WASHINGTON • TOLT MACDONALD • NURSE LOG • WOODLAND PARK • SPECIMEN BAG • DISCOVERY PARK • KATY O’DONNELL • HUMUS • ELFI RAHR • VOLUNTEER PARK CONSERVATORY • MOUNT SI •
Seattle, WA, U.S.A . 2014
Copyright © Sarah Xanthakis Printed by Mimeo, Inc 3350 Miac Cove, Memphis, TN 38118 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means–graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems– without written permission of the publishers. Manufactured in U.S.A.
HELLO THE BURROW magazine is a monthly publication that explores plant identification and exploration on the West Coast through a series of documented camping and hiking adventures. This publication calls on the natureenthusiasts, the adventurers, the outdoorsmen, the collectors, and the naturalists. All who love and are interested in botany, whether experienced or not. Iâ€™ve found that the beauty of nature is not defined by appearances alone, but can be enhanced a great deal by a better understanding of what information lies beyond the surface. My goal is to become more connected with the outdoors, adventure deep into the unknown, and find ways to bring nature into the home.
For those who are already avid explorers, I intend for this magazine to expand your curiousity about the beautiful landscapes you already know and love. And for those who enjoy nature from afar, you can live vicariously through these stories. This issue features trips through the Pacific Northwest surrounding Seattle, both close to the city and a few hours outâ€“ as well as some inspiring nature lovers, incredible parks and strange looking mushrooms. Happy foraging!
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0. (cover photo) Fragile Russula (Russula fragilis): mycorrhizal on a variety of trees, often birch and oak trees, found in woodland area.
THE HUNT : TOLT MACDONALD PG 5 NURSE LOG PG 15 WOODLAND PARK: GREENLAKE PG 27 KNAPSACK: SPECIMEN BAG PG 35 DISCOVERY PARK: SOUTH BEACH TRAIL PG 37 KATY O’DONNELL: REDMOND PG 47 HUMUS PG 59 DISCOVERY PARK: WOLF TREE TRAIL PG 65 ELFI RAHR PG 73 VOLUNTEER PARK CONSERVATORY PG 89 MOUNT SI: SNOQUALMIE PG 99 PLANT INDEX PG 111 REFERENCES PG 113
1. Blue Noble Fir (Abies procera): needles are arranged in a spiral formation, with a bluegreen color; closely related to the Red Fir (Abies magnifica).
2. Star Moss (Atrichum angustatum): grows in disturbed areas, even gravel; appears in direct sunlight and can tolerate shaded areas.
3. Hawthorn (Crataegus rhipidophylla): the term â€œhawâ€? refers to the fruit; this thick bush provides protection and shelter to many animal species.
4. Deer Shield (Pluteus cervinus): can be found on rotten logs and tree stumps, even in sawdust or wood waste; wide variety of appearances and colors.
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TOLT MACDONALD PARK • CARNATION, WA 574 ACRES
12 MILES OF TRAIL
30 TENT CAMPSITES
500 FT BRIDGE
USE: MOUNTAIN BIKING,
2 CABIN SHELTERS
HIKING, FISHING, RIVER
2 GROUP SITES
1 CAMPING CONTAINER
5. Oakmoss Lichen (Evernia Prunastri): grows primarily on oak branches but can also be found on other deciduous trees such as pine or fir.
FORAGING FOR MUSHROOMS IN A DAMP FOREST AND SOME SELF TAUGHT BOTANY It was a foggy day when we drove out to Tolt Macdonald Park in Carnation, Washington, and rain was promised for the next few daysâ€“ a forecast thatâ€™s hardly avoidable during this time of the year in the northwest. We arrived at the site early in the day. It was absolutely picturesque. There was a constant, cold breeze but the sun peeked through once in a while making it a little warmer.
There was only one other camper staying at the park during our trip, but many people walked in from the small town just to run their dogs through the trails. From our campsite on the other side of the river we could hear the barks of multiple dogs echo through the forest, running ahead of their owners. It sounded as if a fox hunt was underway. Out in the wilderness, it was easy to imagine being in a different time period where technology was taken back a few hundred years. Once in a while, all voices and barking would stop, echos would fade and the only sound would be the faint rushing of the river. A quick history about the town of Carnation: in 1917 the town of Tolt was renamed Carnation after Carnation Farms, or those small cans of condensed milk that everyone in the world uses for cooking. Not everyone liked the name
6. Mycenoid Mushroom: characterized by bell or conical shaped cap, rarely exceeding a few centimeters, with brittle stems, growing in clusters.
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MUSHROOM SPECIES FOUND Each fallen log is home to hundreds of different mushrooms, small and large. The white ones seen here are believed to be Inocybe geophylla. Identifying mushrooms can be challenging depending on the season and the age of the mushroom.
FLEECY LACTARIUS ARTIST’S FUNGUS SHABBY-MANE INKY CAP LATE FALL WAX CAP
LACTARIUS VELLEREUS GANODERMA APPLANATUM COPRINUS COMATUS HYGROPHORUS HYPOTHEJUS BISPORELLA CITRINA
LEMON CUP BRAIN JELLY-DROP CUP BIRCH POLYPORE WHITE MILK MYCENA GOLDEN PLUTEUS
ASCOCORYNE SARCOIDES PIPTOPORUS BETULINUS MYCENA GALOPUS PLUTEUS CHRYSOPHAEUS
OTHER PLANT SPECIES FOUND LICORICE FERN LADY FERN WESTERN COLTSFOOT OAKMOSS LICHEN WAVY-LEAVED COTTON MOSS ELEPHANT EAR
POLYPODIUM GLYCYRRHIZA ATHYRIUM FILIX-FEMINA PETASITES FRIGIDUS EVERNIA PRUNASTRI PLAGIOTHECIUM UNDULATUM COLOCASIA ESCULENTA
7. Western White Pine (Pinus monticola): grows in the mountains of western United States and Canada; finely serrated needles and long, slender cones.
AMES LAKE FOREST [PRIVATE PROPERTY]
ELEVATION LEVELS TRAIL ROUTE NURSE LOG OUR CAMPSITE
TOLT RIVER JOHN MACDONALD PARK
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8. Licorice Fern (Polypodium glycyrrhiza): evergreen fern native to N. America; named after it’s licorice flavored rhizome which was chewed by Native American groups.
9. Leprose Lichen (Lepraria incana): diffuse and powdery surface, covering sections of a nurse log.
 (above) An old hardcover novel with thick pages can be used for a very conventient, traveling plant press. The page numbers serve as a way of documenting the leaves, and an elastic band wrapped around the closed book keeps it pressed tight.
however, so in 1928, they changed it back to Tolt. Then, in 1951, everyone was so confused about what to call the town, they changed it back AGAIN, to Carnation. But some people still just call it Tolt. Usually for these trips I try to set a small goal for myself– a mushroom to find or a certain number of types to collect. This hunt was mainly for exploration purposes. I really didn’t
expect to find so many different kinds. And to be honest, identification is a difficult process. It’s going to take a long time of practicing until I’m comfortable picking something myself to eat. One really helpful resource that I utilized for my identification process is the Puget Sound Mycological Society. Their website has a link to an email where you can send them a few photographs and get help with naming mushrooms. This is a really useful tool if you
10. Spoon Moss (Bryoandersonia illecebra): growing like hair off the side of a deciduous tree; appears in loose mats in soil or on rock surfaces.
