封閉世界的設定集 Atlas of the Closed Worlds

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「封閉世界的設定集」以情境規劃的角度展開研究,不限定於漫長時間軸 中的歷史事實,所有的環境變化與想像都包含其中。自歷史與小說描述的 事件集合成一系列資料,透過亂數生成不同的封閉世界情境,開發出更多 反烏托邦的想像。 計畫受演化生物學的島嶼法則啟發。此假說設想,島嶼的孤立環境⸺諸如 資源短缺或天敵消失⸺將促成物種進一步演化出新的機能與樣貌。特有種 的誕生與滅絕,關係著環境與外界的隔離和連接。研究首先關注科幻小說 中異己接觸的主題,影射地理大發現期間與原住民的遭遇,以及東亞海禁 與鎖國的歷史。封閉的界線可被破壞,也可重組,作為一種保護策略,如 同面對疾病時的檢疫政策,它亦毒亦藥。貿易保護主義與民粹主義的興 起,以自己(國家)優先的浪潮掀起貿易衝突、關稅壁壘,所築起的邊界 正形塑著下個封閉情境。不論在現實或是虛構中,接觸之下的邊界演變, 往往只留下單一視角的描述,但在接觸當下共寫故事的物種,卻都成為敘 事裡「無聲的存在」。 「封閉世界的設定集」模擬著一位在地球上搜集封閉世界概念的異星訪 客,它試圖在島嶼的地理特質與特定世界觀中找出關聯。在閱讀這份資料 時,它認識到了地球是一座黑暗虛空中運動的島嶼,此觀點映射著地球物 種的生存環境,以及人類社會中的結構演變。在最終,它為這顆行星島嶼 提供的狹隘世界設定集配上關鍵的時間、地點與對象,找出物種始滅的節 奏,也為未來的宇宙提供一份生態熵的牽引指南。

Through the approach of scenario planning, Atlas of the Closed Worlds unfurls extensive research, stretching beyond historical facts along the long river of time, and including a cornucopia of changes in the surroundings and myriad imagined possibilities. Events from history and novels are amalgamated into a repository of information, generating different closed worlds through random numbers, evoking dystopian fantasies. This project is inspired by the island rule in evolutionary biology. The hypothesis posits that an isolated environment, like an island, with a lack of resources or the disappearance of natural enemies, would prompt species to further evolve, developing new functions and assuming new appearances. The birth and extinction of an endemic species correlate with the isolation and connection between its habitat and the outside world. The project’s research first focuses on alien contact in science fiction, alluding to the encounters with the aborigines during the Age of Discovery, as well as the sea ban and closed country approach enforced in East Asia, which was a series of isolationist policies restricting maritime trading with other countries. Closed boundaries can be broken or rebuilt. As a protection strategy, closed boundaries — like quarantine measures during a pandemic — can be a double-edged sword. The rise of protectionism and populism has led to a wave of trade conflicts and tariff barriers that foregrounds the “our country first” mentality; boundaries are being drawn only to shape the next “closed country” scenario. Whether in reality or fiction, changing boundaries upon contact often only leaves room for a single perspective that tells a one-sided story, but the species that has helped cowrite the story upon the moment of contact, invariably becomes a silent existence in this narrative. Atlas of the Closed Worlds simulates a scenario where an alien visitor who has arrived on Earth with a mission to gather information on closed worlds, while attempting to find a connection between the geographical characteristics of an island and particular worldviews. Upon reading this atlas, the alien realizes that Earth is in fact an island that operates amid the dark void. This perspective reflects the living environment of terrestrial species, as well as the structural evolution of human society. Ultimately, the alien matches critical points in time, places, and subjects with the narrow atlas of worlds provided by this planetary island, and identifies the extinction rate of the species, offering at last a guide of ecological entropy for the universe in the future.

