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Volume XI Issue III

December 2017

World Leaders Forum: President of the UN General Assembly Miroslav Lajčák

New Delhi Reaches Unprecedented Levels of Pollution

Mark McGuire Staff Writer

Alyssa Futa Staff Writer New Delhi’s levels of carcinogenic pollution recently surpassed those of Beijing by 10 fold, reports Bloomberg. India’s capital, home to 200 million people, has reached a pollution level that is twelve times the recommended limit, reports Reuters. Contributions to this statistic include: “industrial smog, vehicle exhaust and dust [enveloping] the region every year as winter approaches and wind speeds drop,” reports Reuters. However, perhaps the most obvious and difficult contribution is the fact that farmers are burning the remainder of their previous crops to prepare for the next month’s plantings. Burning the remaining farm “stubble” is Continue on page 5...

Lajčák’s address kicked off this year’s World Leaders Forum.

Madison Feser Staff Writer On December 1, Seton Hall University’s School of Diplomacy and International Relations was proud to host Miroslav Lajčák, President of the 72nd session of the United Nation General Assembly (UNGA), as the next distinguished leader to speak in the School of Diplomacy’s “World

Photo Courtesy of the School of Diplomacy.

Leaders Forum.” Established in 1999, the forum has hosted Nobel Peace Prize laureates, former heads of state, ambassadors, and other world leaders. Lajčák’s address, titled “Toward a New UN,” focused on youth leadership, UN reform, and his goals for the UNGA. Lajčák began by encouraging Seton Hall students to fulfill their diplomatic passions.

Opinion: (In)justice in Puerto Rico Bianca Taipe Opinion Writer Five days after Hurricane Maria left millions of Puerto Ricans in ruins and devastation, celebrity chef José Andrés traveled to the United States territory to provide hot meals for those affected. According to the New York Times, Andrés succeeded in opening his own restaurant that has catered more meals than any humanitarian aid organization provided within the last two months. Vox reports that the islands are still without running water or electricity since the hit of the Category 5 storm in September, stirring controversy on whether or not the United States is providing sufficient aid to their territory. On November 9th, thousands unified in a

DULCE Corner

march for Puerto Rico in Washington D.C., demanding that the United States step up in their relief efforts following President Trump’s controversial visit to Puerto Rico. A video displaying Trump carelessly throwing paper towels to a crowd of Puerto Ricans casts doubt on whether or not the president genuinely wants to aid those in need, CNN adds. Celebrity and influencer Lin Manuel Miranda has been vocal about the lack of relief effort that organizations and the United States have failed to provide thus far. “I’m going to continue speaking up and helping Puerto Rico,” NBC reports Miranda said during a press conference, “I want you to know we are here en las buenas y en las malas, during the good and the bad.” The Washington Post reports that Mayor of

Inside Focus on

Absolute Monarchies Pages 6&7

San Juan, Carmen Yulín Cruz, called on President Trump for the need of immediate relief efforts, stating that he has only demonstrated “poor leadership” since the event of the natural disaster. President Trump’s energy seemed to be more focused on posting tweets attacking the mayor for her comment rather than focusing on a response to Puerto Rico’s call for aid. During a meeting with members of the House, Trump placed the blame on the Atlantic Ocean as the reason for the slow movement of supplies and relief efforts being shipped to the U.S. territory, the Independent notes. “It’s very tough because it’s an island,” Trump says. Donald Trump went even further and blamed the original “infrastructure” and poor financial Continue on page 9...

“[Being a diplomat] is more than a job, it’s more than a profession; it’s a passion, or even an obsession,” he began. “I wish all of you will fulfill your dreams and become diplomats, and help us to fulfill our dream to make this world a better place.” Lajčák made clear the value he places in twoway dialogue between the UN and the next generation of diplomats. Continue on page 11...

At the Diplomacy United Leadership and Communication Exchange’s (DULCE) November meeting, the organization’s first official town hall for the 20172018 academic year, the organization saw a large number of students come to address their pressing questions and concerns. At the meeting, students were able to address Student Government Association (SGA) Diplomacy Senators Jacob Abel and Efrain Vallejo, as well as Senior Associate Dean Courtney Smith. The town hall began with Senators Abel and Vallejo’s remarks, who provided students with information about their efforts to keep true to their campaign promises. These promises included frequent attendance at DULCE meetings, which

Suicide bomb attack on Kabul Shiite mosque.

has helped the senators stay in contact with their Diplomacy constituents through active engagement. The primary concern that the senators are working to solve is that of scheduling conflicts, which occur due to key language courses overlapping with students’ Diplomacy courses. The senators are addressing this issue by speaking not only with the deans at the school of diplomacy, but also with the deans of other schools. Senior Associate Dean Courtney Smith urged students to direct concerns regarding the Modern Languages major to their Diplomacy advisors, as a number of students were not aware of the exact requirements were for their particular plan. Noelle Sorich offered the suggestion that students check such requirements through Blackboard by Continue on page 12...

Photo Courtesy of NAN.

Suicide Bomber in Kabul Kills 15 Andrew Wilson Staff Writer On Thursday November 16, a suicide bomber detonated a blast near supporters of one of Afghanistan’s most powerful political faction leaders. The attack occurred during a gathering of the Jamiat-i-Islami party. Fourteen were killed in the latest attack on the capital, reports the Washington Post.

Islamic State Group, by means of its Amaq News Agency, claimed responsibility shortly after, reports CBS News. Officials from the Taliban have denied any role in the bombing. The New York Times reports that one of those killed was Afghan Police Lt. Sayed Basam Pacha. The bomber approached Lieutenant Pacha and his fellow officers at their heavily guarded gate, the only entrance and exit to

the compound around the hall where the event was proceeding. Lieutenant Pacha shouted at the bomber to halt, but instead the man started running. Immediately, Lieutenant Pacha tackled the man, throwing his arms around him in a bear hug. A second later, the bomber triggered the explosive vest strapped underneath his coat. Basir Mujahed, an Afghan police spokesContinue on page 8...

Int’l News


Diplo News

Diplo News

Saudi Blockade Threatens Famine in Yemen

Haitian visas and immigration fallacies

Ambassador Ross Visits SHU

Women of Diplomacy host Kosovar Ambassador

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Decembee 2017 Page 2

International News

Iran-Iraq Earthquake Leaves Hundreds Dead,Thousands Injured

The 7.3-magnitude earthquake impacted at least 14 provinces in the country.

Gabrielle Goldworm Staff Writer On November 12, a 7.3 magnitude earthquake struck near the Iran-Iraq border, injuring over 7000 people and killing over 500 more. The earthquake sent out seismic shockwaves, reportedly reaching as far as Lebanon, Israel, and Turkey, reports the Washington Post. News outlets such as the New York Times and the Washington Post are calling it “the deadliest earthquake of 2017.”

Though Iran declined any official foreign assistance, humanitarian efforts began almost immediately after the earthquake, with the World Health Organization and Turkey’s Disaster and Emergency Management Authority (AFAD) assisting in the aftermath. Iran’s supreme leader, the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei expressed his condolences and ordered government agencies to assist in the rescue and aid operations, according to the Washington Post. Despite the aid cur-

rently being provided, hardline media sources are reportedly skeptical of Iranian President Hassan Rouhani’s pragmatist government’s slow response to the crisis when compared to the aid provided by the Revolutionary Guards, according to a Reuters report. The crisis reportedly opened up a new battlefield for Iraq’s ruling elite, with media outlets allied to Rouhani’s rivals printing reports of earthquake victims still in dire need of aid. Several outlets accused the government of

Photo Courtesy of inhabitat.

failing to learn from the Bam earthquake, which killed over 31,000 people in 2003, according to Iranica Online. Rouhani’s allies have stated that the reports are an attempt to discredit him by those who oppose the President’s attempts to “boost the economy by improving Iran’s relationship with the outside world.” Meanwhile, Reuters reports that the Ayatollah has called on state agencies to speed up their humanitarian efforts, “this disaster is a test for authorities to perform

their duties.” According to Business Insider, several semi-official hardline sources highlighted the role of the Revolutionary Guards, an elite force loyal to the Ayatollah and the affiliated Basij militia group in helping the survivors of the earthquake. The Revolutionary Guard, IRGC, who also runs a business empire in Iran, have frequently criticized Rouhani for failing to improve the Iranian economy, even after sanctions against the country were lifted in 2015. Since the earthquake, concerns have arisen about the amount of seismic activity in the region. Seismologists believed the earthquake “resulted from the pressure built up between the colliding Arabian and Eurasian plates of the Earth’s crust,” according to the San Francisco Chronical, but agreed that there was a high likelihood of more activity in the region. Seismologists are well aware of many active fault lines along the Zagros Mountains, which have caused over 25,000

earthquakes over the last 11 years, but the vast majority of these were very small, and the fault that caused the November 12 earthquake has yet to be identified. Historically, the Guardian notes, earthquakes have been very costly for Iran, with poor infrastructure being the number one cause of fatalities during and in the aftermath of heavy seismic activity. In the 1990’s and again in 2003, the vast majority of causalities stemmed from collapsing buildings. On November 30, CNBC reported another earthquake, with a magnitude of 6.0, struck southeastern Iran. The extent of the damage is still unclear, but one thing is: the earthquakes are likely to continue, and Iran, Iraq, and the international community will have to prepare themselves to deal with the aftershocks.

Prince Salman Al Saud.

Photo Courtesy of White House.

A joint statement from World Food Program Executive Director David Beasley, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake, and World Health Organization Director-General Tedros Ghebreyesus states, “To deprive this many of the

basic means of survival is an unconscionable act and a violation of humanitarian principles and law.”