11. Pluteus Mushroom (Pluteus flavofuligineus): grows during colder months in winter on the west coast; widespread, deciduous trees.
plan on hunting for cooking purposes and are a little less experienced. Sometimes with all these different resources around, you just need the advice of a true expert. One aspect that makes mushroom identification difficult is the age– it’s hard to tell if a mushroom is just old or if it is supposed to have those qualities. While hiking along the Snoqualmie River, I found lots of different
kinds growing out of this mud bank, all of which looked older and decaying. One of these was the Shaggy-Mane Ink Cap (also called Lawyer’s Wig), with a white to black gradient on the cap (pg.62). The cap color made it look older, however looking it up later I found it was probably at the right stage to eat, as long as the gills were not black with age. However, I probably wouldn’t have taken the risk. Hiking higher up into the forest, the surroundings
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12. Mycenoid Mushroom: grows on decaying tree stumps or logs, and in leafy debris on the forest floor.
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13. Late Fall Wax Cap (Hygrophorus hypothejus): slimy brownish colored cap, widespread in northern temperate zones; found in grassy field.
14. Tinder Polypore (Fomes fomentarius): grows on deciduous trees, fruits on fallen trees; orange to yellow coloring on edge of bracket; hard surface.
15. Kalpasi (Parmotrema perlata): forms lobes on the surface, with a soft green color on top and a dark black color underneath when matured.
change drastically. Fallen trees decorate the forest floor every few feet. Some are stacked on top of each other like pick-up-sticks, covered in moss to the point where they all look connected as if one giant structure. These trees become hosts for one of the most commonly seen mushrooms- the Artist’s Conk (also called Tinder Polypore). There are a few variations within the species, but most often they look like a disk sticking out of the side of a dead or dying tree, and they are very hard. Sometimes they appear in clusters and look like tiny steps leading up the side of a trunk.
16. Old Man’s Beard (Usnea subfloridana): forms around small twigs and branches, with many tiny branches forming from one cortex.
the water catching dinner. The park really felt like an escape from worries and complex responsibilities. And the wide variety of fungi in the forests made it feel like a fairy land, with endless little discoveries around every corner. I highly recommend a visit there– the yurt sites have wrap around porches, fireplaces and even a fridge. That’s what I call camping! ➷
Another mushroom I saw repeatedly in these types of areas was what I believe to be a type of mycena mushroom. Extremely tiny, they are so white that they’re almost transparent, and beautifully delicate. Although I’m unsure about the exact type, mycena mushrooms are smaller, smooth capped and occasionally have radial striations. While I was treking up the trails with my knife and glass jars, mountain bikers were rushing up and down the path. Fly fishermen were in (bottom) The view from the top of the trail down the hill, covered in pine trees and bracket mushrooms.
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NURSE LOG A closer look into the micro world of a fallen tree. tolt macdonald park CARNATION, wa
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17. Leaâ€™s Mycena (Mycena leaiana): bright orange mycena with adnexed gills, often found growing on decaying wood. Named after mycologist Thomas Gibson Lea.
18. Japanese Wood Fern (Dryopteris erythrosora): a semi-evergreen fern; while young the fern is a copper color, and turns dark green when it matures.
NOUN : 1. NURSE LOG A large decomposing tree trunk that has fallen, usually in a forest; the decaying wood provides moisture and nutrients to a variety of insects and plants. * Remember that scene from The Lion King when Timon and Pumba are lifting up giant logs and eating bugs underneath? Thatâ€™s pretty much what a nurse log is (simplified). When a tree falls to the forest floor, it becomes a host for hundreds of different insects, fungi, lichen and even birds and squirrels. The tree releases chemicals during the decomposing process that attract these insects, which bore holes in the wood allowing for other insects to find
*Definition taken from www.thefreedictionary.com
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19. Deer Fern (Blechnum spicant): a medium sized fern that grows best in acidic soil in medium light; found growing on a decaying log in a thick moss carpet.
20. Scarlet Fairy Helmet (Mycena strobilinoides): conical shaped at early stages of growth, becoming more bell shaped with age. Common in mountainous areas.
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nutrients inside. The outside of the log gets covered in different types of lichen and moss, which slowly feed off of the trees nutrients until the tree disappears altogether over a long period of time. The moss also serves another purpose of catching fallen leaves and other organic bits from above, which all contribute to the cycle of the nurse log. I first learned about nurse logs in depth from the Seattle Vivarium in the Olympic Sculpture Park. A nurse log was found in the Duwamish/ Green River watershed, cut down to fit inside the Vivarium structure and is now a educational showcase to visitors, still functioning in a controlled environment. It is pretty incredible to be able to see such a thing conveniently located down the street in my own city. I also found the Field Guide to the Wildlife of Mark Dion’s Seattle Vivarium for sale at the Seattle Art Museum, detailing the process of aquiring the log, its history and the species that could be found on it. After learning about this project, I realized that a nurse log wasn’t as “noticeable” as I thought. I imagined something as colorful and complex as that silly scene with Timon and Pumba. However it’s very common, and almost any fallen tree seen covered in moss,
mushrooms and leaves probably is a nurse log, hosting thousands of living organisms in it’s own little world. I ran into quite a few of these, most lying off the trail or far enough that I couldn’t get a close look. Then I encountered this gorgeous, giant stump– absolutely covered in mushrooms and moss. There was even a big spotted banana slug moving slowly through the moss. It was as if the entirety of it was waiting for me all morning to come and take its picture. Covering most of the tree stump was what I believe to be Lea’s Mycena mushrooms, which have an orange red cap that’s convex to sheild shaped, and a dark red stem that’s darker than the cap. The cap is approximately the size of a quarter. Among these mushrooms were also various other types. The smaller mycena mushrooms, opaque and fragile, share the space and grow in less crowded groups. Wavy-Leaved Cotton Moss covered most of the top and hung off the sides of the nurse log, which collected many pine needles which stuck in it like shag carpet. Walking around to the back I noticed most of the wood had been eaten away with small holes that looked like the work of a termite or centipede. Wherever the wood was exposed, it had a squishy,
21. Maple Tree Pods (Acer pseudoplatanus): also known as â€œhelicopter leavesâ€?, these seed pods fall from Maples and spin when they float to the ground.
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22. Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides): a fallen log creates an archway over a section of the trail, covered in various types of fern and vines.
