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The Centennial History of Macon 1823 - 1923 Introduction On July 10, 1929, this chronicle of the first 100 years of our community was published by The Macon News as a public service. Compiled and written by a committee appointed by the local Chamber of Commerce, it was the most detailed and authentic record of the city’s beginnings and the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the South. Its inclusion as a newspaper supplement was also unusual, if not unique. The original plan had been for the manuscript to be published in book form six years earlier for the centennial celebration of the founding of Macon. Although the writers, some of the city’s most gifted men and women, put five years into the project, unavoidable circumstances delayed its completion before the historic deadline. By the time the material was ready, funding sources had faded away and the project seemed doomed. Fortunately, proofs had been pulled by the printer under contract, the J. W. Burke Co., as each submission was laboriously set in type. When the forms were broken down so that the firm, which had taken a substantial loss on the project, could reclaim the metal, some of the printed sheets remained. Not wanting to see the massive effort go to waste, management at The Macon News decided to present the 175,000 - word project in four supplemental sections of a single issue. This, too, was a monumental and unprecedented undertaking. Working from the sheets that were available, the News was able to reconstruct the historical narrative as well as the complementary chapters describing various phases of the city’s growth and development - the legal community, women’s organizations, the hotel industry, blacks, colleges and schools, theaters and churches. The paper also provided considerable space for documented records, especially marriages and wills, culled from the annals of the first 25 years of the fledgling community. Although great pains had been taken to present the historic information with accuracy and clarity, few of the researchers had journalistic experience. As a result, writing styles varied. When the News agreed to take over the project, management stipulated that the material would be printed as received, without expansion or change. Only the erroneous identity of one contributor I

was corrected. In all, the supplement included 22 pages of researched material, 23 pages of advertising, one page of statistics on Macon and two pages of photos. As expected, the special edition quickly sold out. It was a bargain, after all. A book with this amount of information easily could have sold for $5 in those times, yet the July 10 issue of the paper cost the usual 5 cents. Copies purchased later cost 25 cents. After a time, the 1929 publication was forgotten, its historical references overlooked by researchers intent on probing our community’s past. This must have made their work much harder as earlier histories had gone out of print, and later histories were not so comprehensive. Over the years, the newspaper itself was undergoing change. Since its founding in 1884, it had become a sizeable force in the community, going head to head for news with its competitor, the Macon Telegraph, which had been founded in 1826 when the city was a mere settlement by the river. In 1914, the Telegraph was purchased by the Anderson family. Sixteen years later, in 1930, Peyton Anderson bought the News as well. Although some nonreporting operations were combined, the papers kept their own identities. In 1969, Mr. Anderson sold the papers to Knight Newspapers, which later became Knight Ridder Inc. The papers continued their coverage of local news as separate entities until 1983, when the News ceased publication, as did many afternoon papers across the country. The remaining paper was called the Macon Telegraph and News until 1990, when the News portion of the name was dropped from the masthead, and it became The Macon Telegraph. All of this background brings us to the present publication. About 15 years ago, a local reader brought a copy of the Centennial issue of 1929 to the Telegraph for one of our editors to see. When she showed it to me, I was struck - as she was - by the wealth of information on the early days of our community. Although uncertain of what use it could be, the editor and I photocopied the pages and put them away on a shelf in the newspaper’s library. Since that time - indeed, since the 1929 publication - only the section on the history of the city’s black population has appeared in print. This was in February 1993. I never completely forgot, however, about the duplicated pages that were stored away. It clearly seemed that this historic study should be preserved in a way to make it publicly accessible, especially to local students. Last year when I approached management of the newspaper for permission to publish the researched material before it was irretrievably lost, they promptly approved. With their encouragement, I contracted Juanita Jorden, executive director of the Peyton Anderson Foundation, and asked about the possibility of printing this history for distribution, primarily to schools and libraries in Middle Georgia. After reading the history, Mrs. Jordan acknowledged the importance of publishing it and took the proposal to the trustees of the Foundation, who also quickly endorsed the idea. The trustees went even further, deciding that additional copies should be made available to various non-profit organizations - such as, the Middle Georgia Historical Society and the Hay House - for fund raising purposes. Many people, therefore, are responsible for this literary restoration. First, those who II

prepared the history so long ago - the original writers, who researched tirelessly without pay; the original printer, the J. W. Burke Co., which protected the material as best it could; and the publisher and editors of The Macon News, who rescued the project early on. Then, those who saw the value of republication - the current management of the Macon Telegraph who gave the nod to the recent project; the Peyton Anderson Foundation, which funded the undertaking; and Williams & Canady Company, printers of this edition of the history, who diligently prepared the material for computerized production. Coincidentally, the firm has roots to the original printer, J. W. Burke Co. Since the original photos were not available, this publication contains photos from the files of The Macon Telegraph and the Washington Memorial Library. I have taken the liberty of updating the information about some of the photos. Also, special thanks to the genealogy room of the library for the loan of their bound copy from which the manuscript was typed. Ric Thorton, artist for the Telegraph provided the maps which are an interesting addition to this history. Others worked on the project, too, and I am grateful for their interest and assistance. It was not an easy task to work from fading, old newspaper copy. Today, with the help of modern technology, we have added an index, which should facilitate future research efforts. Otherwise, as in the past, no effort has been made to expand or alter the manuscript, leaving much archaic prose. As we approach Macon’s 175th anniversary December 8, 1998, it seems especially fitting to make this history available once more to the community. Harriet F. Comer Librarian The Macon Telegraph July 1996

2007 reprintingThe History Club of Macon was established in 1888. Its purpose: “to gain a broader knowledge of the achievements of man as recorded in history, and of the best thoughts as recorded in literature.” While seeking a worthwhile project to further their purpose, The Club pursued the idea of having this book, History of Macon – The First One Hundred Years, 1823-1923 republished. In 1996 a limited number of copies were made available for sale. Thus many citizens and libraries have asked about acquiring copies. The History Club of Macon is happy to have instigated having this book republished and is grateful to the Peyton Anderson Foundation for providing a significant grant to make this possible. Once again copies will be made available to local non- profit organizations for them to sell and help in their fund raising. Additional copies will be provided to local libraries and new schools. Special thanks to Ron Williams, Chairman of Imedia Group, formerly Williams & Canady, who assembled the disks from the 1996 printing and once again has published this book for us III

