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Alaina Claire Feldman


艾蕾娜 . 克萊爾 . 費爾德曼

藝術家 Artist | 亞倫.瑟庫拉 + 諾爾.柏區 Allan Sekula & Noël Burch, CAMP, 澎葉生 Yannick Dauby, 彼得.荷頓 Peter Hutton, 金炯善

Hyung S. Kim, 黎安美 An-My Lê, 曼尼.蒙德利巴諾 Manny Montelibano, 超級南美人 Supersudaca, 團結兄弟 UNITED BROTHERS, 尤納 坦.柯恩 + 拉菲.塞加爾 Yonatan Cohen & Rafi Segal

策展人 Curator | Alaina Claire Feldman 艾蕾娜.克萊爾.費爾德曼 展覽製作 Exhibition Producer | 獨立策展人國際聯盟 ICI

聯合主辦 Co-Organizer | 獨立策展人國際聯盟 ICI , 立方計劃空間 TheCube Project Space 立方計劃空間 TheCube Project Space 總監 Director | 鄭慧華 Amy Cheng

專案管理 Project Manager | 羅悅全 Jeph Lo

專案執行 Project Coordinator | 孫以臻 Yi-Cheng Sun, 楊芮雯 Jui-Wen Yang 行政助理 Exhibition Assistant | 董淑婷 Dale Dong

展場技術 Technical Support | 藝術戰爭公司 Art War Company 100 台北市羅斯福路四段 136 巷 1 弄 13 號 2 樓

2F, No. 13, Aly. 1, Ln. 136, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei, 100, Taiwan +886 2 2368 9418

出版日期 Published | 2017. 11

© 圖片與文字版權所有 攝影者與作者

Copyright of the photographs for the artist, of the texts for the authors 展覽贊助 Exhibition Sponsor |

本檔展覽和巡展部分由 ICI 的國際論壇及董事會所支持。The exhibition and tour are made possible with the generous support from ICI’s International Forum and the ICI Board of Trustees.

立方計劃空間由文化部、台北市文化局、RC 文化藝術基金會及陳泊文先生贊助營運。TheCube Project Space is sponsored by Ministry of Culture, Taipei City Government Department of Culture Affairs and Dr. Chen Bo-Wen.

自然之外的海洋 The Ocean After Nature 展期 Date 2017. 11.18 - 2018. 01. 28 場地 Venue 立方計劃空間 TheCube Project Space 開幕 Opening 2017. 11. 18 (Sat.) 3pm

藝術家與策展人座談 Artist & Curator Talk 2017. 11. 23 (Thu.) 7pm

專場放映 Special Screening 〈被遺忘的空間〉The Forgotten Space, 112min.

亞倫.瑟庫拉、諾爾.柏區 Allan Sekula & Noël Burch 2017. 12. 02 (Sat.) 6pm 2017. 12. 23 (Sat.) 6pm 2018. 01. 28 (Sun.) 4pm

關於本展 自古以來,海洋總是激起人們的敬畏之心,是帶著崇高和充滿異國情調的巨大未知空間。然而在過去的 十五年裡,全球科技與經濟的移轉激發了對海洋新的關注與認知。當我們思考地球的未來,今日的海洋 揭示了比過去更多因人類活動而產生的後果。海洋與人不再被視為是分開的,而是同在連串可能是破壞 性的影響之中。

《自然之外的海洋》於台北的展出,透過十組藝術家的作品,思考海洋作為反映全球化下的生態、文化、 政治與經濟現實的主體與載體。這些國際知名或新一代藝術家探索詮釋海洋空間的新路徑,指出與批判 其中各式各樣曖昧卻內在相關的權力系統,像是海陸的分界、人與貨物的流通,以及生態系統的脆弱。

除了關注普遍性諸如旅遊、貿易和對自然資源的濫用,展覽也談及個人的身份認同與遷移等主題。參展 藝術家以其創作回應這內外相互交織的狀態,重新定義對海洋的理解。展覽呈現的海洋空間不只反映了 權力,也同時是權力自身的工具。

關於策展人 艾蕾娜.克莱爾.費爾德曼(Alaina Claire Feldman)是策展人及獨立策展人國際聯盟(ICI)的展覽總 監。在加入 ICI 之前,費爾德曼曾擔任《May Revue》的編輯,《May Revue》是於 2009 至 2011 年在 巴黎發行的雙語(法語/英語)藝文季刊。她曾策劃許多藝術和視覺文化的專題展覽、講座和出版,她

亦為 ICI 籌劃現場演出、公開座談、出版刊物和影像放映會。費爾德曼近期與约凡娜.斯托季奇(Jovana Stokic)共同編撰一本關於批判性女性主義策展的選集。

關於「獨立策展人國際聯盟」 獨立策展人國際聯盟(簡稱 ICI)成立於 1975 年,是一以製作展覽、出版、研究以及提供策展人、觀眾 培育訓練機會的非營利組織。ICI 旨在連結不同世代的策展人、藝術家與藝術空間,開拓國際的網絡以及

創造新的合作模式。ICI 提供當代藝術場域中新的實驗與實踐方法,激發新的觀看與理解當代藝術的方式。



The Exhibition For centuries, the ocean has prompted awe, figuring as a vast unknown space loaded with notions of the sublime and the exotic. In the past fifteen years however, global technological and economic shifts have triggered new concerns and understandings of the ocean. As we consider the future of our planet, today’s oceans reveal more about the consequences of human actions than ever before. The ocean and humanity, no longer thought of as separate, exist in a relationship of mutual and potentially destructive influence. The Ocean After Nature considers the ocean as a site ref lecting the ecological, cultural, political, and economic realities of a globalized world through the work of twenty artists and collectives. These internationally established and emerging artists explore new ways of representing the seascape as a means to identify and critique the various interrelated and chaotic systems of power, such as land-sea divides, the circulation of people and goods, and the vulnerabilities of our ecosystems. Invoking personal themes of identity and migration, alongside more universal concerns related to tourism, trade, and the exploitation of natural resources, the artists in The Ocean After Nature respond to the intertwined factors that define this new understanding of the ocean. The exhibition proposes that seascapes do not only reflect power but can be instruments of power themselves. On November 18, The Ocean After Nature continues it’s international tour at TheCube Project Space of Taipei. The Taipei version (with ten groups of artists) features work in a wide variety of media— including photography, video, publishing, sound and design. At every hosting site, a new work by a locally based artist is added to the exhibition in order to further contextualize the exhibition for diverse global audiences. Working in collaboration with TheCube space, the exhibition has invited artist Yannick Dauby to exhibit a new, site-specific sound work in response to the project.

The Curator Alaina Claire Feldman is a curator and the Director of Exhibitions at Independent Curators International (ICI). Before joining ICI, Feldman was an Editor at May Revue, a bilingual (French/ English) art and culture quarterly publication based in Paris from 2009-2011. She has organized and coordinated numerous exhibitions, both monographic and thematic, and lectures and publishes regularly on art and visual culture. For ICI, she has organized live performances, public panels, publications and film screenings with artists such as Martha Wilson, Coco Fusco, Apichatpong Weerasethakul, Michael Smith, Robert Longo, Allen Ruppersberg, Gran Fury, Stephen Vitiello, and Alvin Lucier. She has contributed to several exhibition catalogues and is currently coediting, along with Jovana Stokic, an anthology on critical feminist curating.

About Independent Curators International Independent Curators International (ICI) produces exhibitions, events, publications, research and training opportunities for curators and diverse audiences around the world. Established in 1975 and headquartered in New York, ICI is a non-profit organization that connects emerging and established curators, artists, and art spaces, forging international networks and generating new forms of collaborations. ICI provides access to the people and practices that are key to current developments in the field, inspiring fresh ways of seeing and contextualizing contemporary art. TheCUBE


自然之外,誰的海洋? 文/艾蕾娜.克萊爾.費爾德曼





從哪裡斷開的照片。古老的陳詞濫調這麼說過: --瑪莉 ‧ 查普,海洋學攝影師,第一張全球海床地形



外的海洋》展覽將審視現今的海洋景觀如何被人 類所創造。展覽中的作品揭示了我們看待海洋、 形塑海洋的方式,而政治、經濟以及文化又是如

何驅動今日全球自然生態議題。展覽中的作品並 不直接提出解決問題的方法,而是採用了美學的 想像,激發觀者反思人類在世界中的角色。同時, 這些作品特別著重在與全球環境有關的一連串問

題:從自然資源的開發和濫用到流動人口的動態; 從軍事對水域的入侵到我們從廣告接收的異國情

調迷思。本展作品以海洋──連結我們周邊遼闊 環境的流動網絡,也是所有生命的起源──為主

要框架,探索我們與自然世界之間關係的關鍵變 化。

吾人所佔據的星球是由我們創造的世界,一個由 人類的存在所形塑的世界。理論家和科學家們最 近提出一種假設,認為當今我們所處的年代裡,

人類已然主宰地球的發展。1 我們藉由一種集合系

統結構來形塑這個世界,這個導致全球氣候變遷 的系統結構的力量來自工業、政治與文化生產的 慾望。我們的星球已不再是浪漫主義者或者超驗 論者所說的「自然」,因為,在人類手裡,沒有

任何一種存在是獨立的,人類的能動性和世界的 其他事物──我們的土地、我們的動物還有我們 的海洋──全都糾纏在一起。我們已超越了「自 然」。

但是,本展並非僅只想提出悲觀的當前處境。《自 然之外的海洋》試圖激發一種集體意識:我們擁有



本展提出多種方法來說明海洋對人類的重要性, 些描述所塑造也至關重要。面臨著碳排放慢慢吞 噬大氣層,並導致冰川融化、海平面上升這些迫

切的狀況,我們需要為這個星球上的所有人負起 責任。然而,陳舊的帝國主義結構,事實上仍然 運作著,當權者在做決定時,卻鮮少考慮到海洋

和我們的環境。這個星球上的每個環節都受氣候 變遷的影響,但有些後果相對上更加緊迫和激烈。

隨著全球暖化導致海平面上升,海洋的使用與政 策改變,旱災、水災等等構畫成多幅不平等的地 圖。當我們談論海洋的時候,說的到底是誰的海 洋?誰是氣候變遷最大的受害者?他們的聲音何

時才能被聽見?哪種經濟形式能夠為哪裡的人民 提供幸福的生活和高度的人權?貨物流通和人口 移動如何相互影響?


自身的歷史與能動性同時作為象徵與本體。拿洪 水或海嘯的古老故事來說,這些故事已被鑲進宗 教神話中並常見於繪畫和雕刻作品之中。2 在現代

主義中,海洋代表對立於人類的崇高他者 3,它的

存在反襯出陸地中心論的問題。 但亞倫.瑟庫拉 和 諾 爾. 柏 區(Allan Sekula and Noël Burch) 在他們的史詩散文電影(essay-film)〈被遺忘的 空間〉4(2010)中指出,我們早已忽略海洋其實

是具有能動性的空間、資本主義的空間,也是我 們自身的反照。在一個人、物和理念都可以通過

數位技術或者飛機四處穿梭的年代,全球許多的 人和貨物仍然在海洋緩慢的時間-空間中繼續流 動。看不見的權力變化仍決定著我們的世界,影 響著世界上的實體構造和棲身其中的人們。

全球海洋經濟受大量勞工和企業所驅動。由孟買 團 體 CAMP 執 導 的〈 水 手 與 海 灣 〉(2013) 是





奇 縣(Kutch)、 信 德 省(Sindh)、 俾 路 支 省

波斯海灣、阿登海灣,一直到索馬利亞海岸,運 輸生活用品、汽車、義大利麵等貨物。影片中的

水手雖然未選擇匿名,但卻是從一種私密的角度 揭示了水手的日常活動和相互關係,希望藉此喚 起大家關注不顯眼的勞工與其權益。這些水手親 自參與選擇背景聲音和影片拍攝,並將他們的例 行工作和社會關係與觀眾分享。對勞工更加唯物 主義的描繪,則來自彼得.荷頓(Peter Hutton)


員的藝術家荷頓,詳細記錄了一艘大型輪船的全 球生命史:於南韓建造出廠,最後在孟加拉被拆 解。

貨物的流動近似於人口的流動,在當前的戰爭危 機、飢餓、乾旱、政治動盪以及氣候變遷之下, 策劃本展的同時無法不去思考複雜的時下社會運

動和全球的移民人口。三不管的海域和三不管的 經濟──例如冒險跨海的人蛇偷渡──二者是相 互串通的。



海洋還被捲入一種新的主權架構,包括離岸避稅 港、出口加工區以及海軍的擴張。這些不醒目但

具功能性的區域 所組成的全球性網絡,日漸發展 5


象的金錢所主宰的場域,那麼港口就是一個貨物 大宗且極快速流動的場域。」亞倫.瑟庫拉在他 1995 年的論文攝影 (photo-essay) 作品〈魚的故

事〉6 裡這麼說道。「但是當進出港口的貨物越是

藉著貨櫃而標準化──也就是更加合理化、自動 化──港口也就越近似股票市場。」


是被海洋與赤道所區隔的文化與環境──的侵犯。 在〈加勒比海!〉(2016)中,超級南美人(一 個由拉丁美洲建築師和城市規劃師組成的團體)