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23. Artist’s Conk (Fomes fomentarius): grows on deciduous trees, fruits on fallen trees; often with lined pattern on top, and smooth white underneath.
sponge-like quality as if the whole thing was soaking up the moisture in the air. Or perhaps the breakdown of the pulp made it weaker. If I disturbed this tiny ecosystem and perhaps cut away at part of the wood, I might have found different insects and channels that have been carved away over who knows how much time. Unfortunately, I’m not a huge fan of discovering bugs hidden under things, but my research tells me that a nurse log like this one requires the help of insects working together to keep its cycle moving. There’s a whole world of living organisms in one glance of a forest, even in just one fallen tree, that could be analyzed and broken down into systems. I’ve come to appreciate a simple hike more by just learning a little more about each thing I see. ➷
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25. Star Moss (Atrichum angustatum): or Rock Cap Moss, commonly grows on gravel, and does very well growing in areas with sufficient water drainage.
24. Cladonia chlorophaea (Fruticose lichen): the small “shrek-ear” like cone is called a podetia, which makes this lichen fruticose, not foliose, despite the flatted thallus.
woodland park greenlake, wa 90.9 acre
Aside from the popular public scramble to the shores of Greenlake, and away from all the commotion of family vehicles and happy hours are some quiet, secluded trails with trees that blanket the sound of traffic. Lower Woodland Park refers to the recreation area. The trails lead through thick trees, over small, grassy hills, and then pop out somewhere near civilization again, leaving you confused as to where you left your car. The best part is, the narrow dirt trails will sometimes just disappear into the grass, forcing you to cut through the trees in your own way, sending you deeper into the garden or all of a sudden arriving at a sidewalk, back on a busy street. It’s like cutting through the nieghbor’s backyard, exploring like a child without direction. Of course, I
Originally purchased in 1889 by Guy Phinney as a part of a larger park plan that went through the current Aurora Ave. highway, which split the Woodland property into two halves. The area serves as entertainment of all kinds, including Woodland Zoo, a miniature golf course, a large off-leash dog park, horse shoe pits, and other attractions.
could have studied a map– but there’s no excitement in that. I let my dog lead the way for the better part of the walk, and his nose led us straight to the muddiest off-leash dog park I’d ever seen. He ran with the pack while I explored the surrounding trees. In such a shaded, full area of trees, every log and branch had a thick coat of lichen growing on its surface. Moss of all shapes and sizes were growing on almost any surface, including the painted gravel walls of a small bridge which passed over a busy highway. In this season (and most of the year in Seattle) plants seem to have an endless and yet perfect amount of water. Down the side of the bridge, little clumps of moss clung to the slope, appearing to be water droplets on glass (pg. 34). The image on the right is a fruticose lichen with a single
podetia sticking out from the crack in a wall. The base of the lichen, called the thallus, is the ruffling, leafy part (squamules), in which multiple podetia can grow out of. These shrek-ear-like cups are hollow and the fruiting bodies are located at the end of these podetia, so that they may reproduce. The lichen seen here could be called saxicolous, which means it can grow directly on rick or gravel. The Star Moss, pictured next to it, also does well on gravel due to good drainage and easy access to water. ➷
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26. Kalpasi (Parmotrema perlatum): covering a fallen log like intricate lace, this lichen appears in many colors ranging from light aqua to a pale shade of red.
27. Old Manâ€™s Beard (Usnea subfloridana): very light and delicate, this lichen looks like itâ€™s barely attached, however, it has a strong central axis at the base of the bunch.
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28. Mountain Moss (Leucobryum glaucum): very soft to the touch; grow in dense, swollen cushions with a green color and white tips.
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29. Oakmoss Lichen (Evernia prunastri): attached at one central axis, grows in lobes; common in fallen, decaying trees and wooden fencing.
KNAPSACK SPECIMEN BAG
In preparing for my camping trip to Tolt Macdonald, I wanted to have a bag with me containing a few essentials to picking samples and recording different species. I put together this simple, light-weight pack that proved to be very useful.
SPECIMEN BAG I chose an old, brown leather camera bag that held its shape and could take some weather damage. With a zip-off top, I could easily access the contents inside without wasting much time. Choose a bag that is waterproof, not slouchy and maybe you could carry on your shoulder for easy access.
NOTEBOOK + PENCIL I used a small thin notebook to write down any plants observed that I could identify. I actually ended up using my photographs later to identify most plants I saw. The pencil will also serve you better if hiking through the Northwest, as it could rain any moment!
FIELD GUIDE I brought with me the National Audubon Society Field Guide to the Pacific Northwest by Peter Alden and Dennus Paulson. It contains everything from plants to fish and even lists many parks and reserves in the area. I found it very useful, however, it didn’t focus on the hundreds of mushroom species I wanted to identify. I highly recommend the book Smithsonian
Handbooks, Mushrooms by Thomas Læssǿe and Gary Lincoff. It’s easy to use and makes mushroom identification a little clearer.
MINI PLANT PRESS A little traveling plant press is the perfect handy tool for pressing plants as soon as you cut them, and you probably have the materials to make it in your home already. (See pg. 09)
JARS Some specimens, like mossy twigs, can’t be pressed but need to be protected until you get home. Glass jars preserve the moisture in the plant so they don’t wilt by the time you get home to appreciate them. Save some of those old pasta sauce jars and wash them out for your next trip. TIP: Don’t leave them in the sealed jar for too long. And always keep mushrooms in a seperate bag or basket, not in a jar. The spores will release and it will decay quickly.
KNIFE A good knife goes a long way, but you don’t have to spend too much on one. I bought mine for about $20, and it works for tough jobs like wood carving and opening cans. However if you’re looking for a really beautiful knife and are willing to spend a little extra, check out Scout Single Blade Lock-Back Knife with a handle made out of Rosewood or Bone. ➷
30. Tree Lungwort (Lobaria pulmonaria): sensitive to air pollution and habitat changes; has a history in use of herbal medicines and extracts.
