one cared if you were Muslim or Christian,” my host mom explained to me. Her hope is that Shaheen’s win is indicative of the Arab world moving in a more pluralistic and unified direction less focused on religious identity. “Christians and Muslims are becoming equal again,” she said. But beyond Shaheen’s – or even Assaf ’s – identities, what was most striking about the “Arab Idol” finale was the solidarity among the final three competitors. At times, it was unclear who the winner was, as each finalist (two Palestinians and one Yemeni) took turns singing with their respective flags draped around their shoulders. In Middle Eastern studies, we often speak about the crests and troughs of the elusive — if not mythological — concept of Pan-Arabism. I won’t conclude or theorize on the validity of this notion, but I will say this: Watching my Jordanian

Courtesy of Gabrielle Hunt

One of Khaled Hourani’s renderings of the “Arab Idol” winner Mohammed Assaf.

family cheer on the win of a Palestinian and empathize with the tears of a Yemeni, and seeing the televised audience of different identities and origins dancing together in

Lebanon made me think that perhaps Pan-Arabism is real — even if it exists, for now, in the realm of “Arab Idol.” Contact Gabi at huntgabr@shu.edu.


April 2017 Page 6

Philippines

By Francesca Regalado Managing Editor

“Hitler massacred three million Jews. Now there’s three million drug addicts. I’d be happy to slaughter them,” said President Rodrigo Duterte of the Philippines in September. At the time, he had been president for only three months, yet the death count from his crackdown on the illegal narcotics trade was estimated at around 3,000. According to The New York Times, a third of these deaths were at the hands of the police, but most have been by vigilantes emboldened by the president’s rhetoric. Many of the gunmen running rampant are hired by local drug lords to take out those who may expose them. Now The New York Times estimates that more than 7,000 are dead. While it may be too early to tell if Duterte’s cavalier approach has actually decreased drug use, it has inadvertently created insecurity. Filipinos, especially those living in urban areas, hesitate to go out at night for fear of being mistaken for a drug user or being caught in the crossfire. How bad is the drug addiction epidemic in the Philippines? The last es-

By Renata Koch Alvarenga Staff Writer Inside the slums of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, lies a world enveloped by poverty, struggles, drug trafficking, and gangs. The clashes between rival gangs over drugs are not exclusive to these impoverished open areas, however. Earlier this year, 56 people were killed in a prison in Manaus, as a result of a violent jail riot in Brazil, according to BBC News. Among the inmates were various members of the most powerful gang in the country, the First Capital Command (P.C.C.).. Many inmates are incarcerated due to an ongoing battle of supremacy over Brazil’s Amazon rivers. These rivers contain numerous smuggling routes for cocain. The gangs involved in the is attack in Manaus include the Family of the North, a gang opperat-

timate of the Dangerous Drugs Board in 2012 reported 1.7 million users – already a significant decline from 6.7 million users in 2004. Rappler reports that from 2009 to 2014, 91 percent of patients in rehabilitation were male, nearly 40 percent of them were unemployed, and 74 percent earned a monthly family income of less than 11,000 pesos (around $226). Most of these drug users were at the prime of their lives, with an average age of 30 among rehabilitation center patients. Buying drugs on the street is cheaper than checking into a hospital for treatment, thus trapping drug users into a cycle of addiction. Treating drug addiction as a crime instead of a disease could hurt the economic growth of this Asian tiger because targeting young, able-bodied men would significantly reduce the labor force. In September, the national police chief, Ronald dela Rosa, spent a week in Colombia to learn from the South American country’s “successful” war on drugs, according to The Philippine Star. Colombia, like the Philippines, focused on eliminating supply. Dela Rosa could have learned more from Portugal, which

Brazil

ing out of the Amazon, and the Red Command, a drug trafficking organization from Rio, says The New York Times. After the prison massacre, the P.C.C. proceeded to kill 33 people at a penitentiary in Roraima. The challenging economic and political situation in Brazil is seen as the main reason for the escalation in violence. This is especially true in Rio, where police budget cuts are coupled with angst and desperation among young Brazilians who live in slums. Funding for events, such as the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games, both hosted in Brazil, have contributed to the reduction of government expenditure on various national issues. Ignacio Cano, a social researcher at the Violence Studies Lab of Rio de Janeiro State University, told the Daily Mail that “2016 has been a very bad year. We have seen a dramatic

medicalized the drug epidemic by transferring drug control from the Justice Department to the Health Ministry and decriminalizing all drug use in 2001. Portugal’s decriminalization of drugs happened under the prime ministry of Antonio Guterres, now secretary-general of the United Nations. In Portugal, removing the threat of imprisonment was followed by an increase in visits to rehabilitation clinics because people were no longer scared to come out as drug addicts. While HIV-infection rates from needle use have sporadically gone up and down in other European countries, Portugal has seen a steady decline, according to The Telegraph. Additionally, funds previously spent on the Portuguese prison system and litigating drug-related crimes were diverted to prevention, drug addiction treatment, and support strategies for high-risk populations, such as the youth and the low-income population. A similar redistribution of resources would tie in with Duterte’s goals of saving “the next generation from perdition.” Contact Francesca at regalafr@shu.edu. increase in homicides, robberies and other crimes”. Cano’s comments are in response to the police’s mishandeling and misunderstanding of gang life in Rio. “We lost a big opportunity to transform police and develop a new public safety model”, said Cano. The bloodshed in and out of the overcrowded prisons in Brazil is a result of a corrupt system of mismanagement. Brazil’s current president Michel Temer expressed his solidarity to the victims of the killings in the Amazon prisons by phrasing the atrocity as a “dreadful accident”, according to the Associated Press. “The prison was outsourced and privatized and therefore there was not an objective, clear and defined responsibility of the public agents,” said Temer in response to debates over the management of prisons and escalating government criticism. Contact Renata at alvarere@shu.edu.

*Editor’s Note: The opioid epidemic knows no borders. To highlight this, our writers covered the narcotics trade in their native countries, with their native tongues.

Focus on the Ni Francesca Regalado Tagapamahalang Patnugot “Tatlong milyong Hudyo ang pinapatay ni Hitler. Ngayon, mayroong tatlong milyong lulong sa droga. Ikagagalak kong patayin sila,” sabi ni Pangulong Rodrigo Duterte ng Pilipinas noong Setyembre. Noon, tatlong buwan lamang siyang sa posisyon, ngunit umabot na sa 3,000 ang tinantiyang namatay dahil sa kanyang giyera laban sa droga. Iniulat ng New York Times na isang-katlo ng mga ito ay namatay sa kamay ng mga pulis, pero mas marami ang napatay ng mga vigilanteng pinalakas ang loob ng retorika ni Duterte. Kabilang rin dito ang mga mamamaril na binabayaran ng mga sindikato para patayin kung sinuman ang maaaring maglantad sa kanila. Ngayon, tinatantiya ng New York Times na mahigit na sa 7,000 ang namatay. Bagaman masyado pang maaga para malaman kung nabawasan nga ba ang mga lulong sa droga dahil sa kampanya ni Duterte, nagdudulot na ito ng kawalan ng seguridad. Natatakot ngayon ang mga Pilipino, lalo na sa mga siyudad, na lumabas sa gabi dahil baka sila magpakamalang adik o madamay sa barilan.