The Macon News Foreword The History of Macon, published herewith as a supplement to The Macon News, was written under the direction of a special committee appointed in 1922 by the Chamber of Commerce, with the intention that publication in book form should be a feature of the Macon Centennial celebration, held here in April, 1923. The committee consisted of Frank Reagan, chairman; Miss Ann Mercer, secretary; R.F. Burden, Bridges Smith, Charles J. Bayne, E.W. Burke, Warren Grice, Nelson M. Shipp, Mrs. Helen Topping Miller, Miss Julia Sparks, Miss Caroline Patterson, Mrs. Reeves Brown, Malcolm D. Jones, Mrs. Walter J. Grace, Sr; J. B. Riley, Luther Williams, J. W. Flournoy, and J. N. Neel. The running narrative of the history was written by the following: From the Prehistoric Period to the Founding of Macon, Frank Reagan; From the Founding of Macon to 1839, Charles J. Bayne; From 1840 to 1849. Nelson M. Shipp; From 1850 to 1859, Mrs. Helen Topping Miller; From 1860 to 1865, Mrs. Walter J. Grace, Sr; From 1866 to 1875, Warren Grice; From 1876 to 1885, W.C. Turpin; From 1886 to 1895, Mrs. Helen Topping Miller; From 1896 to 1905, R.E. Findlay; From 1906 to 1916, Frank Reagan; From 1917 to 1924, Charles R. Anderson. Supplementary chapters were written by the following: Fire Department and Theaters, Bridges Smith; Hotels, W.H.M. Weaver; Women’s Activities, Mrs. O. A. Park; Literary of Macon, Mrs. Edgar A. Ross; Bench and Bar of Macon, O. A. Park; Churches, J. R., Mosley; Negro Activities, B.S. Ingram; Record of Marriages, Wills and County Officers, compiled by Mrs. Reeves Brown, regent, and Mrs. James Sharpe, secretary, Mary Hammond Washington Chapter D.A.R. Various circumstances having prevented the publication of the History, The Macon News has undertaken the task. The history, as written, came to a close with 1924, and it has seemed best to publish it in the form in which it came from the hands of the History Committee.


Chapter I PREHISTORIC ERA An updated issue of Macon’s Morning Geologue, a publication of the prehuman period, carries the following news item: “The dancers and players sporting on the beach at Central City Park last evening were thrown into a state of great excitement by a huge tidal wave which almost drowned several dancers before they could flee from the great rush of water. “The dancers had abandoned their dance and were excitedly absorbed in witnessing a new game played by members of the very exclusive club of Dinosaurs. “Investigation into the cause of the great wave disclosed that the great King of the Sea, Zeuglodon, had come in from the deep sea, and so near the shore had he approached that his great bulk had raised the water of the sea and so flooded the beach. “Zeuglodon soon put out to the sea again and the game resumed. The Dinosaurs called the game leap-frog. “Mr. Spoonbill Dinosaur excelled at this game and won easily. Mr. Triceratops won the booby prize.” Thus the game leap-frog may have secured its name and the event above related could have taken place, except that Zeuglodon and the Dinosaurs were probably a few geologic periods apart in time; for the site of the present Macon was at one time washed by the waters of the sea. But we are not too sure that there was then such a morning paper published by the dominant living beings at that time, the reptiles. The history of Macon begins ages before man came upon the earth. And this is the realm of the geologist. He has an advantage, however, over the recorder of human history; he finds a record written in the rocks, crystallized history; but it is written in a strange language, which he must interpret, and different geologists may differ as to the interpretation just as the chronicler of human history must often attempt a reconciliation of apparently irreconcilable human narrations. Geology is but the history of the physical structure of the earth. For the three branches of geology - structural, historical, and dynamic geology - are all but stories of action as considered in its complete state of the various periods, or the moving concrete forces which produce such states, or in the methods by which those forces moved or operated to produce such states. We would here endeavor to present the layman’s idea of this science as it may be necessary here to consider it. The geologist might as the layman understands him, look upon the material formation of our earth as a many times exaggerated

layer cake such as our mothers love to make. While the mother cake-maker mixes the ingredients of each layer and bakes them separately into a completed cake or layer before placing one layer upon the other, the Master strata-maker mixes and takes each layer directly upon the next lower layer; in this geological process sometimes the substances of the lower and upper strata become detached and disintegrated and this loose sand or smaller stones or pebbles form a loose bond of union between the contiguous strata, taking the place of the viscous substance with which the cakemaker cements together the cake layers; and this gravelly and sandy substance operates as a roller bearing to accelerate any sliding motion which any strata might begin, rather than arresting such motion, as would be the case were a viscous substance forming the interstices between the layers. We must go a step farther and imagine the top of this tremendous cake to have scattered about over its uppermost layer elevations and depressions, the latter varying in depth and area, and some containing water; the steep side of some of these expose one or more such layers of strata in such way that their composition may be studied and determined; and sometimes they disclose processes still operating, and thus provide the geologist’s only possibility of chronology and the compilation of a geological calendar. Then we can complete the simile by imagining some unseen force placing its tremendous hand beneath the cake at some point and exerting such upward pressure upon the whole cake that some of the surface depressions are raised to elevations and such rising at one point forces a slipping of the layer at other points and so causes elevation to subside sometimes to the extent of becoming undersea depressions. The geologist calls these different layers ages, and the ages he divides into eras and the eras into periods, according to the order in time of their respective formation. For his chronology, the geologist must, of course, resort to a process of reasoning from what he observes in a static form in the layers, and to a process of comparative measurements of time from what over an extended period of his own personal study he observes in a dynamic form in the layers, or at least the outer layer or stratum. While there is an approximate agreement among scientists as to the periods of time in the term of years, we shall not attempt here to place in periods of years our brief account of geology of the site of the present city of Macon.


MACON, A SEASIDE CITY The following facts are based upon the authority of C. Wythe Cooke, Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, and William Edward Myer, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, and especially upon articles by them in The Macon Magazine under the respective titles of “Macon Five Million Years Ago,” and “The Trail of the Mastodon.” Had the city of Macon existed early enough it would have been a city by the sea. For its site has been some sort of sea beach; it has witnessed the retreat and advance of the ocean many times. On the banks of the Ocmulgee strange plants have grown and, had the power of perception, they could often have sat upon the shore many a summer day and watched strange animals disport themselves in the waters Had these animals committed to the rocks, when soft, their story by their tracks and had the flowers also left leaves from the book of their life, these rocks today, long hardened by their burden of the years and their vicissitudes of changing heat and cold, would “tell us with flowers” and also tell us of great lumbering lizards, of little five-toed horses, of ferocious sea monsters.