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discovery park: south beach trail magnolia, wa 534 acres
It had snowed for one day, and I knew Discovery would be virtually untouched in the morning. I headed out early with a couple friends, a Canon Rebel and a bag for collecting specimens. Walking along the Loop Trail near the cliffs, passing the water tower and old colonial houses, the start of the South Beach Trail dips down a steep set of stairs into the woods. Clumps of snow stick to the lichen and moss. I’m wearing snow boots, but the fresh snow compacts quickly and the stairs are especially slippery. It’s surprising that the lichen and moss, so delicate, can withstand ice and snow. James B. Benedict writes in his research essay Experiments On Lichen Growth: Effects of Seasonal Snow Cover, in comparing lichen growth in snow covered area (half a year) and no
Formerly Fort Lawton Military Site, the coastal area of Discovery Park still includes the nationally registered West Point Lighthouse and several historic buildings, which remain unused. A water treatment plant is still in use, however, tucked away behind hills of blackberry bushes that fill in every crevasse of the dense trees.
snow cover, “long-term growth rates at the two localities were statistically identical”, however, the lichen growing under snow coverage in winter and summer grew faster than lichen without snow. He goes on to say that this may be due to a season of snow coverage, rather than an episode or short term exposure to snow. The lichen adapts to the elevation and location, protecting itself from cold conditions. Lichen and moss stand out in the landscape of white snow, like little shelves stuck to the side of the trees collecting snow. I found few mushrooms on this trail, probably because the snow covers and then packs them down out of sight. In my observation, a good snow fall can wipe out what mushrooms are left over the winter. There was, however, a few tree trunks with a white,
flat mushroom growth, probably a variation of Red Stain, a styrofoam looking mushroom that wraps around fallen trees. Also, on page 43, a tiny mushroom, about half the diameter of a dime, started to grow off a branch. Other plant growth, such as the thick bushes that are green through Spring and Summer, are now tangles of brown twigs, and their flowers shrivel into ashy clumps. This snow marked the change of the season, with all different plant life transitioning to new weather. ➷
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16. Foliose Lichen (Parmotrema perlatum): forms lobes on the surface, with a soft green color on top and a dark black color underneath when matured.
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WEST POINT LIGHTHOUSE
ELEVATION LEVELS TRAIL ROUTE DECK LOOKOUT PARK ENTRANCE MAGNOLIA BLUFF
DISCOVERY PARK TRAILS LOOP TRAIL
HIDDEN VALLEY TRAIL
NORTH BEACH TRAIL SOUTH BEACH TRAIL WOLF TREE NATURE TRAIL TOTAL TRAIL MILES
2 MI 3 MI 0.25 MI ~ 11 MI
While doing research for Discovery Park, I found that Eddie Vedder with his band Temple of the Dog filmed a music video for the song Hunger Strike on the South Beach in 1992. The video shows the lighthouse still in use at night, and although it remains unused today, it is still functioning.
31. This extremely small mushroom was found on a branch near the path to the shore. Itâ€™s cap is less than a centimeter in diameter, and the cap is slightly scaley.
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32. Maleberry Seed Capsule (Lyonia ligustrina): a dead bush leaves behind small seed capsules that resemble orange slices.
KATY Oâ€™DONNELL In a cabin tucked away in the foothills of a suburban forest, old travel stories are retold. Redmond, wa
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I met Katy when I first moved to Seattle a couple years ago, and she has since shared many stories with me– my favorites being about her spiritual journey and how she decided to move to the Northwest. Her perspective on life and nature are refreshing and inspiring. I decided to ask her a few questions about her travels more in depth, as well as her time in the Redmond wilderness. Have you done a lot of traveling? KO: I haven’t done very much traveling, and that bums me out because the world is such a big interesting place and I’m so curious about it. I haven’t always had the means to do it so I just haven’t been able to. And I also haven’t made that the priority, I’ve just chosen to do other things that seemed more important. It’s really something I’d like to do more of. I’ve lived in Hawaii, I’ve lived in Alaska... I’d really love for you to talk more about Alaska- I remember when we talked about it earlier at dinner and I could listen to that for hours. KO: Alaska was really cool, I felt like this really naive young girl. I’d lived a very homogenous life, went to Catholic schools, no parents would
even divorce, everyone was just white, Catholic and affluent- just a lot of the same for the most part. And I just felt so uninteresting and so boring, I just thought I want to go someplace, do something. Start to live life, get exposed to some other things. The most remote place the Jesuit Volunteer Core could send me at the time was Alaska. So I said ok, lets go, and I went. Lived in a little mission village, had to fly in a bush plane, a little tiny plane, like a six seater or something, into this village. It was in the middle of this tundra, and landed in the winter; the frozen river was the runway. It was cool, it was a really neat experience. It was a boarding school for high school kids, and I taught class. The Eskimos were really in a bad place, because Western culture was really coming in and they were still subsistence hunters, fishermen, and gatherers for the women. And some of the kids were going to school, learning all these Western ways, doing business classes and typing classes and they’d go back to their villages where they were still hunting whales. There was no business, no economy, so they had nothing to do. You were part of the problem just by being there. Western culture’s pretty strong; dominant when it goes in, it’s pretty tantalizing. It was tough. I remember going
48 50 WASHINGTON
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33. Magnolia (Magnolia virginiana): named after French botanist Pierce Mongol; an ancient genus that occured before bees did, and were pollinated by beetles instead.
into one of the Eskimo’s homes in the village I had gotten to be friends with, and the kids were watching Night Rider or something, like Magnum PI, it was some investigation show on a TV in this little tiny metal siding house, and the grandma was in the kitchen with a beaver splayed open, carving up a beaver. It was like these two cultures– she didn’t speak english at all, and the kids were almost losing their language, their Inuit language. It was a weird time to be there but really cool. I got to learn Eskimo dancing. They hold these beautiful fans, and the men in the village have whale gut that stretched and they drum and the women dance with these fans. I always wore their native garb, which was this kind of a long big white shirt with ruffles and all these calico prints. That’s probably hideous now. It was really challenging to live there because it was really desolate. But it was a desolate kind of beauty though, there’s no trees, no mountains, just flat. And it was really hard to tell the difference between the snow and the sky, especially during like fall and winter, cause it would just stay dusk. It was always like about five in the evening, during what I think of as a dusk time. Everything was grey, you could just barely distinguish. But it was pretty awesome to go snow shoeing, and cross country skiing.
Walking in snow and taking a step into an area and you’d sink up to your hips in snow. You’d see a black bear, and I got to carve a moose. One of the men shot a moose and brought the whole thing back, and we had to carve it up into pieces to freeze it, so we could eat. I ate seal pizza, it was pretty disgusting. I got to go dogsledding, I got to know some guy in the village who became a good friend, and that’s all he did with his life- he lived for dogsledding. He was an alcoholic I’m pretty sure. That was pretty interesting, I was out on a dog sled going across the tundra, and my toes were getting really really cold and he made me get out and run back just to get the circulation going. Made me run pretty far back to camp. But you know they live in that environment; if he says that’s what I need to do that’s what I’m going to do. Some little California girl out in the middle of the tundra on a dogsled, it was pretty fantastic. I’m so glad I did it, I have no regrets about it. How do you feel now being in this neighborhood, and spending time with the trees in front of your house? KO: So different! I used to hate the last place I lived cause it was in a middle unit, so there
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34. Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides): a very common, evergreen fern, can be found in a variety of different locations and habitats.