Contact Gabi at gabrielle.

Saudi Blockade Threatens Famine in Yemen Alyssa Tolentino Staff Writer With more than 20 million Yemenis, including 11 million children, in need of urgent aid, the United Nations is advocating a lifting of the blockade implemented by Saudi Arabia, calling the deepening crisis the worst humanitarian crisis in the world, the New York Times reports. For years, war has raged between Yemen’s internationally recognized government and the Houthi rebels who seized the country’s northwestern region and its capital, Sana’a. In 2015, a Saudi-led coalition intervened and has conducted a relentless airstrike campaign in the country to support the predominantly Sunni government and suppress the Houthis. The fight came to a bloody stalemate as Yemeni civilians are losing much-needed infrastructure, medical facilities, and their lives,

NPR reports. Even before the conflict, Yemen was the Arab World’s poorest country. Last month, Houthi rebels attempted a missile strike on an airport in Riyadh. In retaliation, Saudi Arabia imposed a near-total blockade closing all air, land, and sea access to Yemen, thus preventing food, water, and fuel to enter the country. According to NPR, Saudi Arabia justifies the blockade by claiming it is necessary to prevent the flow of weapons to rebels. At least 14 million Yemenis lack basic healthcare or access to clean water. More than 900 thousand suffer from suspected cases of cholera, a disease that should be preventable and treatable. In addition, 7 million people depend on food assistance, VOA News reports. The U.N. warns that Yemen could suffer the worst famine in decades. Of the population, the Yemeni children are hit

hardest by the crisis. According to Save the Children, roughly 130 children die every day. That is one child every ten minutes. Reuters reports that at least one million children are at risk of a fast-spreading diphtheria outbreak. Furthermore, the lives of 400 thousand pregnant women and their babies are being threatened by the lack of medicines, says Save the Children. According to Reuters, Sherin Varkey, UNICEF deputy representative in Yemen, said in a phone interview, “There is a fuel crisis. Some estimates say fuel will only last in the country for twenty days.” UNICEF is currently helping provide clean water to 6 million Yemenis by ensuring fuel is delivered to water pumping stations in cities. U.N. spokesman Stephane Dujarric released a statement saying Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has written to Saudi Arabia’s U.N.

ambassador, Abdallah Al-Mouallimi, claiming the kingdom’s failure to reopen key airports and seaports in Yemen is reversing humanitarian efforts to tackle the crisis in the impoverished country. The U.N. is urging the Saudi-led coalition to resume U.N. humanitarian flights to Aden and Sana’a and to reopen ports of Hodeida and Salif for food and medical deliveries. On November 13, Saudi Arabia agreed to start reopening some Yemeni ports and airports, Al Jazeera reports. According to Reuters, the government-controlled port of Aden has partially reopened for limited shipments of aid. According to National Yemen, Aden received its first flight after the blockade from Cairo. Yemenia Airlines official claim that flights will increase gradually. Sana’a’s airport, however, remains closed for commercial and humanitarian flights.

Contact Alyssa at alyssa.

International News

December 2017 Page 3

Myanmar: Military Commits Systemic Sexual Abuse of Rohingya Stevie Miller Staff Writer Less than three months after the atrocities against the Rohingya people began in Myanmar, Human Rights Watch (HRW) has released a report focused on the sexual violence being perpetrated against women and girls of the region. The report was released on the heels of another report by the advocacy group Fortify Rights, an organization that analyzes the background and legal framework of systemic violence in the region. Both reports are based on the testimonies of over 200 survivors who fled to Bangladesh after the military began “clearing operations” in late August. Over 600,000 Rohingya have been displaced by the crisis, which the United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein has described as “a text book example of ethnic cleansing,” according to The Washington Post. Pramila Patten, the U.N. Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict, is quoted by Reuters as saying “Sexual violence is being commanded, orchestrated and

Troops from the Arakan Army at a military training school near Laiza, Kachin State in 2014.

perpetrated by the Armed Forces of Myanmar, otherwise known as the Tatmadaw. Rape is an act and a weapon of genocide.” HRW found that Myanmar security forces “raped and sexually assaulted women and girls both during major attacks on villages but also in the weeks prior to these major attacks, sometimes after repeated harassment. In every case described, the perpetrators were uniformed members of security forces, almost all military personnel.” All but one of the nineteen rapes reported to HWR

were described as gang rape, with eight of those cases involving five or more soldiers. Six cases of “mass rape” were documented along with further acts of violence, including “a soldier killing a five-yearold girl who could not keep pace with her fleeing family, or security forces pushing older persons who could not flee back into burning houses.” Rashida Begum, a refugee native to Myanmar’s Rahkine state, told BBC News “The soldiers surrounded us and made us kneel down by the side

of the river. Then they began raping and killing. Then they tried to slit my throat. They snatched [my baby] away. They threw him to the ground and killed him.” Al Jazeera reported on the story of a fifteen-yearold girl who was dragged from her home and raped by ten soldiers. When her brother and sister came to retrieve her, they thought that she was dead. None of the interviewees received medical attention post-assault, including urgent care like emergency contraception and prophylaxis against

Photo Courtesy of Thaw Hein Htet.

HIV infection. HRW states that while Bangladesh’s government has provided sanctuary for the Rohingya people and access to health facilities, the lack of knowledge and overall social stigma has prevented many women from accessing critical care. On November 15, United States Secretary of State Rex W. Tillerson visited Myanmar and called for an investigation into “credible reports of widespread atrocities” by the country’s security forces against the Rohingya. After a meeting with

military General Min Aung Hlaing and State Counselor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, a Nobel laureate praised for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights in Myanmar, Tillerson described the conflict as “horrific” and said that there had been “crimes against humanity,” according to The New York Times. Both Myanmar’s military and civil government have consistently denied accusations of human rights violations. Internal police and military investigations in February claimed that the UN’s “documented evidence suggesting the military may have committed serious international crimes” was fabricated, according to the Fortify Rights report. Likewise, Reuters reports, the Myanmar government minister tasked with managing Rohingya refugee repatriation said that civilians may have “planned” to flee in order to give the appearance that they were victims of ethnic cleansing. Contact Stevie at stevie.

Political Upheaval in Zimbabwe Kaitlin Principato Staff Writer Robert Mugabe, the 93-year-old Zimbabwean President for almost 40 years, is currently under house arrest. “He is refusing to step down. I think he is trying to buy time,” one source close to the army leadership told BBC News. According to CNN,

military personnel took control of the state and surrounded Zimbabwean parliament, as well as the presidential palace. Political turmoil is now rampant in Zimbabwe. The newly formed conflict between Mugabe and Vice President, Emmerson Mnangagwa, ultimately led to the military patrolling Zimbabwe. Mugabe fired Mnangagwa in hopes of

Under Mugabe, life expectancy dived from 61 in 1985 to just 44 in 2002.

anointing his 52-yearold wife, Grace Mugabe, to the position of vice president, reports CNN. Ms. Mugabe is rumored to have fled to Namibia or a family compound. Although Mugabe anticipated no backlash for the ousting, Mnangagwa allowed, and even promoted, the takeover and showed full support for the military leaders. Through his 40 year

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reign, Mugabe is widely known for his election riggings and ruthless campaigning, leading to the deaths of almost 20,000 people, reports Fox News. Fox News claims that in his succession battle with the ruling Zanu-PR Party, Mugabe used various forms of violence and murder to prevail in his electoral strategy. Fox News reported Mugabe as someone known throughout Zimbabwe that “only God” could remove him from office. His poor leadership led the economy to fail drastically, leaving his people in poverty. The forfeiture of donors, as well as the violent seizures of white-owned farms, also contributed to the financial and agricultural decline. With inflation soaring, many individuals are left in starvation while Mugabe lavishes in meals. He has

not addressed these issues directly. After the hyperinflation crisis in 2010, Zimbabweans were in desperate need to find a place to keep their personal savings secure. In turn, Bitcoin became a popular site to house financial stability for the people. Effects of the upheaval caused Bitcoin prices to jump roughly $7,000 on global benchmark exchanges. Reports by Business Insider claim that Bitcoin prices on a cryptocurrency exchange in Zimbabwe called Golix had skyrocketed past $13,000 United States dollars, almost double the current value of other major exchanges such as Bitfinex. Once the inflation maximized, Zimbabwe’s currency became worthless, forcing them to accept the U.S. dollar and the South African rand. According to Eye-

witness News, Deputy President of South Africa, Cyril Ramaphosa, says Zimbabwe must use democratic and constitutional platforms to take down Mugabe. Reports by Eyewitness News also claim that Ramaphosa communicated with British Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Boris Johnson, agreeing that Zimbabwe should use fair elections to prove that no authoritarian rule has a place in Africa. China, a close ally of Mugabe, agreed to directly support the regime change in the foreign nation, the Sydney Morning Herald noted. As for other nations around the world, states are expecting the restoration of a peaceful transition of power and stability in Zimbabwe. Contact Kaitlin at kaitlin.