揭發了資本如何製造這些慾望,特別是加勒比旅 遊業以及由歐洲人所支配的企業。7 在超級南美人


酒店而砍伐紅樹林,或是從荷蘭引進仿真棕櫚樹 到加勒比地區,人造「自然」正在取代當地原生 植物系統)。

在《 自 然 之 外 的 海 洋 》 展 覽 中, 錯 置 (displacement) 是 一 條 重 要 的 線 索, 身 份 認

同和差異的創造一直都與自然的符號化相聯繫。 綜觀歷史,自然就和女性一樣,始終被懸置於主 要思維之外,重要性總不如工業和資本的升值。


他者和自然為基礎的資本主義父權結構。金炯善 (Hyung S. Kim 音譯)紀念碑式的肖像攝影作品 記錄了韓國濟州島的海女及其具反抗性的母系傳 統。在十八世紀,朝鮮政府對男性潛水員課以重 稅,為了避開這種統治手段,女性於是被送去從

事潛水工作,這賦予了她們支撐家庭和探索海洋 深處的能力。這一系列肖像攝影作品構建了跨世 代的婦女群像。照片中的婦女,直視觀眾的眼神 凸顯了女性的力量。

在 1960 和 1970 年 代, 許 多 解 構 海 洋 和 環

境 問 題 的 藝 術 家 都 是 女 性, 例 如 貝 蒂. 波 蒙 (Betty Beaumont)、安妮絲.丹妮斯(Agnes

Denes)、 邦 妮. 希 爾 克(Bonnie Sherk)、 娜 雅. 阿 塔 法(Navjot Altaf)、 派 翠 莎. 喬 韓 生

(Patricia Johanson)和米爾勒.拉德曼.烏寇

絲(Mierle Laderman Ukeles)以及其他無數女 性藝術家。這得歸功於 1974 年弗朗絲娃.德奧波

妮(Françoise d’Eaubonne)在他的論文〈女性 主義或者毀滅〉8 提出「生態女權主義」一詞,這


的革命行動前線」(FHAR)9 的創始成員。在這

篇論文中,德奧波妮將社會漠視婦女與輕蔑環境歷 史的事實進行了比對,並分析地球環境發展方向和 婦女生殖能力,二者何以隨著父權時代的出現而被 控管,而其後果都是全球性的。德奧波妮將目前的

生態危機直接歸因於父權體系的機制,這種機制崛 起自男性發覺自己在受孕和農產中的角色:最早的 生產工具和人類對土地最早建立歸屬的行為。10








種族、階級、能力或者地理位置,為了我們的海 洋而抵抗由現今人類挑起的環境之戰。


(An-My Lê)的攝影輯,內容來自她龐大的〈岸

上事件〉系列作品。她沿著日本到南極洲的海岸 線拍攝這一系列照片,捕捉了美國陸軍和海軍的 演練,間接指涉諸多互相重疊的議題,如同十九 世紀的浪漫主義繪畫、當代的社會政治景觀,以


情都會影響到所有人。2011 年,當海嘯重創日本 東海岸,造成了水災和福島第一核電廠的毀壞,

全世界人的原始恐懼都被重新喚起。這導致幅射 物質滲透進入空氣、土壤和海洋等等災難性的後 果。有關部門針對人、材料以及當地的食物推出

了核輻射檢測程序。儘管早有人對核能冷卻器的 設計缺陷提出警告,12 但核能發電的相關物資依然





自己置於離操演行動很遠的位置,她利用拉開照 的氣勢。這些精心設計的演習影像讓人們看到政 治組織如何在海面上有計畫地強化和鞏固國家的 邊界。

科技的革新擴展了我們對海洋在物質層面上的理 解,但對於海洋管轄權的理解卻不見得如此,即

使人類自古便與海洋共存,如今更藉著科技蒐集 了巨量的數據。不同於陸地上的固定邊界,海洋 永遠是流動的。海洋和陸地的關係之所以複雜,

除了因為海洋的巨大量體外,也來自海底的經常 性斷裂(起因於板塊運動),使它比穩定的陸地

來得更難測量和量化。聯合國在 1982 年提出了

「 專 屬 經 濟 海 域 」(Exclusive Economic Zones

,簡稱 EEZ)的概念,指的是在一國領海之外的 緊鄰海域,同時受制於鄰近國家的法律。 專屬經 11


擁有權和使用權。尤納坦.柯恩和拉菲.塞加爾 (Yonatan Cohen and Rafi Segal)的〈世界領海 地圖〉(2014/2016)的世界地圖繪製方法並不基


域來繪製,他們很觀念性地提出另一種基進的觀 看視野,重新檢視我們的治權分配方法。地圖上

描繪的邊界有的會滲入其他國家,有的是模糊了 其他國家的邊界。例如,由於和地中海地區的相


多共享的海域,而馬賽跟巴黎之間的共享海域就 要少得多。這幅經過修正的地圖,提出了一個關




污染的空氣、海洋與食物的威脅之中。這些似乎 未來的若干年,海洋將會帶著這股恐懼一路跨過 太平洋,從一個海岸到另一個海岸。



著我們、傷害著我們又管理著我們?」。2015 年, 來自福島的荒川医和荒川共生以及他們的母親在 洛杉磯的表演〈這碗湯令人困擾嗎?〉(2015)

中,以核災地區的白蘿蔔烹製了一鍋湯請觀眾們 品嚐。表演中,他們熱情招待的姿態反而讓人敬 而遠之。在演出場地的周邊,牆上的海報指出這


全的食品,但人們心中浮現對這些檢測結果的疑 慮,使他們決定拒絕喝下那碗湯。橫跨太平洋竄

向四處的環境災難,令我們開始懷疑食品安全檢 測的確實性和我們主動參與的消費行為。

聲音在曼尼.蒙德利巴諾(Manny Montelibano) 的多媒體裝置作品〈消沈狀態〉(2015)中和其 他元素是同等重要的。在片中,鏡頭從上方和側

面捕捉島嶼和海洋,一個對菲律賓的心理斷裂(尤 其是在島嶼的領土屬權始終有爭議的西菲律賓海

(譯註:即「南中國海」)的影像類比,配上收 音機調頻電波聲。新聞報導、流行歌曲以及混著

商業與巴拉望人的傳統史詩歌曲,提醒著我們關 於殖民的歷史,以及海洋即是關於未來的「天鵝 之歌」(最終曲)。



(heterotopic ship),駛進海洋系統的爭議之中。 展覽將從一座城市巡迴至另一座城市,無論這些 城市是否接壤或遠離海洋,本展都期待能夠得到 當地回應的文化論述與生產。在每一站的展覽場


品參與展覽的對話。ICI(獨立策展人國際聯盟)、 立方計劃空間策展人以及我三方共同合作推動, 為這項展覽擴增構想,目的是將「超地方」的脈

絡連結到本展的跨國敘事,為當地觀眾額外提供 一個熟悉的框架而更能融入作品中。展覽製作在 藝術史和文化探索的歷史中始終都負有重要的政 治與倫理關係。當我們重新思度海洋,除了要為


物負起責任,同時也應該把自身和所扮演的角色 放在地球自然力量的大體系之下,走出自我中心 的思維。

1. 羅伊.史格蘭頓(Roy Scranton),《學會在人類世死亡: 文明終結的反思》(Learning to Die in the Anthropocene: Reflections on the End of a Civilization),舊金山:城市 之光出版社,2015。

2. W. J. T. 米歇爾(W. J. T. Mitchell),《風景和權力》

(Landscape and Power),芝加哥:芝加哥大學出版社, 2002 年。

3 羅莎林.克洛斯(Rosalind Krauss),《視覺無意識》(The

Optical Unconscious),劍橋:麻省理工出版社,1994 年。 4. 亞倫.瑟庫拉和諾爾.柏區的《被遺忘的空間》(The Forgotten Space),112 分鐘,Doc.Eye 電影發行, 2010。

5. 凱勒.伊斯特林(Keller Easterling),《額外治國方略》 (Extrastatecraft),紐約:Verso 出版,2014。

6. 亞倫.瑟庫拉,《魚的故事》(Fish Story),杜塞道夫: Richter Verlag 出版,1995,p.32。

7. 關 於 歐 洲 對 世 界 其 他 地 區 的 環 境 責 任 的 錯 置

(displacement)的爭議,一個重要的論點是由蓋雅翠.史 碧娃克(Gayatri Spivak)在《其他亞洲》(Other Asias) 中所闡述,其中,她分析了歐洲綠黨 1993 年在巴黎擬定(受 到世界銀行和國際貨幣基金組織支持)的孟加拉「洪水行動

計畫」(Flood Action Plain)。該計畫設想為受災的孟加拉 群眾提供一種新形式的經濟貸借,史碧娃克形容這是一種「強 制貸借」形式,它透過中介資本和協議的國家提出,被用來 當作給尋求救助的國家可運用的機制。史碧娃克:《Other

Asias》,霍波肯市 : Wiley- Blackwell 出版社,2007,p.83。 8. 丹妮耶.羅斯 - 強生(Danielle Roth- Johnson),〈回

到未來:弗朗斯娃.德奧波妮,生態女性主義和生態危機〉 (Back to the Future: François d’Eubonne, Ecofeminism and Ecological Crisis),《國際文學人文期刊》(The

International Journal of Literary Humanities),第 10 卷, 第 3 期,香檳城:Common Ground 出版社,2013。

9. Mouvement de libération des femmes (MLF):婦女

解放運動;Front homosexuel d’action révolutionnaire (FHAR):同志的革命行動前線。

10. 弗朗絲娃 ‧ 德奧波妮的法語作品大多尚未翻譯,所以對 英語讀者來說仍然難以閱讀。

11. 根據聯合國在 1982 年 12 月 10 日的《聯合國海洋法公約》 協商會議第五部分:專屬經濟海域,第 55 條。

12. 四分之三的冷卻器是由美國通用電氣公司提供的。這些 報告的更多細節,請參閱亞當.柯蒂斯(Adam Curtis) 的〈A is for Atom〉,http:// blogs/ adamcurtis/ 2011/03/a_is_ for_atom.html



After Nature, Whose Ocean? by ALAINA CLAIRE FELDMAN

“I figured I’d show them a picture of where the rift valley was and where it pulled apart. There’s truth to the old cliché that a picture is worth a thousand words and that seeing is believing.” — Marie Tharp, oceanographic cartographer and cocreator of the first global map of the ocean floor.

The exhibition The Ocean After Nature examines how the present seascape is shaped in an era when human beings have become the main force in the development of the planet. The works reveal how we value and shape the ocean and how politics, economies, and culture propel today’s planetary issues. Instead of offering direct solutions,the works employ aesthetic i mag i nat ion,encou r ag i ng a ret h i n k i ng of our place in the world. Together, these works highlight a universal environmental concern that is tied to a constellation of problems: from the extraction and abuses of natural resources to shift ing populat ion dynamics; from the militaries’ infiltration of the waters to the myths of the exotic which are advertized to us. They trace critical changes in our relationship with the natural world specifically through the frame of the ocean, the fluid network that connects vast parts of our environments, and the very site from which all life originates. The world we occupy is the world that we have made, one shaped by the existence of humans. Theorists and scientists have recently proposed that we live in an age where human beings have become the dominant power in the development of the planet.1 We are shaping the world through a collective architecture where power is enforced through industries, politics, and culturally produced desires, which in turn drive climate change. Our planet is no longer natural in the Romantic or Transcendentalist sense because nothing exists independently of the human hand. The agency of humans and the rest of the world—our soil, our animals, and our ocean— are all tangled together. We have gone beyond Nature. 7


But this exhibition does not propose a pessimistic view of the current situation as a means to an end. The Ocean After Nature attempts to raise a collective consciousness: We do have agency and we can cause change through our actions. It interrogates various ways in which the ocean has mattered to people, both in terms of more subjective representations, and of the material relationship to how things become shaped through these depictions. The urgent situation we are in, where carbon emissions slowly eat away at the atmosphere, causing our glaciers to melt and sea levels to rise, requires an acceptance of responsibility for everyone across the planet. An outdated, imperialist structure is currently in place by which those in power making decisions regarding the ocean and our environment are rarely held accountable for their consequences on others. All parts of the planet are affected by climate change, but the consequences for some are more urgent and extreme than for others. R ising sea levels, changes in ocean use and policy, and f looding and drought are consistent with global warming, in turn creating cartographies of inequality. Whose ocean do we speak about when we speak about the ocean? Who are those most deeply affected by climate shifts and when do they have the opportunity to be heard? Which economies provide well-being and high human rights for citizens in which parts of the world? How are the movement of goods and the movement of people contingent on one another? For centuries the ocean has inspired artists, both as a symbol and as an entity with its own history and agency. Ancient stories of f looding or tidal waves, for instance, were anchored in religious mythology and distributed through painting and sculpture. 2 Within modernism, the ocean represented the sublime otherness 3 of humankind, a foil for our own terracentric troubles. But A llan Sekula and Noël Burch suggest in their epic essay-film, The Forgotten Space 4 (2010), that the ocean has long been ignored as a space of agency, of capitalism, and as a reflection of ourselves. In an age when

people, objects, and ideas are expected to arrive instantaneously through digital or airspace, the simultaneous slow time-space of the ocean continues to propel a majority of the movement of goods and people around the world. A n invisible displacement of power determines our world—both its physical architecture and the humans who inhabit it.

which the abstract character of money rules, the harbor is the site in which material goods appear in bulk, in the very flux of exchange,” says Allan Sekula in his 1995 photo-essay Fish Story. 6 “But the more regularized, literally containerized, the movement of goods in harbors is—that is, the more rationalized and automated—the more the harbor comes to resemble the stock market.”

