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MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

The Broad Stage and The Colburn School Conservatory of Music present

Musical Encounter

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STUDENT MATINEE

THURS MARCH 16, 2017 FRI MARCH 17, 2017 10 AM & 12 PM GRADES 3-5 THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Jane Deknatel Director, Performing Arts Center EDUCATION & COMMUNITY PROGRAMS STAFF Ilaan E. Mazzini, Director of Education & Community Programs Alisa De Los Santos, Education & Community Programs Manager Mandy Matthews, Education & Community Programs Associate Sam Sandoval, Education & Community Programs Assistant Colburn Curriculum Contributor Dr. Alison Balbag

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EDUCATION & COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Phone 310.434.3560 education@thebroadstage.com thebroadstage.com/education THE BROAD STAGE 1310 11th Street Santa Monica, CA 90401 Box Office 310.434.3200 Fax 310.434.3439 info@thebroadstage.com thebroadstage.com

Education and Community Programs at The Broad Stage is supported in part by Herb Alpert Foundation Johnny Carson Foundation City of Santa Monica and the Santa Monica Arts Commission Colburn Foundation The Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation Leonard M. Lipman Charitable Fund Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors through the Los Angeles County Arts Commission The Ralph M. Parsons Foundation Sidney Stern Memorial Trust Dwight Stuart Youth Fund Ziering Family Foundation, a Support Foundation of the Jewish Community Foundation of Los Angeles

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MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Greetings from The Broad Stage! Dear Educators,

Musical Encounter, is an interactive performance that aims at introducing the inner workings of classical music to students. This particular Musical Encounter show explores 20th century classical trio pieces with a piano, bassoon and oboe. Students will learn to identify the unique sound of each instrument and the way they work together to create harmony. Colburn artists emphasize trust within their performance and demonstrate the way in which musicians trust each other when playing together. Please take some time to work through some or all of the activities in this guide with your students. Each element of the guide has been developed by musicians and educators to help explain the concepts behind the performance you’ll be seeing and to engage your students both pre- and post-show. As always, the activities support the California Common Core and the VAPA Standards. We hope that this guide proves to be helpful in preparing your students for the presentation. Please don’t hesitate to contact us with questions or ideas. We’ll see you at Musical Encounter! Sincerely, Education & Community Programs Staff

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We are so excited to bring the Colburn School Conservatory of Music to The Broad Stage for their performance of Musical Encounter. The Colburn School is a performing arts school located in Downtown Los Angeles dedicated to providing students the highest quality of performing arts education. Over 2,000 students attend classes at the Conservatory of Music, the Community School of Performing Arts, the Music Academy, and the Dance Academy. Their performance of Musical Encounter is the perfect collaboration for elementary school teachers (like you!) with curious and capable students.


MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Contents Lessons What is Classical Music? - 5 Instruments Seen & Heard - 6 Listening to Classical Music - 9 Math and Musical Notes - 12

Appendix Handout 1: Parts of the Orchestra - 15 Handout 2: Piano - 17 Handout 3: Oboe - 18 Handout 4: Bassoon - 19 Handout 5: Sheet Music Worksheet - 20

Additional Resources Vocabulary - 22 About The Colburn School - 23

Additional Resources - 24 Standards Addressed - 25

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Trust within a Trio - 13


MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

What is Classical Music? Review the history of classical music as a class. Classical music is played on a variety of instruments as well as by small ensembles and orchestras. Since the 1600’s, famous composers have given Western music particular structures and styles. Their music is still enjoyed and performed all over the world today. The history of classical music reflects that of Europe as a whole rather than that of a single nation or culture. This long and complex story is divided up into rough periods such as Baroque (1600-1750), Classical (1750-1820), and Romantic (1820-1910). Watch PBS Kids’ short video of the history of classical music to gain a better understanding. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e7wEsP7Bm6o

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An orchestra is a group of an instrumental ensemble typical of classical music which features string, woodwind, brass and percussion instruments. Review the sections of the orchestra as a class by using Handout 2. As you discuss each section, ask students to color in the section with a different color. Listen to Beethoven’s 9th Symphony and encourage students to hear the different sections of the orchestra. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t3217H8JppI After listening, ask students to share what they heard. Was the piece loud or soft, short or long, fast or slow?