Renata Koch Alvarenga Jornalista Dentro das favelas do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, existe um mundo que gira em volta daenvolto por pobreza, de dificuldades, do tráfico de drogas, e gangues. Os confrontos entre as gangues rivais, entretanto, não são exclusivos às favelas. No início deste ano, 56 pessoas foram mortas em um presídio em Manaus, como resultado de uma disputa violenta no Brasil, de acordo com a BBC News. Dentre os presidiários havia vários integrantes da facção mais poderosa do país, o Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC). Muitos presidiários estão encarcerados , como consequência de um conflito contínuo para o domínio dos rios da da Amazônia. Esses rios possuem diversas rotas no Brasil para o tráfico de cocaína. através de rotas na fronteira da região. Dentre as gangues envolvidas noesse ataque em Manaus, há a Facção Família do Norte (FDN), do Amazonas, e o Coman-

Pilipinas Gaano ba kalala ang problema ng pagkalulong sa droga sa Pilipinas? Ang huling tantiya ng gobyerno noong 2012 na 1.7 milyong lulong ay malaking bawas na mula sa 6.7 milyong lulong noong 2004. Ayon sa Rappler, mula 2009 hanggang 2014, sa mga pasyente sa rehabilitasyon, lalaki ang 91 porsyento, walang trabaho ang 40 porsyento, at kulang pa sa 11,000 pesos ang kita buwan-buwan ng 74 porsyento. Tatlumpung taon ang karaniwang edad ng mga ito. Dahil mas murang bumili ng droga sa kalye kaysa humingi ng tulong sa ospital, nabibitag ang mga mahihirap sa pagkalulong. Kung itutuloy ni Duterte ang pagtrato ng pagkalulong bilang krimen sa halip na karamdaman, baka humina ang pag-unlad ng Pilipinas dahil mababawasan ang mga binatang maaaring magtrabaho. Iniulat ng Philippine Star na bumisita si Ronald dela Rosa, ang pambansang hepe ng pulis, sa Colombia upang aralin ang kanilang kampanya laban sa droga. Ayon kay Dela Rosa, “matagumpay” daw ang kampanya ng Colombia. Tulad ng Pilipinas, inuuna ng Colombia ang pagpuksa ng mga nagbebenta ng droga.

Brasil

do Vermelho, uma organização de tráfico de drogas do Rio, diz o The New York Times. Após o massacre, e na prisão, o PCC matou 33 pessoas em uma penitenciária em Roraima. A situação política e econômica desafiadora do Brasil é considerada como a razão principal para o aumento da violência. Isso é , principalmenteespecialmente aplicável ao no Rio, onde o orçamento da polícia foi cortado e há e há muita revolta e desespero entre os jovens brasileiros que moram nas favelas. Financiamento para eEventos como a Copa do Mundo FIFA de 2014 e os Jogos Olímpicos de 2016, sediados no Brasil, têm contribuído para o corte de gastos pelo governo em várias questões nacionais. Ignacio Cano, sociólogo no Laboratório de Análise da Violência da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, contou ao Daily Mail que ‘2016 tem sido um ano muito ruim. Nós temos visto um aumento significativo nos homicídios, roubos, e outros crimes”. Os comentários do Cano

Mas mabuti siguro kung inaral niya ang pamamaraan ng Portugal, kung saan ang paglulong ay tinatrato na karamdaman dahil inilipat ng gobyerno ang pagpigil ng droga sa Ministeryo ng Kalusugan mula sa Ministeryo ng Hustisya noong 2001. Nangyari ito sa pamumuno ni Antonio Guterres, na ngayo’y punong kalihim ng Nagkakaisang Bansa. Pagkatapos mawala ang banta ng pagkulong sa Portugal, dumami ang mga Portuges na pumupunta sa ospital para sa rehabilitasyon. At kahit dumami ang mga nalalinan ng HIV mula sa karayom sa Europa, nabawasan ang mga ito sa Portugal, ayon sa Telegraph. Bukod pa rito, dahil nabawasan ang gastos sa mga kulungan at sa pagsubok ng mga krimeng kaugnay sa droga, maraming programa ang napondohan ng Portugal para hadlangan ang pagkalulong, gamutin ang mga lulong, at suportahan ang mga grupong delikadong malulong, tulad ng mga bata at mahihirap. Kung tutularan ng Pilipinas ang Portugal, mas madaling maaabot ni Duterte ang kanyang layunin na “iligtas ang susunod na henerasyon mula sa kapahamakan.”

são uma resposta à falta de compreensão e de ação por parte dos policiais em relação às gangues do Rio. A polícia não têm dado a devida atenção para as facções no país. “Nós perdemos uma grande oportunidade de transformar a polícia e desenvolver um novo modelo de segurança pública”, disse Cano. O conflito sangrento dentro e fora dos presídios superlotados no Brasil é um resultado de um sistema corrupto mal administrado. O atual presidente do Brasil Michel Temer – após o impeachment da Dilma Roussef – expressou sua solidariedade às vítimas da chacina ao defini-la como um “acidente pavoroso” , de acordo com o Associated Press. “Vocês sabem que lá em Manaus o presídio era terceirizado, era privatizado e, portanto, não houve, por assim dizer, uma responsabilidade muito objetiva, muito clara, muito definida dos agentes estatais”, disse Temer em resposta aos debates sobre a administração dos presídios e do grande criticismo ao governo.


Narcotics Trade* Ecuador

By Felipe Bueno Staff Writer Ecuador has long been situated between juxtaposed worlds. It is a product of Spanish and Native American cultures, a gateway between the northern and southern hemispheres, and between the two largest cocaine producers in the world. Though Ecuador does not produce cocaine, its location makes it a drug corridor for Peru and Colombia. According to a 2015 United Nations International Narcotics Control Board report, cocaine seizures in Ecuador rose by over 252 percent from 2010 to 2015. Additionally, former Director of Military Intelligence Mario Pazmiño said that maritime trafficking routes increased by 90 percent from 2005 to 2012, according to La Hora. The U.S. and Central America are common destinations for cocaine trafficked through Ecuador. In early February 2016, the Ministry of Interior reported the seizure of an Ecuadorian vessel carrying nearly 1,800 pound of co-

caine destined for Florida. In the same month, Ecuador’s antinarcotics division seized over 1,400 pounds of cocaine off the coast of Santa Elena headed for Central America. Cocaine is smuggled into Ecuador where it is shipped out of Guayaquil, the country’s largest port city, and sold abroad. Ecuador is especially important to drug cartels because it uses the American dollar. This allows drug money that has been trafficked into the region to be laundered into the world’s most useful currency very easily. When individuals in the U.S., El Salvador, or Panama purchase cocaine, the dollars they use for payment do not need to be converted to another currency and lose no value. The Ecuadorian government has launched a series of crackdowns on drug runners following this increase in sales. In an attempt to treat the problem’s source, President Rafael Correa deployed 10,000 troops to the Colombian border to police the area and combat foreign narcotics groups, said Insight Crime. Mr. Correa stated that

the border is “the gravest security problem facing the country, a hot frontier with organized crime, drug trafficking, irregular groups, FARC, and paramilitaries.” Despite this initiative, Ecuador has recently denied accusations that its public institutions exacerbate the problem. In its 2016 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, the U.S. State Department suggested that “weak public institutions, permeable borders, and corruption,” make Ecuador vulnerable to transnational organized crime. The Ecuadorian Ministry of Internal Affairs rejected the “whimsical” report, and Regional Police Chief Eduardo Mancayo said that domestic investigations showed no such links, reports El Comercio. Whether or not domestic police reports conflict with U.S. findings, the disagreement and rhetoric with which they were published highlight the increased strain in diplomatic tension between the two countries. Contact Felipe at buenofel@shu.edu.