The global maritime economy is spurred by a massive amount of labor and industry. Directed by the Mumbai-based collective CAMP, From Gulf to Gulf to Gulf (2013) is a film four years in the making, captured entirely on the cell phones of male sailors from Kutch, Sindh, Baluchistan, and Southern Iran traveling between the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Aden, and the Somali coast as they transport goods such as livestock, cars, and pasta. These contents are not anonymous but offer an intimate perspective in revealing the everyday activities and relations of the sailors, calling attention to the human side of invisible labor. The sailors have chosen the soundtrack and shot the film themselves. They author the images of their daily business and social relations to share with the audience. A more materialist depiction of labor is documented through the apparatus of maritime labor: the transoceanic container ship that appears in At Sea (2007), by Peter Hutton. An artist and former merchant seaman himself, Hutton chronicles the global life of a leviathan ship beginning with its birth in South Korea to its termination of breaking and scrapping in Bangladesh.

A not her point ta ken up in t his ex hibit ion is a Western encroachment on the “exotic” or cultures and environments separated by oceans and hemispheres. In Al Caribe! (2016), Supersudaca (a Latin American collective of architects and urban planners) divulge how these desires are produced for capital’s sake, specifically within the Caribbean tourist industry and predominantly by European corporations.7 Supersucada’s informational souvenir postcards reveal the devastating consequences of the manufactured “exotic” on domestic economies, environments, and cultures (for example: the erasure of mangroves to clear space for luxury hotels or the production of synthetic palm trees in the Netherlands which are imported to the Caribbean, a simulacra of Nature displacing the indigenous flora).

The movement of goods is analogous to the movement of bodies. It would be impossible to organize this exhibition without thinking about the complex current movements and the migrations of people around the planet, given the current crisesof wars, famine, drought, political turmoil, and climate change itself. Deregulated waters and deregulated economies, such as those illegally and dangerously smuggling bodies across the ocean, are complicit with one another. A d v a nc ement s of t e c h nolog y a nd ne w capabilities of collecting vast information about geography and the ocean are changing how we perceive and quantify our world. Likewise, the ocean is implicated in a new form of sovereign architecture that comprises offshore tax havens, export processing zones, andthe expansion of the navy. These invisible but fully functional zones5 are global networks that become powerful agents of policy. “If the stock market is the site in

Displacement is a dominant thread in T he Ocean After Nature. Identity and productions of difference have long been associated with the symbolizations of nature. Like women, throughout history, nature has been represented as otherness to dominant thinking, secondary to industry and the acceleration of capital. Many of our current problems were developed by capitalist patriarchy built on the foundation of governing women, others, and nature. Hyung S. Kim’s monumental photographic portraits of haenyeo document a defying accomplishment of a matriarchal tradition of divers from the Jeju province in Korea. In the 18th century, the Korean government heavily taxed the harvests of male divers, so to circumvent these rules, women were sent to dive, empowering them with the ability to provide for their families and explore the depths of the ocean. The portraits frame an intergenerational group of women with direct gazes that confront the spectator and highlight the women’s power. Many artists deconstructing the ocean and env i ron ment i n t he 19 6 0 s a nd ‘70 s were women; for example: Betty Beaumont, Agnes Denes, Bonnie Sherk, Navjot Altaf, Patricia Joha n son, a nd M ierle L ader ma n U keles , TheCUBE


among innumerable others. Cred ited w ith coining the term “eco-feminism” in her 1974 essay Le féminisme ou la mort (Feminism or Death), 8 Françoise d’Eaubonne was a founding member of the French MLF and FHAR.9 In this essay, d’Eaubon ne compa res societ y’s d isrega rd for women to its historical contempt for the environment, and analyses how the control of choices concer n ing t he development of environments of the planet and the control of women’s reproductive capacities were equally seized w it h t he advent of patr iarchy—t he consequences of which are global. D’Eubonne locates the direct cause of the current ecological crisis within the institution of patriarchy, which arose when men first discovered their own role in conception and appropriated agriculture, the first means of production, and the first fixation of humans to land.10 Both “woman” and “nature” have suf fered from political and intellectual discrimination for centuries, but through art we can imagine a future multitude of scientists not distinguished by gender, race, class, ability, or geography, who are ready to defend the world’s ocean against the environmental wars we have waged. The Ocean After Nature includes a compliation of photographs in book form by the AmericanVietnamese artist An-My Lê, from her expansive series Events Ashore. This series, shot along coastlines from Japan to Antarctica, depicts United States’ military and naval drills while alluding to overlapping themes such as 19th centur y Romantic painting, contemporar y sociopolitical landscapes, and images of empire. With a wide and long lens, Lê distances herself from the action. She simultaneously deconstructs and engenders the power of a seascape by positioning the camera far from her subjects. Images of these meticulously choreographed drills give insight to the government’s calculated enforcement and establishment of national borders on the surface on the ocean. W h i le t he accelerat ion of tech nolog y has broadened our understanding of the physical ocean, marine jurisdiction has not advanced much despite the immense amounts of data collected and having lived with the ocean since the beginning of human existence. Borders are static on land but the ocean is constantly in flux. The relationship between the ocean and land is complex because of the ocean’s sheer volume and the constant rifts in the ocean floor (caused 9


by moving tectonic plates), which make it more difficult to measure and quantify than static land. In 1982, the UN introduced Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ): oceanic zones encompassing the area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, which are also subject to the proximate legal regime.11 EEZ zones determine the rights and use of the ocean 200 nautical miles beyond a coastline. In Rafi Segal and Yonatan Cohen’s Territorial Map of the World (2014/16), a world map is depicted by key lines not based on traditional boundaries between nation-states or geography, but by EEZ zones, wh ich conceptua l ize a radically different way of looking at our governing divides. The map depicts borders bumping into and blurring one another. For example, Marseille and Tripoli have much more in common than Marseille and Paris because of their relationship to the Mediterranean. This revised territorial map offers a rethinking of what a map is and what our current relationship to other lands and waters could be, should new borders govern us. When dealing with the ocean, what happens in one part of the planet effects us all. In 2011, primordial fears were reactivated across the world when a tsunami hit the east coast of Japan, causing f looding and the destruction of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. This led to a disastrous seepage of toxic radioactive material into the air, land, and ocean. Radiation screening programs were introduced for humans, as well as materials, and food from the region. Despite ea rly wa r n i ng s of fau lt y rad iator designs,12 the production of nuclear power supplies continued. Today, people in the region are left with catastrophe permeating the air, the ocean, and the very food consumed. But these seemingly localized concerns are ultimately global ones. The ocean will wash these fears across the Pacific, from coast to coast, for years to come. A g a i n st t he ba c k g rou nd of t h i s d i s a ster, U N I T E D B RO T H E R S ( E i a n d To m o o Arakawa) question how laws continue to protect us, harm us, and govern us all at the same time. In their performance Does This Soup Taste Ambivalent? (2015) in Los Angeles, in 2015, Ei and Tomoo Arakawa, along with their mother—all from the Fukushima region—concocted a soup using daikon radishes grown near the region and offered it to the public. A hospitable gesture was overturned into a psychological barrier. Posters on the walls near the performance showed that the radishes had been tested for radioactivity

and deemed safe by the government, but the possibility of regulations gone wrong loomed in the mind of many passersby as they decided not to eat the soup. The certainty of the dish’s safety and our active participation in consumption are confused by the immanent environmental disaster across the Pacific. Sound is equally significant in the multi-media installation A Dashed State(2015) by Manny Montelibano. As the camera captures islands and the ocean from above and beside, a cinematic analogy of the psychological fracturing of the Philippines (in particular, the West Philippine Sea where the political governing of islands is constantly contested) is paired with a soundtrack of tuning a radio dial. News reports, pop songs, and commercials are blended with traditional epic songs of the indigenous Palawan people, reminding us that the history of colonization and the sea are swan songs of the future. Concerned with the historical and the peripheral, The Ocean After Nature exhibition itself functions as a Foucauldian heterotopic ship, participating within the maritime systems it aims to dispute. Moving from city to city, regardless of proximity to ocean or lack thereof, this exhibition has been conceived to encourage cultural discourse and production wherever it lands. At each present i ng venue, host i ng a r t s pa ces a re encouraged to include local artists to participate in exhibitionary dialogue by adding works to the exhibition. Facilitated as a collaboration between Independent Curators International (ICI), the hosting curator, and myself, these additions aim to connect a hyperlocal context to the international narrative of the exhibition, thus providing additional familiar frames for which viewers can engage with the works. Exhibitionmaking holds an important ethical and political stake in the history of art and the history of cultural inquiry in general. As we reconsider the ocean in terms of responsibility to those who may have been excluded from or invisible to this imperial narrative, we also need to decenter ourselves and our roles in the larger scheme of planetary forces.

1. Roy Scranton, Learning to Die in the Anthropocene: Reflections on the End of a Civilization (San Francisco: City Lights Publishers, 2015). 2. W. J. T. Mitchell, Landscape and Power (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002). 3. Rosalind Krauss, The Optical Unconscious (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1994). 4. Allan Sekula and Noël Burch, The Forgotten Space, 2010. 112 min. Doc.Eye Films. 5. Keller Easterling, Extrastatecraft, (New York: Verso, 2014). 6. Allan Sekula, Fish Story (Düsseldorf: Richter Verlag, 1995) 32. 7. An important argument regarding the displacement of environmental responsibility by Europe on other parts of the world is elaborated on by Gayatri Spivak in Other Asias, where she analyzes Europe’s Green Party’s (aided by the World Bank and IMF) Flood Action Plain in Bangladesh (FAP) in Paris in 1993. This plan was meant to save parts of Bangaldesh from flooding by a form of economic lending, which Spivak argues is a “form of coercive lending, solicited by comprador capital, and a compromised State, used as staging props for a nation seeking alms.” Gayatri Spivak, Other Asias (Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007), 83. 8. Danielle Roth- Johnson, Back to the Future: François d’Eubonne, Ecofeminism and Ecological Crisis, The International Journal of Literary Humanities. Volume 10, issue 3 (Champaign: Common Ground Publishing: 2013). 9. Mouvement de libération des femmes(MLF). In English:Women’s Liberation Movement. Front homosexuel d’action révolutionnaire (FHAR). In English: Revolutionary Homosexual Front. 10. Most of d’Eubonne’s work remains untranslated from its original French, and unreadable to a majority of English 11. The United Nations, Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982. PART V: Exclusive Economic Zone, Article 55. 12. Three out of four radiators were supplied by the US’s General Electric Company. For more details on these reports, see Adam Curtis’s A is for Atom, http:// atom.html



被遺忘的空間 The Forgotten Space

亞倫.瑟庫拉+諾爾.柏區 Allan Sekula & Noël Burch ( 美國 USA )

錄像,112 分鐘,2010 Video, 112 min., 2010

簡介 文 / 亞倫.瑟庫拉 + 諾爾.柏區

我們的影片〈被遺忘的空間〉是關於全球化以及在我們的現代性中那「被遺忘的空間」──海洋。 首先,全球化即是跨國經濟對人類生活的每一個角落與縫隙的滲透。即使是在經濟學還未被認可 為一種科學之前,跨國經濟就已被視為至關重要,「全球化」是它的最新化身。原型資本主義的


商主義維權者,威廉.佩蒂(William Petty)認為:「我們從製造業獲得的遠比從農牧業獲得的多, 而商品買賣的所獲又比製造業來得多。一個商船船員的效能等同於三個農夫。」(《政治算數》, 1690 年)

當代對於整合、全球化、自我調節的資本主義世界經濟的願景,可以追溯回資本主義中奉行的「冒 險精神」。從目前的狀況來看,當今已幾乎不存在阻止市場壓力擴張的物質性阻力。投資透過網 路無形地流動,彷彿是變魔術。錢轉錢,錢賺錢,財富沒有重量。當海上貿易被回想起時,已經 是一種古老而過時的經濟古董,來自一個衰老、生鏽、粗䋲索吱吱作響的的世界,一個動作緩慢