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were no windows on two sides, and just on the front and back end. It was a nice place, but I just didn’t like it. The view that you did have was mostly at concrete. There was a little backyard area on one side. I do love all the nature around, especially the trees because that’s what I’ve always gravitated toward; that is very beautiful, my definition of beautiful in nature. I have a love-hate relationship with my physical home, here in this place, but I don’t know if I could live in the city. I always said I need to be on the edge of something wild, I need that in my life; both in my physical environment and internally as well. Some untamed, open spaciousness, both internally and in my physical world. I just don’t know if I could be happy around all of civilization, in the urban setting. I’m not sure if this is a hiking area, but I would guess there are some trails near here? KO: Yes! There are some beautiful trails. I did get a basket for Cody and he and I like to go out for a ride on the bike, there’s some great bike trails out here. How does living in a city/suburban area differ from this more secluded home? Do you feel more connected to nature and yourself in a more
peaceful setting or surrounded by people? Or in a busy setting? KO: I just don’t know if the inner part of me could really survive very happily in more congestion. I like the energy of the city, I like going to visit it and it feels really exciting, I feel really alive when I’m in it, but I can’t take it for very long. I start feeling overwhelmed, and slightly claustrophobic just with everything coming in at me, like the big buildings. I just need to get out into space. I just feel everything fall off of me as soon as I make that turn up this road, and see the forest there. I feel all the tension fall off. So I feel more at home, definitely, out this way. I like it out here. ➷
35. Jade Plant (Crassula ovata): a South African native succulent, this plant is easy to grow in the home and was found in Katy’s home.
36. “Hens-and-Chickens” (Sempervivum tectoru): blossoming in a rosette style, this succulent is very similar to Echeveria elegans.
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humus the organic component of soil, formed by the decomposition of leaves and other plant material by soil microorganisms. Origin Late 18th Cent.: from Latin, literally “soil.”
| ‘(H)YOOM S | select discovered species
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lemon cup BINOMIAL SPECIES GENUS FAMILY SEASON CAP HYMENIUM STIPE CAP COLOR EDIBILITY
Bisporella citrina B. citrina Bisporella Helotiaceae Late Summer, Autumn Cup or disk shaped None None Bright yellow Inedible
HABITAT • Grows in dense clusters on deciduous trees on smooth wood surface, without bark. LOC • Found in North Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and Central and South America. SIZE • Less than 3 mm in diameter and 1 mm high. FOUND • In Tolt Macdonald Park in Carnation, WA; under heavy leaf litter.
Saw-gilled blue cap entoloma BINOMIAL SPECIES GENUS FAMILY SEASON CAP HYMENIUM STIPE CAP COLOR EDIBILITY
Entoloma serrulatum E. serrulatum Entoloma Entolomataceae Summer, Autumn Convex to shield Adnexed Bare Black Poisonous
HABITAT • Grass covered fields, open woodland, sometimes under conifers. LOC • N. America, S. Britain, Ireland, Scotland Scandinavia. SIZE • Cap is 1.5 to 3.5 cm in diameter, stem is 4 t0 7 cm long, and 2 to 3 mm in diameter. FOUND • In open grassland in Tolt Macdonald Park, near conifer trees.
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deer shield BINOMIAL SPECIES GENUS FAMILY SEASON CAP HYMENIUM STIPE CAP COLOR EDIBILITY
Pluteus cervinus P. cervinus Pluteus Pluteaceae Spring, Autumn Flat or Umbonate Free Bare Brown variations Edible
HABITAT • Grows on logs and stumps, deciduous trees. LOC • Widespread in N. America and Europe. SIZE • Cap is 15 cm in diameter or smaller, and stem is 5-12 cm long. FOUND • Growing out of a decaying log high up the hiking trail near the top of the mountain.
lawyer’s wig BINOMIAL SPECIES GENUS FAMILY SEASON CAP HYMENIUM STIPE CAP COLOR EDIBILITY
Coprinus Comatus C. Comatus Coprinus Coprinaceae Autumn Conical Free Ring Grey-white to black Choice
HABITAT • Grass and meadows, unexpected areas around towns. LOC • Widespread in N. America and Europe, and introduced to Australia, New Zealand and Iceland. SIZE • The stem is 10-37 cm, and 1-2.5 cm in diameter. The conical shaped cap expands vertically and splits in maturity at the edges. FOUND • Growing in some muddy grass on the side of the hiking path.
37. Turkey Tail Mushroom (Trametes versicolor): these bracket like mushrooms grow on deciduous trees and fallen logs; they have off-white pores instead of gills.
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discovery park: wolf TREE trail magnolia, wa 534 acres
Usually green most of the year, the Wolf Creek Trail looks like the home of the Lost Boys in Peter Pan, with wooden walkways laid carefully over swampy mud and skunk cabbage, big leaves and reeds growing above your head so that all you can see is the path in front of you. However, during my visit in winter, those plants bent back and browned for the season, exposing the mystery of that hidden pathway. Like an exposed battlefield after winter’s wrath, few mushrooms appeared laying around. Variations of the Turkey Tail Mushroom grew abundantly on the fallen logs, blending into the brown palette of the landscape. Often mistaken for “False Turkey Tail” or Stereum Ostrea, this mushroom is hard to identify. The photo on the right, supposedly Turkey Tail, is actually very small and thicker
Near the south parking lot in Discovery Park, this trail runs through a swamp-like area with board walks cutting through skunk cabbage and ferns. During winter, however, the landscape changes. Most of the green plants are dead, leaving only the mushrooms and lichen to stand out.
than some reference photos. However, the False mushroom does not have pores, where as the real Turkey Tail does. Like Polypore mushrooms, algae can cover the bracket and turn it a bright shade of green, making the identification process even more confusing. On page 72, a single Mild Lactarius grows through the layers of fallen leaves. Somewhat older, the stem shows signs of age with wrinkles. Although seasonal plants are dying, the mushrooms, lichen, moss algae and other fungi thrive with the decomposing of these other plants. Come Spring time, the skunk cabbage will take over the area once again. Also called the Swamp Lantern, the flower emits a strong odor which attracts pollinators. The flower is a bright yellow, gravy-boat shape with a thick spathe in the center. I’ve
found that the odor mixes with the swampy, humid smell of the forest and doesn’t really smell as bad as I thought it would. What I love most about Discovery Park is the constantly changing landscape, plants of each season appearing and disappearing. It has the educational benefits of a greenhouse or botanical garden, but controlled completely by the fate of nature. ➷
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38. Rosey Conk (Fomitopsis cajanderi): a small polypore mushroom growing on a fallen log; pores turn a brownish-pink color with age.
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39. Mild Lactarius (Lactarius mitissimus): growing through thick layers of humus, sometimes on deciduous confier trees, often growing with moss.