April 2017 Page 7

República del Ecuador

Por Felipe Bueno Periodista Desde hace mucho tiempo, el Ecuador ha sido situado entre mundos yuxtapuestos. Es un producto de la cultura española e indígena, una puerta entre los hemisferios del norte y el sur, y está situado entre los dos mayores productores de cocaína del mundo. Aunque el Ecuador no produzca su propia cocaína, su ubicación lo ha convertido en un corredor de drogas para Perú y Colombia. Según un reportaje de la Junta Internacional de Fiscalización de Estupefacientes de las Naciones Unidas de 2015, las incautaciones de cocaína en el Ecuador aumentaron por más de 252 por ciento desde el 2010 al 2015. Además, el ex Director de Inteligencia Militar Mario Pazmiño dijo que las rutas de tráfico marítimo aumentaron un 90 por ciento entre 2005 y 2012, reporta La Hora. Los Estados Unidos y América Central son destinos comunes para la cocaína traficada a través del Ecuador. A principios de febrero del 2016, el Ministerio del Interior reporto la incautación de un bote ecuatoriano que transportaba

‫ندرألا‬

Jordan By Shamel Dishack Staff Writer

The future of Jordanian citizens will soon be influenced by forces outside of their control. As unemployment, rent, and consumer expenses continue to rise, so will the rate of addiction. Regional and tribal conflicts will continue to flood the Middle East with amphetamines and other narcotics, as both combatants and suppliers will find opportunities for sale amidst the ensuing chaos, reports Lorazepam Abuse Help. Another much less tangible obstacle for addicts seeking recovery is the cultural stigma surrounding drug use. The Middle Eastern culture is collectivistic by nature, where the behavior of one person reflects on the family he/she represents. It is common for families to become highly involved in the activities of their younger members, and it is more common for private information to

remain behind closed doors. The attitude that some nations in the Middle East exhibit towards drugs can be seen in the same light. Families who harbor drug addicts are less likely to talk about it to officials and centers that may offer rehabilitation. Religion also plays an integral part in Middle Eastern dynamics, and Jordan is no exception. Drug addicts are often viewed as lost souls with no guidance. Drugs are seen as a vice, and their users are viewed as having no self-control or discipline in their lives. Rather than seek recovery, addicts carry out their drug use surreptitiously to avoid embarrassment, harassment from authorities, and familial. The government of Jordan, as a result, needs to establish a more progressive policy at rehabilitation rather than punishment. Most importantly, it needs to reach those who are addicted in a way that is

separate from culture and stigma. The government also needs to further acknowledge the fact that they have a drug problem, a process they have already begun. In 2009, Nader Al-Dahabi, a former Prime Minister of Jordan publically acknowledged that the nation has a drug problem, reports The National. It was the first time that a Jordanian official has ever done so. Those addicted to drugs need direct aid in order to recover, and they will not acquire it if the atmosphere doesn’t accommodate them. From social ostracism to authoritarian harassment, these issues have prevented many Jordanians from seeking proper care, and such drug related issues will continue to rise if the nation doesn’t adopt a more progressive and realistic policy. Contact Shamel at dishacsh@shu.edu.

casi 1.800 libras de cocaína destinadas a la Florida. En el mismo mes, la división antinarcótica del Ecuador capturó más de 1.400 libras de cocaína frente a la costa de Santa Elena, que se dirigían hacia Centroamérica. La cocaína se introduce de contrabando en el Ecuador, donde es transportada fuera de Guayaquil, la ciudad portuaria más grande del país, y se vende en el extranjero. El Ecuador es especialmente importante para los cárteles de droga, por su uso del dólar Americano. Esto permite que el dinero del narcotráfico que ha sido traficado en la región sea convertido con facilidad a la moneda más útil del mundo. Cuando individuales en los Estados Unidos, El Salvador, o Panamá compran cocaína, los dólares que usan para pagar no necesitan ser convertidos a otra moneda, y no pierden su valor. El gobierno ecuatoriano ha lanzado una serie de medidas de represión contra los traficantes de drogas tras este aumento en las ventas. En un intento por tratar a la fuente del problema, el presidente Rafael Correa desplegó 10.000

،‫يف السنوات القليلة املاضية‬ ‫تعرضت اململكة االردنية‬ ‫الهاشمية الرتفاع يف كمية‬ ، ‫استخدام املخدرات‬ ‫والتأثريات التي نتجت عن‬ ‫هذا االمر اصبحت جلية‬. ‫املوقع الجغرايف للمملكة‬ ‫جعلها يف مواجهة حتمية‬ ‫ملصاعب و تحديات‬ ‫اجتامعية عىل مختلف‬ ‫ حيث‬.‫االصعدة و النواحي‬ ‫أنها تقع يف قلب الرشق‬ ‫ بجوار دول يف‬,‫االوسط‬ ‫ و‬,‫حاالت نزاع داخلية‬ ‫اخرى داعمة لنزاعات‬ ‫ ذلك ادى لجعل‬.‫خارجية‬ ‫اململكة جرسا للمخدرات‬ ‫و املمنوعات التي متر من‬ ‫االردن و تعربها الماكن‬ ‫مختلفة يف املناطق املتعرضة‬ ‫للنزاعات حيث تزدهر‬ ‫تجارتها‬. ‫رصح مسؤولون اردنيون‬ ‫انه و بسبب تواجد اململكة‬ ‫بني دول منتجة للمخدرات‬ ‫ ان دورها‬,‫و اخرى مصنعة‬

soldados a la frontera colombiana para vigilar la zona, y combatir a los grupos extranjeros de narcóticos, dijo Insight Crime. A pesar de esta iniciativa, el Ecuador ha negado recientemente las acusaciones de que sus instituciones públicas exacerban el problema. En su Informe sobre la Estrategia Internacional de Fiscalización de Estupefacientes de 2016, el Departamento de Estado de los Estados Unidos sugirió que “las instituciones públicas débiles, las fronteras permeables y la corrupción” hacen que el Ecuador sea vulnerable a la delincuencia organizada transnacional. El Ministerio del Interior ecuatoriano rechazó el informe “caprichoso”, y el jefe de la Policía Regional Eduardo Mancayo dijo que las investigaciones domésticas no mostraban tales vínculos, informa El Comercio. Tanto si los informes de la policía interna están en conflicto con los hallazgos de los Estados Unidos, el desacuerdo y la retórica con que fueron publicados son una manifestación del aumento de tensión diplomática entre los dos países.

‫من املخدرات املشهورة و‬ ‫اصبح كنقطة وصل للطرق‬ ‫ لكن املستخدمة يف تصنيع‬.‫املستخدمة يف سوريا‬ ‫و عىل الرغم من ان هذه‬ ‫و تجارة املمنوعات و‬ ‫املخدرات‬. ‫املخدرات قد صنعت الماكن‬ ‫خارج اململكة فإن ذلك ال‬ ‫رصح مدير فرع مكافحة‬ ‫يحمي اململكة من توابع‬ ‫املخدرات الجرنال أنور‬ ‫هذه العملية‬. ‫طراونة “ان حوايل تسعة و‬ ‫رصح الطراونة انه يف عام‬ ‫خمسون باملئة من املخدرات‬ ‫ تم اعتقال‬,‫ فقط‬٢٠٠٥ ‫التي تقوم بدخول اململكة‬ ‫ اردنياً بتهم‬١٣٨٩٩ ‫حوايل‬ ‫تدخلها عابرة و متوجهة‬ ‫متعلقة باملخدرات‬. ‫”الماكن اخرى خارجها‬. ‫ملكافحة هذا التصاعد يف‬ ‫هذا و قد اصبحت عمليات‬ ‫ تم‬,‫استخدام املخدرات‬ ‫االستيالء عىل املخدرات‬ ‫تأسيس “املركز الوطني‬ ‫امرا معتادا يف اململكة‬ ‫العادة تأهيل املدمنني “الذي كام اوضحت التقاريرالتي‬ ‫يوفر العناية و املساعدة‬ ‫تدل عىل ارتفاع يف حاالت‬ ‫الالزمة للمتعاطني االردنيني االعتقال بتهم حيازة‬ ً‫مجانا‬. ‫ و‬، ‫املخدرات واملتاجرة بها‬ ‫ يف عام‬.‫ تبقى وصمة العار اخرى متعلقة بها‬،‫مع ذلك‬ ‫التي يضعها املجتمع عىل‬ ‫ عملية‬٤٢ ‫ كان هناك‬,٢٠٠١ ‫اوالئك الذين يحاولون‬ ‫مكافحة لهذه التجارة مقارنة‬ ‫ الذي شهد‬٢٠٠٧ ‫بعام‬ ‫التغلب عىل االدمان من‬ ‫ يف الثامن من‬.‫ حالة‬٢١٨ ‫اكرب التحديات التي تواجه‬ ‫ قامت‬.٢٠١٦ ‫الحكومة و الشعب االردين ايلول من عام‬ ‫يف طريق التغلب عىل هذه السلطات االردنية بضبط و‬ ‫الظاهرة يف اململكة‬ ‫ مليون‬١٣ ‫مصادرة اكرث من‬ ‫قرص “كابتوجون” الذي يعد‬