的笨重傢伙。如果以佩蒂的老教誨來說,一個商船船員等值於三個農夫,而如今就算把船員換算 成多少倍的農夫也都不算太超過。但若是沒有農夫或水手的辛勤工作,我們都活不成。




輸的空間。相反的,我們生活的網路時代,是一個不論在哪個地方都可以透過電子設備即時與另 一個地方保持聯繫的時代。

在這個奇幻世界裡,距離的概念被廢除了。雖然世界上 90%以上的貨櫃運輸仰賴的就是海洋,但

已開發國家中受過教育的人卻認為貨物的移動跟他們一樣,是經由空中運輸,而那些在眨眼間便 流轉的金錢,就是所有財富的抽象根源。

我們的假設是海洋仍舊為全球化的關鍵空間。除此之外,再也沒有其他地方更能夠彰顯當代資本 主義的迷思、暴力和異化,但這些事實卻非不證自明,因而必須要被視作一幅拼圖、一團謎語或 者是一道待解的難題。

工廠系統不再集中於已開發國家,而是已經變得更加流動和分散。當船舶變得越來越像建築物或 「即時」分送系統的巨型浮動倉庫,工廠就像是船舶一樣,能在夜裡偷偷地溜走,永無止盡地尋

找更便宜的勞工。洛杉磯或香港的成衣工廠一關閉,工作台和裁縫機隨即就出現在廣州或達卡的 郊區。以汽車工業為例,船舶的功能就好比舊式整合汽車工廠中的輸送帶:各種零件被送到世界 各處,一站站地走向最終的組裝線。

海運的功能不再是一個獨立的、重商主義的企業,反而已經成為世界工業系統中一個必須的組成 元件。兩個強大的迷思讓我們失去洞察這些事情整體關聯的能力,並扼殺了我們的好奇心。第一

個迷思是,海洋不過是一個殘存的商業空間、一個文化古董和經濟古董的貯水池。第二個迷思是, 我們正生活在一個後工業社會中,模控系統和服務業經濟已經從根本上將笨重材料之製造與加工 的「舊經濟模式」邊緣化了。如此一來,認為它被淘汰的錯覺使我們遺忘了這些遼闊的區域,只 能遙想著它過去美好的時光。

我們對這些迷思的回應是,海是理解全球化產業主義的關鍵。若沒有海洋物流技術的全面現代化 和成熟的「革命」,全球的工廠就不可能存在,全球化也無從成為熱門議題。

1950 年代中期,美國某些工業開始發展出有效提升運輸效率的貨櫃物流技術,至今已成為世界歷 史上一個重要的突破。標準化的貨物集裝金屬櫃得以迅速地從船舶轉運到高速公路上的貨車和鐵 路上的火車,徹底地改變了港口城市和海洋航道的空間與時間。



平地來存放跟分類來自世界各地的貨櫃。為陡峭山坡和壯觀景色所包圍的深水老港口,顯然不符 現今這種新的空間需求,它反而還不如需要持續疏浚,好讓吃水量越來越深的新式超級大船能夠 安全通行的三角洲。



An Introduction by ALLAN SEKULA and NOËL BURCH Our film, The Forgotten Space, is about globalization and the sea, the “forgotten space” of our modernity. First and foremost, globalization is the penetration of the multinational corporate economy into every nook and cranny of human life. It is the latest incarnation of an imperative that has long been accepted as vital necessity, even before economics could claim the status of a science. The first law of proto-capitalism: markets must multiply through foreign trade or they will stagnate and die. As the most sophisticated of the 17th-century defenders of mercantilism, William Petty, put it, “There is much more to be gained by Manufacture than Husbandry, and by Merchandize than Manufacture. A Seaman is in effect three Husbandmen.” (Political Arithmetick, 1690). The contemporary vision of an integrated, globalized, self-regulating capitalist world economy can be traced back to some of these axioms of the capitalist “spirit of adventure.” And yet what is largely missing from the current picture is any sense of material resistance to the expansion of the market imperative. Investment flows intangibly, through the ether, as if by magic. Money begets money. Wealth is weightless. Sea trade, when it is remembered at all, is a relic of an older and obsolete economy, a world of decrepitude, rust, and creaking cables, of the slow movement of heavy things. If Petty’s old fable held that a seafarer was worth three peasants, neither count for much in the even more fabulous new equation. And yet we would all die without the toil of farmers and seafarers. Those of us who travel by air, or who “go surfing” on the Web, scarcely think of the sea as a space of transport any more. We live instead in the age of cyberspace, of instantaneous electronic contact between everywhere and everywhere else. In this fantasy world the very concept of distance is abolished. More than 90% of the world’s cargo moves by sea, and yet educated people in the developed world believe that material goods travel as they do—by air—and that money, traveling in the blink of an eye, is the abstract source of all wealth. Our premise is that the sea remains the crucial space of globalization. Nowhere else is the disorientation, violence, and alienation of contemporary capitalism more manifest, but this truth is not self-evident, and must be approached as a puzzle, or mystery, a problem to be solved. The factory system is no longer concentrated in the developed world but has become mobile and dispersed. As ships become more like buildings, the giant f loating warehouses of the “ just-in-time” system of distribution, factories begin to resemble ships, stealing away stealthily in the night, restlessly searching for ever-cheaper labor. A garment factory in Los Angeles or Hong Kong closes, the work benches and sewing machines reappear in the suburbs of Guangzhou orDacca. In the automobile industry, for example, the function of the ship is akin to that of conveyor systems within the old integrated car factory: parts span the world on their journey to the final assembly line. The function of sea trade is no longer a separate, mercantilist enterprise, but has become an integral component of the world-industrial system. We are distracted from the full implications of this insight by two powerful myths, which stifle curiosity. The first myth is that the sea is nothing more than a residual mercantilist space, a reservoir of cultural and economic anachronisms. The second myth is that we live in a post-industrial society, that cybernetic systems and the service economy have radically marginalized the “old economy” of heavy material fabrication and processing. Thus the fiction of obsolescence mobilizes vast reserves of sentimental longing for things which are not really dead. Our response to these myths is that the sea is the key to understanding globalized 13


industrialism. Without a thoroughly modern and sophisticated “revolution� in ocean-going cargo-handling technology, the global factory would not exist, and globalization would not be a burning issue. What began in the mid-1950s as a modest American improvement in cargo logistics, an effort to achieve new eff iciencies within a particular industry, has now taken on world historic importance. The cargo container, a standardized metal box, capable of being quickly transferred from ship to highway lorry to railroad train, has radically transformed the space and time of port cities and ocean passages. There have been enormous increases in economies of scale. Older transport links, such as the Panama Canal, slide toward obsolescence as ships become more and more gargantuan. Superports, pushed far out from the metropolitan center, require vast level tracts for the storage and sorting of containers. The old sheltering deep-water port, with its steep hillsides and its panoramic vistas, is less suited to these new spatial demands than low delta planes that must nonetheless be continually dredged to allow safe passage for the deeper and deeper draft of the new super-ships.



水手與海灣 From Gulf to Gulf to Gulf CAMP ( 印度 IND )

錄像,83 分鐘,2013 Video, 83 min., 2013

船與船 文 / CAMP 擷取自 CAMP 在 2010 年九月 Gasworks 主辦於倫敦大學的 Hydrarchy 研討會上的演講內容。

有些探險家要去的是「沒人去過的地方」,但這位木船船長說他去的是「別人不去的地方」接著 小聲地說「別人不敢再去的地方」,暗示著事情會隨著時間而改變。在這個故事裡,他的目標在 十五年前是伊拉克,而今天則是索馬利亞。「自由貿易」的邊界是由一些特定團體製造出來的, 他們做一些其他人暫時認為無利可圖的事。這需要技術與才能,一種「海上的權力和抵抗」。


拉.艾哈邁德(Sarah Ahmed)曾寫到,「偶然」(contingency)與「連繫」(contact)兩個

字有著相同的根源(在拉丁文裡,contigere 即接觸之意)。船裡擠滿了山羊,木炭起火了。古 吉拉特水手的手機裡記錄了衣索比亞的舞廳、阿曼附近海域的沈船,以及美國海軍登陸。儘管貨 物全來自中國,但「感覺」像是另一個國家。





單桅小帆船 (dhow) 與古吉拉特「瓦漢」(vahan)的改良,在伊朗加了便宜的柴油,在阿聯大公

國載上再出口的散裝貨櫃。這兩艘船告訴我們關於民族國家、稅收制度、勞動力市場和生態系統之 間的權衡關係。舉例來說,下面有張圖……不過這個模型會被每艘路過的船擾亂、刺激。

The Ship and the Ship by CAMP Abstract from a lecture by CAMP at the Hydrarchy conference organized by Gasworks at University College London, September 2010. Unlike the explorer whose frontier is “where no one else has gone,” the wooden-ship-captain who says he goes “where no one else goes” also whispers, “anymore,” hinting that things change with time. In this story, Iraq was a destination fifteen years ago, as Somalia is today. Such horizons for “free trade” are produced by certain groups doing, openly, what others have deemed temporarily at least, unprofitable. This takes skill and a capacity, a “power and resistance at sea.” At the same time, the orientation of ships and traders towards certain destinations has its “price.” How to deal with unexpected intimacies? Remember, Sara Ahmed wrote, that the word’s contingency and contact have the same root (Latin: contigere = to touch). Goats crowd the insides of boats, charcoal catches fire. Ethiopian discotheques, sinkings off Oman, and boardings by the US navy are recorded on Gujarati sailors’ cellphones. Even if the goods are all Chinese, one state “feels” another. So there is one ship here, which could be described as brutal, bottom-feeding, capitalism as usual. And then there is another one, which has a range of peculiar and persistent properties. It is made of Malaysian timber, brought home in the monsoons, classified as a “sailing vessel”, a vigorous offspring of the traditional Arab dhow and Gujarati vahan, fed on cheap diesel from Iran and break-bulk cargo re-exported from the Emirates. These two ships tell us about the balance of forces between nation-states, tax-regimes, labor-pools and ecosystems, for example in the diagram below ... a matrix that is nevertheless perturbed, excited, by each passing ship.


「免稅港口」最早從1800年代開始 被統治者家族經營


「革命衛士悍衛的自由化」 便宜的柴油

“ Liberalization n * via Revolutionary s c Guard, ” cheap diesel s t e i “ P i k r o 制 海 r r 場 v n 裁 劫 s i a 市 c m c 服 y e * 務 “ Semi-states ” where most daily s ” goods come by sea * 「半國家」的大部份貨物是海運來的 “ Free ports ” run by ruling families since at least the 1800 ’s


Seafaring “ minority community, ” and ship-builders since antiquity

海上生活的「少數人社群」和自古以來的造船者 TheCUBE


珊瑚怎麼想 How Corals Think 澎葉生
Yannick Dauby ( 台灣 / 法國 TWN/FRA )

聲音、影像與文字,2017 年春天起持續進行的計畫 Sound, images and text, on-going project started in Spring 2017

珊瑚怎麼想 文 / 澎葉生 聲音是我靠近土地和社群的方法。

透過錄音,我探索、紀錄和淘選來自環境的碎片。 透過編輯和作曲,我向觀眾提出一種觀點。

我的創作受人類學和生態學的影響和啟發,關乎人類和非人類,以及它們與地理學、物理空間和 生態系統之間的對話。


見證了此地海洋環境的劇烈變化:2008 年,由於氣候變遷,寒流使海水溫度下降,造成了大片的 珊瑚礁死亡。



自 2013 年以來,我和蔡宛璇(我們共同創辦了回看工作室)每隔兩年就一起展開關於環境、教育 和創作的在地計畫(曾發行為黑膠唱片並參與展覽,如 2016 年的雪梨雙年展),也時常沈下心在 聲音工作室裡投入田野錄音及電子原音的編曲工作。

2017 年春季,我開始與澎湖的非政府組織和生物學家合作,進行一個關於海洋生物的聲音計畫,持 續錄製和建立一系列聲音檔案,除了作為對珊瑚礁的聲響監測,也提供為教育和討論的聲響素材。


就像是這次在《自然之外的海洋》中的展出。這件作品邀請觀者浸淫於珊瑚礁的聲響之中。它伴隨 一系列的短文和照片,描繪這種獨特的海洋生物棲地,並在觀者心中織造出我們與海洋的關係。

2018 年春天,我將重回到澎湖,繼續與澎湖海洋生物研究中心、中研院的生物學家,以及當地非政


How Corals think by YANNICK DAUBY Sounds are my access to the land, to the communities. Through recording, I am exploring, documenting, selecting fragments of the environment. Through editing and composition, I propose to the listener a perspective. Inf luenced and inspired by anthropology and ecology, I am developing works related to humans and non-humans beings, their dialogue with the geography, the physical spaces and the ecosystems. Since the last twelve years, I am regularly visiting Penghu archipelago, collecting the soundscapes of the islands. Being strongly attracted by the Ocean and its fauna, I have been witness of dramatic changes in the marine environment of this place : in 2008, a cold stream lowered the temperature of the sea, caused by the climate change, killing a huge part of the coral reefs. Since 2013, every two years with Wan-Shuen Tsai (with whom I founded Atelier Hui-Kan), we develop local projects about environment and education, creating artworks (published as vinyl records and shown during exhibitions such as Sydney Biennale 2016) and regularly I settle my own sound studio, devoted to field recording and electroacoustic composition. In Spring 2017, I started a sound project about the marine life, in collaboration with local NGO and biologists. I initiated a series of recording sessions that are constituting the first step for a sound archive, allowing acoustic monitoring of coral reefs and providing sound materials for education and conservation purpose. How Corals Think, is an on-going project, taking the form of radio work or sound installation such as this time for The Ocean After Nature, based on my field recordings. It allows the visitors to immerse into the sounds of a coral reef. It is accompanied with a series of short texts, and a few pictures, describing this specific habitat and weaving concepts about our relation to the Ocean. In Spring 2018, I will go back to Penghu, developing this collaboration with the biologists from Penghu Marine Biology Research Center and from Academia Sinica, and the local NGO (Penghu Ocean Citizens). I would like to thank these people warmly for trusting and accompanying me. Together we will continue the acoustic observation of the coral reefs. TheCUBE


在海上 At Sea

彼得.荷頓 Peter Hutton ( 美國 USA )

16 釐米影片轉數位投影,黑白及彩色,無聲,60 分鐘,2007 16mm film transferred to digital projection, black and white and color, silent, 60 min, 2007

艾德.霍特訪談彼得.荷頓 文 / 艾德.霍特、彼得.荷頓

艾德.霍特:我很好奇,當你在挑選影像時,在選擇永恆影像或特定瞬間的影像之間,是否存在 某種張力?