Georgia’s most ancient rocks are those of the Piedmont Plateau; of these, the metamorphic rocks themselves have been at times solids as now and at times sands and clays like those found in the coastal plain. Crystallized rocks of ages ago, they gradually disintegrated into sands and clays, then the strains and stresses of succeeding ages compacted them and caused them to recrystallize and have almost obliterated all traces of their fragmental character. Others of the crystalline rocks were once molten lavas and cooled into the present form. The Piedmont Plateau’s limits in the earth’s early ages extended far southeastward of its present margin, probably beyond the present seashore to the edge of the Continental Shelf. At one time high mountains probably occupied this area but they were gradually through the ages washed away by the rains and the rivers and leveled into a nearly flat plain, with only a few hills of harder rock left to relieve the monotony of the landscape, and the lowlands were wrapped in a deep mantle of rotten rock. This leveling process was attended by a shifting of weight which produced a period of disturbance. The equilibrium of the land was disturbed. The loaded part sank; the lightened part rose; the sea crept across the sinking edge of the Piedmont Plateau and invaded the land as far as Macon. The stream beds conformed to the changing contour of the land west of Macon. Thus the streams increased their slope, quickened their flow, and redoubled their power to transport mud and sand; they found ready much material to convey. The feldspar crystals of granites had decayed and turned to clay.; the quartz was freed from its matrix and ready to be ground into sand, the mica plates were loose and crumbling to pieces. The streams ate into the soft banks and bore the mixed treasure to the sea. The slackening waters deposited first the course sand, next the finer sand, but carefully carried the choice fine mud into selected, quiet back waters and lagoons; thus were formed the kaolin beds of Dry Branch. The kaolin and sand deposits were formed in what the geologists call the Cretaceous period. Here some leaves of the book are missing; we find no record in the vicinity of Macon of the closing chapters of the Cretaceous period, either because the withdrawing sea left no record or its deposits were afterward washed away. But thick marine sands of the late Cretaceous age do occur nearly as far north as Columbus and extend westward across Alabama. The Cretaceous was the concluding period of the Reptiles. The largest and most bizarre animals that ever existed flourished then. There is no doubt that the extraordinary group called “dinosaurs” existed in Georgia in considerable numbers and variety, but conditions here were unfavorable for their preservation and but few remains have been found in Georgia. There was a widespread disturbance at the end of the Cretaceous period. The Rocky Mountains were born in the West; in the East the sea was drained away in the slowly rising land. The Cretaceous kaolin and sand surface is irregular, marked by hollows and bumps, and is buried beneath coarse sands. This irregularity shows that before the sands were deposited upon

Macon stands where the Piedmont Plateau and the Coastal Plain meet. The former is composed of crystallized and metamorphic rocks. such as granite and gneiss, and the disintegrated debris of these rocks cover much of its surface. But the coastal plain is composed entirely of sands and clays, marls, and limestones. 4

them, the older beds were exposed to the weather and carved into an uneven surface. This condition persisted for a long time. This transition period also marked the passing of the dinosaurs as masters of the earth and merged into the beginning of the age of Mammals. The Eocene Period was the earliest epoch of the age of Mammals. The streams continued to bring down their freight of debris from the Piedmont Plateau and en route to the sea took on their additional cargo of sands and clays which had been laid down under water during the Cretaceous era. During the Eocene period the seashore shifted back and forth across the Coastal Plain, but we find no sediments of the early Eocene period in the vicinity of Macon, and presume that the seashore did not reach as far as Macon until near the close of the Eocene period. But now the sea again entirely crossed the Coastal Plain, overflowed the weather-worn surface of the Cretaceous beds and again its restless ramble reached the rocky reefs of the Piedmont Plateau. The rivers paid their tribute of sands and mud to the sea and the waves and the currents put the mobile wealth into such widespread circulation over the new ocean floor as it filled up the hollows in the old uneven land. The mammal inhabitants of Macon could now enjoy seafood to their fill. The sea life soon found this shallow, sunny sea a most congenial habitat. It was a thriving community of myriads of long-since extinct species of snails and clams and huge oysters. Migrating corals of various kinds took up their abode upon pebbles or large shells. Round, flat, tiny sea urchins terrorized the streets of the sea in their hunt for prey. The seaweed waved its plumed banner over citadels protecting shadowy fish from marauding, murderous sharks. But even the latter raised their siege, the lesser banditti cleared the sea streets most precipitously at the mere approach of the huge Zeuglodon, king of the sea. Sixty feet or more long, mostly tail, with huge, powerful, shape-toothed jaws and small flippers, he appeared a veritable sea serpent, but really was a mammal, Cetacean like the whales. Here in his adopted home at least one found also his grave, and some of his bones were entombed above the kaolin beds at Dry Branch. The United States National Museum at Washington contains a mounted skeleton of the Zeuglodon. As the creatures died by natural or foul means, their shells or teeth or bones dropped to the sea bottom and were buried by the unceasing slow accretion of sediment dropped by the tireless rivers or precipitated by chemical action. Near the mouth of the streams where there was an abundance of waste from the land , they were covered by sand or mud, in clean off-shore waters, slowly accumulating limy ooze, the product of bacterial and chemical action, formed their final resting place. At the close of the retreating Eocene period, the sea once more retreated, and although the battle between land and sea continued with varying fortunes, the sea never again advanced as far as Macon. The level fields uncovered by the Eocene retreating sea have been exposed for countless years to the action of winds and rains and running water. Frost and freeze and thaw have lent their aid to the destruction, a considerable thickness of sediment has no doubt been removed, and the rivers have deeply entrenched themselves below the upland level they originally flowed. These processes of erosion are still operating. The rivers still

J. W. Burke ad as it appeared in The History of Macon.


carry their load of sand and mud from the land and deposit it in the sea. Nor has the conflict between the ocean and the land ceased for a moment. Slow movements of the land are still underway – moments which we call centuries, but astounding in their cumulative movements so slow as to be almost imperceptible, during the brief effects. Perhaps someday Macon may be a city by the sea.

Renowned botanist William Bartram visited the Macon area in the Middle 1770’s.


Chapter II ARRIVAL OF DESOTO The physical features of the section in which Macon is situated possess the same confirmation as was left by the Eocene period. This period left the site of Macon a “key site” where the key city was destined by the natural conditions later to arise. The early races of men and even the earlier animals traveled always along the lines of least resistance as do trades and people of today. This law of travel makes Macon important today and made its site important in prehistoric times. Key sites on natural trade and travel routes have been the determining factor in the location of sites for cities ever since man came upon the earth and began to move from one region to another. An Indian desiring to leave the crowded ancient Alabama cities around the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers would read his “time table” mapped out along high, drier ground to the ancient aboriginal cities on the Savannah river near Augusta. The topographical map shows the highest, driest, and best course to be through Georgia, by way of Macon, crossing the Oconee at the mouth of Buffalo creek, and the Ogeechee near the mouth of little Ogeechee, thence to the old towns which formerly existed near Augusta. The maps of the early white traders show this to be the identical route followed by a great prehistoric trail. There is also strong evidence that the first pioneer who first picked this path was the lordly mammal, the mastodon who in the Pleistocene age emigrated from Asia down into this continent, and there later followed in his trail the horses and camels which were once native in America. Then from some unknown origin man came into this kingdom of the bird and beast. Like every creature endowed with life and the power of locomotion, man was restless and moved often from place to place. These early humans found this readymade trail prepared by the animal lords of this land with such splendid discernment that man could not improve upon the location. The early first settlers continued using the trail. When the white men traders came, they also used it and from them it took the name of “The Trading Path.” The Georgia portion of this trading path lead northward into Tennessee, down the Kanawha river, crossing the Ohio river, and thence through Ohio to Lake Erie. The Georgia map of the trading map is shown on Purcell’s map of 1770, which is reproduced in Dr. John Swanton’s “Early History of the Creeks and their Neighbors.” Bulletin 73, recently issued by the Bureau of American Ethnology.