April 2017 Page 8

Opinion

Words from the Graduating Editors

When I first started writing for the Envoy, we got our assignments at random via email and didn’t have regular staff meetings. When I first started editing my freshman year, we used QuarkXPress and red pen on printouts of the spreads. Until my junior year, the Envoy was only in print. In the roughly four years I have worked on the Envoy, so much has changed. Next year, the Envoy will have been part of the School of Diplomacy for ten years. In that time, the

Envoy has served as a way for students to develop their writing and gain experience analyzing news. The most rewarding part of being editor-in-chief has been working with writers and watching their writing improve every issue. Curating the Focus section has given me the opportunity to shed light on ongoing problems that either ceased being covered in the news or were being underreported. The overarching theme of the Envoy is momentum: Just as the world moves forward, so do our writers, and so does the paper. As we pass the Envoy on to the next generation of editors, I want them to fearlessly take the Envoy in new directions. We have shifted our content to be more analytical, moved our publication online, created a stronger sense of connection between the editorial board and writers, and published

our first editorial. So much can be accomplished and improved in a short period of time and I am excited to see the direction our future editors will take the paper, bringing it to new heights. Through the last four years, I have had the incredible opportunity to work with my wonderful fellow editors. Their unique perspectives and creative ideas have fueled the Envoy onward and working with them has been a wonderful experience. I can’t wait to see the magnificent things they do with the rest of their lives. Finally, I would also like to thank Dean Smith for his eye for detail, the Constance J. Millstein Endowed Fund, which has financed the Envoy for ten years, and our writers for their hard work and dedication.

Two years ago, I sat staring at my phone at a lounge in the United Nations, tasked with my very first Envoy assignment: interviewing one of our distinguished alumna about her career path. I had a list of questions in front of me, but I was still quite nervous. Would I really be able to write a piece worthy of print? Although that first phone interview was a bit shaky, the Alumni Spotlight assignment quickly sparked a passion for journalism. I became enamored with the process of collecting and presenting information to share a story. After honing my craft with a few more articles, I joined the editorial board during the fall of my junior year. Since then, I’ve grown immensely as

a writer, an editor, and a young professional. As International News editor, I have had the pleasure of presiding over a section that encompasses the entire world. Every month, I get to explore every corner of the globe while scouring for interesting stories online. Most important, the International News section has given me the valuable opportunity to provide a platform for conflicts and issues that receive less attention from mainstream news. By pitching articles about strife in South Sudan or the besieged cities of Syria, our paper increases awareness of atrocities that may elude the average college student. I cannot, however, claim all the responsibility for my section’s success. One of the greatest pleasures of my tenure has been working with the amazing writers on our team. Seeing our students grow as writers has been incredibly rewarding. Their submissions are the lifeblood of our paper. The paper would go nowhere, however, without the hard work of my

colleagues. Every member of the editorial board has gone above and beyond to make the Envoy a success. From publishing problems to writer crises, we’ve persevered because we’ve worked together. Throughout my twoyear tenure, I’ve seen the Envoy grow and improve immensely. We’ve expanded our writer base, perfected our layout, and continued to produce a quality publication. As for advice, I’d recommend that my successor keep her eye on the end goal. Your section will come together by the deadline, even if your writers turn in their pieces late, misunderstand the pitch, or fail to meet the word count. Read up and use your section as an opportunity to shed light on issues that are often ignored. Thank you to our adviser, Dean Smith, and to the editorial team – my counterparts, colleagues, and lifelong friends. You’ve all helped me grow as a person and as a professional, and I will forever be grateful for our time together.

My first semester after transferring to Seton Hall was rough. I would wake up, go to class and go home. While I loved the

classes and the professors made the subject of international relations engrossing and relevant, I felt as if I was only there as a silent observer. These feelings were amplified while I read through the LinkedIn pages of my fellow students, persisting until an open advising session with Dean Sanjamino. She suggested that I join the School’s newspaper. The editors intimidated me at my first meeting. They carried themselves

with a sense of confidence and their accomplishments were incredible to me. I had the pleasure of writing all my articles, except one, on African elections for International News. The Envoy honed my writing style, and also made me love hunting for sources. My ascension to an editorial position still shocks me to this day. Emily Balan, the inaugural layout editor, trusted that I could take over after she graduated.

- Abby Shamray

- Emily Green

As a recent arrival from the Philippines, I was worried about fitting in and finding my niche. I knew my heart was set on studying international relations, but I had no next step planned, or any idea of what kind of career I wanted to pursue. When Dean Sanjamino gave me my first copy of the Envoy, I must have turned my nose up at it – on the front page, the lead story carried a headline with a typo: Musim, instead of Muslim. I’ve been with this paper for four years, so I’ve heard my share of criticism: Your news is always late. Your layout looks bad. Your writers aren’t good. The Envoy isn’t real jour-

nalism. So when I saw that first subpar copy, I could’ve said, “No, thank you.” But if I have one piece of advice to impart to my successors, as cliché as it is, it’s this: Be the change you wish to see. Your news is always late. So we built a website from scratch and revised our processes to publish new content every week. Your layout looks bad. So we appointed a layout editor and negotiated with the School to buy InDesign licenses not only for the Envoy, but also for the graduate Journal. Your writers aren’t good. So we established a system of communication and feedback between editors and writers that wasn’t previously there. The Envoy isn’t real journalism. So we invested in our Diplomacy News section and assigned our best writers to cover events on campus – including, most recently, the Diplomacy senator elections. And what do we get in return? The satisfaction that the School is proud enough of our newspaper

to send it to all prospective students. The fulfillment that comes from a freshman approaching our table at the Involvement Fair and telling us, “I came to Seton Hall because of the Envoy.” I have been fortunate not only to have worked with the best of Diplomacy as my fellow editors, but also to have gained them as my best friends. Most important, Dean Smith is everything we could ask for in an adviser: one who plays devil’s advocate to challenge and improve our ideas, while still letting us learn from making our own decisions. The past four years have not been easy, but if I ever get anywhere in life (ideally, dodging bullets as a war correspondent – sorry, Mom), it’s because Dean Sanjamino told an insecure freshman to join The Diplomatic Envoy. And the lesson here is this: Love what you do, and the résumé line will come easily.