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Discuss classical music with your students. • Where have you heard classical music being played? • What does classical music sound like to you?


MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Instruments Seen & Heard Piano Exploration Read this description of the piano and learn how Colburn musician, Edo plays it. The piano is a stringed keyboard instrument with 88 keys. Each key is a different note, or pitch. Each time Edo preses a key, the pressed key moves a hammer, which then strikes a string in the body of the piano. When Edo presses the piano keys harder, he creates a louder dynamic. When he plays softer, he creates a quieter dynamic. Follow this link to listen to the sound that a piano makes when played. After listening, ask students what they noticed about the piano. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k_UOuSklNL4

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Activity Create a human piano as a class. You will need 17 student volunteers. Ask students for their ideas of how to create the keys and strings of the piano. Try some of their examples and see if it will work. If not, try these steps with your students. 1. Assign students their parts. You need 1 piano player, 8 keys, and 8 strings. 2. Align the 8 keys next to each other in one horizontal line. Students should face the back of the head of the person in front of them. Have them hold their arms out to their side, with their elbows bent, and palms face down. 3. Align the 8 strings next to the 8 keys in a horizontal line parallel to the keys. Tell them to hold their arms out and above the hand of the key, asking strings on one end to shorten their arm span, and strings to get progressively longer as they move along the piano 1-8. 4. After everyone is in position, ask the piano player to tap on one of the key’s hands. As the elbow moves down, the other elbow will hit the string from below moving up in a seesaw fashion. The string will then vibrate to produce sound. When vibrating, ask students to do a wave with their arms. Shorter strings will produce a higher pitch and longer strings will produce a lower pitch. 5. Allow the piano player to hit the keys’ hands randomly.

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Review the parts of the piano on Handout 3. As an option, go to the Additional Resources page to find a video link that explains how the piano works.


MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Instruments Seen & Heard Oboe Exploration Read this description of the oboe and learn how Michelle from Colburn plays the instrument. The oboe is a woodwind instrument that uses a double-reed. The oboe is relatively small, which means it’s able to play higher pitches. Michelle plays the oboe by blowing air into the mouthpiece. She changes the pitch by pressing the metal keys along the length of the oboe, which open and close the various holes. Like the bassoon, the oboe can change dynamics by changing the volume of air blown into the mouthpiece. In an orchestra, the first oboist has the special job of tuning the whole orchestra before the concert begins: the oboe will play the note “A”, and the other musicians tune their instruments to that “A”.

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Review the parts of the oboe on Handout 4. As an option, go to the Additional Resources page to find a video link that explains how the oboe works.

Activity Create a human oboe as a class. You will need 9 student volunteers. Ask students what parts they think they need to include for their human oboe. What part is essential to making the oboe work and produce sound? You will need 1 oboe player, 2 reeds, 1 bell, and 5 holes. Assign students their roles and follow these steps. 1. Have the 5 holes sit cross legged on the ground with their arms overhead making a circle. Have your palms face down and side by side instead of one over the other. The hands are the keys or valves. 2. At the front of the line of holes, have the reeds sit facing towards each other touching at the knees. Have them extend their arms out to their side. 3. At the end of the line of holes, have the bell sit facing outward making a cone shape with their arms. This is where the sound escapes. 4. Have the oboe player cue the reeds to start vibrating together. After, ask the oboe player to go to each hole and tap the students on the shoulder to open the valve. The bell will then make a sound that sounds like an oboe.

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Listen to the sound an oboe makes by following this link. Ask students to describe what they hear, and the ways in which the oboe sounds different than the piano. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N00JbKpZKKw


MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Instruments Seen & Heard Bassoon Exploration Read this description of the bassoon and learn how Jordan from Colburn plays the instrument. The bassoon is a large woodwind instrument with a double-reed. It’s length makes the bassoon able to play lower pitches. Jordan plays the bassoon by blowing air into the mouthpiece, and he changes the pitch by pressing different keys on the side of the bassoon, which opens or closes the various holes. By blowing a greater volume of air into the instrument, Jordan can play louder dynamics. When he blows less air, he can play softer dynamics.