December 2017 Page 4

International News

Bonn Climate Conference Shows Hope for Paris Agreement Judy Koren Staff Writer November 6 leading into November 17 saw almost 200 nations gathered in Bonn, Germany for the annual United Nations Climate Change Conference. The main point on the agenda for those eleven days was solidifying the fine print of the Paris Climate Agreement. The Paris Climate Agreement was developed at the 2015 United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCC) and has since been signed by 195 nations. The only nations abstaining were Nicaragua, Syria, and the United States. According to the New York Times, “filling in the details of those Paris pledges” is of the utmost importance, as they are “voluntary, vague, and not easily verifiable.” In order to make progress much easier and clearer,

diplomats from around the globe are hoping to confirm nations’ commitment to the Paris Agreement. As world leaders gathered in Bonn, Germany, activists occupied the local coal plant near the summit. CBS says “campaigners took over a brown coal-fired power plant and called for a strong signal from rich countries on curbing greenhouse gas emissions.” The activists were hoping German Chancellor Angela Merkel could announce Germany’s decision to make a firm deadline stating their commitment to “phase out the use of coal by 2030.” Activists caused disruption to the power plant as they “occupied conveyor belts and other equipment,” reports CBS. As the climate talks took place, the Washington Post reported that just an hour’s drive away is Immerath, a town that faced “demolition, making way for the expansion of mega mines that

The UN’s climate science panel has long warned that greenhouse gas emissions need to be radically cut.

will produce billions of tons of carbon emissions in the coming decades.” This town proves the struggle Germany has to break its heavy addiction to brown coal, thus questioning Germany’s commitment to the Paris Agreement, reports the Washington Post. In the past Merkel criticized President Trump for pulling out of the agreement and encouraging the reopening of coal mines throughout the United States. France is joining Germany in the call for greater efforts to curb climate

change. The Financial Times says, “The leaders of Germany and France have urged more action against climate.” This is mainly due to the signs that the commitments made by the rest of the world will not be enough to meet the emission reduction target. The FT reported that French President Emmanuel Macron is committed to phasing out coal power by 2021, in line with previous promises, along with Merkel who believes global warming is the central challenge for mankind. Merkel claims it is crucial to see that as

of right now, the nations who signed the agreement are not on track to meet the goals. As nations abroad gathered at the annual UNFCC, the United States was not formally taking part in negotiations, although some U.S. politicians were present. According to DW Akademie, at the conference the banner “America’s Pledge: We Are Still In” has released a report delineating their commitment to accomplish the goals set out under Paris Climate Agreement. Although President

Photo Courtesy of the UN.

Trump pulled the U.S. out of the agreement, big name politicians like former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg and California Governor Jerry Brown are determined to stay at the table by spearheading America’s Pledge initiative in order to influence other governors and mayors all across the U.S. to stay committed to the Paris Climate Agreement. Seen by the COP23 community, the DW says they have “welcomed the pledge.” Contact Judy at judy.koren@

U.S.Tensions Cause North Asian Superpower Synergy Axel Sontgerath Staff Writer The Asian superpowers - China, Japan, and South Korea - have strengthened diplomatic ties in response to the Trump administration. According to The Diplomat, the main catalyst for this new-found friendliness between historic foes is the lack of consistency and participation of the U.S in world politics. Amongst the many promises that President Trump made during his campaign, one of his biggest regarding international politics was the removal of the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). This has been at the forefront of his “America First” policies. According to the South China Morning Post, Chinese President Xi Jinping, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, and South Korean President Moon Jae-In have looked at the recent presidency as one that is weakening the U.S. position as a political hegemony in the world. All three countries are feeling confident domestically, and the United States’ recent shift from a partner

Chinese President Xi Jinping and his wife pose for a photo with Donald Trump and his family.

who provides growth to a country making demands and ripping up old deals pushed all of them together to gain the upper hand on the world stage. China is the country, among the three, most poised to replace the United States, the South China Morning Post adds. They are investing billions in renewable energy, cutting-edge transportation technology and Artificial Intelligence. They are on the forefront of technology and only moving upward, while the Trump Administration is in the

process of breaking most of the U.S’ international deals and investing in coal. In addition, both Japan and South Korea are now certain that any trade agreements with Trump will lead to nowhere for their economies, South China Morning Post reports. North Asia now has no reason to look towards the U.S for a partner, when they could just look towards each other. According to The Diplomat, Xi JinPing and Shinzo Abe met on the side in a private confer-

ence on the November 11th Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation leaders meeting (APEC). The Chinese newspaper, Xinhua, reports that although the interaction was still stiff, China agreed to improve ties with Japan. Both leaders believe that their mutually beneficial cooperation will bring the two countries together and resolve the tensions that have existed between them for decades. The Diplomat reports when commenting on the matter, Shinzo Abe said: “Our meeting was held

Photo Courtesy of Xinhua.

in a very friendly and relaxed atmosphere, and I believe we had a frank and open exchange of views on international affairs, including the North Korea issue, as well as our bilateral relations. At the meeting’s close, President Xi stated that the meeting represented a new start for Japan-China relations, and I completely agreed.” Abe brought up many issues that plagued China’s public image in the world and urged Xi to resolve them in order to move forward. To add to the speculation, since the

APEC conference, Japanese and Chinese officials have been reported taking meetings with one another to discuss the strengthening of economic ties, the BBC reports. This powerful combination seems to be pushing both countries in the right direction to be the potential new world leaders. It is important to note, however, that Japan is currently attempting to strengthen security ties with the U.S. by having a quadrilateral side meeting with Australia, Japan, India and the U.S on trying to limit Chinese influence in world politics, according to The Diplomat. The Council on Foreign Relations also notes that Japan hopes to create a stable relationship with both superpowers by securing economic ties with China and security ties with the United States. With all this transpiring, evidence and trends are pointing to Japan as potentially emerging as the true winner from all this political speculation. Contact Acel at sontaxel@

International News Greece Suffers Mass Floodings

Taylor Cain Staff Writer At least 23 people are dead and 22 injured following floods in southern Greece on November 15. Six people were initially reported missing, according to the Greek Reporter. Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras declared a state of emergency for the region of Attica and three days of nation-wide mourning. Flags were flown at half-mast, including the Greek flag at the Acropolis in Athens. Flash flooding in Attica “carried away vehicles, collapsed walls, sank fishing boats and submerged a section of a major motorway,” The Independent said. The Attica region includes the capital Athens.

Many roads surrounding Athens reopened on November 16, but schools remained closed, BBC reports. The National Meteorological Services forecasted more heavy rain for the region and issued an emergency warning for the extreme conditions. Additional storm flooding on November 16 near Athens led to increased traffic, but roads remained open. At least 88 people were rescued from their homes or cars by fire services, according to the Greek Reporter. Victims were between 30 years old and 80 years old, many of the deceased were elderly individuals who were unable to escape their homes, BBC reports. One coroner said the cause of

death for the victims was drowning and fatal injuries from flood debris. Of the injured, 12 people remained hospitalized on November 16, The Independent reports, including one in serious condition. Heavy rain caused landslides and flash flooding in the districts of Mandra, Nea Peramos, and Magoula – west of Athens. Red mud blanketed streets and buildings in the Attica region, as stated in the Greek Reporter. Some residents lacked electricity and running water for days. The army and navy arranged for tankers to provide residents with clean water, The Independent reports. Lodging was provided for homeless and displaced individuals in local hotels

Grey Australia

The Yes Campaign promotes marriage equality in Australia.

Bianca Taipe Staff Writer A majority of Australians voted in support of the legalization of samesex marriage in a public opinion survey issued on November 15 according to The New York Times. Following the approval, festivities and celebration ensued from the Australian LGBTQ+ community, with people of all walks of life donning rainbow clothing and accessories in line with the pride flag. Despite 63 percent of Australians approving same-sex marriage, many citizens are frustrated with the timing of the victory. They feel that the win was delayed and only proves how the Australian people are far more ahead of the current government, The New York Times reports. The impatience for a new policy regarding same-sex marriage was clear: the turnout for the

Photo Courtesy of equality

survey was much higher than expected, with 78.2 percent of the votes coming from people aged 18 to 19, according to The New York Times. In turn, a bill has been introduced by lawmakers that will legalize same-sex marriage by the end of this year. Although many have expressed their support of this social reform, some have come out in opposition like Senator Eric Abetz. He reports his frustration to The Washington Post: “Keep in mind there are 4.8 million of our fellow Australians that actually voted no... Do we say they should no longer be heard?” While the vote was certainly momentous, it also helped to expose a rift that is present in Australian society. Not only did the decision show the defeat of both the Catholic and Anglican churches, who both strongly disagreed with the movement, but it also revealed a divide in the matter through wealth.

According to The Washington Post, the suburbs filled with working-class immigrants were in opposition to the decision while the wealthy urban areas were the strongest proponents. In addition, the Washington Post also commented on how, in a nation that becomes increasingly secular by the decade, religious freedoms are still being hotly debated. Despite the inevitable debate the vote caused, the outcome is another step in the global effort for marriage equality. As Equality Campaign spokesman Greenwich characterized the it, the vote is a victory for humanity and love as well as a victory for Australia. It is also a victory for those in the LGBTQ+ community, many of whom have been undermined and discriminated against far too long. Contact Bianca at bianca.

and a cruise ship docked by the Merchant Marine Ministry. Officials called the floods “unprecedented” and Tsipras referred to it as a “disastrous flood.” The flood is one of the worst disasters to hit Athens in decades. “The hardest-hit area was Mandra, a modest working-class district on the western outskirts of the capital,” according to BBC. Authorities said about 500 homes and businesses were damaged and the majority of casualties and injuries were in and around Mandra. “There is huge damage. Inestimable damage,” said Mandra Mayor Ioanna Kriekouki. Urban planning regulations are rarely taken into consideration for Greek

residencies. Such planning would take environmental and climate hazards into account prior to construction. A Greek lawyer ordered an investigation into the cause of the disaster, according to the Greek Reporter. Additionally, BBC said that, “experts have blamed illegal construction in the area, which obstructed the natural path for water runoff.” The Attica region lacked flood prevention measures and many settlements were built on flood beds, The Times of India reports. Flood beds are divots in the ground where water has continued to flow or low-lying areas that are susceptible to flooding. Greek urban planners decided to fill those areas with founda-

December 2017 Page 5

tion and build on top. The Turkish foreign minister offered assistance to Greece in a statement on November 16, Hurriyet Daily News reports. Bulgarian Prime Minister Boiko Borissov sent a similar message to Tsipras via telegram noting that, “with anxiety and pain, we received the news of the disaster which hit the friendly Greek people, and which resulted in loss of life and heavily material damage”. The Sofia Globe reports that Borissov also extended condolences and assistance on behalf of the Bulgarian government to aid Greece in its recovery. Contact Gabi at gabrielle.