Wu Chi-Yu

吳其育 1986年生於台北。作品的基本關懷在於找尋如何在被技術-資本主義摧毀 的廢墟中重建人、事物、動物與世界連結的方式。其創作主要以動態影像 為主,透過口述歷史與傳說的紀錄進行文本的再製,在逝去的記憶中尋找 當代敘事的語言型態,同時也進行裝置、影像裝置與表演等不同類型的合 作計畫。 近期參與的聯展包括「液態之愛」(台北當代藝術館,台北,2020)、上 海雙年展「禹步」(上海當代藝術博物館,上海,2018)、「穿越正義: 科技@潛殖」(台北當代藝術館,台北,2018)、「黯戀」(Para Site, 香港)、2016台北雙年展(台北市立美術館,台北,2016)、第二屆 CAFAM未來展(中央美術學院美術館,北京,2015);影展包括北京國際 短片聯展(2017)、EXiS Festival,(首爾,2017)、Arkipel Festival (雅加達,2016),曾舉辦個展「時間91平方米」(TKG+ Project,台 北,2017),並曾進駐於荷蘭皇家藝術村(Rijksakademie,阿姆斯特 丹,2014-2015)。 http://www.wuchiyu.com/

主辦 Organizer|

展覽贊助 Exhibition Sponsor|

立方計劃空間 TheCube Project Space

台北市中正區羅斯福路四段136巷1弄13號2樓

Wu Chi-Yu born in 1986, is an artist based in Taipei, Taiwan. Chi-Yu’s work has long been focusing on re-establishing the connections among humans, things, animals, and the ruined world left by technic capitalism. His practice revolves around the moving image, looking for contemporary narratives in lost memory through the reproducing of oral history and myths. He is also involved in different collaboration projects of installation, video installation, and performance. The exhibitions he once participated include: Liquid Love (MoCA, Taipei, 2020); 12th Shanghai Biennale: Proregress, (Power Station of Art, Shanghai 2018); Trans-Justice (MoCA, Taipei, 2018); Crush (Para Site, Hong Kong, 2018); Taipei Biennial (Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, 2016); The 2nd CAFAM Future Exhibition (CAFA Art Museum, Beijing 2015). His films have been screened at Beijing International Short Film Festival (2017); EXiS Festival (Seoul, 2017); Arkipel Festival (Jakarta, 2016). He had a solo show: 91 Square Meters of Time (TKG+ Project, Taipei, 2017) and was a resident

artist at Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten (2014-2015).

製作贊助 Production Sponsor|

http://thecubespace.com

本空間由國藝會、台北市文化局、RC文化藝術基金會、文心藝術基金會、陳泊文先生等贊助營運

TheCube Project Space is sponsored by NCAF, Department of Culture Affairs, Taipei City Government, RC Culture and Arts Foundation, Winsing Arts Foundation and Chen Po-Wen.

封閉世界的設定集-吳其育個展

Atlas of the Closed Worlds - Wu Chi-Yu Solo Exhibition

2021.5.8-7.11 (Wed~Sun 2-8PM)


封閉世界 Closed world

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#放大 #blowup

大規模監控 Mass surveillance

#工程 #engineering

馬爾薩斯, 《人口論》 Thomas Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population

#封閉世界 #closedworld

漢番界碑 Hans-Aborigines Boundary Marker

#界限 #limitation

海禁 Haijin (Sea Ban)

#地圖 #map

#接觸 #contact

鴉片戰爭 Opium War

道光蕭條 The Daoguang Depression

#感染 #infection 黑死病 Black Death

光榮孤立 Splendid Isolation

太平天國 第二次霍亂 Taiping Rebellion Second cholera pandemic

第ㄧ次霍亂 Asiatic cholera

麻豆溪事件 Moa-Tau Creek Incident

#漂浮島 #floatingisland

劉明燈碑 Admiral Liu Stele

穆爾塔圖里, 《馬格斯・哈弗拉爾》 Multatuli, Max Havelaar

清法戰爭 Sino-French War

南岬之盟 Treaty of South Cape

無夏之年 Year Without a Summer

#瘴氣 #alienair

坦博拉火山爆發 Eruption of Mount Tambora

沃德箱 Wardian case

摩爾定律 Moore's Law

堺屋太一, 《油斷!》 Sakaiya Taichi, Yudan!