Review the parts of the bassoon on Handout 5. As an option, go to the Additional Resources page to find a video link that explains how the bassoon works.

Activity Create a human bassoon as a class. You will need 13 student volunteers. After viewing Handout 5, ask students what is different between the shape of a bassoon and an oboe. How does the air travel within the instruments? Assign students their roles. You will need 2 reeds, 1 bocal, 1 bell, 1 bassoon player, and 8 holes. Follow these steps to make the bassoon. 1. Have the reeds sit facing one another with their knees touching. Have them extend their outside arm. 2. Have the bocal sit down behind the reeds, facing upward with their legs extended long. Have the arm closest to the reeds bent at a 90 degree angle at the elbow and a 90 degree angle at the wrist. The other arm is down at their side. 3. Arrange two holes to sit cross legged in front of the bocal’s legs. Have their arms overhead making a circle and their palms face down and side by side. 4. Arrange the rest of the 6 holes to sit on the other side of the bocal and two holes, but facing the opposite direction. 5. Have the bell sitting at the end of the 6 holes with their arms extended out like a cone. 6. Ask the bassoon player to cue the reeds to vibrate, and start pressing the shoulders of the holes. The bell will produce a bassoon sound. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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Listen to the sound a bassoon makes by following this link and listening to the first minute of the clip. Ask students to describe what they hear, and how the basson sounds different than the piano and oboe. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iczSNXRUaJs


MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Listening to Classical Music Guide #1 Trio for Oboe, Bassoon, and Piano FP 43 (1926) By Francis Poulenc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcLyfLwkD6c I. Presto (0:00-5:35) a. Review the definition of “presto” and discuss how the music conforms to that definition. b. Listen for a recurring theme (hint: starts just after 1:20) and stand up each time you hear it.

III. Rondo (9:59-13:37) a. Review the definition of “rondo” and discuss how the music conforms to that definition. b. Listen for parts of the recurring theme again and stand up each time you hear it (hint: parts of one begin at 11:00).

Listening Extension Listen to Viennese Musical Clock for an example of rondo. Listen for the recurring theme (A) and track the pattern of the song with your students (A, B, A, C, A, D, A) http://makingmusicfun.net/htm/f_mmf_music_library/viennese-musical-clock-lesson.htm

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II. Andante (6:00-9:42) a. Review the definition of “andante” and discuss how the music conforms to that definition. b. Notice when the oboe and bassoon play together in harmony (hint: good example at 7:29).


MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Listening to Classical Music Guide #2 Trio for Oboe, Bassoon, and Piano (1994) By Jean Francaix https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=INYa4uZwKUg I. Adagio (0:00-3:59) a. Review the definition of “adagio” and discuss how the music conforms to that definition b. Listen for a recurring theme. II. Scherzo (4:04-7:52) a. Review the definition of “scherzo” and discuss how the music conforms to that definition b. Listen for a ”conversation” between all three instruments.

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IV. Finale (12:03-16:19) a. Review the definitions of legato and staccato. Notice where the notes change from staccato to legato (14:38) and back again (15:14).

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III. Andante (7:57-12:00) a. Review the definition of dynamics and notice the different dynamics (mezzopiano, mezzoforte) in the movement.


MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Listening to Classical Music Guide #3 Trio for Piano, Oboe, and Bassoon (1994) By Andre Previn https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_mjcuvtLstM Listen to this recording after working through the previous two recordings. Assign a small group of students to listen for each concept previously discussed (i.e. staccato, legato, dynamics, harmony, recurring theme, etc.) Ask students to stand up or raise their hands when they hear their assigned concept reflected in the music. I. Lively (0:00-5:54) II. Slow (6:05-13:38)

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III. Jaunty (13:53-19:02)

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Math and Musical Notes Musical notes and math go hand in hand when composing music. Follow this activity to explore mathematical concepts and musical notes with your students.