New Delhi Reaches Unprecedented Levels of Pollution

A state of emergency could be declared to protect residents.

Continued from page 1.. a logical solution due to increasing labor costs and limited time to plant new crops. According to estimates done by the New Delhi government, they would need roughly $600 million to provide farmers with an alternative. There is debate over the source of these funds, causing a standstill in the Delhi government. Citizens and experts have criticized the New Delhi government for their largely unused city funds dedicated to combating air pollution. “The Delhi government’s response to the information disclosed by its use (or lack of) of the green fund has been as vague as its pollution control plan,” reports to the Hindustan Times. While the government stands by their controversial decision to halt working towards a solution until 2018, business runs

as usual with the government refusing to postpone the New Deli half marathon. While some events have continued, larger issues remain. Diplomats stationed in New Delhi voiced their concerns over the capital’s air quality. Costa Rica’s ambassador has already left after developing respiratory problems and other diplomats are concerned for their own health and the health of their families. Some diplomats claim that the air pollution is hindering their ability to work. As an unnamed French official stated in The Washington Post, “You cannot sit inside a room and conduct diplomacy…you have to go out and meet people.” The environmental issues the city faces are cause for great concern. The air pollution situation could pose a significant economic burden and invite devastating health costs. The Lancet Commission on Pollution and

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Health published a report in October citing pollution as the cause of over 9 million deaths, 16% of those worldwide in 2015. This is largely due to air, water, and other forms of pollution. The “lungs of non-smokers in New Delhi have begun to resemble the lungs of regular smokers,” according the Economic Times. New Delhi faces an incredible burden in addressing this issue. As officials continue to play the blame game by pointing fingers at neighboring countries and corporations for this situation, the public can only hope that their leaders will put their differences aside and work together for the sake of India’s citizens. As the Financial Times puts it, this extreme pollution is “undoubtedly a complex policy challenge; just the sort of thing strong national leadership should be about.” Contact Alyssa at alyssa.

Focus On

December 2017 Page 6

Mark McGuire Staff Writer The new head of the Saudi Anti-Corruption Committee, Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman (widely known as MBS), arrested over 200 Saudi officials in an effort to crack down on illicit dealings, according to Time. The arrests also allow Saudi Arabia’s heir to the throne to consolidate power as his ailing father, King Salman, prepares his son to take over as the head of the state. MBS’s rise to prominence is unique, partly due to the way in which he rose to power. This is because King Salman dismissed two prior crown princes, including Mohammad bin Nayef,

seen as a key ally of the United States who led Saudi Arabia’s anti-terror campaign, in order to clear a path for his son. In Saudi Arabia, which has a tradition of governing by consensus, the king’s dismissal of two potential successors was seen as highly unusual. This unorthodox ascension, TIME adds, laid the groundwork for the present developments, as MBS, having been promoted to the country’s number two position, is using his newfound power to subdue potential rivals and silence dissent. As The Economist reports, these rivals are themselves quite powerful, and include billionaire businessman Prince Alwaleed bin Talal and potential future king

Saudi Arabia

Prince Mutaib bin Abdullah. Both influential individuals were detained in the latest round of Crown Prince Mohammad’s anti-corruption purges. The ambitious crown prince’s efforts go far beyond simply trying to gain more national clout. The young leader has also expressed a desire to remake Saudi Arabia’s social and economic landscape through an initiative that he announced last year called Saudi Vision 2030, according to Politico. The crown prince’s reforms had already started to take shape under King Salman. MBS was influential in the announcement that women will be allowed to drive starting in June 2018,

The Shoura Council calls for a database on the Kingdom’s corruption cases.

Shamel Dishack Staff Writer The King of Jordan is a decisive figure in his country’s governance; his The powers extend to judicial, legislative, and executive matters. Since 1946, the nation has defined itself as a constitutional monarchy, where the monarchy does not rule alone and can be checked by the legislative branch. However, upon looking at the power dynamics closely, it becomes clear that the king’s role has more intricacies and depth. King Abdullah Bin Al-Hussein II has presided over the throne since 1999. Descending from a family whose lineage traces back to the Prophet Muhammad, King Abdullah plays a role in government that is derived from both the

constitution and religious teaching, according to his official website. Since his enthronement, he positioned himself as both a man of the people and a moving force within government. King Abdullah’s powers are formally outlined in the Jordanian constitution. In chapter four of the constitution, which deals with the king and his prerogatives, it portrays the king as the head of state with immunity from any liabilities (See Article 30). Militarily speaking, he is the supreme commander of the land, naval, and air forces (32), and has the final says in declaring war, concluding peace, and ratifying treaties and agreements (33). From a legislative standpoint, his powers include the right to ratify laws passed by the National Assembly (31),

Photo Courtesy of SPA.

the stripping of powers from the religious police, and the implementing of economic reforms, all of which are designed to make the country stronger and more prosperous. MBS also made waves for his statements on Saudi Arabia’s religiosity. Saudi Arabia, under his leadership, would return to a form of “moderate Islam” and abandon the fundamentalism that he believes has caused regional upheaval, and which he refers to as “not normal,” according to The Guardian. Further complicating the situation are the crown prince’s views on foreign policy, which focus on aggressively combating Iranian efforts to shift the regional balance of power. Though

Jordan has maintained caution towards the Syrian civil war.


as well as the right to dissolve the Chairman of Deputies, the senate, military insubordinates, the prime minister, and other ministers (see Articles 34-38). The king also has say in judicial matters, where his word can pardon prisoners, commute prison sentences, or execute a death sentence (38 and 39). Royal Decree vests these aforementioned powers in him. Concerned ministers can countersign every decree, to which the king can express concurrence by signing above their signatures. These aforementioned decrees do not require advice from government. Recent Amendments to the constitution have given the king more powers. In 2016, it was reported that a series of amendments gave the king the sole authority to

most Saudi officials agree that Iran is Saudi Arabia’s chief rival and number one security threat, as Foreign Policy reports, a number of officials also believe the crown prince to be too impulsive in making crucial foreign policy decisions. This has led to questions regarding the crown prince’s handling of the kingdom’s Yemen intervention, the Qatari diplomatic crisis, and the Lebanese political crisis. MBS, who is 32, would make the first prospective king not to be born of the nation’s founder Ibn Saud, the most pivotal figure in Saudi Arabia’s recent history. As The Atlantic notes, the prince’s success depends on his ability to simultaneously consolidate

appoint the crown prince, members of the Constitutional Court, commander of the army, and heads of intelligence and Gendarmerie, reports ConstitutionNet. Al-Jazeera mentions that the king can now make royal appointments without any nomination process or Council of Minister’s signatures. The constitution also constructs a government that relieves the king of any burden that may arise from miscalculated and/ or unpopular moves. When domestic relations grow sour, the ministers and heads of the intelligence departments incur all responsibility. The king, for the most part, is absolved of any legal repercussion. In essence, the Jordanian system combines a powerful king with immense legislative power, and a cabinet that bears all responsibility

power, stymie dissent, reshape the country socially and economically, and pursue a high-risk foreign policy against Iran. If effective, the leader will be hailed as a visionary and a hero. If not, Politico notes, the future of Saudi Arabia and the stability of the region may fall victim to the prince’s alleged impulsive and overreaching tendencies. Either way, only time will reveal the ultimate outcome of the crown prince’s plans, but one thing is certain – change is in Saudi Arabia’s future. Contact Mark at

Photo Courtesy of Christopher Phillips.

for the King’s actions, reports ConstitutionNet. International relations in Jordan involve the presence of the king., especially in media coverage, which has become especially relevant in the periods that witnessed the formation and rise of the Islamic State, Time reports. He is seen by the west as a reliable ally in a region defined by mixed alliances and Machiavellian moves. The United States, specifically, regards King Abdullah II as an important figure in Middle Eastern policy, reports Foreign Affairs. Despite the King’s position in Jordanian rule of law, he seems to exercise extreme caution when operating. Knowing that he reigns over a nation surrounded by danger and riddled with structural and economic problems, he has become versatile in knowing

when and when not to directly involve himself, reports the Council on Foreign Relations. He knows when to distance himself from the government enough for the people to see him as a speaker of the people, and when to invest heavily into reshaping the government. The monarchy has a decisive presence in the Jordanian ways of life, and its influence plays a role in policymaking and beyond. King Abdullah II takes on functions that are far from being titular, and will exercise the powers bestowed upon by the constitution. Contact Shamel at

Absolute Monarchs

December 2017 Page 7


as Umhlanga, is where King Mswati has selected numerous previous wives, reports BBC. One such instance was in the case of Phindile Nkambule, who was 17 when she became Mswati’s 13th wife, reports BBC. At the time of his coronation, King Mswati III became the youngest world leader at the age of 18 in 1986, according to United Press International. His immense power and wealth are the result of his early efforts to consolidate power, effectively abolishing his advisory board, appointing his own prime minister, and implementing nepotistic policies, News24 reports. Upon reaching the tender age of what is

considered legal adulthood in the United States, these girls are inducted into the household of the richest and most powerful man in land. As the last king of Sub-Saharan Africa, Mswati enjoys unrivaled political power and wealth, according to the New York Times. According to TradingEconomics, Swaziland has a GDP of $3.72 billion as of 2016, while Mswati holds $200 million in personal wealth according to AllAfrica. His personal wealth, however, remains separate from the expenditures he justifies as pertaining to the state. For example, he recently purchased a $13 million A430-300 Airbus,

King Mswati III has ruled Swaziland’s one million inhabitants since 1986.