大日本賽璐珞株式會社 Dainippon Celluloid Company

異域物種形成 Allopatric speciation

于光遠, 《一個哲學學派正在中國興起》 Yu Guangyuan, A Philosophical School is Rising in China

限界集落 Genkai shūraku (marginal hamlet) by Akira Ono

娥蘇拉・勒瑰恩, 《一無所有》 Ursula K. Le Guin, The Dispossessed

公平貿易認證 Fairtrade International

島嶼法則 Island Rule by John Foster

宮崎駿, 《風之谷》 Miyazaki Hayao, Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind 王家祥, 《小矮人之謎》 間斷平衡 Wang Jia-Siang, Myth of Negritos Punctuated Equilibrium by Niles Eldredge and Stephen Gould

樟樹造林 Afforestation of stout camphor trees

巨樟神木 Sacred Camphor Tree

阿米塔夫・戈什, 《加爾各答染色體》 Amitav Ghosh, The Calcutta Chromosome 一胎化政策 One-child policy 金・史丹利・羅賓遜, 《米與鹽的年代》 Kim Stanley Robinson, The Years of Rice and Salt

代謝派 Metabolism

羅馬俱樂部, 《成長的極限》 The Club of Rome, Beyond the Limits

莎韻落溪 Sayon, aboriginal female fell down to river and eent missing

石黑一雄, 《別讓我走》 Kazuo Ishiguro, Never Let Me Go

301調查 Special 301 Report

大阪萬博 Expo '70

馬歇爾計劃 Marshall Plan

華萊士線 Wallace's Line by Thomas Huxley

葉言都, 《高卡檔案》 Ye Yan-Du, The Gaoka File

杜魯門主義 Truman Doctrine

1918年流感大流行 1918 flu pandemic

台灣樟腦株式會社 Taiwan Camphor Co.

瑪麗・雪萊, 《最後一人》 Mary Shelley, The Last Man

中文房間 Chinese Room

昭和金融恐慌 Showa Financial Crisis

陶德, 《北台封鎖記》 John Dodd, Journal of a Blockaded Resident in North Formosa

以撒・艾西莫夫, 《聯合縮小軍續集:腦內大進擊》 Isaac Asimov, Fantastic Voyage II: Destination Brain

網際網路 Internet

《莎韻之鐘》 Sayon's Bell

第二次世界大戰 World War II

斥和碑 Anti-appeasement Steles

羅發號事件 Rover Incident

愛倫・坡, 《紅死魔的面具》 Edgar Allan Poe, The Masque of the Red Death

出島建立 〈瘴氣山水歌〉 Dejima was built 孫元衡, Sun Yuan-Heng, The Odes of Miasma and Landscape

螢幕配額制度 Screen Quotas

《1930年關稅法》 Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act

威廉・吉布森, 《神經漫遊者》 William Gibson, Neuromancer

娥蘇拉・勒瑰恩, 《世界之意即森林》 Ursula K. Le Guin, The Word for World is Forest 人類登月 Moon landing

#森林 #nativeresources

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1347

封閉/開放世界年表

1629 1641

1754

圖:吳其育

1815

1816

1820

文:陳璽安、吳其育 編輯:許修豪

A 1815年,印尼坦博拉火山的大爆發讓火山灰籠罩整個北半球。接下來的一年則 是歷史上著名的無夏之年,歐洲與亞洲都有飢荒的紀錄。當時,被連綿不絕的

大雨困在日內瓦的瑪麗・雪萊(Mary Shelley)與一群哥德作家們開始發展關於 世界終結的寫作與科幻的想像。在科幻世界的敘事設定中,讀者可以接受未知 事物沒有任何原因地突然到來,或者倏忽地從世界上消失,科幻的開端確實也 是如此。也許,末日科幻確實能代表兩百年前人們的心情,因為在這場災難之 前,歐洲才因為莫斯科的焦土戰,得以從多年的拿破崙戰事中脫身,卻在氣溫 驟降的年份,同時見證亞洲的霍亂流行。