Ask your students, how would you turn the whole note into a fraction with the denominator of 4? How would you turn a half note into a fraction with the denominator of 4? What about a quarter note? Help students understand that musical notes can be added to one another in the same way as their equivalent fractions. 1/16 + 1/16 = 2/16 = 1/8 note 1/8 + 1/8 = 2/8 = 1/4 note 1/4 + 1/4 = 2/4 = 1/2 note 1/2 + 1/2 = 2/2 = 1 whole note Have students practice drawing musical notes on the sheet music worksheet on Handout 6. Ask your students to choose notes that complete the time signature of 4:4 in each measure. For example, if students drew a half note in the first measure, draw another half note or two quarter notes to complete the time signature of 4 in the first measure. After completing their sheet music, ask students to clap their pattern out to a partner. Suggest that they count the measure out loud as they clap. Provide an example before they begin. Ask for a few students to share their songs to the class after they practice to their partner. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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First, review this chart with your students and practice drawing the musical notes.


MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Trust within a Trio As a class, create a word map on the board for trust. Ask students for their definitions, synonyms, and to provide examples of trust in their lives. Discuss with students where trust was demonstrated in the performance through the musicians’ actions or words.

Thinking back to the end of the performance: “Tomorrow, we will just trust our music, as a trio! Play our hearts out. And believe in ourselves and the music we love!” -Michelle

Review with students the instruments in the Mercury Trio: 1 oboe, 1 bassoon, 1 piano. Discuss with students that any three instruments can create a trio. A trio can play any genre of music, too! In music, harmony happens when two or more notes are played at the same time. When all three musicians in the trio play different notes in the music, they worked together to create harmony. The different notes played by each instrument harmonize together to create a unique sound that none of the instruments could make by itself. If a computer is available, watch the link below. Ask students to listen to how the musicians in the trio trust and support each other to create some really cool music. Do the instruments trust and support each other to create harmony? ***In the video below, Joey Alexander is only 11 years old! • “It Might as Well Be Spring” performed by the Joey Alexander Trio • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wp61a0OrbbY • On YouTube, search “It Might as Well Be Spring Joey Alexander Trio”. Choose the video that’s 7:26 minutes long, with ~44K views.

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Example questions: • When did the musicians in the trio trust each other? • How did they show trust to each other? • Was there a time when the trio didn’t trust themselves? • Why was it important for the trio to trust themselves in the end?


MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Trust within a Trio Discuss with students where and why trust is important in our relationships.

Discuss with students that trust is a key ingredient for friendship. As a class, create a recipe for friendship on the board. For example: Friendship Recipe 2 cups of trust 2 cups of love 2 cups of loyalty 1 cup of forgiveness 1 cup of understanding A dash of mischief Unlimited laughter Mix all ingredients well. Sprinkle generously with smiles and serve everyone over your lifetime. • Optional: Ask students to create their own recipes for friendship and to write why they chose the ingredients they did. Invite them to also draw or create a visual representation of their friendship recipe (e.g. Would it resemble a pie? A multi-layered cake?). Invite them to present their recipes to the class.

As a class, refer back to the word map of trust created on the board together. Now that we’ve discussed some different examples of trust, discuss with students whether there are any other definitions, synonyms, or examples that could be added to the word map.

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Example questions: • Why is it important to trust yourself? • Is trust important in our relationships with our family, friends, classmates, and teachers? • What makes someone trustworthy?


MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Handout 1: Parts of the Orchestra There are four different familes within an orchestra: string, woodwind, brass, and percussion.

Woodwind Family The woodwind family is the second largest section of the orchestra. These instruments use a small piece of wood called a reed to blow into a tube to produce a vibrating column of air. In the woodwind family, all of the instruments have a lot of buttons or keys. • Clarinet • Saxophone • Oboe • Flute • Bassoon Brass Family The brass family is important for loud, exciting parts of the music. Sound is produced by buzzing the lips together into a mouthpiece. • Trumpet • Trombone • Baritone • Tuba Percussion Family The percussion family includes any instrument that makes a sound when it is hit, shaken, or scraped. Percussion instruments keep the rhythm and add excitement and color to the piece of music. • Snare Drum • Piano • Tambourine • Xylophone • Maracas • Timpani • Gongs • Bass Drum • Chimes • Cymbals • Celesta • Castanets • Triangle

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String Family The string family is the largest section of the orchestra and uses string vibration to produce sound. • Violin • Viola • Cello • Bass