Photo Courtesy of Africatime.

Felipe Bueno Editor-in-Chief The Umhlanga Reed Dance of 2017 marked a monumental occasion for King Mswati III of Swaziland, the 49-yearold absolute monarch of the African Nation, who chose Siphele Mashwama, a 19-year-old girl who attended the reed dance, to be his 14th wife, reports AllAfrica. The Reed Dance is an annual tradition that attracts young unmarried women from all parts of Swaziland to the Ludzidzini Royal Village to pay homage to the Queen Mother, according to the Kingdom of Swaziland. The dance, commonly referred simply

at a time when about one in four of Swaziland’s 1.3 million population was in extreme danger of hunger due to the prolonged drought in the southern Africa region, reports AllAfrica. Additionally, with his supreme legal authority, Mswati was able to increase his annual household budget by by more than 10 percent to $61 million in 2014, reports the Guardian. Instances like the purchasing of a private jet can be viewed as negligent, while other policies are simply oppressive. While still being an absolute monarchy, Swaziland is also a chiefdom where chiefs are appointed by the king to represent him in local communities. Often times, as was the case

recently in the Southern Hhohho region, families are fined for not attending community meetings and paying ‘homage’ to their local chief, reports AllAfrica. The fine of $64, equivalent to a cheap parking ticket in the U.S., is detrimental to a Swazi family, who must rely on less than $2 a day, reports AllAfrica. The People’s United Democratic Movement (PUDEMO) remains Mswati’s most vocal opposition party, calling the decision to purchase his airliner “corrupt” and “insensitive.” According to PUDEMO, the money could have been used to pay for “2,500 students to finish their degrees at the university from

Bolkiah has the political power to steer Brunei however he pleases.

1st year to 4th year. The same amount can pay for 42,500 children to start form one up to form five in public schools,” reports AllAfrica. Hypocrisy is not new to Mswati’s spending habits, or his royal decrees. Days before selecting Phindile Nkambule to be his 13th wife, Mswati issued a decree prohibiting sexual relations with girls under the age of 18. This decree was an attempt to stymie the spread of AIDS, as 40 percent of the Swazi population is HIV positive. Contact Felipe at

Photo Courtesy of Michael Goodine.

Brunei Daniel O’Shea Staff Writer Brunei and its monarchs stand out as the epitome of luxurious rule. The southeast Asian country, despite a strict implementation of sharia law, has a royal family that is fond of conspicuous spending on cars, clothing, and orgies. The small nation, with a landmass equal to that of Delaware, has been governed by absolute monarch Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah since the nation gained its independence in 1968. Following its attainment of political sovereignty, Brunei industrialized, gaining immense wealth. The sultan himself amassed a vast fortune of nearly $20 billion, reports Forbes. Brunei’s monarchy, while playing a large role in the nation’s development, garnered inter-

national attention by becoming embroiled in numerous legal battles involving extravagant spending on jewelry, property, women, cars, and alleged white slavery, writes People. According to Business Insider, the Bolkiah family lives in the second-largest palace in the world. Sultan Bolkiah and his brother, Prince Jefri Bolkiah, are said to collectively own 2,300 cars. Prince Jefri, often referred to as the “playboy prince,” writes the Independent, is the owner of a luxury Yacht named “the tits” which includes two tenders named “nipple 1” and “nipple 2.” The New York Post alleged that the brothers were known for their sex parties and immodest interactions with countless women, some of whom were underage. The brother’s lavish

lifestyle began to capture the media’s attention when the details of their spending began to cross ethical lines. According to People, former Miss U.S.A. Susan Marketic accused the Kingdom of Brunei of emotional damages for what she called “white slavery,” after being hired to make an appearance in the King’s palace. Despite her employment’s vague details, Ms. Marketic traveled to Brunei for $3000 a day in 1992 for modelling and promotional work, reports People. Upon her arrival she was allegedly forced to dance for hours on end, while allegedly being subjected to groping, vulgar insults, and being drugged by the kingdom’s elites. Despite a history of similarly promiscuous allegations, with the Philippine senate investigating allegations that

girls were being lured to Brunei for sex in 1993 according to People, the most prolific Bruneian legal battle remains an internal conflict. In recent years, Sultan Bolkiah and Prince Jefri became entangled in a legal battle over the alleged misallocation, or theft, of $40 billion over the span of almost twenty years, reports Newsweek. Prince Jefri, once the Sultan’s financial minister and right-hand man, came under an independent investigation for the disappearance of $40 billion of “special transfers” between 1983 and 1998, according to Newsweek. Prince Jefri created an intricate network of Shell companies and offshore holdings in order to disguise these special transfers, and transform what were originally state investments into personal holdings, reports

Newsweek. In 2008, after moving abroad to escape indictment, Prince Jefri was pursued around the world – from London to Paris – by a Bruneian legal team. After failing to comply with British authorities, a warrant was issued for Prince Jefri’s arrest. Despite the two brother’s personal lifestyles, in May 2014, the Sultan, who was reportedly becoming more religious, implemented sharia law, writes Business Insider. This drastic change established Brunei as the first East Asian country to implement such legal restrictions. The code contains, according to the New York Post, penalties such as amputation and stoning for various offenses including theft, adultery, and homosexual intercourse. According to Reuters, most of the laws apply to

non-Muslims which, for Brunei, include thousands of Christians and Buddhists. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights has since condemned the code of law for its tortuous penalties and reckless use of the death penalty. The story of two adulterous brothers with the personal wealth of a small nation highlight the issue with an over-centralization of wealth and power. Additionally, the subjugation of a nation to hypocritical laws as a result of an eclectic change of heart highlight the potential instability of a non-democratic form of government. Contact Daniel at

December 2017 Page 8

International News

Trump Administration Adjusts Policy in Palestine Vincent Verdile Staff Writer United States officials recently announced that the Palestine Liberation Organization Mission in Washington D.C. could not stay open. This decision stemmed from a strict interpretation of U.S. law by Secretary of State, Rex Tillerson, reports by The Washington Post. This provision, according to Tillerson, was violated when Palestinian President, Mahmoud Abbas, called on the International Criminal Court to investigate and prosecute the Israeli government, during a speech to the United Nations in September. Reported by ABC, the initial response from the PLO was plain-spoken, as Senior Palestinian negotiator Saeb Erekat accused Washington of “bowing to the pressure of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.” The Israeli government responded by stating the decision was “a matter of U.S. law.”

Continued from page 1.. man, said that there was no doubt the death toll would have been much higher without the Lieutenant’s body to smother the blast, reports the Telegraph. Said Mujahed, “He’s a hero, he saved many lives… Just think if that suicide attacker got past the gate, what would have happened – you cannot even imagine [sic].” General Sayed Nizam Agha is Lieutenant Pacha’s father and a police commander. The Telegraph reports that he wept while recounting his son’s story over the telephone, saying “my son sacrificed himself to save other people.” The hall had been rented for a political meeting to show support for a senior party official, Atta Mohammed Noor, a former militia leader and governor of the Northern province of Balkh. A number of former Jamiat militia commanders, as well as former cabinet minister, Abdul Sattar Murad, and parliament

Just a week later, the Trump Administration adjusted their position on the situation, stating the law specified the PLO mission could remain open for 90 days while President Trump considers whether or not Palestine is in “direct and meaningful negotiations with Israel,” reported by ABC. PLO Official Hanan Ashraewi responded, saying the United States was “disqualifying itself as a peace broker” because of their refusal to extend a waiver from law regarding the statements made in September. Furthermore, President Trump’s decision after the 90 days is “superfluous” because there are currently no peace negotiations between Israel and Palestine. Initially reported by NBC News, in tandem with the Trump Administration’s adjustment, the U.S. is now moving the U.S. Embassy from Tel-Aviv to Jerusalem. According to The Washington Post, President Trump’s son-in-law and

advisor, Jared Kushner, continues to develop a comprehensive peace plan that has rumored to be complete within the coming months. Moving the U.S. Embassy recognizes Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, something Palestine refuses to acknowledge or accept. Given the risk of moving it, President Trump has already renewed the six-month waiver on the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 this past June. Stated by NBC News, Ilan Goldberg, director of the Middle East security program at the Center for a New American Security, believes the move will “kill the possibility of a peace deal anytime soon.” Furthermore, as Jerusalem is a holy site for not only Judaism but Islam as well, in addition to further angering Arab states. Having been accused of Islamophobia in the past, President Trump recently retweeted videos posted on twitter by the Deputy Leader of Britain First, Jayda Fransen, of

Closing the PLO mission could be an obstacle to peace.

a “fringe British ultranationalist group,” according to The New York Times. These videos depicted apparent violent acts by Muslims, but at least one of the videos was proven to be false and merely propaganda. Prominent far-right InfoWars editor Paul Joseph Watson took to Twitter to say “retweeting

Photo Courtesy of the Palestine Poster Archives.