MACON’S MANY NAMES AND ITS MOUNDS The key site of Macon has probably borne many names as it was occupied at various times by each wave of successive migrations which have slowly passed through Central Georgia. Mr. William Bartram spent several years among the Indians in the South and in 1774, stopped on the Ocmulgee river near Macon. He says of this trading path that “on the east bank of the Ocmulgee, this trading road runs two miles through ancient Indian fields called ‘Ocmulgee Fields;’they are the rich lowlands of the river. “ On the heights of these lowlands are yet conspicuous very wonderful remains of the power and grandeur of the ancients of this part of America, in the ruins of a capital town and settlement of vast artificial hills and terraces. These old fields and planting land extend up and down the river fifteen or twenty miles from this site.” We do not know how many races inhabited this mound city, nor whence they came, nor why or how they departed. The town was probably taken and destroyed many times in that vast unrecognized stretch of time. A gifted Georgian, Mr. Charles C. Jones, Jr., has left a map of these remains as they appeared in 1870. Our entire knowledge of this section’s earliest residents must be secured from these mounds, as we conclude from all the evidence produced to date that the very first settlers built these tumuli, or began them, at any rate, though later settlers may have adopted and even adapted and made additions to the mounds. It is important therefore, to give here some description of these mounds. Mr. Jones reports: “The largest and most noteworthy of the tumuli, lying farthest down the river is located upon the summit of a natural hill and occupies a commanding position. The earth of which it was built, was gathered from the valley and conveyed to the top of the hill to increase its height by forty-five or fifty feet. The summit diameters of this tumulus, measured north and south and east and west, are respectively one hundred and eighty and two hundred feet. On the west side is an artificial plateau still about eight feet high and seventy-two feet long and ninety-three feet wide. On the north and east are three spurs or elevated approaches, over which, on paths, the laborers during the construction of the mound carried their burdens of sand or clay in cane baskets, and by means of which, when the tumulus was completed, ascent to its summit was rendered more facile. It is


not improbable that this was a temple mound used in sun worship by priests.” North of this tumulus is a second mound about ten feet high elliptical shape, with a diameter of one hundred and twenty feet. North of this is the third of the group, its northeastern slope carried away by the excavations of the Central Railway. It is still about forty feet high and conical in form, and on its top is the decayed stump of a tree more than five feet thick. About four hundred yards in a northeasterly direction is the last tumulus of this series. In general characteristics it resembles the last mound mentioned. These mounds are all flat. Doubtless the temple mound was erected for religious purposes, and the others heaped up in honor of the dead. In their vicinity the fields are filled with shards, shells of pearl bearing unio, and fragments of ancient domestic economy. Upon the acclivity of the central mound are apparent remains of an aboriginal settlement. Here, in excavating for the new track of the Central railway, the workmen a short time since, unearthed a few feet below the surface several skeletons, in connection with which were found beads of shell and porcelain, a part of a discoidal stone, several arrow and spear points, two stone celts, a clay pipe, an earthen pot and other matters of primitive character fashioned for use or ornament. This excavation for the line of the railway necessitated the removal of a considerable portion of the northern side of the central mound. In the conduct of this work the laborers, while cutting through the slope of the mound at a lower depth, exhumed several skulls, regular in outline and possessing ordinary characteristics of American crania. Associated with these skeletons were stone implements—the handiwork of the red race—and Venetian beads and copper hawkbells, acquired through commercial intercourse with early traders and voyagers. The fact was patent that, at least, some of these inhumations had occurred subsequent to the period of primal contact between Europeans and the Indian. Passing below these interments—which were evidently secondary in their character—and arriving at the bottom of the mound, a skull was obtained which differed most essentially from those we have described belonging to a later inhumation. It was vastly older than those of the secondary interments and had been artificially distorted such an extent that the cerebellum was quite obliterated, while the front portion of the skull had not only been flattened but irregularly compressed so as to cause an undue elevation and divergence to the left. Among the relics found next to the artificially compressed skull was a total absence of all European ornaments, showing that these ancient mounds were undoubtedly in use long before Europeans arrived in America, and by tribes in succession which apparently had no knowledge one of another. The flattened skull belongs to the mound-building people, who doubtless erected the tumuli. In the course of time these structures, abandoned by their original owners, were occupied by other red races who buried their dead on the slopes and superior surface of the mounds. The most remarkable eminence of which we have any record is Brown’s Mount (not Mound) near the Ocmulgee river about seven miles below Macon. It is a very high hill and upon one side

is nearly precipitous. Upon this mount, named after Mr. George A. Brown, who first owned it, are rare curiosities, among which are now slight traces of ancient fortifications. Forty to fifty years ago the stone walls, ditches, and lines of the ancient works presented sufficient remains to identify the exact plan of fortifications which had been located there similar to those DeSoto found in Florida, North Georgia, Alabama and elsewhere. DeSoto never built any fortifications. His business was to search for gold. He passed through Georgia without any resistance from the Indians. He stopped on the Ocmulgee only a few days. He was in less than thirty days marching from the present Tallahassee, Florida, to Silver Bluff, below Augusta on the Savannah river, therefore he had no time to erect forts. Of Brown’s Mount, Mr. Jones says: “ Following the natural conformation of the summit boundaries and at some points retired a distance of twenty yards or more from the edge of the hill, are the remains of an old wall—constructed of boulders of rock and earth—which encircled and fortified the entire top of the mount. About sixty acres, I am informed are thus enclosed. Attendant upon the wall are traces of both an outside and inside ditch, the former being originally about ten feet wide and four feet deep, and the latter some three feet wide and between two and three feet deep. The earth removed in the construction of these ditches was used in conjunction with the stone boulders in building this wall. Within the recollection of persons still living, this wall was four feet high and between four and five feet in thickness. It will be perceived that the height of the wall was practically increased by the depth of the ditch; so that the defenders standing in the ditch would be completely protected from the shafts of their assailants. Upon the wall trees are growing more than three feet in diameter. This was without doubt, the work of the red men, and in ancient times constituted a fortified retreat. Similar structures exist within limits of Georgia and in many portions of the United States. It will be remembered that, in the absence of any speedier mode of transmitting intelligence, the Indians signaled by means of fire kindled upon prominent points. Through their intervention the approach of danger was heralded, and the lurid warning quickly repeated until members of the tribe, through all their abodes, were rapidly put on alert. Such is the location of Brown’s Mount and so abrupt and commanding its exposure on the west, that signal fires kindled there could be readily seen and interpreted even by primitive dwellers on the banks of the Flint river. From the side which looks toward Macon, kindred warnings—cloudy pillars of smoke by day and bright flame by night— would quickly summon the warriors of the upper Ocmulgee, but put those who were there inhabited, upon notice. “Doubtless during the forgotten past, this fortified hill answered important military uses in the conduct of the everrecurring strifes which existed among the red men. “The impression entertained by some that it is the work of DeSoto and his followers, is erroneous.” Col. Jones describes very accurately the great curiosity on the mount, which will be at once recognized by many of the older citizens of Macon, who in times past had so often spent the day in picnic excursions at this favorite sylvan retreat: “Within the enclosure are the traces of two small earth-mounds, and near the 8