As the Opinion editor for The Diplomatic Envoy, I’ve had many opportunities to express myself on paper and in person. Normally, the task of expressing my feelings about the Envoy would be easy. But the time has come to pass the torch, and I feel a whirlwind of emotions. I’ve been a writer since my freshman year and an editor since my second semester. Everything since then is a blur, though my experiences have been nothing if not memorable. I’ve met incredible people, made lifelong friends, and learned more pages of

the AP Stylebook than I ever thought possible – or necessary (kidding, Cheska!). There’s so much to say about what the Envoy brought into my life and what I’m grateful for. Too much, actually. I have to acknowledge my incredible Opinion writers for always giving me 100 percent and accepting my critiques, my arguments, and my skepticism of all Trump-related topics. In addition, I’d like to thank Dean Smith for making the administrative side of the paper a non-issue so the writers could write and the editors could edit. Every paper wants to be recognized as a serious source of information – or, at least, as more than a copy-paste aggregator. We went above and beyond with expectations for writers and editors alike to provide accurate and consistent coverage and to

improve each other’s writing through collaborative editing. To my successor, the new editorial board, and every staff writer, I have this to say: As long as you remain passionate about the success of the Envoy, everything else will fall into place. You may not always agree with one another, but you will strive to see that the final product is a cohesive reflection of your consent and compromise. That’s what diplomacy is all about. Finally, to my amazing fellow editors: I am so proud of what we’ve built together. I am so proud to be an alumna of the School of Diplomacy and a lifelong supporter of the Envoy. Even though we’re moving forward, I am so proud of what we are leaving behind.

My first challenge as editor was to lay out a magazine, a project that the Envoy had never tackled before. It was a great learning experience. I still remember spending a night on the floor of an airport in Houston, trying to get the summer edition just right. I was always familiar with InDesign and other desktop publishing software, but at the Envoy, I was able to polish my skill. As the layout editor, I

had the privilege of looking over every article in all stages, from first drafts to final edits. I gained the ability to identify a writer by their style. I would find myself reading Mohammed Syed’s articles wonder where he had the time to do such in-depth research, or respectfully disagreeing with Vincent Maresca’s opinions, or admiring Gabi Hunt’s work and wondering whether I could ever be as creative a writer as she is. Most of all, it is a great

feeling to see freshmen gaining their first article in print. The Envoy guarantees professional dividends no matter what position you have within the organization. I no longer feel like a passenger within the University, but an active and contributing member of the School of Diplomacy. Joining the Envoy was the best decision I have ever made and I truly believe that.

- Francesca Regalado

- Madison McHugh

- Theodore Ezike


Opinion

April 2017 Page 9

Diplomacy Suffers Under Trump Administration’s Budget By Madison McHugh Opinion Editor With the release of the preliminary 2018 budget proposal, the Trump administration has offered what can only be characterized as an elitist shift in U.S. discretionary spending. It is elitist because it detracts immediately from social welfare and progressive diplomatic agencies while boosting funding for pointless pet projects, including inflated defense spending, the infamous U.S.-Mexico border wall, and the school voucher program. Among those hit the hardest, the Environmental Protect Agency, the State Department and the Agriculture Department received cuts between 20-30 percent. Moreover, the budget eliminates funding for 19 additional agencies, including the African Development Foundation, the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness, and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, according to the Washington Post. Many of these slashed

agencies, in addition to fulfilling progressive and socially-minded missions for the betterment of the U.S. in both foreign and domestic agendas, have included job prospects, internships, and opportunities for students of Diplomacy and International Relations. However, with a Republican majority and a President who does not appear to understand the importance of diplomatic approaches, there is an overwhelming fear that students currently attending universities such as Seton Hall for diplomacy are training in the field of a fading policy approach. Even more terrifying, the minimization of key agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency (as well as the March 28 announcement of dismantling environmental protections) and the National Institutes of Health depicts a shift away from scientific investment overall. The New York Times discusses that the current NIH budget is already less than 5 percent administrative, made up of “industrious, underpaid government scientists,”

while 80 percent goes to biomedical research projects, training programs and science centers which span “nearly every district in the country.” Programs, scholarships, and grants would collapse under such cuts, and many promising scientific careers would be left behind. The same goes for the EPA whose current budget supplies nearly half of its funding to state environmental agencies and the remainder for emergency aid, research grants, and laboratories. The Defense Department, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of Veteran Affairs were the only areas that received increased funding in line with Trump’s desire to increase defense spending by $54 billion with the money cut from other agencies. However, U.S. military spending exceeds the spending of the next eight countries combined – including China, Saudi Arabia, Russia, and the U.K. among others. Trump’s border wall is more wasted money at the expense of valuable government missions.

The wall, estimated to cost between $10-$15 billion, will not be paid for by Mexico as of now (or ever). Though Mexican imports have received a 20 percent tariff, anyone who’s taken a basic economics class knows that tariffs actually hurt consumers who buy products at the higher price: in other words, the average American pays regardless, even while some low-performing competitors in Mexico drop out. Moreover, the wall may have acted as an effective rhetoric against immigrants during the campaign trail, but will not make any substantive progress towards curbing illegal immigration as it exists. Mostly because the real crisis lies in the flood of Central American asylum claims due to humanitarian crises as reported by Politico, but also because boats, airplanes, and overextended visas exist. Finally, the school vouchers program supported by the controversial Education Secretary, Betsy DeVos, aims to cut the Department of Education’s budget by $9 billion while transferring

$1.4 billion to the program that claims it will help “students in failing schools by allowing them to attend the school of their choice, public or private,” according to U.S. News. However, rather than helping students, the program is merely subsidizing costs for charter schools that already charge large attendance fees and drawing funding away from the socalled “failing” schools where there will still be students in attendance no matter who gets the claim on school choice. In addition, the paradox of failing schools begs the question on why the U.S. does not spend more money to improve existing institutions where it is needed the most. CNN reports Trump’s statements at a White House meeting where he proclaimed, “I want the American people to know that our budget will reflect their priorities…no more wasted money.” But the majority of Americans do not agree with the proposed budget at all – in fact, they would do “just the opposite,” according to the Wash-

Is Europe Losing Freedom?

By Vincent Maresca Staff Writer In light of upcoming elections across Europe, debates and discussions revolve around the future of the European Union as well as the refugee crisis. However, beyond these issues, there is discussion of the possibility that the citizens of major European democracies are gradually losing their liberties. Therefore, is there such a perpetual loss of basic freedoms? Several news reports from countries such as in France, Germany and Belgium offer examples and even suggest elements reminiscent of a dictatorship such as lack of freedom of expression, storm troopers, and an extreme secularization

of society. First, freedom of speech is under attack. In France, there is current legislation cracking down on alleged “fake news.” On February 16, Claude Bartone, President of the French National Assembly, issued controversial legislation that prohibits anyone spreading misleading online information about the termination of a pregnancy. It is punishable by up to two years of imprisonment and a fine of €30,000. Although Laurence Rossignol, the French minister for women’s rights, stated that advocates are free to voice their opposition against abortion, the law limits the right of dissent and free speech under the guise of tackling false information. Furthermore,

according to Jeanne Smits, the Paris correspondent for Lifesite News, the law has no clear definition on “who has authority to judge whether information is officially ‘misleading,’” which leaves it open to interpretation by judges as well as health and government officials. Second, the right to education is at risk in Germany. Parents are not free to provide their children a school of their choosing, potentially preventing the best education possible. As the Daily Mail reported, since 1918, homeschooling in Germany is illegal, and compulsory education is mandatory for children. One such example involved the alleged persecution of homeschoolers Uwe and Hanalore Romeike,