影像的一種功能,它本身就會影響我們的感知。黑白影像有趣的地方是它確實會帶我們回望而不 是向前。



來黑白影片有技術問題,這些影片全都使用反轉片。還有不知道幾年前,在 1990 年代柯達停止



生產反轉片── reversal film,後來叫 reversal print stock ──因此我想:「哇!慘了,你沒法

拷貝反轉片了。」你必須了解「技術」就是這麼回事,沒什麼有意思的地方。如果你用原片去沖印 ──就像我做的──才能得到比較高的品質。但一旦他們停產反轉片,你就再也不可能沖出原始影


還是一直在拍黑白片,因為就是喜歡。1960 年代,我開始拍片那時,黑白片真的非常好玩。我心想: 「你知道,我會拍好一陣子的黑白影像,好歹得弄明白。」然後我完全玩上癮了,我無法放棄它, 黑白正片在當時對我來說真的非常重要。它就是一個可以讓你完全沉浸在其中的東西,你愛上你的


黑白還要貴上許多。當我開始拍片時,心裡想的就是拍,拼命拍。我喜歡黑白影像用一種有趣的方 法把現實抽離出來,因為我們眼睛所見的並非黑與白的世界。我最愛它這點。 霍特:即使你是一個色盲,對嗎?


霍特:談到觀看,你的自傳有一部份常提到你在船上當過商船水手,這在你某些作品中是很常看到, 但〈在海上〉特別明顯。你覺得這些經驗如何影響你看事情的方法?

荷頓:想像你自己在一艘船的船頭艙外面,它正行駛過太平洋,在深夜中找尋遠方的燈影。我在船 上擔任甲板水手,其中的一項工作是要用敲鐘鈴來向駕駛台報告左舷和船首有幾個羅經點,或右舷

與船尾有幾個羅經點。要是我看到光,就要報告說有其他船隻正在接近。這是古老的海事傳統。但 幾個月下來,夜復一夜地在黑暗空無的海上守望,我發現自己可以看見過去不知道的東西。我可以 看見滿天星群映照在海面上;我可以看見星光散落於海水下的磷光──我從來都不知道自己的眼睛

可以看到這些東西。我想,船員和以前的海盜們為了生存,要靠自己的雙眼去認識每件事──天氣、 質地和大海,所以他們的眼睛對於事物要非常敏銳。當你花很長的時間待在海上之後,你的眼睛會 以一種非常有趣的方式變得敏銳。這個世界對大多人來說是陌生的,你會覺得自己簡直要像是太空

人似的,看見大部分的人不曾有榮幸看到的事物。但人們看過的大多數東西沒辦法記錄到影片裡, 這讓人很沮喪。我在夜晚的船首上看過很多令人驚豔的事物,像是一個我不想再說的故事,關於一

個夜晚當我們行經印度洋時,進入到暴風雨中,周遭伸手不見五指。不對,其實那天月亮有出來, 但很快就被雲層遮住了,然後周圍變得越來越暗。那時候我對於黑暗到底能多黑感到非常訝異,沒


且海水漲高,最後我回到駕駛艙。然後突然開始變得越來越亮,月亮也出來了。視覺上,那是我生 命中最棒的時刻,但你沒法把它拍進影片中。



Ed Halter In Conversation with Peter Hutton by ED HALTER and PETER HUTTON Ed Halter: So I’m curious, when you’re selecting images, is there a tension there between a kind of timeless image and the image that’s specific to that moment? Peter Hutton: Well, I always want to go back in time. So I always want to reference the past rather than the future. And I think that’s a function of black and white influencing our perception in terms of what is. There’s something interesting about black and white that does tend to take us backward rather project us forward. EH: At Sea is largely in color. Do you think that informs the sense of temporality in the piece? PH: Yes. I sort of came into color late in my career, because I was so invested in black and white. Then there were technical issues with black and white. All those films were shot on reversal print stock—reversal film, subsequently reversal print stock. And about, I don’t know how many years ago, Kodak stopped making reversal print in the ‘90s. And I thought, ‘Oh shit, this isn’t good, you can’t make copies of reversal.’ You have to understand this is a technical thing, it’s never that interesting. If you make prints off the original—which I do— you get a much finer quality. And when they eliminated the film stock, you couldn’t make prints off the original anymore. Anyway, it’s technical. It sort of said bye-bye for black and white reversal, so I switched over to black and white negative and then color negative. And I always shoot black and white, because I just like it. It’s interesting when I started making films in the ‘60s. I thought, '‘You know, I’ll do black and white for a while, sort of get to know it.’' Then I got addicted to it and I couldn’t let it go, it was still so important to me. It’s just one of those things you fall into. You fall in love with your material and it’s hard to get away from. But color is so interesting. I avoided making color when I was young because it was a lot more expensive. When I started making films, the idea was just to shoot, shoot as much as I could. I liked the fact that black and white abstracted reality in an interesting way, since we don’t see in black and white. And I stuck with it. EH: Though you are color-blind, right? PH: Yeah. But a lot of people are color-blind. It’s not a big deal. EH: Speaking of looking, one part of your biography that’s often brought up is your time as a merchant marine on ships, which is really apparent in some of your work, but especially in At Sea . How do you think that informed the way you look at things? PH: Imagine yourself out on the forepeak of a ship crossing the Pacific, late at night, looking for lights in the distance. One of my jobs as a deckhand was to report to the bridge by ringing a bell indicating how many points off the port and bow, or the stub and bow, were lights I perceived, to indicate a ship was coming toward us. This was an old nautical tradition. But night after night for months, looking out into the void of night, I realized I could see things I never knew I could see. I could see stars reflecting on the surface of the ocean, I would see these phosphorescent explosions and phosphorescents under the sea—things I never knew my eyes were capable of. I think mariners, going back to the Vikings, had to rely on their eyes to study everything—the weather, the textures, the sea—to survive. So their eyes were very vital to things. When you spend a long time at sea, your eyes get activated in a really interesting way. It’s a world unknown to so many people. You feel like you’re almost an astronaut, you’re out there looking at things most people haven’t had the pleasure of seeing. But a lot of the things one sees can’t be recorded on film. It’s frustrating. I’ve seen so many amazing things on the bows of ships at night, and I tell this long story, which I won’t tell again about sailing into a storm one night, crossing the Indian Ocean, and it’s all about darkness. No, actually the moon was out, but then it went behind clouds and got darker and darker. I was astounded by how dark dark could be. It’s darker and darker, and I’m like, 'My god, it’s even darker.' It 21


got colder and the seas kicked up and I eventually went back to the bridge in the ship, then it started getting lighter and the moon came out. Visually, that was the best moment of my life. You can’t do that on film.



海女 Haenyeo

金炯善 Hyung S. Kim ( 韓國 KOR )

〈玄奧蘭,濟州島恩平〉,2014 數位攝影輸出,藝術家提供 Hyun Okran, Onpyeong Jeju, 2014 Digital print, courtesy the artist

不帶呼吸設備,深潛入水 文 / 喬登.泰歇爾


中去做「摩集」(muljil),也就是捕撈。現今,大部份海女居住於朝鮮半島南瑞的濟州島。金 炯善用鏡頭捕捉了海女,成為系列攝影作品〈海女:海的女人〉。

「對我來說,這些婦女代表了韓國所有母親與祖母的形象。她們內心既脆弱又不可思議的堅強。」 金炯善說。

金炯善首次遇見海女是在 2011 年的一次濟州島之旅,雖然過去就曾看過海女的紀錄攝影,但他 覺得應該有更不同的方法去深入呈現她們的個性。「我對拍攝海女作為女性的角色感興趣,而不 只是把她們當成自然環境的一部份或某種職業。」


當海女終於破水而出時,她們通常不太願意被拍攝,尤其是站在金炯善帶來白幕背景前被拍攝。 「她們會閃躲我,假裝沒看到,甚至對我破口大罵。顯然我必須先要與她們打好關係獲取信任, 當我終於能夠接近幾位海女的時候,她們反而樂意為我介紹更多有意願被拍攝的同伴,」他說:


韓國駐紐約文化辦事處的主任 Ilshik Loh 告訴我們,海女以小組分工的方式入海捕撈,收益也是



平均分配,不管年齡或能力。「海女文化代表著濟州島獨特的母系文化,這在父系社會結構占主導 地位的東亞地區顯得十分特別。因為海女藉著潛水工作來養家,所以她們成了一家之主。」


歲的海女只有七位,而他只見到其中的兩位。「我很擔心海女文化將在二三十年內消失。因此,我 想儘量讓更多的人了解海女文化。」

Dive Deep Underwater Without Any Breathing Equipment by JORDAN G. TEICHER Women known as haenyeo have been gathering seafood in Korea for hundreds of years— submerging deep underwater without diving equipment or breathing apparatuses to do the muljil, or harvesting. Today, most haenyeo live on the island of Jeju, which is on the southern end of the Korean peninsula. Hyung S. Kim photographed these women in his series, “HaeNyeo: Women of the Sea. ” “For me, these women embody all the mothers and grandmothers of Korea. These women hold within them both a fragility and incredible strength,” Kim said. Kim f irst encountered haeneyo women on a trip to Jeju four years ago. Though he’d seen documentary-style photos of haeneyo before, he felt there was room to show them in a new way that provided more insight into their personalities. “I was interested in capturing the haenyeo as women, not simply viewing them as a part of the natural environment or their occupation.” Kim started visiting the island regularly, spending many hours alone as he waited for the women to surface from their dives. When they finally emerged, he said, they were often reluctant to be photographed, especially in front of the backdrop he’d brought along with him. “They would often avoid me, ignore me, or even yell at me. It was absolutely necessary for me to forge a relationship of trust with them, and when I was finally able to get close to a few of them, they in turn introduced me to other haenyeo who were willing to be photographed,” he said. “After a while they not only became used to my presence and accepted me into their community, they treated me like their own son. It was a very moving experience,” he said. Haenyeo women work as a group and divide the work between them, said Ilshik Loh, director of the Korean Cultural Service New York. They even divide their profits equally, without any consideration of age or ability. “Haenyeo culture embodies the unique matriarchal culture of Jeju society amid the powerful patriarchal societal structure that dominated the rest of East Asia. As haenyeo took up diving as a way to support their families, they became the heads of the household.” In the past 30 years, the number of haenyeo has fallen drastically. The majority of the women Kim met were over the age of 60, and he was told that there are only seven haenyeo in their thirties, only two of which he was able to meet. “I am concerned the haenyeo culture will die out in the next 20 to 30 years. For this reason, I want to share the haenyeo culture with as many people as possible.” TheCUBE


岸上事件 Events Ashore 黎安美 An-My Lê ( 越南 VNM )

彩色出版品,192 頁 ,2014,藝術家提供 Color print publication, 192 pages, 2014, courtesy the artists

記得海洋 文 / 歐維歐.朵穆所古魯

世上存在著海洋的記憶。海洋記得我們生命的痕跡、不同時代的痕跡,這些記憶承載於洋流流過 大陸沿岸,尤其是移民和戰爭的記憶。在黎安美的攝影中,她不斷拆解某種雄偉的海洋情懷,並