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Near the shore of the peaceful Phantom Lake, hellebores are scattered throughout the forest landscape. Bellevue, wa
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Driving up to Elfi’s house was like finding someone’s well-hidden, personal paradise. Gardening pots stacked high in a shed representing the thousands of plants that filled her garden, a quaint white house covered in vines, surrounded by a bed of various plants. I was immediately greeted by her two Jack Russells, who stiff in their age, showed no lack in excitement for someone new. Elfi greeted me kindly and started showing me around her kingdom of hellebores. “They call them winter greens, but this is typically what happens– they start looking tattered. They are all over the place.” As we walk away from the house, hellebores are growing out of every nook and cranny, some in organized sections, some in lines as we round a corner further down the driveway. Elfi tells me she gets some of her hellebores from Europe, Yugoslavia, even all the way to the East to Sochi and Brussels. Everything from the colors to petal shape and size are varied, each small plant appearing unique. “The black ones, if they make it you’re lucky, because they come from areas where theres lots of calcification– lime, fast drainage. We don’t have that here.” She points toward a patch of hellebores under a tall fir tree. “These didn’t do so well this season. It’s the fir trees, they suck everything out of the ground.” Elfi plants the hellebores
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in different places with different surroundings, to see which ones will survive and which struggle. On top of the thousands I saw growing around her property, she also had about three or four recently purchased hellebores in plastic pots by her front door step. Like a collector that keeps collecting, she can’t seem to get enough of these beautifully unique flowers. Behind the house, another large patch of hellebores grows untammed and untrimmed, their gigantic leaves covering the soil they grow in, some left to decompose and go their natural course. “Generally November, before the buds come out is when I remove the leaves. I left them in there and they packed down so tight the plant didn’t get water under there. These leaves are why they call them winter greens.” The dark green of the leaves contrast the lightness of the colors of the petals. Aside from this section, all her other hellebores were pruned so that the flowers had no competing to do for space and soil coverage.
¤ Once inside the house, Elfi’s German roots were quite evident. Her large collection of porcelain steins covered the tops of cabinets, small goat horns and antlers mounted on plaques on her walls. By the piano were rows of paintings and art supplies. She shared with me
her gorgeous, abstract experimentation with paint and other materials such as cinnamon, alcohol and gesso– anything to give the canvas a three-dimensional texture only imagined in dreamscapes. As soon as we were seated around her table, she presented us with hot cider, macadamia and white chocolate cookies, a large bowl of almonds and a delicious blood orange fruit salad. Her hospitality makes me feel as though I’ve been here before and I’m being welcomed back. Our conversation drifts over a multitude of topics, so much so that I swiftly gather she’s an expert in more things than I imagined. I told Elfi about my mushroom hunting trips and my naivete on the subject. “Mushrooms are difficult to hunt. We were in the Black Forest mushroom hunting, expecially during the war because it was a substitute for meat. They still go there. Oregon grows fantastic mushrooms– they go in there with rakes and grate them up, ship them to Germany and put them in salt vats. They go there to be processed.” She goes on to tell a story about an expert who spoke at the University of Washington. They presented all kinds of mushrooms that grow in the area, including two that looked completely identical. “The only difference was one cap snapped off easy, and the other did not. The one that did
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not was toxic. If you take a variety of different mushrooms, put them in a basket, you get one that’s toxic, the spores release themselves, and the rest of them can be toxic.” After hearing this, I was glad I didn’t attempt any cooking experiment with my Oregon findings. I had heard about the competitive nature of mushroom hunters, experts who claim their territory and would do anything to protect their findings. Elfi explained more about mushroom hunters in Germany. “It’s a hostile environment out there. You’re likely to get beaten up– people have their own territory. The Germans on the Swiss border, they were ferocious with the Swiss, because they had these walkietakies before the Germans did. They would get the call early on, and by the time the Germans got there, they were gone. And not only that but they pulled them out of the ground to keep them from growing new mushrooms next season.” Elfi also has a passion for the upkeep and protection of Phantom Lake, the shores of which she lives on, along with a small community of people. She seems to be the most adament, however, in making environmental impacts known. Everything from large mouth bass to the effect of exhaust pollution from the city, Elfi observes the lake’s activities with a fine toothed comb. In addition to being a gardener, a lake preservation activist, and a painter, she
also keeps bees. In fact, Elfi originally brought the hellebores to her garden to support the bee’s thirst for nectar in the fruit trees’ off season. The hellebores, which flower all year round, served as a suitable solution to keeping her honey bees alive. “I had an uncle in the Black Forest who wagged his finger at me and said, ‘You always plant something for the honey bees’.” Even with the hellebores, Elfi says the nectar doesn’t flow all the time, and without intermittent rain the flowers shut down. “It’s very difficult to keep honey bees on the West Coast, because of the lack of nectar sources. They are thick in these flowers when the temperature rises, and they do fly at 45-50 degrees. Bumble bees can fly at colder temperatures.” By the end of our day together, I’m astounded by the amount of knowledge that was presented to me. Elfi showed me all the different magazines she was featured in over the past 30 years or so, including Martha Stewart and Sunset, making me even more gracious that she invited me into her home. As she went through all her different painting experiements she had done for a class recently, I just loved the way she seemed to try new things constantly. “I try to teach myself something new every day”, she told me. Baskets filled to the brim with knitted scarves, socks and necklaces, she obviously had an active interest in many things. I felt inspired, to say the least. ➷
40. Soft Shield Fern (Polystichum setiferum): grows in partially shaded areas in moist soil; most abundant in Ireland and Southwestern Britain.
41. Tropical Pitcher Plant (Nepenthes burkei): native to the Philippines, these plants usually grow at an elevation of 2,000 meters.
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Volunteer park Conservatory Capitol hill, wa 45 acres
The Seattle area is home to quite a few botanically educational resources, such as the Vivarium by the Sculpture Park, and the Washington State Arboretum. The Volunteer Park Conservatory, however, is like travelling around the world through just a few short pathways. Modeled after London’s Crystal Palace, the conservatory has the look and feel of a past time. I went to the park without knowing the conservatory was even there, tucked away in the trees down some pathway I happened to follow. I’m almost glad that I didn’t research the park before I went; finding this greenhouse and being surprised was more worth it. Strolling through the different houses, I found myself spending most of my time in the Palm House. Packed together like a
Built in 1912, this Victorian-style greenhouse is divided into five different sections: bromeliads, ferns, palms, seasonal, and cacti/succulents. The greenhouse itself is made up of 3,426 glass panes. In 2005 and 2008, the conservatory had the opportunity to see a Amorphophallus titanum (Corpse Flower) in bloom, which happens rarely in their 40 year life span.
chunk of the amazon forest, these plants grew so close together that they formed a wall blocking out the light from the other side. Huge green leaves sprung out in all directions. For some reason, these gigantic tropical leaves have always been my favorite. Such as the Monstera deliciosa (pg. 83), also called the Mexican Breadfruit, and the Strelitzia nicolai (pg. 85), or the Giant White Bird of Paradise. There is something so comforting about their appearance, as if their leaves could wrap you up like a big blanket. And even when they aren’t in flower, the leaves themselves are elegant enough to grab your attention. Near one end of this house, some carnivorous, tropical pitcher plants hang over a trickling pond (pictured to the right) called Nepenthes burkei. After doing a little research on these strange plants on Biology-blog. com, I found out that carnivorous
plants developed these pitchers as a way of getting nutrients faster, but there is a trade off. The amount of carbon and nutrients it takes to make this pitcher is only about as much as one leaf, however, as a result, the plant is less efficient in converting sunlight in photosynthesis– an interesting (and beautiful) evolutionary adaptation to getting food faster. ➷
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42. Silver Torch Cactus (Cleistocactus strausii): native to the high mountainous regions of Bolivia and Argentina; older cacti produce red flowers in late summer.