The Chronicle of Closed / Open Worlds

1826

Image: Wu Chi-Yu

1840

1842

1868

1883

1896

1919

1922

B

19世紀的倫敦籠罩在工業革命的重度空污中,連花園裡的植物都難以存活。倫 敦居民開始嘗試用密封玻璃箱 ⸺ 沃德箱(Wardian cases)⸺ 以隔絕外界污 染,並意外發現這不但可行,而且還能夠使用於跨海航運植物。在大規模的跨 域旅行中,原本只能短暫存活的茶樹種子,與無法適應長時間海上旅行的幼 苗,在行動溫室中透過水氣循環得以長期存活。自溫帶歐洲行至熱帶地區的人 們,在無法適應不同溫、濕度空氣的情況下,將生物樣態的差異與文明連結起 來。來自於溫帶歐洲的理性思維無法接受熱帶地區的種種環境徵候,熱帶氣體 中的微生物,連帶將其中的異種物質,皆被視為破壞理性世界的致病因子。

Text: Chen Zian, Wu Chi-Yu

A In 1815, the powerful volcanic eruption of Mount Tambora—a volcano located in present-day Indonesia—produced an enormous amount of ash that shrouded the Northern Hemisphere, which caused a period of significant climate change in the following year known as the Year Without a Summer. Records showed widespread harvest failures and famines across Europe and Asia. At the time, Mary Shelley and a group of Gothic writers trapped indoors in Geneva by persistent heavy rain started developing speculative writings about the apocalypse and their science fiction imagination. In a science fiction universe, certain narrative presuppositions of the universe allowed readers to tolerate sudden inexplicable appearance or disappearance of the unknown, which well mirrored the formative phase of science fiction. Perhaps apocalyptic science fiction indeed illustrated people’s state of mind two hundred years ago. Right before the volcanic catastrophe, Europe that had been weary of a prolonged period of upheavals eventually got away from the Napoleonic Wars at the expense of a burnt-down Moscow city, only to witness Asia plunged into the abyss of cholera pandemics at around the same time during the following years of lowered global temperatures.

1860

Editor: Shiu Shiou-Hau

B London in the 19th century suffered from severe air pollution consequent to the spread of the Industrial Revolution. The air was so noxious that even garden plants could hardly survive. Some Londoners began using fully-glazed cases—Wardian cases—to protect plants from external pollutants. They then accidentally discovered that these cases not only worked for the said purpose but also found great use in transporting plants by watercraft across the oceans. With the new Wardian cases, tea plant seeds and tender young plants previously unable to endure long, large-scale sea journeys across different regions could be set on deck to benefit from the moisture circulated within the mobile greenhouse that kept them watered and alive. People who traveled from Europe, a temperate zone, to tropical areas and who had difficulties adapting to a new environment with different temperatures and humidity levels were inclined to associate the variations in ecosystems with that in cultures. Symptoms showing that temperate European minds were incompatible with tropical regions further enhanced their perception of microorganisms and alien entities found in the tropical air as etiological agents that could subvert the rational world.

1927

1938

1943

1945

1947

1860年,荷蘭官員穆爾塔圖利(Multatuli)發表了小說《馬格斯・哈弗拉爾》 (Max Havelaar),詳述印尼殖民地政府的定植制度以及稅收代理制度所引發 的系統性貧困。小說帶來的改革最終讓當地定植制度走入歷史,也在之後影響 40年代的印尼獨立運動,甚至在80年代成為公平貿易的象徵。1857年,同樣面 臨殖民印度正當性危機的英國則以比較法學的發展,依照每個地區不同的風俗 發展出差異化的治理,來調解容納特殊宇宙論的習慣法和普遍主義的民法。事 實上,正是由於定植制度、稅收和所有權等法律問題,移住民才能夠創造出原 住民的身分。在季風驅動的世界史尺度之下,隨著異地制度而產生了碰撞;我 們是否能透過這樣的關係建構過程,重新閱讀陳耀昌以1860年代,台灣「南岬 之盟」為背景的《傀儡花》?