為。黎安美在 1975 年搭乘軍用飛機橫跨海洋逃離越南,當時她十五歲。黎安美著迷於複雜的軍事、 軍事所寫下的歷史以及它書寫的方式。她架設在山頂的相機展現出的一種複雜凝視,激發出她從 天空觀察軍事如何入侵大海的好奇心。

《自然之外的海洋》所展出的黎安美作品是她的攝影輯〈 岸上事件〉。這同時也是她長達九年的 觀察結果,關於美國軍事訓練遠征與研究任務考察,從伊拉克到南極,黎安美帶著保持距離與同

情的態度,耐心地觀察一個由陽剛操演與階級制度所構成的世界。在她攝影中的士兵既強壯又無 助,這在歷史不斷重演的戰爭中,不曾被人注意到。當士兵掃視海平線時,他們知道下一個暴風



雨什麼時候會來嗎?海洋的記憶在這些圖像中透露出端倪,黎安美清晰的視野呈現了冷冽的沙岸上 各式各樣詭異而龐大的軍用車輛,彷彿是被帝國殖民的鬼魂所附身。這種張力閃現出超越軍事的衛

星網格地圖的一瞥。看到〈卸載登陸氣墊船與坦克,加州,2006〉這張照片裡從容登陸的氣墊船, 觀者不禁想到那首靈感來自布勒哲爾畫作〈伊卡洛斯墜落的風景〉的詩,「華美的船必然看見了/ 這幕奇景,一個少年從天空墜落/不過它自有目的地要去,繼續平靜的航行。」

Oceans Remember by ÖVÜL O. DURMUSOGLU Oceanic memory exists. Oceans remember traces of our lives, traces of different times, which they carry along with their currents and along continents, especially memories of migration and war. In An-My Lê’s photography a certain heroic oceanic feeling is constantly dismantled while an uncanny oceanic memory is invoked. On one hand, the vast horizons suggest nature interrupted by human acts, and at the same time, they reveal perseverance in the smallest of these acts performed to continue the human life surrounded by this timeless stage. Lê was evacuated from Vietnam in 1975 when she was 15, crossing oceans in a military-transport plane. Lê is intrigued by the complexity of military, the history it writes, and how it is written. The intricate gaze she performs with her camera situated on a hilltop evokes her curious observation of the military’s infiltration of the sea from the air. Lê’s photographs selected for The Ocean After Nature are from her first color series, Events Ashore, which is the result of a nine-year-long observation of American military training expeditions and research missions from Iraq to Antarctica. Lê patiently observes a universe of masculine performance and hierarchy with distance and sympathy. The soldiers in her photographs are strong and helpless at the same time, unaware of the repetition of war in history. Do they know when the next storm will be while they scan the horizon? Oceanic memory prevails in these images. Lê’s clear vision presents the eerie appearance of various colossal army vehicles on both sandy and icy coasts, as if touched by imperial colonial ghosts. Such a tension gives a glimpse beyond the satellite grids of territorialization identified with the military. Looking at the nonchalant landing hovercraft in Offload, LCACs and Tank, California (2006), the viewer cannot help but remember the poem inspired by Bruegel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus: “the expensive delicate ship that must have seen/ Something amazing, a boy falling out of the sky/ Had somewhere to get to and sailed calmly on.” TheCUBE


消沈狀態 A Dashed State

曼尼.蒙特里巴諾 Manny Montelibano ( 菲律賓 PHL )

三頻道錄像,彩色有聲,20 分鐘,2015 Three-channel video, sound, color, 20 min., 2015

潛行般的在場 文 / 派翠克.芙羅



到一個位在蘇祿海和西菲律賓海之間的敏感地帶,這裡屬中國南海爭議的一部分。從前菲律賓人 就是從巴塔拉薩鎮行至南沙群島和沙巴的領土爭議區的。這部影片援引了來自關於「構造世界」 的歷史,以及長久以來海洋與宇宙學,和帝國、民族國家與區域之間關係的歷史,他採取了 1950



對話時,將同時領會兩種語言的片段。蒙德利巴諾製作了混合傳統歌謠和中國附近區域的收音機 電波的同源音軌,捕捉了來自島嶼周邊生意盎然的混雜聲景。


的遷徒的圖像、自然的群體、接續的殖民主義暴力和曾發生許多傳奇與沈船的大量移民,而產生 變化。一定程度上,蒙德利巴諾巧妙地透過迂迴的聲響,在世俗的論述中挑起另一陣漣漪,就像 是一根琴弦在海中的水波中顛動。





蒙特利巴諾嘗試作出一種微複音──一種摩擦聲,一種縈繞、追逐、潛行,甚至干擾吟誦的聲響幽 靈。那緩慢震動的複雜聲音,侵擾了日常生活,但相反來說,它也被強勢激昂的創世紀史詩吟唱之 聲擾動。

Creeping Presence by PATRICK D. FLORES Manny Montelibano’s A Dashed State is a multi-channel video piece on the condition of the waters around the Philippines, specifically the West Philippine Sea. He finds an acute angle from Bataraza, the southernmost municipality of Palawan, between the Sulu Sea and the West Philippine Sea, which is a part of the disputed South China Sea. It is from Bataraza that Filipinos journey to the contested territories of the Kalayaan Island Group and Sabah. The film invites discussion of the history of world-making and the history of the sea in the long duration in relationship to cosmologies and the histories of empires, nationstates, and regions. He pursues the method employed in the 1950 film Genghis Khan in which the screenplay’s Tagalog is overlain with the English of the American playwright-critic James Agee, like some kind of double. Hearing the dialogue twofold, a bilingual, Tagalog-speaking audience can fish out fragments of both languages. Montelibano creates a cognate track of epics and radio frequencies from nearby China that capture the productive confusion of sonicscapes from around the islands. Finally, Bataraza, as a kind of edge and aperture to a vast world that is challenged by nationalisms, is inf lected with other images of f light, the swarm of its nature, the violence of its successive colonialisms, and the intensity of its migrations across sagas and shipwrecks. At a certain level, Montelibano subtly stirs up another ripple in worldly discourse by insinuating sound, a vibration that is a string in a wave in the sea. The sound put in place is an epic, voiced by chanters from generation to generation. He has chosen the epic Kudaman of the Palawan people and their ethnoscape. The epic intersperses with modern radio waves, and here Montelibano explores micropolyphony, in which he makes a rustle, an acoustic spectrality that hovers, haunts, chases, stalks, and yet also interferes with the cogency of chant. It is a creeping and throbbing and intricate sound, one that encroaches on everyday life and is in turn disrupted by the travail of the epic voice that sings of genesis and prevailing. TheCUBE


加勒比海! Al Caribe!

超級南美人 Supersudaca ( 荷蘭 NLD )

六款明信片,2016 ,藝術家提供 Six sets of postcards , 2016, courtesy the artists

樂園的屏障 文 / 瑪麗亞.德.卡門卡里翁 超級南美人於 2001 年在鹿特丹成立,是一個結構靈活,有著分散協作網絡的建築師團體,成員

來自拉丁美洲和歐洲各地。他們對於拉丁美洲脈絡下的城市研究和設計有共同興趣,並關注公共 空間、實驗住宅和旅遊產業。

這個團體從 2008 年開始研調加勒比海地區與旅遊業有關的基礎設施,及其對境內的衝擊和影響。 他們的研究採用另類製圖和概念性的形式,如圖表、訪談、反思性文本以及以〈加勒比海!〉為 母題的視覺總匯。〈加勒比海!〉包含了產業對當地經濟的衝擊、對土地的使用、建築設計樣貌 的形成,和不同國家為了要吸引旅客而實施的策略。超級南美人主要關注於「全包式」旅遊業, 以及它們是否企圖與在地建立關係。

在《自然之外的海洋》中,〈加勒比海!〉採取的形式是可讓觀眾取走的明信片。正面是通俗的 異國風情和理想的地區名勝圖片,反面是關於旅遊業對經濟與環境造成衝擊的質問以及直指真相 的補充說明。在「熱帶樂園」之類光鮮亮麗的宣傳影像之下,是一連串的斷裂,他們以質疑觀光




個作品直接了當地指出觀者就是潛在的觀光客。在這種為了創造美好的熱帶旅遊體驗而形成的結構 裡,我們是否能意識到這些?或者,我們就是共犯?

Interference in Paradise by MARÍA DEL CARMEN CARRIÓN Supersudaca is a collective founded in 2001 in Rotterdam by a group of architects as a delocalized collaborative network with a f lexible structure. Members are based throughout different parts of Latin America and Europe. Together, they share a common interest in urban research and design within a Latin American context, focusing on public spaces, experimental housing, and the tourism industry. Since 2008 , the collective has been investigating the development of manufactured infrastructure connected with the tourism industry in the Caribbean region, as well as its impact and consequences on the domestic. Their research takes the form of alternative mapping and conceptual charts, interviews, ref lexive texts, and compilations of visual typology under the umbrella title of Al Caribe!. Al Caribe! covers the impact of the industry on the local economies, the use of land, the forms of architectonic design that have emerged, and the strategies that different countries have implemented in order to attract travelers. Important attention has been paid to the development of “all inclusive” tourism, and the relationship or non-relationship that it proposes with the local territory. In The Ocean After Nature, Al Caribe! takes the form of takeaway postcards that present, on the front, popularized images of exotic and idealized aspects of the region, and on the back, questions and factual interjections about the impact that tourism has on the economy and environment. Under the glossy cover of marketing images of a “tropical paradise,” a series of fractures emerge, presenting the viewer with the challenge to question the seductive nature of tourist imagery and consider his or her own implication and impact as a consumer. The work addresses the viewer directly as a potential tourist. Are we aware of or are we complicit in the structures that are implemented in order to create a perfect tropical experience? TheCUBE


這碗湯令人困擾嗎? Does this Soup Taste Ambivalent? 團結兄弟

錄像(彩色、有聲、10 分鐘),17 張附藝術家註記的複印本(11 x 8 英吋),2014/2016 藝術家和洛杉磯 Overduin & Co. 畫廊提供 Video (color, sound, 10 min.), 17 facsimiles with artists’ notation, 8.5 x 11 in each, 2014/2016 Courtesy the artists and Overduin & Co, Los Angeles

在舌尖上 文 / 蘭卡.塔特索爾

團結兄弟問的問題不是: 「這碗湯好喝嗎?」或「這碗湯有毒嗎?」或是「這碗湯是否像藝術家的母親為 了這場表演特地從日本來到這裡,以來自 2011 年發生地震、海嘯和巨大核災三種災難的福島生產 的蔬菜所煮的湯呢?」維基百科寫道,在那場災難中有 15,894 人死亡,但是那真正的含義是什麼?

團結兄弟的作品在《自然之外的海洋》展覽中展出的作品發展自一場數度在國際場合呈現的表演, 其中包含 2015 年在洛杉磯外約四十英哩的國家公園中央,在一個假的「西部」城鎮舉辦的類藝

術博覽會,叫作「派拉蒙牧場」。加州與日本在同一片海洋上,所以當 2011 年福島發生核災時, 有些人(包括我母親)非常擔心輻射是否會飄到他們在加州的家園。如今看來,雖然這個問題在 當時的確有點自私,但也指出了海洋是連接兩塊大陸地的水域,而且它的洋流中承載著毒物、資

訊、殖民主義、貿易、食物,當然,還有歡愉。這場由藝術家組織的奇特藝術博覽會,想像上是 愉悅的。但通過運用創傷、失去和權力操控而進行的藝術展演,又會有怎麼樣的愉悅?或許比你 原來以為的多。



當藝術場域中出現食物時,人們一般都會覺得它應該是「好玩的」、「關係美學式的」、「參與式 藝術的」或甚至是小型的「烏托邦」模型。與此相反,以團結兄弟的湯為中心所發生的交流卻是尷 尬的、需要調解的。觀眾緊張地笑著,甚至感到害怕。或許你會覺得,與造成湯裡蔬菜被毁滅性地

污染的災難相較,你自己感受到的小小恐懼,根本沒什麼。也或許你會這麼想,在全球暖化把你滅 頂前,或許喝了這碗湯就先讓你沒命。它可能會讓你處在不知如何是好的狀態。又再或許,你會想 到一個家庭的成員──母親與兒子──在一個商業藝術場域中發表美學宣言是件挺不尋常事。