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43. The Giant Rhubarb (Gunnera manicata): native to South America, this herbaceaous perennial can grow up to 13 ft tall; undersides of the leaves and stalks have spikes.
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44. Mexican Breadfruit (Monstera deliciosa): a flowering tropical plant native to rainforests in sourthern Mexico and Columbia; can grow up to 85 feet high!
45. Madagascar Palm (Pachypodium lamerei): a stem succulent that bears large, fragrant flowers, and long leaves that grow only at the top, like a palm.
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46. The Giant White Bird of Paradise (Strelitzia nicolai): banana-like plants, with woody stems; itâ€™s flowers can be up to 18 cm high, which blue and purple colors.
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MOUNT SI Snoqualmie area offers incredible hikes through untouched wilderness, gigantic rock formations near a quaint farm town. SNOqualmie, wa
For those of you who are fans of the popular yet short-lived 90’s television show Twin Peaks, you will understand my initial draw to Snoqualmie– black coffee, cherry pie and those spooky vibes. After touching base at Twede’s Cafe, originally the RR, we set off for a hike up Mount Si. There are multiple trails around the Mount Si area, spreading through about 25 miles worth formed paths and probably more less maintained areas that only the frequent visitors know about. In all fairness, we took the tiniest, most pathetic trail, but it still had me working hard to climb the steep, rocky path. The Boulder Gardens Loop Trail is about 2 miles in length from the parking lot, and about 1.5 from the first trail marker. On this particular day, we had the luxury of high cloud coverage at about 1:00pm, which kept us nice and cool during the hike. When a forest wraps around you and cuts out the white noise of civilization, it’s almost too easy to forget what real silence sounds like. A light wind picked up about 600 yards away from me, through a thick layer of trees, bending each branch slightly, and it nearly startled me. Hearing seems to amplify, while the sight tries to keep up with hundreds of different
moving forms. Undistiguishable terrain is constantly changing, and a steepening path can feel just like sore muscles rather than having to work harder. Rouding a corner, just after walking under a fallen tree that formed an arch over the path, I found out how the trail got its name. Pictured to the right, these boulders that appeared seemed physically unperceptable. The trees growing next to them seemed smaller in scale, but the point at which the bottom of the photo is cut off was about 30 feet high already. It was difficult to take the whole scene in at once. These giant rocks disguised as a cliff face acted as a gate or entry way to the true dense part of the forest. Where the sky was peaking through the treetops, now filled in with almost a solid dark green. We knew it wasn’t late but it felt like the sun was setting outside the covered canopy. As we hiked higher up into the rocky forest, the path became more zig-zagged and tricky. It felt as though we were walking through ruins, moss covered with age. The decent back to the trailhead was much faster than the climb. Looking at the different trail maps (pg. 104) we realized not only did we not get very close to the peak of Mount Si or Little Si, but it looked easy in comparison to the length of the others.
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I definitely plan on exploring the rest of the trails, considering how incredible the view was just at the beginning of the hike. Most of the mushrooms I found in this forest were turkey tail or other shriveled ones that were already decomposing. This area, in comparison to Tolt Macdonald, was much more dry and woody. There wasn’t a very moist soil coverage to support a plethora of fungi like in Carnation. Perhaps further up the mountain the environment changed, but through the Boulder Loop, the rocks seemed to dominate the landscape. One part of the dirt trail actually cut through a large flat, slate rock that became slippery with the rain. Along the side of the trail grew huge patches of Fern Moss (pg. 110). From a distance this moss looks leafy almost, but up close it feels soft like moss and looks like tiny ferns. The branches grow flat and swell up when too much rain collects on top. Most of the other moss I’ve encountered have relatively small branches and don’t project far from their grip on the soil. This Fern Moss looks more like a large, flat bush and spreads surprisingly far. Also pictured is the podetia that grow out of lichen patches– small shrek-ear like spires that look like a goofy art project. They seem to thrive almost anywhere, especially on rocks where water
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MOUNT SI TRAILS MOUNT SI TRAIL
8.0 MI ELV : 3900 FT
BOULDER GARDEN LOOP
2.5 MI ELV : 1400 FT
3.7 MI ELV : 2120 FT
5.0 MI ELV : 1576 FT
6.0 MI ELV : 2370 FT
TOTAL TRAIL MILES
LITTLE SI TALUS LOOP
BOULDER GARDEN LOOP
ELEVATION LEVELS ALL TRAILS OUR TRAIL MOUNTAINS
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drains easily and where they have exposure to sunlight. The little cups at the end of these podetia are what hold the spores to be released to grow new lichen. From the ones I’ve found and photographed, they vary in both color, size and texture. Some are more flakey and lime green, while these are more of a seafoam and appear smoother. Inside the podetia is hollow aside from the spores, and they snap off easily from the rest of the fruiticose patch.
¤ Driving into the town, Snoqualmie Falls emits a luring spray from it’s freezing waterfall that covered the sidewalks in ice. The view point over the cliff shows the exact camera angle from the Twin Peaks intro, the fog parting every once in a while to reveal the mill and lodge. The deep blue of the water seemed unreal like some untapped resource. After the hike, we pulled the Jeep over on the side of the highway to walk along the Snoqualmie River, which had a pretty clear view of Mount Si in the distance (pg. 104). Along the river were water-smoothed branches, fallen pine cones and rocks all stitched together with a blanket of moss. Across the path was a small farm house and a pen of about 30 cows. The
yard was surrounded by blackberry bushes like a natural security system. We found a pathway that lead near them and got to snap some photographs, although one of the bulls certainly didn’t want the attention. The fence was fallen in on one side, but they didn’t seem concerned with going anywhere. The natural beauty of Snoqualmie seemed effortless, and some sense probably is. The trees and wild plant life are left untouched while the community builds a living around it, making the town more welcoming. In a city where humans have taken over the landscape, there has to be an effort put forth in recreating that natural state of wilderness, which ultimately looks forced. Hopefully the peacefulness of this town remains and visitors can appreciate it’s significance. ➷
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48. Fern Moss (Hylocomium splendens): gold to greenish-brown mats, and each â€œbranchâ€? is fern like with individual tendrils,`
47. Cladonia chlorophaea (Fruticose lichen): able to grow on rock, moss, soil or anywhere with proper drainage.
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PLANT INDEX Listed are the plants mentioned and photographed in this issue, alphabetized by binomial name.