C

In 1860, Dutch colonial officer Multatuli published Max Havelaar, a novel detailing systemic poverty in Dutch East Indies induced by the colonial government’s implementation of the cultivation system and a tax collection system in which the collecting agents were paid by commission. The reform brought about because of the novel eventually ended the local cultivation system. It further impacted the Indonesian National Awakening in the 1940s and even became a symbol to call for fair trade later in the 1980s. In 1857, the British empire that also faced challenges against the legitimacy of its colonial rule over India, on the other hand, developed nuanced modes of governance according to regional specificities and resorted to the study of comparative law to negotiate conflicts between common law systems that could accommodate particular world views and civil law systems that stressed universalism. In fact, it was exactly through these legal issues such as the cultivation system, taxation, and property rights that the settlers prompted the native’s identity into formation. Throughout the course of world history propelled by monsoons (in Southeast Asia), we see inevitable clashes that came with encounters between foreign systems. In light of the aforementioned multilateral dynamics, could we re-read Chen Yao-Chang’s Lady Butterfly of Formosa, a novel set in Taiwan in the 1860s and based upon the “Treaty of South Cape”?

陳冠中, 《建豐二年:新中國烏有史》 Chan Koon-Chung, Jianfeng Year 2 an Alternative History of New China

次貸危機 Financial crisis of 2007–2008

王家祥, 《倒風內海》 Wang Jia-Siang, Daofeng Neihai

玉岡薰, 《鈴木商店的當家娘》 Tamaoka Kaoru, Oiesan

宮崎駿, 《魔法公主》 Miyazaki Hayao, Princess Mononoke

太平洋垃圾帶 Great Pacific garbage patch

CGTN, 《大豆的獨白》 CGTN, Monologue of a Soybean

日韓貿易戰 Japan–South Korea Trade Dispute 2019新型冠狀病毒 COVID-19 pandemic

吳明益, 《複眼人》 Wu Ming-Yi, The Man with the Compound Eyes

巴代, 《笛鸛:大巴六九部落之大正年間》 Badai, Sorceress Diguwa

史蒂芬·史匹柏, 《第三類接觸》 Steven Spielberg, Close Encounters of the Third Kind 劉慈欣, 《三體II:黑暗森林》 Liu Cixin, The Three-Body Problem: The Dark Forest

1965 1969 1970 1972 1974

C

中美貿易戰 China–United States Trade War

張夏準, 〈莫三比克迎戰老大哥〉 Chang Ha-Joon, Mozambique Takes on the Big Boys

史丹利·庫柏力克, 《2001:太空漫遊》 Stanley Kubrick, 2001: A Space Odyssey

開放世界 Open world

英國脫歐 Brexit

1984

1987 1988

1993 1996

1997

1999

D

作家巴代(Badai)在《巫旅》中藉布農靈媒之視野,寫了一場史詩般的植物戰 爭。延伸巴代的思路,也許真正的巫旅應是樟樹與其他更多物質之間的鬥爭 史。曾遍佈台灣中低海拔丘陵地帶的樟樹為獵場的形成提供了絕佳的環境。移 住民奪取樟樹,同時也掠奪多個物種:使獵人迫遷或成為工人,原先台灣犬與 原住民一度建立起的夥伴關係也因為槍枝管制和日本犬的引進而遭受衝擊。在

接近一個世紀的濫伐後,樟樹沒了便開始種植低矮的茶樹。到了1916年,日殖 政府甚至開始預想樟樹或許會因此滅絕,並展開造林計劃。不難想像當時樟腦 產業興盛的程度,特別是考慮到樟腦銷售起家的鈴木商店,其財務危機之大, 曾引發了日本歷史上的昭和金融恐慌(Shōwa financial crisis)。戰爭期間, 日本的電影政策要求專賣局對富士公司特供樟腦,提升本土膠卷的產能,並用 以拍攝一系列映畫國策下的電影。也許,《巫旅》中的樟樹靈最終成了由樟腦 製作而成的膠卷。