northeastern side is a pond or basin, elliptical in form, covering about a quarter of an acre. Of late years it has been drained, and at the time of my visit it contained no water. The statement was made that this was an artificial basin and that its bottom had been plastered with clay at some remote period, so as more effectually to retain the rain water, which would from time to time would accumulate in it. I had no means at command for making an examination and testing the truth of this assertion. The pond was overgrown with trees and filled with decayed leaves and loam. To all appearances it seemed a natural reservoir, although it may be that the natives originally made this excavation with the view of supplying themselves with water in the event of a siege. The natural supply of this fluid was probably derived upon ordinary occasions from four springs issuing from the northern, eastern, southern, and western faces of the hill, in each instance, not more than fifty yards from the wall. Indications still exist tending to establish the fact that the paths leading to at least some of these springs were protected by stone walls, or partially covered ways. The summit of this hill is well adapted to cultivation, and in one locality I observed a circular depression, about forty feet in diameter, which suggested the belief that it might be the former site of one of those semisunken granaries in use among the Southern Indians, of which the early historians have given us substantial descriptions.” The several tribes of Indians had different modes of burial, and their custom in this respect changed in different ages. With the early Choctaws, their custom was to place their dead upon scaffolds, where the body remained until the flesh decayed: regular undertakers would then strip the bones of the putrid flesh and deposit the skeleton in the bone-house. When these houses became full of bones they were taken to a plain and a mound raised over them. When the bone-house became filled again another layer of bones was placed on the surface of the mound, earth thrown over them, and the mound increased in size. The same process was continued for a long number of years, until the mound attained inconvenient proportions, when a new one was built near it in the same order. This no doubt accounts for the different appearances of decay in the various strata of bones found in one mound. In Alabama, Mr. Pickett says, “the small mounds which have been excavated contain different strata. Beginning to dig at the top, the operators first pass through a stratum of earth about two feet thick, then they come to a bed of ashes and charcoal, and then a bed of human bones mixed with pieces of pottery, pipes, arrowheads and various Indian ornaments. Mussel shells are also mixed with these. Continuing to dig downwards, the excavators pass through a stratum of earth which is succeeded by a stratum of bones, charcoal, pottery, Indian ornaments and arrow points, etc. The larger mounds, the same author says,”were sites for the dwelling of chiefs, for council halls, and for temples, which fancy and conceit have constructed into various shapes and variously situated, one to the other. The same opinion is expressed by Dr. McCullough, 1829, in his volume entitled Researches, Philosophical and Antiquarian. The mounds around Macon were also covered with large oaks. They were cut away for timber about 1846 or 1847. There were up to that time fine walks on one of them and many roses

and other flowers which had been planted by the officers stationed at Fort Hawkins. In 1809, Captain Robert McDougald, in command of the fort died and was buried on one of these mounds. Years after, his brother died and at his request was buried by his side. Their graves were neatly enclosed for many years. In former years, before the establishment of the park and other places of resort, the mounds were favorite places for excursions by the gay society of the villagers and afterwards citizens of Macon. Brown’s Mount, though not visited now, still retains its many attractions, as described by Col. Jones, who was there only a few years ago. It, too, was once a favorite resort for belles and beaux of the city, while in the spring and summer melody and perfume filled its groves, dancing, singing and music instruments enlivened its lofty summit, interspersed with many a joke, as well as a decanter which was cracked around the magic basin of its crystal fountain. From a description of the mounds we come briefly to consider their builders. Historians regarded as worthy of credit differ as to whether these mounds were originally built by the Indians or by a race who preceded the Indians as residents in this section. There is left no possible record of such earlier races other than these monuments and their contents. These and tradition are also almost the only record we have of the Indians history prior to the coming of them to the white man. INDIANS’ RECORDS The first and only instance of the Indians ever keeping a record of their history was discovered by LeClerk Milfort, a young Frenchman and adventurer, and a man of high talents, who lived twenty years among the Creeks, commencing in 1776. Milfort was associated with the most extraordinary Indian chief, Alexander McGillivray, and married his sister. Both of these men were renowned for their talents and acted a very important part with the French, Spanish and British governments in their relations with Southern Indians during the Revolutionary War. They were afterwards employed by President Washington, with high rank and responsible trusts. Pickett says of Milfort: ”When he arrived among the Creeks, the old men often spoke of their ancestors, and they exhibited to him strands of pearls which contained their history and constituted their archives. Upon their arrangement depended their signification; and only principal events were thus preserved. One of their chaplets sometimes related the history of their thirty years. Each year was rapidly distinguished by those who understood them. The old men, therefore, with the assistance of these singular records and strong memories, were enabled to impart to Milfort a correct tradition,”etc. The wonderful record was a summary of the route and adventures of the Creeks from the time of their departure from Mexico to their settlement in Ohio. The Creeks did not claim the erection of these mounds, but declared that their ancestors found them here when they first possessed the region. Who these flat-headed mound-builders were is a conjecture. It may be that they were a colony of 9