who fled Germany in 2008 and settled in Tennessee where they homeschooled their seven children. According to BBC News, the family faced deportation after both an appeals court and the U.S. Supreme Court denied their asylum case in 2014. However, shortly after the Supreme Court decision, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement granted the Romeikes “deferred action status” and they continue to educate their children without any interference. As the Homeschooling League Defense Association reported on operations carried out by social workers and special agents who raided on another homeschooling family and removed the children. Therefore, the

issue is more than just the freedom of education or the freedom of movement. Is there protection against unwarranted searches and seizures? Finally, the basic freedom of religion is being antagonized. According to USA Today, on March 14, the European Court of Justice ruled that employers could ban their employees from wearing religious symbols at the workplace. The Court of Justice’s decision received backlash from human rights groups and religious communities. John Dalhuisen, a director of Amnesty International, called it “an open door to prejudice.” Reuters reported that Chief Rabbi Pinchas Goldschmidt, leader of the Jewish Rabbis in Europe, stated that

ington Post. Using a “nationally representative” sample of 1,800 Americans, the University of Maryland’s Program for Public Consultation found that Republicans and Democrats alike desired decreased defense spending by roughly $41 billion, a $100 billion gap between the public and the administration. Surely, this budget is a sham – but there’s hope that it won’t last. Though the proposal will have an audience with Congress as it stands, there is a chance many aspects won’t make it through – indeed, every government agency has its representative champions, and more enjoy bipartisan support, according to USAToday. Especially after Trump’s failure to enact his healthcare bill at the expense of the Affordable Care Act, we may still see a silver lining where groups cannot agree. Now is the time to put some trust in the checks and balances of our current government; but if they fail, be sure to voice your concerns by voting in the 2018 Midterm Elections. Contact Maddy at mchughma@shu.edu.

the ruling would also apply to other religions and not just Islam. Although two Muslim women brought their case before the highest court after they were forbidden from wearing headscarves at work, the ruling applied to Muslims as well as Jews and Christians. Thus, by denying basic individual freedoms in areas such as speech, education, and religion, Europe is slouching toward a system where other issues take priority over clear human rights norms. If European countries continue along this path, then a re-emergence of dictatorial powers will occur. Contact Vincent marescvi@.shu.edu.


Opinion

April 2017 Page 10

Human Rights Council Lacks Human Rights By Aidan Dion Staff Writer Ask anyone at Seton Hall’s School of Diplomacy their opinion on the Human Rights Council (HRC) in the United Nations and you will receive an earful of gripes and concerns. At its core, the HRC is comprised of 47 nations tasked with investigating human rights abuse cases and applying citations from international law. Controversially, the basic human rights entitled to every man, woman, and child are protected by China, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt, to name a few. Last year, these states cited Israel as the grossest violator of human rights in the world. The HRC passed 20 resolutions against the Jewish state, while North Korea, Syria, Iran, and Russia received one each. If you see a problem with this discrepancy, Rex Tillerson may be your man.

Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has threatened to withdraw the United States from the HRC if there is no reform. He has been clear that human rights are and will continue to be a goal of the United States, regardless of its role in the Council. However, the United States does not want to be part of a Council that has a clear bias against Israel and appears to have no genuine desire for human rights. However, this sentiment is old news for the U.S. China, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and a litany of other members are some the most blatant violators of human rights. The United States has made efforts to reform from within, but it is becoming abundantly clear that the Council will not change via current efforts. However, by leaving the Council, the U.S. may be giving too much power to the states seen as the root of the problem.

The whole purpose of the U.S. remaining is to undermine the goals of the states biased against Israel. By voting against resolutions that may be unjust, the U.S. utilizes some saving power. This ability to intercept the vote was why the U.S. joined the Council in 2009 under the Obama administration. If the United States decides to stay in the Council, North Korea, Burma, Russia, and Syria need to be brought up more often. If we were to be overly optimistic, maybe suggestions for citing members of the Council should be brought up more. By having such members on the Council, it becomes clear that the HRC is simply a club of powerful countries coming together to acquire even more power. If the U.N. is only open to “peace loving states,” then consider making cuts.

Courtesy of Reuters

Indian soldiers carried the coffin of a colleague who was killed in an attack.

As most diplomacy students know, creating international laws that fit with local norms while enforcing justice is a huge dilemma. Tillerson is confronting this conundrum by threatening the U.S. departure. At its very least, removing the U.S. from the HRC will bring attention to problems within the council. When states on the Council are abusing their authority, the HRC is an infection the U.N., working against its mission. Leaders from Burundi, Gambia, and

South Africa have threatened their exodus from the International Criminal Court (ICC) to protest injustice. These states are leaving because they believe the ICC is unfairly pressing against African nations, while turning a blind eye or defending injustice in countries on the court. Accusations of hypocrisy, corruption, and injustice can destroy the U.N. from inside. It is good that these issues are being addressed now. Otherwise, it is a real threat that the U.N. can be

broken before repair. It is time to leave the Council or bring about serious reform in a short amount of time. The United States can maintain power in the Security Council of the U.N., NATO, and its many NGO partners. This is not a loss in the protection of human rights, but the beginning of an era for truly protecting the rights of our fellow human beings. Contact Aidan at dionaida@shu.edu.

French Elections Surrounded by Doubt and Ideological Rhetoric By Anthony Tokarz Staff Writer

Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte, who defeated populist rival Geert Wilders in his reelection campaign, has described the April French Presidential Election as the “semi-final” for the future of Europe: his own election was the “quarter-final” and the upcoming German elections for Chancellor are the “finals.” French polls expect the populist Marine Le Pen, leader of her father’s National Front Party, to win the first round on April 23 and lose the May 7 runoffs to liberal challenger Emmanuel Macron, a former Economy Minister for incumbent President Francois Hollande and the founder of the months-old En Marche! movement. The other contestants have lost public support and media attention as their odds of winning slipped. Francois Fillon, former Prime Minister under President Nicholas Sarkozy, has suffered from a scandal over the revelation that he had paid his wife hundreds of thousands of euros for a sinecure post in his administration, and his affiliation with Hollande hamstrung Socialist contender Benoit Hamon. The author of this

piece, having read many a news report and trawled his contacts list to consult French friends, expects Le Pen to win by a narrow margin. What follows is an analysis of how he arrived at that conclusion and what such an outcome might mean in the context of Rutte’s “semi-final” dialectic. One cannot understand the importance or meaning of the upcoming election without first studying recent French history and how it has affected the French psyche. Since the French Revolution, “France” has evolved beyond a nation to an idea. French politicians have sought to preserve France’s importance on the world stage as a Great Power, but they have also taken pains to present France as a propagator of human values throughout the world, especially in Europe. This notion of France as an idea led France to found the European Union following World War II. France dominated and flourished in the European Union until other nations began joining, and it has since ceded much of its authority to rivals Germany and the United Kingdom. This ceding, most pronounced under Hollande, has generated indignation quite similar to that which allowed for

Courtesy of Gonzalo Fuentes/Reuters

Emmanuel Macron speaks to the news media on his ideas to revolutionize the French political landscape.