Britain First is not good optics.” While British Prime Minister Theresa May sharply stated, “the president was wrong to have done this,” while also denouncing Britain First for “dividing communities with hateful narratives,” reports The New York Times. This dilemma only adds to the division

Suicide Bomber Strikes in Kabul

Suicide attacks are a weekly occurrence in the heavily fortified capital of Afghanistan.

member Hafiz Mansoor were in attendance. Mansoor stated that around 700 supporters of Atta were present at the conference, reports CBS News. Atta has criticized Afghanistan’s National Unity Government, as well as President Ashraf Ghani. Although some suspect that the attack may be tied to the unity

government, many Jamiat party members occupy high positions in the administration, including Abdullah Abdullah, the government’s chief executive. Atta has made many enemies inside the current government and been accused of many abuses. Despite this, he still commands a loyal following in the Northern region according to the

Washington Post. Atta was not at the hotel and had not been expected to attend the event, stated party officials. Hours after the attack, he appeared on his private TV channel to announce that “some government circles” were responsible for the attack and provided no further elaboration. The Washington Post

Photo Courtesy of NAN.

reports that the United Nations special representative for Afghanistan, Tadamichi Yamamoto, addressed the attack as “totally unacceptable.” It was “an act of terror and a serious violation of international law,” he stated. “The use of explosive weapons in civilian-populated areas must stop.” Shamsul Haq Arianfar, a senior Jamiat mem-

and may push the Trump Administration away from sustaining peace talks between the Muslim and Jewish worlds. Contact Vincent at vincent.

ber, was quoted in a telephone interview by the Washington Post as saying “the function had come to an end, and people were having lunch when the blast was heard.” He said that many of the hotel’s windows were shattered, and that people fled out windows and the back door, fearing that more gunmen would enter the building. The attack marks the second deadly bombing to target a Jamiat function in the past six months, according to the Washington Post. In late May, a truck bomb exploded in Kabul’s city center, killing more than 150, including the son of a Jamiat party legislative leader. The following day, a suicide bomber struck his funeral, killing seven. Contact Andrew at andrew.

Opinion A New U.S. Plan for Afghanistan Aidan Dion Staff Writer When Donald Trump became president, he strongly advocated for changes in foreign policy in Afghanistan, something liberals and conservatives both wanted after ten years seemingly spent in vain. This demand for a new plan has now attracted the attention of a former Navy Seal turned entrepreneur. Erik Prince founded a private military corporation that received many contracts during the war in Iraq, subsequently running thousands of missions a year. According to the Wall Street Journal and New York Times, he believes that the use of private military contractors would achieve the U.S. goal of peace, save over $10 billion a year, and use far fewer boots on the ground. At first this may sound like a crazy idea. The U.S. public does not have a taste for “mercenaries” or the associated liability. However, I can honestly say I like aspects of his strategy. With some minor changes, if executed perfectly, it could be the

answer the U.S. seeks. However, I also find its razor-thin margin of error makes it unaccetpably risky. Nonetheless, while his plan may be farfetched, I think there is something for everyone to learn from his articles and strategy. Prince raises many issues concerning the efficacy of the U.S.’ current policies and methods of fighting wars. His main point - that how the military spends money can be improved - can be agreed on by any political party. Individual soldiers and sailors see little of the benefits of a massive defense budget plagued by graft, Prince noted on CBS News. Private contractors could do the same job as the military at a much cheaper cost. For long-term sustainability, Prince suggests training Afghan nationals to enforce the new government. Currently, commanders sent to advise are on nine month deployments. When the advisor leaves, he takes his experience and knowledge of the area with him. Prince’s plan would maintain a team of contractors working alongside Afghan com-

manders for 2-3 years at a time, providing stability. A “viceroy” would be put in charge of the whole country, small teams of contractors would be used at the battalion level, and deployments would be over a year. This is a total overhaul of the current strategy. Erik Prince has been called a monster, war profiteer, and criminal, notes the Washington Post. Whatever one thinks of his morality, he does clearly point out severe shortcomings we face in Afghanistan and similarly Iraq. To many of these problems, he proposes reasonable solutions that should open up a greater dialogue among the American people. Thus far, President Trump has chosen to continue using U.S. soldiers while relying on information from the ground as it is received. It looks like some of us, or even our children, may one day have our heels in Kandahr chasing Taliban. Contact Aidan at

December 2017 Page 9

(In)justice for Puerto Rico

Satellites acquired imagery of Hurricanes Maria (bottom) and Jose (top).

Continued from page 1.. standing of Puerto Rico to be most responsible for their current disastrous state. Refusing to step up in relief efforts is wrongful considering that nearly 4 million U.S. citizens currently reside on the islands. They deserve to be regarded as a priority rather than a burden to the U.S. Since President Trump’s statement on the country’s inability to provide aid for Puerto Rico “forever,” the answer to who will help those gravely affected is unknown. Despite being granting $4.9 billion in loans as part of President Trump’s relief bill, Puerto Rican Governor Ricardo Rossello stated that the U.S. territory needs “$94 billion in disaster aid for infrastructure, housing and long-term recovery.” In

FELIPE BUENO Editor-in-Chief

GABRIELLE HUNT Managing Editor


ANDREA BERMAN Associate Editor

ISLA LAMONT Opinion Editor



EVA RIAN Co-Layout Editor

fact, 93 percent of Puerto Rico now has access to water yet only 63 percent of the island’s power has been restored, reports PBS. Frustrated with the manner Trump has dealt with Puerto Rico’s relief efforts, the Mayor of San Juan has urged Puerto Ricans who have fled to Florida to vote Democratic in 2018, reports The Stranger. On November 29th, the mayor also expressed her gratitude to the “American people” for Puerto Rico’s recovery on Stephen Colbert’s late night television show. The fight in support of Puerto Rico’s rebuilding still continues, with artists and influencers using their platform to vocalize the oppression of the Puerto Rican people and the lack of efforts provided to the U.S. ter-

DR. COURTNEY SMITH Faculty Adviser This publication is made possible through the generosity of the Constance J. Milstein, Esq., Endowed Fund.

The views expressed in The Diplomatic Envoy are those of the writers and are not intended to represent the views of the School of Diplomacy, Seton Hall University, or the CJM Fund.

For more information on sources, go to

Photo Courtesy of NASA Earth.

ritory. Demonstrations have been most effective in the rebuilding of the U.S. territory, with the demands for government action to be taken. Since the disaster over 140,000 Puerto Ricans have fled to the U.S., PBS reports. The fight for Puerto Rico is ongoing. Illinois Representative Luis Gutierrez announced his stepping down from office so that he can focus entirely on the rebuilding of Puerto Rico, CNN reports. While we have not seen the same energy or response from other members of Congress or even from President Trump, it is clear that Puerto Rico continues to face injustice in receiving humanitarian aid from the U.S. Contact Bianca at bianca.


Aidan Dion Alyssa Futa Alyssa Tolentino Andrew Wilson Axel Sontgerath Bianca Taipe Catherine Doolan Daniel O’Shea Gabrielle Goldworm Judy Koren Kaitlin Principato Madison Feser Mark McGuire Nathaniel Purtell Shamel Dishack Stephanie Miller Taylor Cain Vincent Verdile


December 2017 Page 10

Haitian Visas and Immigration Fallacies

Many Haitians cannot receive US visas.

Taylor Cain Staff Writer Acting United States Secretary of Homeland Security Elaine Duke announced the termination of temporary protected status (TPS) for Haitians living in the United States on November 20. More than 59,000 Haitians who legally live and work in the U.S. have 18 months to self-deport before the July 22, 2019 deadline. At least 27,000 of those Haitians have children who were born in the

Photo Courtesy of

U.S., VOX reports, which leaves families to grapple with the impossible choice between immigration status and keeping families together. TPS is a unique immigration program in which the U.S. admits nationals from countries that are experiencing civil war, environmental disaster, epidemic, or other extraordinary conditions, as defined by the U.S. Customs and Immigration Services. With TPS, individuals cannot be removed from the U.S., cannot be deported or

detained based on their immigration status, and are eligible for employment. Nationals from ten countries have TPS designations: El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, Nepal, Nicaragua, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Syria, and Yemen. The program is meant to help nationals while their respective countries recover from political, economic, social, and natural disasters. Haiti received TPS on January 21, 2010, nine days after the devastating earthquake which

killed more than 316,000 people and displaced 15 million people. President Donald Trump’s administration justifies anti-immigration policies, such as ending TPS for Haitians, with the lump of labor fallacy and the incorrect narrative that immigrants are “taking our jobs.” Immigration is not a causal mechanism for job loss. TPS nationals, DREAMers, migrant workers, refugees, and asylees are not causing unemployment in the U.S.. As outlined by Slate Magazine, job competition is the result of many factors: outsourcing for cheaper labor, workers being replaced by code or programming, legal barriers for job seekers with criminal records, lack of geographical opportunities, lack of demanded skills, shrinkage of industry, and employers unwilling to meet employee wage demands. Business Insider reported that decades of

studies have shown no correlation between immigration and declining employment or wages. The fallacy that labor is a zero-sum game assumes the number of jobs is fixed, but the economy has improved since 2010 and the number of jobs has increased. The New York Times adds that immigration disproportionately impacts lowskill, labor-intensive jobs and high-skilled STEM jobs – the latter spurring innovation and job creation. Forbes outlines the incorrect assumption that immigration hurts economic growth through Japan, which is in an economic crisis and a shortage in its labor force with little immigration and a low birth rate. The National Academy of Sciences said, “Immigration supplies workers, which increased GDP and has helped the U.S. avoid the fate of stagnant economies created by purely demographic

forces – in particular, an aging workforce.” The Small Business Association said “Immigrant business owners make significant contributions to business income, generating $67 billion of the $577 billion in U.S. business income” and generate almost 20 percent of business income in New York and New Jersey. Highly skilled immigrants positively contribute to long-run economic growth. The New York Times Magazine concludes that “immigrants [represent] long-term benefits at no measureable short-term cost.” The lump of labor fallacy was disproved by a mass migration of 125,000 Cuban immigrants (45,000 were of working age) to Miami in 1980 which increased labor supply by seven percent but “had no measurable impact on wages or employment.” Contact Taylor at