Natchez, journeying hither from their old habitat on the Mississippi. Certain it is that these tumuli antedate the traditions of the Creeks, who were native here at the period of the English colonization. Below these mounds, in the valley lands of the Ocmulgee on Lamar’s plantation, are several tumuli. The presence of these mounds and the numerous relics scattered throughout the length and breadth of the valley for miles, afford ample testimony that this was once the seat of a large and perhaps permanent population. The debris of frequent encampments along the bluffs of the river prove that the aborigines congregated here in great numbers for fishing and hunting. Old clearings in the valley give evidence that they supported themselves in part by the cultivation of maize. That the Creeks did not build the mounds at Macon, is confirmed by every early white visitor who left any record on the subject. William Bartram was an educated and careful observer. He records: “The region lying between the Savannah river and Ocmulgee east and west is remarkable for its high conical hills or artificial mounts, artificial lakes, ‘chunk yards,’ and terraces. All this region was once undoubtedly ruled by some nation or confederacy having the same laws, customs and language, but a nation so ancient that the Cherokees and Creeks could render no account of how these monuments were raised. The mounts and cubical yards adjoining them seem to have been raised in part for some public purpose, since they always are so situated as to command the most extensive prospect over the town and country adjacent. The tetragon terraces seem to be the foundation of a fortress and the sunken area, called by white traders the chunk yard, very likely served the same use that has been appropriated to it by the present nations of Indians; that is the place where they burnt and otherwise tortured captives. The areas are surrounded by banks which were apparently used as seats by spectators, of such tragic scenes, as well as for games and dances.” The Creeks probably built a very few of the small mounds in Georgia but they did not build the largest and most important ones. When the Creeks saw them they even then had the appearance of great antiquity. Modern research is beginning to be able to throw a little light on these vanished people who followed in the trail of the mastodon. Remains have been found in other sections of Georgia, such as ornaments, sacred ceremonial objects, and pottery indicating that the people had reached a high state of advancement. These and fine, elaborately carved copper plates and shell gorgets found in some graves led some to believe that in certain ceremonies they wore costumes somewhat resembling the elaborate and intricate figures sculptured on many Mexican and Central American ruins. This people, who had a form of Mexican culture, were different in skeletal type from the Creeks, Cherokees, and other modern Indians found here when the white men came.

or April 1540. The people then living here were probably the Hitchiti race of Indians. Swanton, in his “Early History of the Creek Indians and their Neighbors,” says: “At one time the Hitchiti were probably the most important tribe in Southern Georgia and their language the prevailing speech in that region from the Chattahoochee river to the Atlantic ocean. Nevertheless, the true Muscogee entered at such an early period that we cannot say we have historical knowledge of a time when the Hitchiti were its sole inhabitants.” Swanton identified the site of Macon as the town which was called “Ocute” by the chroniclers of DeSoto’s march. He said: “From the Mitchell map this site is identifiable as the ‘Ocmulgee old fields’ on the site of the present Macon, which is an agreement with a legend reported by Gatsenet to the effect that the Hitchiti were ‘the first to settle at the site of the Okmulgee town, an ancient capital of the Confederacy.’” THE TOWN OKMULGEE It is generally believed that there was once an Indian town named Okmulgee at or near the place of where Macon now stands. Even scholars agree that the word Okmulgee in the Indian language “ refers to the bubbling up of water in a spring,” and that the Okmulgee river derived its name from the famous “Indian Spring” in Butts County, Georgia. Swanton says that it is very probable that the town Okmulgee also derived its name from the same spring. None of the available maps show a town named Okmulgee on the river of that name, but some of the early maps do show such a town on the Chattahoochee, and the Flint rivers. Swanton very plausibly gives the following explanation of this town’s not appearing at the site of Macon on any of the maps: “As early maps consulted by me do not show a town of that name on Ocmulgee River, and as the site of the Ocmulgee old fields was occupied by the Hitchiti I believe the Ocmulgee were a branch of the Hitchiti, which perhaps left the town on the Ocmulgee before the main body of people and made an independent settlement on the Chattahoochee river.” This tribe’s splitting up into several settlements accounts for there being several towns of that name on the other two rivers. The Ocmulgee Indians dissipated among the Creeks, and amalgamated with other tribes until their history became extinct. During the Seminole wars of 1836 and 1837, according to the statistics of Indian tribes in the Untied States, the Ocmulgee numbered but two hundred souls. And Bartram says of the site of Macon: “If we are to give credit to the account the Creeks give of themselves, this place is remarkable for being the first town or settlement, when they sat down (as they term it), or established themselves, after their emigration from the west, beyond the Mississippi, their original native country. On this long journey they suffered great and innumerable difficulties, encountering and vanquishing numerous and valiant tribes of Indians, who opposed and retarded their march. Having crossed the river still pushing eastward, they were obliged to make a stand, and fortify themselves in this place, as their only remaining hope, being to the last degree persecuted and weakened by the surrounding foes.

FIRST WHITE VISITOR TO MACON As far as any record, or writing, or tradition, shows the first white man to set foot upon the site of Macon was Hernando DeSoto, with his followers, who reached this spot and camped near or below Central City Park now is in March 10

Having formed for themselves this retreat, and driven off the inhabitants by degrees they recovered their spirits and again faced their enemies, when they came off victorious in a memorable and decisive battle. They afterwards gradually subdued their surrounding enemies, strengthening themselves by taking into confederacy the vanquished tribes.” Bartram visited this place in 1774, a half century before Macon was laid off, and while the Indians were still the sole proprietors of this section. This account was probably secured from the Creeks themselves and can be reconciled with the other accounts given here of the Creeks “stopping” at other places before “settling” here as their permanent capital. It is true that Bartram’s account does clearly indicate that the Creeks (Muscogees was their Indian name) came direct from beyond the Mississippi, which is not consistent, but it seems, is reconcilable, with Pickett’s account, quoting Milfort, telling of long journeyings to the north and across the Missouri and along the Ohio rivers, before coming into Alabama and Georgia. This account of Milfort’s is given in the concluding part of this chapter.

unwilling to live under the foreign conqueror, the whole tribe of Muscogees determined to move out. In 1520 they marched eastward to the Red river, where they laid out a town and spent several years. Here they came into collision with a band of the Alabamas wandering also from the west. They abandoned their town, and set out in pursuit of the Alabamas, resolved upon revenge, going in a northern direction to the Missouri river. Crossing the Missouri, they found the Alabamas, attacked them, and defeated them. Thus, alternately fighting, constructing new towns, and again breaking up their last establishments, these two war-like tribes gradually reached the Ohio river, and proceeded along its banks almost to Wabash. Here for a long time the Muscogees resided. The Alabamas settled upon the Yazoo and there DeSoto attacked their fortress in 1541. The Muscogees consumed fifteen years in their migration from Mexico to the Ohio, from 1520 to 1535. Sometime between 1535 and 1620 they crossed the Ohio and Tennessee and settled temporarily upon the Yazoo, and for some years passed their time most agreeably, the Alabamas having fled before the arrival of the Muscogees. The Muscogees later found and routed the Alabamas from the towns on the river bearing the latter’s name. The Muscogees advanced onto the Ocmulgee, Oconee, and Ogeechee and even established a town where now reposes a beautiful city of Augusta. The Muscogees found various tribes of Indians in this section, but absorbed the non-resisting ones, exterminated the determinedly unyielding, and combined with the hardy but compromising ones. Thus formed the great Confederacy of Muscogees, found by the English named by the latter Creek confederacy.