the ascension of Charles de Gaulle in 1959: tensions at home and abroad fueled feelings of insecurity, and the French people respond by taking refuge in the empowerment of a confident and charismatic individual. De Gaulle benefited from the 1958 Algerian Crisis, during which French military hardliners in Algeria attempted a coup against the incumbent President. Today, Marine Le Pen stands poised to benefit from mounting ethnic tension, which spiked following the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo shootings, November 2015 Paris attacks, and the July 2016 Nice truck ramming. Le Pen’s militant nationalism might well reassure French voters who, along with the blocs that sup-

ported Brexit and elected Donald Trump, have tired of what they see as marginalization of national interests and the accommodation of suspect populations. Such views align with a nationalist trend in the history of French politics, and Le Pen’s promises of secession from the European Union and the resurrection of the franc echo de Gaulle’s France First and Third Way—the assertion of French interests during periods of détente between the U.S. and U.S.S.R.—and could mobilize voters in much the same way. At this point, it is worth noting that France operates under a semi-presidential system of governance, meaning that a strong chief ex-

ecutive must turn to the French parliament for support in most decisions while retaining the privilege of unilateral action in certain situations. Thus, despite his or her power, the chief executive must assemble a governing coalition to guide the nation’s policy. Le Pen benefits from an entrenched power base in the south and a 44-year history of political activism that she can leverage to garner support and project power. Macron, on the other hand, oversees a largely informal and scattered voter base through his En Marche! party, which he founded in October. The voting public will likely hold this lack of organization against him in favor of a better-organized and more developed party

such as Le Pen’s. A closing note: the people of the Netherlands reelected Mark Rutte over Geert Wilders not so much because of their problems with Wilders’s ideology or his campaign rhetoric, but because of their distaste for Wilders’s open support and imitation of Donald Trump, whom many Europeans regard with suspicion. The author of this piece suspects that, to win, Marine Le Pen need only present herself as a mature, stable, and confident candidate with the political experience to make France indispensable again, without appearing too reverent of the man that promised to Make America Great Again. Contact Anthony at tokarzan@shu.edu.


Diplomacy News

April 2017 Page 11

Beyond Mojitos and Guantanamera, DiplosTake HistoricTrip to Cuba Continued from page 5...

Courtesy of Isabel de Luna

Dr. Benjamin Goldfrank, right, with 24 undergraduate and graduate Seton Hall students in Havana’s Plaza Vieja. The author is posing with a copy of the Envoy.

munist brutal mass murderer’s mural.” Another wrote that Guevara’s mural was a “very shocking and inappropriate location for a picture,” and yet another commented that “an apology is in order to Cuban students.” Because many people vilify Guevara while still others commend him as a revolutionary hero, “neither one of these singular narratives can fully frame the complexity of the man nor the symbol his imagery has come to embody,” said Joel. “Choosing to ignore the significance of Che’s role in Cuba and, at the same time, dilute our entire experience in Cuba to a single photo is dismissive and intellectually lazy.”

“Barack Obama and Pope Francis have stood in that same spot,” said Daniel Bartley. The picture was taken as a tribute to Obama, “under whose administration this groundbreaking, educational trip became possible for us,” added Alexandra Recupero, a sophomore. “After the November elections, I was worried that the new president would reverse the thawing of U.S.-Cuba relations and make it impossible for the trip to go forward,” said Dr. Goldfrank, who planned the trip with the Joseph A. Unanue Latino Institute. Bypassing Red Tape After the syllabus was

vetted by the Diplomacy faculty and the trip approved by the Provost’s Office, Dr. Goldfrank had to contend with the Cuban government to push forward his proposed itinerary. “We had to go with an official local agency,” he said. “It was impossible to set up meetings with the University of Havana or other institutions without going through the local agency.” The first day of business began with back-toback sessions on opposite ends of the spectrum: a diplomatic briefing at the United States Embassy in Havana, and a lecture by a professor from the University of Havana on international law and Cuban labor laws. Both lec-

Abel, VallejoWin Diplo Senate Seats Josie Martinez as secretary. “I was overjoyed that the student body trusts my team and me to serve them in the best way possible,” said Simon, a sophomore English and Philosophy major. “The passion and seriousness with which our students took the SGA elections seems a fitting response to recent elections in the U.S. and globally,” Dean Elizabeth Halpin said, adding that the passion of the candidates “makes me excited for a future when our our passionate students will be our leading public servants.” The election left a few students frustrated with the results, and some had qualms about the ballot

Continued from page 1...

itself. “Kainoa Spenser had his first name up for half of the election, and no one really knows him as Christian. Everyone knows him as Kainoa,” said Chloe Whitewater, a sophomore Diplomacy major, about the Reform Party’s vice presidential candidate whose first name is Christian. Whitewater said she knew he would have been great, but that most people most likely did not realize exactly who was running. Many students were not expecting the results of the election. Emily Beres, a freshman Biology major, said she ended up voting for Amanda Moreira and Marlene Da Cruz as Arts and Sciences senators. She said she had

voted for Chris McNeil, a Diplomacy major who was running for vice president. “I know Chris from friends and as a DA,” she said, referring to McNeil’s position as a desk assistant. Other than that, Beres said she “never really had any interactions” with the other candidates. The new executive board members are “revved up to start working on our platform promises, or address any needs of the students,” said Reed, the vice president-elect. Simon said when it comes to student concerns, her team will “work diligently to ensure that their voices are heard.” Contact Mariah at mcclosma@shu.edu.

tures were “one-sided,” said Alexandra, because the Embassy representative would not answer some questions and the professor spoke defensively about the Cuban government and its record on human rights and discrimination. The students came to Cuba with the understanding that they would have to dig deeper and push harder to get honest answers not only from speakers, but also from the civilians they encountered. Even when we pushed, we were able to do so only to the limit of what the Cuban government would allow us to see. While we were there, for example, we did not know that rocks had been thrown at the Ladies in White, who protest every Sunday the unexplained disappearance of their relatives. Fortunately, Dr. Goldfrank had also invited Anthony DePalma, a former foreign correspondent for The New York Times who was the Mexico bureau chief and is currently teaching journalism at Seton Hall. Prof. DePalma frequently leads the Times Journeys tour of Cuba. “Having both Dr. Goldfrank and Prof. DePalma, two instructors who have spent their careers studying and traveling to Latin America, gave us plenty of time to reflect on our experiences as well as a better appreciation of our time in Cuba,” said Daniel. “I am still thankful for

how open Cuban locals were in our conversations,” he added. “There was no topic off the table.” “Once we were in Cuba, we encouraged students to talk to people on their own along the Malecón, at the market, and at the University,” Dr. Goldfrank said. “I think students took advantage of those opportunities pretty well.” Person-to-Person Exchange One of the better-received speakers was Jorge Mario Lopez, a professor of economics at the University of Havana whose candidness, specificity, and expertise on U.S.-Cuba relations was a refreshing change of tone. “No one asked Cubans what we want to be,” he said about the changes a full lifting of the U.S. embargo would bring. “We don’t want to become another Cancun,” he added, referring to the Mexican city by American tourists. Many students also said they enjoyed visiting Cuba Libro, the only English-language bookstore in Havana. It was founded by Conner Gorry, an American journalist and a friend of Prof. DePalma’s. Conner employs young Cubans, pays them a living wage, and uses a policy of profit-sharing and collective decision-making. “If they have money in their pocket, they might think twice about leaving,” she said, referring to the Cuban diaspora that has led

to a brain drain of youth and talent. Besides English-language books and unrestricted conversation, “Conner’s Cuba Libro provides free condoms and a free public restroom stocked with toilet paper, two things unheard of in Havana,” said Alexandra, referring to the local practice of giving bathroom attendants coins in exchange for a strip of toilet paper. She especially enjoyed Cuba Libro because she gained a pen pal in Leisi, a seamstress who frequents the bookstore. While Daniel wished the group had been able to travel outside Havana to places like Cienfuegos or the infamous Bay of Pigs, we spent a day in Las Terrazas, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve located an hour and a half outside the city. “Las Terrazas opened my eyes to a misleading portrayal of ‘sustainability’ that the Cuban government wishes people to see,” said Alexandra, whose focus is on economic sustainability. “But what I saw were bare shelves, showing that the Las Terrazas community is not sustainable because they receive rationed government subsidies.” On future trips, Dr. Goldfrank said he would amend the itinerary to include more informal, less filtered person-to-person exchanges. “I would try to find more opportunities for individuals or small groups to meet with local folks informally, perhaps by arranging home stays rather than staying in a large hotel,” he said. On our last night, the group was able to relax and unwind in the Fábrica de Arte Cubano, a sprawling art gallery-slash-nightclub frequented by millennials, both Cuban and visiting. “The conversion of an abandoned factory into a public space for people to engage with musical and visual concepts was a larger comment on the resourcefulness of Cuban culture itself,” Joel said. It was the perfect place to cap off our week in Havana, showing us the promise of a brighter future led by the Cuban youth. Contact Francesca at regalafr@shu.edu.