份也結束了。而留在人體消化系統的,是那以 2011 年遭污染的土壤中長出來的蔬菜為材料,緩慢

細心烹煮出來的湯。消化系統以嘴與舌為開端,這兩種器官在被問到與作品同名的問題:「這碗湯 喝起來令人困擾嗎?」之時,只能說出微不足道的答案:「我不知道。」

On the Tip of the Tongue by LANKA TATTERSALL The question asked by UNITED BROTHERS is not: Does this soup taste good? Or, does this soup taste toxic? Or, does this soup taste like it was made by the artists’ mother, who was imported from Japan for the purpose of this performance, to make this soup for you, with vegetables from Fukushima, where that triple terror of an earthquake, a tsunami, and massive nuclear meltdowns happened in 2011, and where one of the brothers owns tanning salons? Wikipedia says 15,894 deaths, but what does that really mean? The works by UNITED BROTHERS presented in The Ocean After Nature grew out of a performance that was staged several times internationally, including, in 2015, at a sort of- art-fair called “Paramount Ranch” some 40 miles outside of Los Angeles, in a fake “Western” town in the middle of a national park. California shares an ocean with Japan and when the nuclear meltdown happened in Fukushima in 2011, some people (including my own mother) wondered if the radiation would reach their Californian homes. This question, which seemed as self-centered then as it does today, nevertheless points to the fact that the ocean is a body that connects disparate land masses, and that carries toxicity, information, colonialism, trade, food, and yes, pleasure within its currents. This particular art fair, which was organized by artists, was, subjectively, pleasurable. What pleasure exists in working through trauma, loss, and the manipulation of power? Maybe more than one might at first assume. When food is served in an art context, people typically assume it’s going to be “fun,” “relational” or “participatory,” or maybe even some kind of small model of “utopian.” Instead, around the UNITED BROTHERS’s soup, the exchange is awkward, mediated, nervously laughed, and maybe even terrifying. Perhaps you feel that your small degree of terror is nothing in comparison to the terror of the events that possibly made the vegetables in this soup disastrously contaminated. Maybe this soup will kill you, if global warming doesn’t kill you first. It could be that you are being ridiculous. Perhaps you think about how unusual it is to see a family unit—a mother and her sons—enacting an aesthetic statement in a commercial art context. Eventually the soup runs out. Actually, at Paramount Ranch, it ran out quickly. With the soup gone, the visible live performance ended. What was left was the soup, made slowly and with care, with vegetables grown in soil turned toxic in 2011, working its way through the digestive system. A system which begins with the mouth and the tongue, organs which, when asked the work’s eponymous question, “Does this soup taste ambivalent?” may only be able to utter that most paltry answer: “I don’t know.” TheCUBE


世界領海地圖 Territorial Map of the World

尤納坦.柯恩+拉菲.塞加爾 Yonatan Cohen & Rafi Segal ( 以色列 ISR )

數位輸出,藝術家提供,2013 Digital print, courtesy the artists, 2013

超越地海之分 文 / 尤納坦.柯恩、拉菲.塞加爾

在我們的世界政治地圖中所描繪的領土範圍中,陸地和海洋都在獨立國家的控制之下,邊界同時 劃定了國界與它們各別的專屬經濟海域(EEZ),但卻不包括海岸線。專屬經濟海域為國際法所

定義,指的是與海岸線垂直線向外延伸兩百海浬以內,並透過國際協約共同劃定的海洋領地。這 份地圖的海域邊界是以佛蘭德斯海洋研究機構以幾何投影為基礎所繪製,它並不能作為一個國家 向另一個國家申索權力的根據。




間發展無關,也無助於評斷海域中的國家主權。這個世界就如今日它被想像──以及被描繪在這 份地圖中──那樣是一個連續的空間,人們移動和資訊傳遞超越了既往陸地與海洋的邊界,因而 時常被政治-法律的混合結構所取代。

這張地圖一方面強化了我們熟悉的民族國家樣貌,同時也召喚出一個超越海陸之分的世界。如今 海洋是充滿可能性的區域:生產野生和養殖的食物的地方、開採礦物和化石燃料的地方、發掘未



來能源所在的地方。透過勾勒海域監控權的區域,這份地圖揭露了世界資源分配的新真實,並概述 了當前的環境責任範圍,以及未來可能發生領土衝突的地方。如此一來,這份地圖拓展了我們對政 治空間的感知和理解,並且在衝突還未浮上枱面之前,提供了一個協商的工具。

Beyond the Sea-Land Divide by YONATAN COHEN and RAFI SEGAL Our political map of the world depicts the extent of territories, both on land and at sea that are under the control of all independent nations. The boundaries shown combine national borders with their respective Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) but exclude the world’s coastlines. EEZs are areas defined by international law as maritime territories lying within 200 nautical miles perpendicular to the coast and delimited by international treaties. The marine borders used in this map are based on a geometric projection of the maritime boundaries depicted by the Flanders Marine Institute. This map is not to be taken as the endorsement of one claim over another. Coastlines—linear entities dividing land from water—were historically one of the f irst geographical features to be represented accurately in maps, thus becoming a common datum for the development of seafaring, charting technology, and the history of exploration more generally. The 20th century brought about profound changes in the organization and measurement of the world. The rudimentary divide of water and land became an obsolete artifact of mapping, both irrelevant to evolving political and economic concepts of space and useless in settling claims of national sovereignty over sea zones. The world as it is envisioned today—and depicted in this map—is a continuous space where the movement of people and information overrides the onceconstitutive barrier between land and sea, and is regulated instead by hybrid politico-legal constructs. Augmenting the familiar shapes of nation-states, the map evokes a world that has evolved beyond the land-sea divide. The seas today are a territory of potentialities: for the production of wild and cultivated food; for the extraction of minerals and fossil fuels; and for the future harvesting of energy. By rendering the areas of control and supervision over the use of sea zones, this map reveals the new reality of the world’s division of resources and outlines the present areas of environmental responsibility and the possible future places of territorial conflict. As such, the map expands our perception and comprehension of political space and offers a tool for negotiation in advance of confrontations yet to surface. TheCUBE



亞倫.瑟庫拉(1951 年生於美國,逝於 2013 年)於 1974 年在聖地牙哥加州大學完成藝術碩士 學位。他從 1985 至 2013 年在加州藝術學院教授

攝影和媒體課程。瑟庫拉獲獎無數,包含古根漢 獎學金以及三度獲得國家藝術獎學金。他與電影

製作人諾爾.柏區(Noël Burch)合作的電影〈失

落的空間〉(2010)在 2010 年贏得威尼斯影展 評審團特別獎。其作品廣泛展出於聖保羅雙年展

(2010)、 巴 賽 隆 納 La Virreina, Centre de la

Imatge(2011 和 2010 年)、台北雙年展(2010)、 比利時安特衛普當代藝術博物館(2010)、德國 卡賽爾文件展(2007 和 2002)、巴黎龐畢度藝術

中心(2006 和 1996)、紐約惠特尼美國藝術博 物館(2006、2002、1993 和 1976)、維也納吉 尼拉利基金會(2010、2007、2006 和 2003)、 巴塞隆納當代美術館(2004、2001 和 2012)、 溫特圖爾攝影博物館(2001)和荷蘭鹿特丹攝影 學院(2001 和 1997)等。


諾爾.柏區(1932 年生於美國)於 1954 年畢

業於高等電影學院(Institut des hautes études cinèmatographiques)。 他 曾 在 多 所 大 學 教 授

電影及電影理論課程,包括紐約大學、倫敦皇家 藝術學院、布魯塞爾藝術傳播學院(Institut des

Arts de Diffusion, Brussels)、 俄 亥 俄 州 立 大 學 和 巴 黎 的 高 等 電 影 學 院(Institut des hautes

études cinèmatographiques)。 柏 區 以 其 理 論 著作為人所知,包含〈電影理論與實踐〉(Theory

of Film Practice,1973)、〈致遠方的觀察者: 日 本 電 影 中 的 形 式 與 意 義 〉(To the Distant

Observer: Form and Meaning in the Japanese Cinema,1979)、〈La Lucarne de l'infini〉(Life

to Those Shadows,1990)。他的電影作品包括

〈What Do Those Old Films Mean?〉(1985) 和〈Aller simple〉(Tres historias del Río de la Plata,1998),他與亞倫.瑟庫拉共同合作的電

影〈失落的空間〉(2010)在 2010 年贏得威尼 斯影展評審團特別獎。




CAMP(2007 年 成 立 於 印 度 孟 買 ) 是 由 夏 納. 阿 南 德(Shaina Anand)、 山 傑. 班 加

(Sanjay Bhangar)和阿修克.蘇庫馬蘭(Ashok

Sukumaran)共同組成的工作室,關注橫跨建築、 藝術、電影和軟體程式等領域。他們以 CAMP 的 名 義 贏 得 2014 年 巴 西 庫 里 奇 巴(Curitiba) 電 影 節 Olhar de Cinema 的 嶄 新 視 角 獎 和 2009 年

沙 迦 雙 年 展 的 評 審 團 大 獎。CAMP 的 展 覽 經 歷 豐 富, 包 含 紐 約 皇 后 美 術 館(2015)、 紐 約 新

美 術 館(2012)、 倫 敦 蛇 形 藝 廊(Serpentine Galleries,2009)、 耶 路 撒 冷 Al-Ma’mal 當 代

藝 術 基 金 會(2009) 和 芳 草 地 藝 術 中 心(Yerba

Buena Center for the Arts,2011) 等 地 展 出。 他們曾參加 2009 - 2014 年的沙迦雙年展、2012

光州雙年展、2010 年利物浦雙年展和 2014 年上 海雙年展,以及許多電影節,包括 2013 年倫敦影

展、 同 年 馬 賽 國 際 影 展 和 2014 年 紐 約 Flaherty 電影研討會。

澎葉生(1974 年生於法國)是聲音藝術工作者,


作。作為田野錄音師,他特別關注動物和自然聲 音,也對都市情境和奇特的聲音現象抱持極大的

興趣。他跋山涉水採集聲音,並經常將這些素材 轉化為聲響拼貼作品。澎葉生常與其他音樂家、 視覺藝術家和舞蹈家合作生產影音表演與裝置, 也參與過電影聲音設計。他的作品出現於各式各

樣的國際藝術節、唱片廠牌和雙年展。他從 2007 年起定居於台灣,並一頭栽進人類學與生態學的

田野,他探索台灣的音景的方法,是透過藝術面 向的研究、於地方社區發展藝術計劃、紀錄動物 與其生存環境,並與合作生物學家,合作創造藝 術與自然科學計畫。


彼得.荷頓(1944 年生於美國,逝於 2016 年)

是一位實驗影片導演、藝術家和電影劇照師。他 花了近四十年搭乘貨船在世界各地旅行。他的作


等多樣的景觀。荷頓畢業於舊金山藝術學院(San Francisco Art Institute), 在 此 學 習 繪 畫、 雕

塑 和 電 影。 他 在 加 州 藝 術 學 院(CalArts)、




哈 佛 大 學、 紐 約 州 立 大 學 帕 切 斯 分 校(SUNY

學院電影與電子藝術學程的主任。2008 年,紐約 現代美術館策劃了關於他所有影片的回顧展。 彼得.胡頓過去生活和工作於紐約哈尼遜。

金炯善 (1965 年生於南韓 ) 畢業於首爾藝術大學 攝影學位。2015 年在紐約的韓國文化局展出其作 品,並受到廣泛的報導,如《紐約客》、《華爾

街日報》、《Buzzfeed》、《衛報》、《Artsy》、 《韓國時報》和《Nők Lapja Café》等。


黎安美(1960 年生於越南)擁有斯坦福大學的


創作碩士學位。自 1998 年以來,她一直擔任紐 約巴德學院(Bard College)的攝影教授。她獲

獎無數,包括麥克阿瑟基金會(2012)、蒂芙尼 基 金 會(Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation ) (2010)和弗里希榮獲古根漢紀念基金會( John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation) (1997) 頒 發 的 學 院 助 學 金。 她 的 作 品 廣 泛

於 各 地 展 出, 包 括 在 瑞 典 哥 德 堡 哈 蘇 基 金 會 (Hasselblad Foundation)(2014)、 比 利 時

安特衛普 MAS 河畔博物館(2014)、巴爾的摩藝 術博物館(2013)、紐約 MoMA PS1(2002)和 紐約 Dia:Beacon 美術館(2006)舉辦的個展。 黎安美生活和工作於紐約。

曼尼.蒙德利巴諾(1971 年生於菲律賓)是

一 位 維 薩 亞 斯 的 媒 體 藝 術 家、 電 影 和 舞 台 劇 導

演 及 編 劇, 並 在 菲 律 賓 德 拉 薩 大 學 擔 任 教 授。 在 菲 律 賓 國 內, 其 作 品 曾 展 出 於 馬 尼 拉 的 菲 律 賓 國 家 人 民 博 物 館(2009)、 菲 律 賓 文 化 中 心