Trump’s Opportunity to Rebuild America - Middle East Relations Catherine Doolan Staff Writer President Trump’s decision to visit Saudi Arabia as the first leg of the inaugural foreign trip of his presidency demonstrated his interest in strengthening American relations within the Middle East. In his address at Riyadh, President Trump stressed that the United States is “…not here to lecture… instead, we are here to offer partnership – based on shared interests and values – to pursue a better future for us all.” President Trump clearly differentiates himself from neoconservatives and war hawks who cite a desire to promote American democracy and ideals through intervention. President Trump also noted that the U.S. will not be guided by “inflexible ideology,” but will only seek gradual reform in areas such as human rights. In his speech, President Trump established common goals between the U.S. and Middle Eastern partners such as eradicating ISIS, stabilizing the region,

ending humanitarian crises, increasing mutually beneficial commerce, and creating new socioeconomic opportunities. Focusing on the future, President Trump in his address stressed how the U.S. will support its Middle Eastern allies, especially when overcoming the evils of terrorism, but that Middle East must take ownership of its own issues and decide what kind of future their people desire. It is not even a year into President Trump’s presidency, but if he abides by the priorities of his Riyadh address, he definitely can strengthen relations and improve American perception in the region. Later on in the trip, President Trump visited Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in Israel. Unlike his predecessor, President Trump promoted strong relations with Israel and pledged that the U.S. will support Israel and its shared values. After voicing support for the two-state solution to address the long lasting Israeli-Palestinian conflict, President Trump is adopting the practical strategy of directly

engaging with both Israel and Palestine, which makes peaceful and meaningful negotiations more likely. Ignoring or showing hostility towards one of the parties, such as Israel, will not help in making progress toward a peace settlement. By the current decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, the Trump administration continues to show its commitment to the region. President Trump has shown promise in his Middle Eastern foreign policy through his new strategy of re-commitment in Afghanistan, which will prevent it from becoming a safe haven for terrorism. He also conducted an airstrike last April against a Syrian airbase in retaliation for a chemical attack on Khan Sheikhoun, which devastated hundreds of civilians. This act greatly contrasted President Obama’s failure to act in Syria after the “red line” of usage of chemical weapons had been crossed. Some have criticized President Trump for de-certifying the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA),

which is the diplomatic agreement governing the Iranian Nuclear program, considered a major diplomatic success for the Obama Administration. However, Iran is not seeking peace and stabilization in the region. U.S. Secretary of Defense James Mattis and other officials have discussed Iran’s sponsorship of terrorism in the region. In her speeches to the United Nations Security Council, U.S. Ambassador Nikki Haley has frequently referenced Iran’s destabilizing action in the Middle East through support of proxy groups such as Hezbollah. Iran also continues to engage in aggressive military behavior against American naval vessels in the Persian Gulf, imprison American citizens without fair trials, and make serious threats

to destroy the “Zionist regime” of Israel. The worry persists that even though Iran has obliged by all JCPOA safeguards on its nuclear programs, the nation may be capable of attaching a nuclear warhead to a ballistic missile. Considering the alleged sponsoring of terrorism and threats made against states such as Israel, greater surveillance and pressure must be put on Iran. By calling upon Iran to cease its destabilizing activities, the U.S. will gain the respect of nations such as Saudi Arabia and other Gulf nations. In his Riyadh address, President Trump noted that until the Iranian regime ceases its destabilizing actions, that all “nations of conscience must work together to isolate Iran, deny its funding for terrorism and pray for

The U.S. and Israeli leaders laugh at a joint news conference.

the day when the Iranian people have the just and righteous government they deserve.” If President Trump abides by the principles he referenced in his Riyadh speech, he will have the opportunity during his presidency to improve America’s relations with the region. Despite the U.S.’ past complicated relationship with the region, showing commitment to addressing issues that truly concern the American people will facilitate achieving foreign policy goals. Allowing Middle Eastern partners to own their issues and decide their own future with America’s support is a viable strategy. Contact Catherine at catherine.doolan@student.

Photo Courtesy of Carlos Barria.

Diplomacy News

December 2017 Page 11

World Leaders Forum: President Miroslav Lajčák Continued from page 1.. Not only is he hosting an event in May regarding the engagement of young people, but Seton Hall is also the first university on Lajčák’s college tour aimed at engaging with students about their concerns and suggestions for improving the UN. “I don’t like the sentence ‘you are leaders of tomorrow’,” he says. “You are leaders of today. You are here today. And we need to hear your voices, but you must also make sure your message gets across.” Lajčák’s focus on the necessity of youth involvement resonates well with the message that the School of Diplomacy instills into its students. “I especially enjoyed his [Lajčák’s] almost stern invita-

tion of you people to lead now,” Dean Andrea Bartoli told the Envoy. “That message resonates beautifully with the School of Diplomacy and its mission to have our students lead now, and not later.” Having addressed the future of youth leadership, Lajčák continued by discussing the future of the UN itself, its methods for development, and its capacity to adapt. “The world is changing, and we [the UN] must change with it; we cannot just ignore change,” he later added, “The UN must adapt to stay relevant.” If the UN cannot, or does not, adapt to the changing world, it will be unable to fulfill its mission. With the United States pulling out of UNESCO and, more recently, announcing it will leave the UN’s Global Com-

pact on Migration, questions have been raised regarding the efficiency and even necessity of the UN. During the question and answer session, Lajčák admitted that the question of UN relevancy is one that keeps him awake at night. A world without the existence of the UN or similar body is often unsettling to think about, especially for diplomats. The UNGA is the only arena where countries can gather on equal footing to discuss major threats to peace and security. From small committees to the General Assembly itself, wide varieties of opportunities exist for cooperation. Even so, Lajčák did not shy away from addressing problems within the UN. “We have to acknowledge where there

have been times in history when the UN wasted its potential, there are times when the UN response was not strong enough, and did not go far enough,” he told the audience. “When the UN came to the rescue too late or did not come at all. There are times when the UN stood by when crimes were committed and did not act, or those crimes were committed under the UN flag.” Lajčák reminded the audience that in order to improve the UN, we must look at times when it has failed, and see what tools were available but went unused. The UN is not reaching its potential, but Lajčák says the potential is vast, and it can be reached. In an effort to reach this potential, this session of UNGA is based

around Lajčák’s theme “Focus on People,” and will address five major issue areas: peace and conflict resolution, immigration and migration, global development, human rights and gender equality, and UN reform. However, when speaking on reform within the UN, especially in the General Assembly, some found Lajčák’s speech lacking. Most notably, Diplomacy students who spoke with the Envoy expected the President to address reform in the field of UN Peacekeepers and the Security Council. However, as Lajčák mentioned in his address, the UN can only remove peacekeepers from their positions, as it is their country, not the UN, that has legal jurisdiction over them. Regarding the Secu-

rity Council, Associate Professor at the school of Diplomacy Dr. Martin Edwards reminds us that Lajčák has authority over the General Assembly, not the Security Council. “The Security Council is not a process of his,” Professor Edwards told the Envoy. “He has to be careful because he speaks for one body [UNGA], and is held accountable for what he says about that body.” Professor Edwards also told that Envoy that, personally, he would have liked to hear more specifics on UNGA reforms; namely regarding the rise of populism and what is being done within the UN to protect the rights of the global LGBT community. Contact Madison at madison.

Ambassador Ross Speaks on the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process Gabi Hunt Managing Editor On November 12, Ambassador Dennis Ross spoke to the Seton Hall community at the seventh annual Dr. Marcia Robbins Wilf Lecture. Amb. Ross, who is currently a counselor and William Davidson Distinguished Fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, has over two decades of diplomatic experience, which includes serving under five U.S. presidents and working closely with the Middle East peace process. His lecture, “The Peace Process and the Fate of Jerusalem’s Jews, Christians and Muslims,” was not only a testament to his extensive experience negotiating and brokering multiple deals regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, but also an apt way to commemorate the legacy of Sister Rose Thering, a former Seton Hall administrator who was dedicated to improving interreligious understanding. The lecture was graciously sponsored by the Dr. Marcia Robbins Wilf Endowment, in conjunction with the Sister Rose Thering Fund for Education in Jewish-Christian Studies. Amb. Ross began the

lecture by asking audience members whether they believe there is a religious dimension to the Middle East peace process. Many hands in the room immediately shot up. Amb. Ross went on to explain that he would be approaching the discussion of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in a way he never had before: from a religious perspective. He went on to describe why understanding the religious dimensions of the peace process is so important to grasping where it has succeeded and failed. To begin, he explained that the U.S. presidents who were most determined to help (and subsequently made the most strides in mediating the conflict) were motivated by a “religious imperative,” citing Presidents Roosevelt, Carter, Reagan, and Clinton. “Carter prayed upon the peace process,” he added. However, implementing a religious approach to the peace process has been hindered by both the visibility of only radical religious figures (i.e. Hamas), and the erasure of collective memory distinctly linked to group religious identity. Amb. Ross pointed to the example of Yasser Arafat insisting, during the Camp David negotiations, that a

The Sister Rose Thering Fund invited Ambassador Ross to speak at SHU.