A Abies procera : Blue Noble Fir Acer pseudoplatanus : Maple Tree Ascocoryne sarcoides : Brain Jelly Drop Cup Athyrium filix-femina : Lady Fern Atrichum angustatum : Star Moss
B Bisporella citrina : Lemon Cup Blechnum spicant : Deer Fern Bryoandersonia illecebra : Spoon Moss
C Coprinus comatus : Lawyerâ€™s Wig Cladonia chlorophaea : Fruticose Lichen Cleistocactus strausii : Silver Torch Cactus Colocasia esculenta : Elephant Ear Crassula ovata : Jade Plant Crataegus rhipidophylla : Hawthorn
D Dryopteris erythrosora : Japanese Wood Fern
E Entoloma serrulatum : Saw-Gilled
Blue Cap Entoloma Evernia Prunastri : Oakmoss Lichen
Lyonia ligustrina : Maleberry Seed
Ganoderma applanatum : Artist’s Fungus Gunnera manicata : The Giant Rhubarb
Magnolia virginiana : Magnolia Monstera deliciosa : Mexican Breadfruit Mycena alphitophora : Fairy Helmets Mycena galopus : White Milk Mycena Mycena leaiana : Lea’s Mycena Mycena strobilinoides : Scarlet Fairy Helmet
Hygrophorus hypothejus : Late Fall Wax Cap Hylocomium splendens : Fern Moss
Pachypodium lamerei : Madagascar Palm Parmotrema perlatum : Kalpasi Petasites Frigidus : Western Coltsfoot Pinus monticola : Western White Pine Piptoporus betulinus : Birch Polypore Polypodium glycyrrhiza : Licorice Fern Polystichum acrostichoides : Christmas Fern Pluteus cervinus : Deer Shield Pluteus chrysophaeus : Golden
Trametes versicolor : Turkey Tail Mushroom
Fomes fomentarius : Tinder Polypore Fomitopsis cajanderi : Rosey Conk
L Lactarius mitissimus : Mild Lactarius Lepraria incana : Leprose Lichen Leucobryum glaucum : Mountain Moss Lactarius vellereus : Fleecy Lactarius Lobaria pulmonaria : Tree Lungwort
Pluteus Pluteus flavofuligineus : (No common name) Psathyrella candolleana : Lawn Mushroom
R Russula fragilis : Fragile Russula
S Sempervivum tectoru : “Hens-andChickens” Strelitzia nicolai : The Giant White Bird of Paradise
U Usnea subfloridana : Old Man’s Beard
V-Z Volvariella bombycina : Tree Volvareilla
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REFERENCES Books, websites and other media that were used in the research of this publication.
American Mushrooms. “Mushrooms of Lawn, Garden and Home”. (http:// americanmushrooms.com/ lawnandgarden.htm). David W. Fischer. 2006, 2007. Website. A Nest For All Seasons. “How to Transplant Moss: A Beginner’s PhotoGuide”. (http://www. anestforallseasons.com/2011/04/ how-to-transplant-mossbeginners.html). 13 Apr 2011.
B Better Homes and Gardens. “Top 10 Succulent Plants For the Home”. (http://www.bhg.com/gardening/ houseplants/projects/top-10succulents-for-home/). Meredith Corporation. 2014. Website. Biology Blog. “For carnivorous plants, slow but steady wins the race”. (http://www.biology-blog. com/blogs/permalinks/9-2009/forcarnivorous-plants-slow-but-steadywins-the-race.html). Biology-Blog, Erica. 2014. Website.
C-E Collins, William Bernard. The Perpetual Forest. Lippincott: Philadelphia J.B., 1959. Book.
F FarnGarten. “Ferns For Our Gardens”. (http://farngarten. de/e_farne1/index2.html) Roswitha Moeller. 2014. Website. Fungi of California, The. “California Fungi—Fomitopsis cajanderi”. (http://www.mykoweb. com/CAF/species/Fomitopsis_ cajanderi.html). Michael Wood & Fred Stevens. 1997-2013. Website.
G-K Gardenista. “10 Easy Pieces. The Most Magical Mosses by Janet Hall”. (http://www.gardenista. com/posts/10-easy-pieces-the-mostmagical-mosses). SAY Media Inc. 2013. Website.
L Last Dragon. “Images of British Lichens”. (http://www. lichens.lastdragon.org/faq/ lichenthallustypes.html). A.J.
Silverside. 2012. Website. Lichens.ie, Lichens of Ireland Project. “Lichens Glossary”. (http:// www.lichens.ie/category/lichenglossary/#26). Paul Whelan. 2008. Website.
M Martha Stewart. “Hellebores”. (http://www.marthastewart. com/270434/hellebores). Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia Inc. 20 May 2013. Website. Mountain Moss. “Fav Moss Types”. (http://mountainmoss.com/ learn-more/more-moss-options/). Mountain Moss. 2014. Website. Mushroom Expert. • “Auriscalpium vulgare”. http:// www.mushroomexpert.com/ auriscalpium_vulgare.html). Kuo, M. Dec 2010. Website. • “Mycenoid Mushrooms”. (http:// www.mushroomexpert.com/ mycenoid.html). Kuo, M. Dec 2010. Website. • “Pluteus mammillatus (Chamaeota sphaerospora)”. http://
www.mushroomexpert.com/ pluteus_mammillatus.html). Kuo, M. Dec 2010. Website. Mycology Collections Portal. “Mycena albidula”. (http:// mycoportal.org/portal/taxa/index. php?taxauthid=1&taxon=297710& cl=35). Unknown Publisher.
N National Park Service. “Plants”. (http://www.nps.gov/mora/ naturescience/plants.htm). National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. 4 Mar 2014. Website. National Geographic. “Education, Humus”. (http://education. nationalgeographic.com/education/ encyclopedia/humus/?ar_a=1). National Geographic Society. Website. National Geographic Magazine. Images (Collage). National Geographic Society. Print Magazine, Various Issues. Nona Brooklyn. “Field to Fork: Mushrooms, Gathered From
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Maine’s Forest Floor, Fuel A Vengeance You Can Eat At M. Wells Dinette”. (http:// nonabrooklyn.com/field-to-forkmushrooms-gathered-frommaine%E2%80%99s-forest-floorfuel-a-vengeance-you-can-eat-atm-wells-dinette/#.UxpQKuddXny). Nona Brooklyn. 2014. Website.
O Ohio University. “Leucobryum”. (http://www.ohio.edu/plantbio/ vislab/moss/Jarrod’spage.html). Ohio University, 2014. Website.
P-Q Puget Sound Mycological Society. “Mushroom Poisoning & ID”. (http://www.psms.org/golden.php). UW Center for Urban Horticulture. 2013. Website.
R Roger’s Mushrooms. “The Mushrooms”. (http://www. rogersmushrooms.com/). Roger’s Plants Ltd. 2001-2014. Website.
S Seattle Urban Nature. “Invasive
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