CREEK’S ORIGINAL HOME Bartram doubtless indicates the Creeks’ origin as “from the west, beyond the Mississippi, their original native country,” in a broad general sense, much in the same sense as that in which we speak of Missouri and even Chicago as being in “the west.” And Pickett also had access to the chronicle of Milfort, which was not available to Bartram, so that he could be more specific in the locations described by him. Of all the races, whether Indian or other races, resident here prior to the white men becoming residents, the Indians of the Creek confederacy were the most powerful and left the most voluminous testimony of their life and customs. But the Creeks did not come into this section until nearly a century after DeSoto’s visit, in fact not until about 1620. The name Creek was not the original name of this great confederacy. They did not bear this name until the coming into Georgia of the British sometime between 1663 and 1717. The British first applied to the Indians the name Creeks. Swanton thus gives the origin of the name: “The origin of the English term ‘Creeks’ seems to have been satisfactorily traced by Prof. V. W. Crane to a shortening of ‘Ocheese Creek Indians.’ Ocheese being an old name for the Ocmulgee river, upon which most of the lower Creeks were living when the English first came in contact with them.” Pickett, in his history of Alabama, gives a very detailed account of the wanderings of the Muscogees, stating “while the bloody Spaniards (DeSoto’s party) were wandering over this beautiful country, the Muscogees were living on the Ohio.” Pickett gives as his authority the LeClerc Milfort already mentioned, “a young handsome, and well educated Frenchman.” Being a fine writer and much of an antiquarian, he employed some of his leisure hours in preparing a history of the Creeks. When Cortez and his Spanish troops in 1519 invaded Mexico and slew Montezuma and overthrew his government, the Muscogee formed a separate republic in the northwest of Mexico. Having sided with Montezuma with considerable loss and

AUTHORITIES DIFFER Swanton agrees with the authorities just quoted, that “The traditions of nearly all, so far as information has come down to us, point to an origin in the west,” but says “That the drift of population throughout most of this area has been from west to east can hardly be doubted, but it is plain that practically all of the Muscogee tribes had completed the movement before DeSoto’s time, though all cannot be identified in the narratives of this expedition.” In brief, the authorities agree that the origin of the earliest Indian settlers at the site of Macon came from the west, but Swanton disagrees with others as to the time their movement into this section was completed. Swanton placing the date anterior to DeSoto, and Pickett and others placing it about, or a few years prior to 1620. We adopt Pickett’s theory and reject Swanton’s for the reason that the latter gives absolutely no evidence to support his bald statement, quoted above, while Pickett gives the apparently very plausible evidence of Milfort, based on the history recorded by the Muscogees themselves in their strands of pearls. EARLIEST WHITE SETTLERS AND SETTLEMENTS Having attempted to give an account of the history of the Indians in this section up to the time of settlement by the white 11

men, we shall now give a brief account of the first visit of the white man to the site of Macon. America was the first name given to this country before the penetration of the interior. The first name given to those penetrating the interior was Florida; it was given by John Ponce de Leon, a Spanish soldier, who in 1512 set out on his search for the fountain of perpetual youth. On Easter Sunday, called by the Spaniards Pascua Florida, and a little north of the latitude of St. Augustine, he beheld what he considered the coveted land of flowers, so profuse were the plants and numerous were the forests and so called the land Florida. The Spanish were first successful in establishing a colony in North America. This they founded in 1565 at St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest settlement in the present limit of the United States. As it was nearly half a century before any other nation penetrated the interior, and more than two centuries before any other nation penetrated into any part of North America south of Jamestown, all the territory in the Southern portion of the continent lying between Massachusetts and Florida was not known during the sixteenth century and for a time into the seventeenth by any other name than that of Florida. Hernando DeSoto, the first discoverer of present Macon, was a native of Spain, and a son of the squire of Xerez of Badajos. In his youth he went with Pizarro to Peru, and, with no property but his sword, won distinguished military reputation and a large fortune in plunder. Returning to Spain, making an imposing appearance at the Court, lending a large sum to the King, and marrying a daughter of one of the King’s favorites, DeSoto was appointed the governor of Cuba and Adelantado of Florida. In the unknown regions of Florida he resolved to embark his vast wealth in a splendid expedition, designed to conquer a people whom he believed to possess more gold than he had yet beheld even in South America. Young men of the best blood in Spain and Portugal sold their houses and their vineyards and flocked to his standard. Soon he was surrounded by an army of six hundred chosen men, with whom he put to sea, over the bar of San Lucar de Barremeda. Arriving at Cuba, he consumed a year in arranging the affairs of his government, and in preparation of the great enterprise before him. At the end of that period he left his wife, Dona Isabel Bobadilla, and the Lieutenant Governor in charge of the island and sailed for the coast of Florida, with a fleet of nine vessels— five large ships together with caravels and brigantines. He first landed upon the shores of Espirtu Santo, subsequently known as Tampa Bay in Florida, on May 30, 1539. His army numbered one thousand men. From here DeSoto proceeded to penetrate the interior arriving in October, 1539, at Apalache, in the neighborhood of the modern Tallahassee, where he spent the winter. An Indian slave informing DeSoto that a country to the northeast abounded in gold, he set out in that direction. DeSoto’s march seems to have been to the Altamaha river, and up to that river where it is formed by the confluence of the Oconee and Ocmulgee, thence up the Ocmulgee to the present site of Macon in March, 1540. This was in the province at that time called by the name of its ruler, Cofaqui. The first Christian baptism ever recorded upon the American

continent occurred here in Macon on the east bank of the Ocmulgee near the mounds. It was in March, 1540, and Butler thus gives the old Spanish Chronicler’s account of it: “An Indian guide and servant of DeSoto, affectionately called Peter and another called Mark, cried out one night that Peter was in danger of being killed. All of the forces were immediately at arms, and found Peter quaking, who said that ‘the devil attended by many of his companions, had threatened to kill him in case he conducted the Spaniards, as he had promised, to the land of gold; that they had dragged and beaten him so unmercifully, had they not come to his assistance would have killed him, and since the great devil had fled from the two Christians, he desired that they would baptize him that he might be a Christian as well as they.’ By the bruises and swelling on Peter’s body, his story appeared to be no fiction, whereupon the Adelantado delivered him to the priests, who nursed him all night and baptized him with the water from the river the following day; and we may with safety say that from the high authority from which we traced the record of his march, Adelantado DeSoto was the discoverer of the Ocmulgee river; that he journeyed with his army of Spaniards along its western bank ten days, and that the first ordinance of baptism recorded in the ‘New World’ was administered with its crystal waters in the month of March, 1540, at the feet of those memorable relics of antiquity, the Indian mounds that majestically overlook the present city of Macon.” Here at the future Macon, the cazique Cofaqui supplied to DeSoto eight thousand Indians as guides, warriors and servants to escort the strange guests through the unknown desert ahead and to carry their freight. At this Macon of the future was fired the first cannon ever fired on American soil. DeSoto’s army left here with Cofaqui the one small cannon which with infinite trouble and vexation they had dragged along with them so far. “But first to show the chief what DeSoto was leaving with him, DeSoto ordered the cannon be drawn in front of the Chief’s house, loaded, aimed, and fired at a large and beautiful oak standing outside the village. In two shots the tree was demolished, the chief and his warriors standing by speechless and motionless from awe and admiration, and pride that so wonderful a thing was confided to them.” DeSoto journeyed east from Macon to a point on the Savannah river below the site of Augusta, thence up the Savannah and then up through the country of the Cherokee Indian, into what is now North Georgia. From about where Rome now stands, he traveled to the Coosa and Talapoosa rivers, spending some time in the present state of Alabama, thence still going west, he came to the Mississippi river, being the first white man to discover the “Father of Waters.” Here the great adventurer and gold seeker died and was buried beneath the great Mississippi waters to conceal the death from superstitious Indians. The survivors managed to construct boats and rafts and on them finally, after many hardships and the loss of many of their number, to reach a point on the shore of Mexico. They soon found their way to Spanish cities in Mexico. There they scattered; some returning to Spain, most of them going to Peru, and a few remaining in Mexico. 12