“temple didn’t exist in Jerusalem.” To Amb. Ross, Arafat’s claim not only challenged the Israeli political position, but also “called to question the Jewish faith”—demonstrating Arafat’s lack of seriousness towards the prospect of peace. Overall, Amb. Ross emphasized that in the Jewish faith, “to save a life is to save the world,” which makes being a peace seeker the highest position a person can occupy. Further, he discussed how a similar incarnation of this concept is present in the Quranic tradition as well. Therefore, recognizing these similarities in religious objects are necessary to propelling the peace process—to “taking the sovereignty” out of things, and restoring that sovereignty to God. In addition to discussing his perspective on tak-

ing a more religious approach in the Middle East peace process, Amb. Ross helped deconstruct the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is seen by many as particularly daunting and complex. When asked what makes the conflict “different” from other ethno-sectarian ones, he responded that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is different because it is “not abstract.” People on both sides know people who have died as a result of the conflict. The conflict is not something that occurs outside of the lives of the people it impacts, but rather is a part of their daily lives. He went on to point out that on both sides, there are not only “profound grievances” in reaction to each other’s actions, but also “profound existential rights.” He poignantly stated, “Nothing is more challenging than

Photo Courtesy of Nrbelex.

feeling like your identity is being threatened.” The competition for self-determination that underlies the conflict makes members on both sides feel that the future of their identity is perpetually at stake. In addition to discussing the specifics of the conflict, Amb. Ross also offered some advice on negotiation in a pre-lecture discussion to Diplomacy students. He emphasized the necessity of weighing secrecy with transparency when negotiating, arguing that setting the groundwork and expectations for negotiations is necessary for creating sustainable policy. When asked about the influence President Trump’s Twitter use has had on diplomacy, he lamented social media’s instantaneous nature taking away meaning and deliberation from negotiation.

Some of the most profound lessons for students came through when asked what makes a good negotiator. Amb. Ross said that negotiators must possess the following attributes: a high level of curiosity, the capacity to be an active listener, the ability to ask questions in a way that reveal a desire to understand, and the willingness to learn everything there is to know about the “people you’re working with and the political context.” Most importantly, though, negotiators must have a capacity for empathy, and a grounding sense of humility. “Don’t think you know it all,” Amb. Ross warned. “Don’t fall in love with your own assumptions, because negotiation will show you what you don’t know.” Contact Gabi at gabrielle.

Diplomacy News

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Women of Diplomacy Host Kosovar Ambassador Teuta Sahatqija Madison Feser Staff Writer “Excluding one gender is like working with one hand...The result will be half the work, that’s why we need to include women in all decision making institutions.” With these words, Kosovar Ambassador Teuta Sahatqija encapsulated the message of her presentation, entitled “Leadership Roles of Women in Transitional States.” Her Excellency spoke to the Seton Hall community on November 29, addressing the role of women in the Republic of Kosovo following its declaration of independence from Serbia in 2008. The School of Diplomacy has long had a strong relationship with Kosovo since the country’s independence;

it was integral in training the first Kosovar diplomats in the field of international relations. During her presentation, Sahatqija focused on two major factors that facilitate the advancement of women in political leadership positions: aherence to quotas and coalition building. “If you want to achieve gender equality, of course you cannot work only with women,” she says. These coalitions allow women to build what Sahatqija calls a critical mass - a body of women advocating for gender equality despite political differences. The Cross Party Women’s Caucus of Kosovo allows women to set political animosity aside when advocating for gender equality. Even Serbian women are now entering the Caucus,

Sahaqija spoke with students. Photo Courtesy of School of Diplomacy.

despite the “negative energy” between Serbia and Kosovo that has persisted since the Kosovo war. Coalitions of women do not have to be on a state level to be effective.“The Women of Diplomacy build a coalition around the cause of empowering and lifting up women to become ambitious and successful professionals,” Dean Halpin noted. After creating coali-

tions, such as the Cross Party Women’s Caucus and WDLP, Sahatqija says the next part of the alliance can begin by bringing in like-minded men. Regarding those who may disagree with gender equality, the Ambassador advises leaving them behind. Kira Williams, a student representative from the Stillman School of Business Women’s Leadership Program, told the

General Assembly First Committee: Insider View Catherine Doolan Staff Writer While interning at the Permanent Observer Mission of the Holy See to the United Nations through the School of Diplomacy’s St. John Paul II Fellowship Program, I attended the meetings of the First Committee of the General Assembly from September 28 to November 2. The First Committee addresses issues relating to disarmament and international security. For this year’s session, debate focused on crucial disarmament topics, such as the role of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in the current international disarmament regime. This year the committee also addressed the recent July 2017 adoption of the Treaty Prohibiting Nuclear Weapons. The Committee also heard debate on hot button security issues that often dominate international news, such as allegations that the Syrian government violated international commitments and resorted to chemical attacks in combating rebellion and terrorism. Many delegations reflected on U.S. President Donald Trump’s de-cer-

tification of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action governing Iran’s nuclear program. During the debate, I particularly enjoyed watching the Holy See promote Pope Francis’ major diplomatic tenet of international peace for humanity’s sake. The Holy See condemned both the arms trade and increasing production of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction, which threaten any prospect for a more peaceful world. Many nations that do not possess nuclear weapons praised the recent adoption of the Treaty Prohibiting Nuclear Weapons, particularly praising its unprecedented nature and mechanisms that provide nuclear-equipped states the means to disarm in an irreversible manner. Major Powers that do possess nuclear weapons, such as the United Kingdom, Russia and the U.S., stated that the Treaty Prohibiting Nuclear Weapons was unrealistic and undermined obligations from preexisting disarmament treaties— complicating the entire international disarmament regime. Delegations condemned North Korea’s nuclear program, citing

its threat to international peace and security, ability to destabilize its region, and flagrant violation of various UN Security Council resolutions. The heated debate between the U.S. and Russia was quite interesting. At times, the debate reminded me of post-World War II international relations, as the U.S. often had the support of the United Kingdom, France and its other NATO allies. Russia criticized the aggressive actions of these nations and controversially defended the Syrian government from allegations that it used chemical weapons against its own civilians. Many former Soviet republics, such as Ukraine and Georgia, strongly condemned what they considered military aggression and unjustified intervention in their domestic affairs. Hostilities between Middle Eastern states were often very apparent. Many nations called for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East, similar to the nuclear-weapon-free zones existing in Latin America and the Caribbean under the Treaty of Tlateloco and in Southeast Asia under the Treaty of Bangkok.

Middle Eastern countries condemned Israel’s nuclear activities and its refusal to submit its arsenal under international safeguards, which they stated threatened the security and stability of their region. Some states even accused Israel of supporting terrorism. In response, Israel stated its need to defend itself in an insecure and threatening regional situation. Israel described how oppressive regimes, terrorist groups and state sponsors of terrorism support the illicit arms trade, which has devastating consequences for civilians. Israel accused Iran of using proxy organizations to promote extremist ideology and destabilization. Iran denied all accusations of sponsoring terrorism and touted its compliance with international safeguards as part of the Iran Nuclear Deal. Overall, the chance to partipate in the First Commission debate, work with disarmament experts, and write the Holy See’s Final Report on the meetings was a unique experience that allowed me to truly witness diplomacy firsthand. Contact Catherine at catherine.doolan@student.

Envoy that this message of building coalitions of like-minded people was especially important. Williams noted that “we have to first support ourselves before we are able to support others.”Halpin had similar feelings regarding the importance of working together to achieve a common goal. She told the Envoy that if audience members took away one message from Sahatqija’s visit, she hopes it would be coalition building. In Kosovo, for a political party to be accredited for a parliamentary election, it must have 30 percent of the less-represented gender—normally women—in its membership. This, of course, raises questions of quantity over quality, and if these quotas promote true gender equality. Whenever journalists

bring this debate to Sahatqija’s attention, she pointedly responds with “do you think 70 percent of men [in parliament] is equality?” In analyzing election systems at Dartmouth College, Sahatqija found that in each consecutive election following the implementation of quotas, women get more of their own votes, and won reelections based on those votes, rather than quotas. Prior to leaving, Sahatqija gave one last piece of advice: “To unite women, to achieve gender equality, you must define your goal, make alliances, and make a strategy—make a path. Then you just walk.” Contact Madison at madison.

DULCE Corner Continued from page 1.. accessing their specific university catalogue edition through the “U-Life” course tab. Caroline Hall inquired about having diplomacy-related organizations represented at open houses to promote extracurricular opportunities more overtly. Mark McGuire suggested using the Liaison Initiative to promote this effort starting as early as next semester. Senator Abel shared an encounter he had with a Board of Regents member who asked why more students did not come to large university events to see acclaimed speakers and professionals on Seton Hall’s campus. In light of this question, Senator Abel informally polled students in attendance with respect to what means of communication they find most effective. The leading answer in the poll was email, but more information will be gathered to better contact students. Those present, including Dean Smith, emphasized the need to take RSVPs seriously, stating that there is no excuse to RSVP and not come to an event without emailing the event coordinator. Dean Smith emphasized that ensuring attendance

confirmation is conducted in a professional manner is an important part of professional development. The idea of providing incentives to students for participating in School of Diplomacy events was also broached. This range of this system included the possibility of providing extra credit opportunities, to a complementary dinner with Dean Bartoli, to a point system. The meeting was concluded with an update on the results of an interest poll that was conducted. Results showed that students wanted to host peacebuilding personnel on campus most of all among the listed poll choices. The idea of a joint DULCE-GDC effort to host a cocktail night featuring alumni also came up as a means of promoting a sense of community within the School of Diplomacy. Contact Mark at

Dec 2017 envoy  
Dec 2017 envoy  

FOCUS on Absolute Monarchs, UN General Assembly President Miroslav Lajcak's Visit to Seton Hall, Political Upheaval in Zimbabwe, Military Co...