博物館(Museo Iloilo,2006)和奎松市(Quezon

City) 的 Vargas Museum(2012); 國 際 展 出 於韓國、香港、西班牙、德國、加拿大和法國。

2015 年他亦擔任第 56 屆威尼斯雙年展菲律賓國 家館的藝術家之一。


移民的美讚和羞辱)於 2001 年成立於鹿特丹。 照面向涉及都市研究、建築實踐和當代文化,在 布宜諾艾利斯、利馬、古拉索、布魯塞、聖地牙

哥、蒙特維多和鹿特丹等地均有分支機構。超級 南美人致力於關注加勒比地區的大眾旅遊(Mass

Tourism)、中國新興的全球化現況、拉丁美洲的 社會住宅實驗和空間干預等議題。他們在鹿特丹 國際建築雙年展獲得最佳入圍獎,也是克勞斯親

王基金會(The Prince Claus Fund)的網路協作 夥伴。

團結兄弟 是由荒川医和荒川共生兩兄弟共同組

成。荒川医(1977 年生於日本)於 2004 年取得 紐約視覺藝術學院的學士學位,2005 年加入惠特

尼 獨 立 研 究 計 畫(Whitney Independent Study

Program), 並 於 2006 年 取 得 巴 德 學 院(Bard

College)的碩士學位。他的作品曾展出於紐約現 代美術館(2012)、倫敦泰德美術館(2012)、

柏 林 新 畫 廊(Galerie Neu,2010) 和 紐 約 雕 塑

中心(2009)等地。他與兄弟荒川共生的創作計 畫是調查他們的出生地——日本福島——在 2011 年發生第一核電廠核災之後的現狀和過去。他們 也共同經營旅居各處的協作型藝廊——綠茶畫廊 (Green Tea Gallery)。

尤 納 坦. 柯 恩(1977 年 生 於 以 色 列 ) 是 一 位


社會計算組(Social Computing Group)的研究

設計師、麻省理工建築系客座教授。柯恩在耶路 撒冷的比撒列藝術設計學院(Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, Jerusalem) 和 墨 西 哥 伊 比

利 亞 美 洲 大 學(Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City)學習建築,並在 2010 年取得哈佛大

學城市設計的碩士學位。柯恩是 firm Hyberbina 建築設計公司的首席設計師。2011 年 ,他與馬

坦.梅爾(Matan Mayer)和拉菲.塞加爾(Rafi Segal)一同贏得以色列耶路撒冷國家圖書館國際

設計競賽首獎。他也是數位公共平台「開放民主」 (openDemocracy)的創始者之一。 尤納坦.柯恩生活和工作於波士頓。



拉 菲. 塞 加 爾(1967 年 生 於 以 色 列 ) 現 為 麻

省 理 工 建 築 與 城 市 主 義 學 院(Architecture and

urbanism)的副教授。他擁有普林斯頓大學的博 士 學 位, 和 以 色 列 理 工 學 院(Technion—Israel

Institute of Technology) 的 博 士 與 碩 士 學 位。 他曾於多所歐美大學教授建築和城市主義,包括 哈佛大學設計學院、哥倫比亞大學的建築規劃與

保存學院、柯柏聯盟建築學院和普林斯頓大學。 他過去參與的項目包含特拉維夫藝術博物館(Tel

Aviv Museum of Art)、耶路撒冷國防軍紀念博

物 館(IDF Memorial Museum,Jerusalem)、 特 拉 維 夫 帕 爾 瑪 歷 史 博 物 馆(Palmach History Museum, Tel Aviv)。2011 年, 塞 加 爾、 尤 納 坦. 柯 恩(Rafi Segal) 和 馬 坦. 梅 爾(Matan Mayer)共同贏得以色列耶路撒冷國家圖書館國

際設計競賽首獎。塞加爾曾在紐約 Storefront for Art and Architecture(2013)、 紐 約 現 代 美 術


鹿特丹 Witte de With Center for Contemporary

Art(2004)、 瑞 典 Malmö Konsthall(2004) 和 威 尼 斯 建 築 雙 年 展(2006) 等 地 展 出 或 策

劃 展 覽。 他 也 是 數 位 公 共 平 台「 開 放 民 主 」

(openDemocracy)的創始者之一,並編纂關於 城市主義和以色列建築的相關書籍。 拉菲.塞加爾生活和工作於波士頓。

Artists A llan Sekula (1951–2013, United States) c ompleted h i s M FA at t he Un iver s it y of California, San Diego, in 1974. From 1985 through 2013 he taught in the Photography and Media Program at California Institute of the Arts. Sekula was the recipient of numerous awards and fellowships, including a Guggenheim Fellowship and, on three occasions, a National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship. His film The Forgotten Space (2010), created in collaboration with the filmmaker Noël Burch, won the Special Orizzonti Jury Prize at the 2010 Venice Film Festival. His work has been exhibited widely, including at the Bienal de São Paulo (2010), La Virreina, Centre de la Imatge, Barcelona (2011, 2010), the Taipei Biennial (2010), the Museum of Modern Art, Antwerp, Belgium (2010), Documenta, Kassel, Germany (2007, 2002), Centre Pompidou, Paris (2006, 1996), the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (2006, 2002, 1993, 1976), Generali Foundation, Vienna (2010, 2007, 2006, 2003), MACBA, Barcelona (2004, 2001, 2012), Fotomuseum Winter t hur, Sw it zerland (20 01), and Foto Institute Rotterdam, the Netherlands (2001, 1997). Allan Sekula lived and worked primarily in Los Angeles.

N o ë l B u r c h ( b . 19 32 , Un it e d S t a t e s)

graduated from the Institut des hautes études cinèmatographiques in 1954. He has taught courses in f ilm studies and f ilm theor y at numerous universities, including New York University; the Royal College of Art, London; Institut des Arts de Diffusion, Brussels; Ohio State University; and the Institut des hautes études cinèmatographiques in Paris. Burch is known for his theoretical writings, including T heory of Film Practice (1973), To the Distant Observer: Form and Meaning in the Japanese Cinema (1979), and La Lucarne de l’infini (Life to Those Shadows) (1990). Burch’s films include What Do Those Old Films Mean? (1985) and Aller simple (Tres historias del Río de la Plata) (1998). His film The Forgotten Space (2010), created in collaboration with Allan Sekula, won the Special Orizzonti Jury Prize at the 2010 Venice Film Festival.

Noël Burch lives and works in France.

CAMP (established 2007, India) was founded by Shaina Anand, Sanjay Bhangar, and Ashok Sukumaran as a collaborative studio practice,



working across the disciplines of architecture, art, film, and software programming. As CAMP they have won the New View Award from the 2014 Olhar de Cinema, Curitiba, Brazil, and the Main Jury Award at the 2009 Sharjah Biennial. CAMP has exhibited widely, including at the Queens Museum, New York (2015), the New Museum, New York (2012), Serpentine Galleries, London (2009), A l-Ma’mal Foundation for Contemporary Art, Jerusalem (2009), and Yerba Buena Center for the Arts (2011). They have participated in the biennials in Sharjah (2009– 14), Gwang ju (2012), Liverpool (2010), and Shanghai (2014), and in numerous film festivals, including the BFI London Film Festival (2013), Festival Internationale de Cinema, Marseille (2013), and the Flaherty Film Seminar, New York (2014). CAMP is based in Mumbai.

Yannick Dauby (b. 1974, France) is a sound artist. His background in musique concrete a nd i mpr ov i s at ion , u s i n g fou nd obje c t s , electroacoustic devices and phonographies. As a f ield recordist, he as particular interest for animals or nature sounds as well as urban situations and unusual acoustic phenomenas. Excursions are pretext to a sonic gathering, and often leads to the realization of phonographic collages. He often collaborates w ith other musicians, visual artists and dancers, producing audio-visual performances or installations, and makes sound design for films. His work has been presented by various international festivals, record labels and biennale exhibitions. He is based in Taiwan since 2007, interested into the field of anthropology and ecology, exploring the island’s soundscape through artistic research, developing art projects in local communities and documenting the fauna and its environment, creating art & science projects in collaborations with biologists. Yannick Dauby lives and works in Taipei.

Peter Hutton (1944–2016, United States) was an experimental f ilmmaker, artist, and cinematographer who spent nearly forty years voyaging the globe, frequently by cargo ship. His work covers such diverse landscapes as northern Iceland, the Yangtze River, and the Polish city of Łódź. Hutton graduated from San Francisco A r t I nst it ute, where he st ud ied pa i nt i ng, sculpture, and film. He taught filmmaking at CalArts, Harvard University, SUNY Purchase,

and other institutions. He was the director of the Film and Electronic Arts Program at Bard College. In 2008 the Museum of Modern Art, New York, held a full retrospective of his films. Peter Hutton lived and worked in Annandale-onHudson, New York.

Hyung S. Kim (b. 1965, Korea) graduated

from Seoul Institute of the Arts with a degree in photography. His work was exhibited at the Korean Cultural Service, New York, in 2015. It has been featured widely in the press, including articles and reviews in the New Yorker, the Wall Street Journal, Buzzfeed, the Guardian, Artsy, the Korea Times, and Nők Lapja Café. Hyung S. Kim lives and works in Seoul.

An-My Lê (b. 1960, Vietnam) holds a BAS and an MS in biology from Stanford University, and an MFA in photography from Yale University. She has been a professor of photography at Bard College since 1998. She is the recipient of numerous awards and fellowships, including the MacArthur Foundation Fellowship (2012), the Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation Fellowship (2010), a nd t he Joh n Si mon Guggen hei m Memorial Foundation Fellowship (1997). Her work has been exhibited widely, including in solo shows at the Hasselblad Foundation, Göteborg, Sweden (2014), the Museum aan de Stroom, Antwerp, Belgium (2014), the Baltimore Museum of Art (2013), MoMA PS1, New York (2002), and Dia:Beacon, New York (2006). An-My Lê lives and works in New York.

M a n n y M o n t e l i b a n o I I I ( b . 1971,

Philippines) is a Visayan media artist, f ilm and stage director, editor, and professor at the University of St. La Salle in the Philippines. His work has been exhibited in the Philippines at the National Museum of the Filipino People, Manila (2009), the Cultural Center of the Philippines, Manila (2010), the Metropolitan Museum of Manila (2012), Museo Iloilo (2006), and the Vargas Museum, Quezon Cit y (2012), and internationally in Korea, Hong Kong, Spain, Germany, Canada, and France. He was featured as part of the Philippine Pavilion at the 56th Venice Biennale in 2015.

Manny Montelibano lives and works in Bacolod, Philippines.

Supersudaca (a word combination of virtue and insult for Latin immigrants) was founded in Rotterdam in 2001. It is a collective operating TheCUBE


worldwide in pressing themes of urban research, architecture practice and contemporary culture with branches in Buenos Aires, Lima, Curacao, Brussels, Santiago, Montevideo and Rotterdam. Supersudaca addresses subjects such as Mass Tourism in the Caribbean, China’s emerging global presence, Latin American social housing experiments and direct spatial interventions amongst others. They have been recognized with the best entry award at the International Architecture Biennale of Rotterdam and were network partners of The Prince Claus Fund.

UNITED BROTHERS is a collaboration

between Ei Arakawa and his brother Tomoo Arakawa. Ei Arakawa (b. 1977, Japan) holds a BFA from the School of Visual Arts, New York (2004), participated in the Whitney Independent Study Program (2005), and completed his MFA at Bard College (2006). His work has been exhibited extensively, including at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (2012), Tate Modern, London (2012), Galerie Neu, Berlin (2010), and SculptureCenter, New York (2009). With Tomoo Arakawa, the brothers create projects that investigate their birthplace of Fukushima, Japan, looking at its present and past in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi disaster of 2011. The brothers also run and participate in the traveling collective gallery Green Tea Gallery.

Yonata n Cohen ( b. 1977, Israel) is an architect and urbanist. He is a research designer in the Social Computing Group at MIT Media Lab and a visiting teaching fellow at the MIT Department of Architecture. Cohen studied architecture at Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, Jerusalem, and at the Universidad I beroamer icana, Mex ico Cit y. He holds a master’s degree in urban design from Harvard University (2010). Cohen is a lead designer at the architectural design firm Hyberbina. In 2011 he won, with Matan Mayer and Raf i Segal, first place in the international competition for the design of the National Library of Israel in Jerusalem. He is a contributor to the digital commons platform openDemocracy. Yonatan Cohen lives and works in Boston.

Rafi Segal (b. 1967, Israel) is an associate professor of architecture and urbanism at MIT. He holds a PhD from Princeton University and an MSc and BArch from Technion—Israel Institute of Technology. He previously taught architecture and urbanism at various European 39


and U.S. schools, among them the Harvard Graduate School of Design; the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation at Columbia University; the Cooper Union School of Architecture; and Princeton University. His past projects include the Tel Aviv Museum of Art; the IDF Memorial Museum, Jerusalem; and the Palmach History Museum, Tel Aviv. In 2011 Segal won, with Yonatan Cohen and Matan Mayer, first place in the international competition for the design of the National L ibra r y of Israel i n Jer usa lem. Sega l has exhibited his work, as well as curated exhibitions, at Storefront for Art and Architecture, New York (2013), the Museum of Modern Art, New York (2012), KW Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin (2003), Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (2004), Malmö Konsthall, Sweden (2004), and the Venice Biennale of Architecture (2006), among other venues. He is a contributor to the digital commons platform openDemocracy, and has coedited and contributed to books on urbanism and Israeli architecture. Rafi Segal lives and works in Boston.



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