D

In Witch Way, writer Badai has fabricated a grand epic narrative of wars between plants—through the eyes of an indigenous Bunun spirit medium. Given Badai’s thoughts, the real witch way/journey could be understood as the history of camphor trees fighting against other entities. Widespread camphor trees once covered Taiwan’s middle-lower altitude hill ranges and provided a perfect environment for developing hunting grounds. Settlers exploited camphor trees and at the same time looted many other species—forcing hunters into displacement or into becoming laborers. Moreover, the existing close bond established between Formosan dogs and indigenous people took a serious hit upon the implementation of gun regulations and the import of Japanese dogs. After nearly a century of forest exploitation, small bushes of tea plantations stood in place of disappeared camphor forests. It was not until 1916 did the Japanese colonial government entertain the possibility of camphor tree’s eventual extinction and start afforestation programs. How significant the booming camphor industry was at that time could be easily imagined. Take the Suzuki Trading Company (Suzuki Shoten) as an example. The company founded and flourished with Taiwanese camphor business once faced a major financial crisis so severe that it even resulted in the Shōwa Financial Crisis in Japanese history. During the war, Japan’s film industry policies demanded the Monopoly Bureau of Taiwan Governor General Office provide camphor specifically to Fujifilm in order to increase Japan’s local production of film rolls. These film rolls were then used in the shooting of movie series encouraged by the national motion picture program. Perhaps the spirits of camphor trees in Witch Way had eventually become film rolls made of camphor.

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

登陸月球背面 Lands on far side of the moon

2015

2018

2019

2020

E

巴塔耶(Georges Bataille)曾於《評論》期刊(Critique)上,針對戰後的馬

歇爾計劃是否為一種帝國部署,舌戰法國經濟學界。其著眼點基於普遍經濟

學,認為美國本身的積累早已超過無法再增長的規模,必須透過這一政策,將 國家的財富贈送出去。巴塔耶崇拜太陽,認為太陽提供萬物生長;相較之下, 人類的勞動行為本質上並非積累,純粹就是在消耗過剩。不過,也許真正能夠 準確代表美國的國家視野的並不是太陽,而是石油。馬歇爾計劃之後,對於石 油能源永不枯竭的錯誤認知,一度促使人們認為資本主義能夠無限增長。堺屋

太一(Taichi Sakaiya)策劃的1970年大阪世博會正是日本宣告標準化規模生產 的高峰。但另一方面,70年代也發生過兩次的石油危機,同時也是作家的堺屋 太一於1976年發表了描繪著炭基能源枯竭場景的科幻小說《油斷!》

(Yudan!),便是自現實事件得到靈感。科幻小說成為人們對於未來想像的投 射。而70年代的石油危機也引發台灣開決定推動半導體產業的政策。

E After Georges Bataille published his opinions about the Marshall Plan in the journal, Critique, heated debates were sparked off in the circle of

French economists about whether the plan was a type of imperialistic arrangement. Based upon what he called general economy, Bataille argued that the excessive and non-recoverable part of the US’s economy—the surplus—was destined to an outpouring of the country’s wealth that must be spent through this plan. Bataille admired the sun, for it sustained the growth of all organisms with the superabundance of energy. Contrarily, human being’s labor was not accumulative in its essence but an act to simply consume surpluses. Nonetheless, what might accurately stand for the US’s national vision was not (the abundance model of) the sun but (the scarcity model of) petroleum. After the Marshall Plan, the growth of petroleum-based economy prompted people to believe in the infinite future of capitalism. The 1970 World Exposition in Osaka, Japan, which was organized by Japanese author Taichi Sakaiya, marked the pinnacle of Japan’s ambition to declare standardized mass production. However, Taichi Sakaiya’s own sci-fi fiction Yudan! depicted a different scenario where carbon-based fuel was completely used up. Sci-fi novels inspired by occurrences in history became people’s projection of the future, while the two oil crises in the 1970s had also led Taiwan’s economy to undergo significant transformation that saw the start of developments in semiconductor industry.