Diplomacy News

April 2017 Page 12

School Launches Intern Scholarship With Vatican’s U.N. Mission By Mariah McCloskey Web Editor On Ash Wednesday, the School of Diplomacy unveiled the Pope John Paul II Fellowship at a lecture by Archbishop Bernardito C. Auza, the permanent observer of the Holy See to the United Nations. The lecture, hosted by the School of Diplomacy and International Relations and co-sponsored by the Immaculate Conception Seminary School of Theology, featured not only Archbishop Auza, but also the new leader of the Archdiocese of Newark, Joseph William Cardinal Tobin. “I’m very pleased that my first act of Lenten penance is a speech at Seton Hall,” Archbishop Auza joked. The lecture, which was preceded by a Lenten soup dinner, started with a blessing from Cardinal Tobin. Directly after the blessing, Dr. Andrea Bartoli, Dean of the School of Diplomacy, announced the Pope John Paul II fellowship, an intern position reserved for Seton Hall students with the Holy See’s permanent observer mission to the United Nations. The fellowship, open to both undergraduate and graduate positions, will begin in the summer and carry on through the fall semester. Fellows will work full time, and each will receive a $10,000 schol-

arship. “Partnering with the School of Diplomacy is important because not only is it Catholic, but it is the school of the Archdiocese of Newark,” said Archbishop Auza. He added that a collaboration with the Holy See mission and Seton Hall will help not only the community’s growth, but also the student in the fellowship position to learn and develop. “The U.N. Charter’s four main pillars dovetail with the Church’s,” said Archbishop Auza on why the Holy See should be present at the United Nations. These pillars are to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. Because “war is the negation of all rights,” Pope Francis’s objective is to make prevention the highest priority, Archbishop Auza said. According to Archbishop Auza, the world listens when Pope Francis speaks “because he is a general with an army.” There are about 1.2 billion Roman Catholics in the world, according to Vatican estimates. The Holy See has

Courtesy of Francesca Regalado

Dean Andrea Bartoli, left, welcomed the Papal Nuncio Bernardito Auza and Joseph Cardinal Tobin on Ash Wednesday. Junior Tricia Boccard, right, served as master of ceremonies.

chosen to remain a permanent observer of the U.N. instead of becoming a member state. Rev. Dr. John Ranieri, professor of philosophy and director of the University Honors Program, to clarify why the Holy See has chosen to keep its permanent observer status, said the papacy was trying to maintain secularization and distinguish between the role of the church and the responsibilities of the state. “The Vatican would want to avoid taking a side, if it were a member state,” Father Ranieri said. For the Holy See, the best way to have a say

on the issues within the U.N. without having to take any political stance is to remain a permanent observer. After the lecture, the floor was opened to questions. Asked what the Pope’s goal was in recognizing the state of Palestine in 2015, as well as allowing Palestine to have an embassy in Vatican City. After dodging the question initially, Archbishop Auza ultimately said “there is no alternative to a two-state solution” in resolving the conflict between Israel and Palestine. He was then asked about the Chinese government’s meddling with

the appointment of Chinese bishops, and about traditional families. His response was to use the current Hattian method of choosing bishops, and said that if Beijing insists on pre-selecting the candidates, the Pope will insist on having at least three candidates to choose from. After the event, Cardinal Tobin was asked about the appointment of a new president for Seton Hall to replace Dr. Gabriel Esteban, who is departing for DePaul University in April. The cardinal, as the head of the archdiocese, will have significant influence on the selection process.

D.U.L.C.E. Update: March

“We have to find the most competent, conversant candidate with knowledge of Seton Hall’s character and history,” Cardinal Tobin said. To apply for the Pope John Paul II fellowship, graduate students enrolled in nine credits and undergraduate students enrolled in twelve credits can email Thomas Ashe, graduate assistant, at Thomas.ashe@student. shu.edu. The internship will begin in June and last for six months. Transportation and daily lunch costs will be covered. Contact Mariah at mcclosma@shu.edu.

School of Diplomacy Prepares to Celebrate 20th Anniversary Next Academic Year By Leah Cerilli Associate Editor The March Diplomacy United Leadership and Communication Exchange (DULCE) meeting occurred in a town hall format. Attendees enjoyed chicken wings and nachos while watching a stream of the Seton Hall men’s basketball team playing in the March Madness tournament. The discussion began during halftime. Dean Andrea Bartoli welcomed students and spoke about the 20th anniversary of the School of Diplomacy, which will be during the 2017-2018 academic year. Branding the celebration as “Diplomacy 2.0,”

Dean Bartoli reflected on the changes and transitions that have occurred over the School’s history. He hopes that the School of Diplomacy will soon become a member of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA). The School of Diplomacy is currently an affiliate member of APSIA, rather than a full member. APSIA brings together leading international affairs schools around the world, and assists members and affiliates by gathering information and sharing ideas. Membership in APSIA would greatly benefit the School of Diplomacy, attracting future students to the School

with the reputation and prestige that membership brings. Current students and alumni would have lifetime access to job postings and career fairs exclusive to APSIA members. Additionally, APSIA offers several fellowships and scholarships. Dean Bartoli also expressed a desire to increase the amount of space owned by the School of Diplomacy. Most School events are held in the Diplomacy Room, and problems arise when multiple events are to be held at the same time, or if an event requires more space. He proposed the creation of a lounge where students can meet and work with classmates and faculty.

Ideally, all these new spaces would be in the same building to create a sense of community. Next, clubs presented event updates. Matthew Minor, vice president of public relations for the Undergraduate Diplomacy Student Association (UDSA), encouraged students to attend the town hall event featuring the Student Government Association (SGA) candidates for Diplomacy senator. The event took place on March 20. Taylor Cain spoke about the penny war hosted by Seton Hall’s chapter of No Lost Generation, an organization committed to bringing attention and providing aid to children affected by the Syrian

refugee crisis. Seton Hall’s chapter will be competing to raise more money than the Rutgers University chapter from April 3 to April 7. Students interested in No Lost Generation can contact Cain at taylor. cain@student.shu.edu for more information. Madison McHugh, president of European Horizons, announced that the organization has received SGA recognition as an official club on campus. She also announced that Leah Cerilli will be attending the European Horizons’ Spring Security Forum in Washington D.C., and will lead a conference group on NATO, Common Security Defense Policy, and European humanitarian interven-

tions. European Horizons is a think tank with over 30 chapters in the United States and Europe, dedicated to setting a European policy vision for the future. She encouraged students interested in discussions, debates, and both national and international conferences on transatlantic relations to attend meetings on Mondays at 5 p.m. in the Diplomacy Room. Club members are offered the opportunities to attend conferences on Transatlantic relations taking place in the United States and Europe.

Contact Leah at cerillle@shu.edu.

The Diplomatic Envoy April 2017  

FOCUS on Narcotics Trade, SGA Elections, Study Abroad Trip to Cuba, Holy See U.N. Fellowship

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