MUSICAL ENCOUNTER STUDY GUIDE

Handout 1: Parts of the Orchestra

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Handout 2: Piano

Strings

Frame

Action Case

Pedals

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Soundboard


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Handout 3: Oboe

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Handout 4: Bassoon

Bell

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Bocal

Wing

Crutch

Boot

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Handout 5: Sheet Music Worksheet

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Vocabulary Dynamics: the differences in volume within the music; how loud or soft the music is. Forte: a dynamic marking indicating to play loudly or strongly. Piano: a dynamic marking indicating to play quietly or softly. Ensemble: A music ensemble is a group of musicians who play (or sing) together to create music. Music ensembles can be small, such as a duo (two musicians), trio (three musicians), quartet (four musicians), or quintet (five musicians). They can also be large: a symphony orchestra can sometimes have 100+ musicians. Harmony: the combination of simultaneously sounded musical notes to produce chords that have a pleasing effect. Legato: in a smooth, flowing manner, without breaks between notes.

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Rondo: a musical form with a recurring leading theme, often found in the final movement of a sonata or concerto. Scherzo: a vigorous, light, or playful composition, typically comprising a movement in a symphony or sonata. Pitch: how high or low a note is. Rhythm: the pattern of long and short notes. Staccato: with each sound or note sharply detached or separated from the others. Tempo: speed at which music is played.

Adagio: in slow tempo.

Andante: in a moderately slow tempo.

Presto: executed at a rapid tempo. Trio: A trio is a group of three musicians who all work together to create a whole. In this performance, an oboe, bassoon, and piano create the Mercury Trio. The piano is the solid foundation. The bassoon adds dark colors. The oboe adds the higher tones at the top. All three instruments support one another and trust each other to create music.

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Movement: self-contained part of a musical composition or musical form.


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About The Colburn School

The Colburn School is a performing arts school located in the heart of downtown Los Angeles, neighboring Walt Disney Concert Hall, The Music Center, the Museum of Contemporary Art, and the Broad Museum. The acclaimed faculty provides students with the highest quality performing arts education, which includes a multitude of performance opportunities in a state-of-the-art facility. More than 2,000 students attend classes at the Conservatory of Music, the Community School of Performing Arts, the Music Academy, and the Dance Academy.

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Now in its thirteenth season, the Colburn Orchestra is the flagship ensemble of the Colburn Conservatory of Music. Under the direction of Music Director and Conductor Yehuda Gilad, the Colburn Orchestra performs for Southern California audiences at venues such as Walt Disney Concert Hall, Ambassador Auditorium, Royce Hall, Segerstrom Concert Hall and the Valley Performing Arts Center.


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Additional Resources How the bassoon works: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-kmy-hm3ai4&t=416s How the oboe works: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QNBsgfh4UMY&index=2&list=RD-kmy-hm3ai4 How the piano works: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gNNkhop45G8

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California Common Core Standards Addressed

Math Grades 3-5 Operations and Operations - Fractions 1. Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b. 3. Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size. a. Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line. b. Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3). Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. c. Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram.

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Speaking and Listening Grades 3-5 1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led with diverse partners on grade 3-5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. 2. Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.


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VAPA Standards Addressed Music Grades 3-5 1.0 Artistic Perception Read and Notate Music 1.1 Read, write, and perform simple rhythmic patterns using eighth notes, quarter notes, half notes, dotted half notes, whole notes, and rests. 1.3 Identify melody, rhythm, harmony, and timbre in selected pieces of music when presented aurally. 1.4 Identify visually and aurally the four families of orchestral instruments and male and female adult voices. 1.5 Describe the way in which sound is produced on various instruments. 2.0 Creative Expression Apply Vocal and Instrumental Skills 2.2 Sing age-appropriate songs from memory, including rounds, partner sounds, and ostinatos.

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4.0 Aesthetic Valuing Analyze and Critically Assess 4.1 Select and use specific criteria in making judgments about the quality of a musical performance. 4.3 Describe how specific musical elements communicate particular ideas or moods in music.

Profile for The Broad Stage

Musical Encounter: Piano, Oboe, Bassoon (Grades 3-5)  

Musical Encounter: Piano, Oboe, Bassoon (Grades 3-5)