Chapter III FORT HAWKINS A CENTER We have no record of any events of note at the site of Macon between the departure therefrom of DeSoto and the founding of the colony of Georgia in 1733. But all tradition and circumstances indicate that during the entire period this point continued to be a very important center to of Indian affairs, a busy place of meeting, a station on the through trail from the west to the east, and the place where other trails from various parts of the Confederacy itself met.

GEORGIA’S NAME FIRST APPEARS But the first appearance of the name of Georgia as applied to the country in the vicinity of the site of Macon was when Oglethorpe secured the charter for the colony of Georgia. This charter received the great seal of England on June 9, 1732. The name Georgia was given to this colony or province in honor of George II who was then King of England. Only that part of Macon lying east of the Ocmulgee was in the colony of Georgia described in the first charter from the King of England to Oglethorpe. This charter described the territory granted as that part of South Carolina west of the Savannah River, and included all the land between the Savannah and Altamaha Rivers, from the Atlantic coast to the headwaters of these streams, and thence extended westward to the “South Seas,” or Pacific Ocean. An old map of Georgia, of the date of 1732, shows the shape of Georgia, then very much that of a modern revolver, the part lying between the rivers forming roughly the handle, and the part extending westward from the headwaters of these streams forming the barrel; this part seems to be between parallel lines running east and west, the southern line lying about thirty-three degrees and forty minutes and the northern along about thirtyfour degrees and forty minutes north latitude.

FIRST GRANT TO SOUTH CAROLINA In 1663, Charles II granted all the land lying along the Atlantic coast, between the thirty-sixth and twenty-ninth degrees of north latitude, to eight noblemen, called the Lords Proprietors of South Carolina. All the land in the present state of Georgia was included in this grant, and from that date was called Carolina by the English, though no attempt was made to settle the lands west of the Savannah river. The permanent English settlements at Charleston and along the Carolina coast established England’s claim to Carolina, while the permanent Spanish settlement at St. Augustine had established Spain’s title to Florida; but no agreement could be reached as to the dividing line between Carolina and Florida. The northern line of Florida was not fixed until 1763, one hundred years after the grant to the Lords Proprietors, when Spain ceded all Florida to England. FIRST SETTLEMENT OF GEORGIA The first effort to colonize the territory of Georgia was made by Sir. Robert Montgomery in 1717, who secured from the Lords Proprietors of Carolina a grant of the land lying between the Savannah and Altamaha Rivers. It was to be called the Margravate of Azilia, and was to be part of Carolina. Sir. Robert Montgomery was to pay a rental of one penny an acre for all the lands occupied and to give the Lords Proprietors one-fourth of all the gold, silver and precious stones found there. The most glowing accounts of the wonders and beauties of Georgia were written. Nowhere in the world could be found such beautiful woods and meadows, such rich mines, and fields, such a soft climate and fertile soil. But these accounts did not attract settlers south of the Savannah river, and the red men of the forests remained the only inhabitants of Azilia, until a nobler man, with a loftier aim than Sir Robert, came to make its shores the home of the unfortunate.

MOTIVES FOR CREATING GEORGIA The reasons for locating the colony in this place were, to protect the frontier of Carolina from the ravages of the Indians, and to take possession of soil that was disputed by the English and the Spanish. Oglethorpe also heard that the mulberry trees grew along the Savannah river, and that the climate was suitable for the silkworms. He believed that a fine quality of raw silk


could be raised in Georgia by colonists, who could thus find means of earning a living and save to England vast sums of Fort Hawkins money paid to foreign countries for silks. So firmly did he believe in this that he resolved to send to Italy for persons to teach the colonists how to feed the worms and wind the thread from the cocoons. There were conflicting motives influencing the different peoples in their desire to see the establishment and settlement of Georgia. Oglethorpe’s was the noble and unselfish motive of relief to the poor of England and the provision of a new land where they might start life anew and in doing so found a new domain. The people already living in the colony of South Carolina, on the other hand, without a colony between them and Spanish Florida, saw their own western borders constituting the frontier exposed to the possible incursions of the Spanish. A new English colony would itself become that frontier and so form a buffer for South Carolina’s protection, and the blows and depredations which otherwise would fall upon South Carolina would instead fall upon Georgia. If South Carolina could be assured that the settlements of Georgia would spread far enough to the northwest along her western border to cover front and both flanks against the possible Spanish attacks, she probably had little concern as to whether or how far the Georgians should spread to the west. Oglethorpe crossed the Ocmulgee at the future Macon in 1739, when he went from Savannah to the Indian town of Coweta on the Chattahoochee river, to negotiate a treaty of friendship with the Indians and if possible forestall the probable efforts of the French and Spanish to alienate the affections of the Indians in connection with England’s declaration of war in October, 1739. In this Oglethorpe was thoroughly successful. In 1774 and 1775 Mr. William Bartram, the celebrated English botanist and historian, visited the site of Macon and gathered from the Ocmulgee’s banks rare plants, which he sent to his father, who was president of the Royal Society of Scientists, in London. He wrote a book giving a very interesting account of his travels and discoveries, from which we have quoted at large in this work. Again at the “Ocmulgee old fields,” in September, 1789, the accomplished intriguer, Alexander McGillivary, and the famous Indian warrior, Weatherford, met and interviewed President Washington’s confidential agent, after McGillivary had rejected the Augusta, Shoulderbone, and Galphinton treaties. This visit of the President’s agent resulted in a conference in New York City between the President and McGillivary and other Indian leaders and in their assenting to the Shoulderbone treaty. It was the place of meeting between the United States commissioners and the chiefs of the Creek’s for many years.

But while the king granted in the charter to the new colony all the territory in this pistol-shaped area, it was still inhabited by the Indians, who had not consented to the white man’s occupation of more than a very small part of it. In fact, the first official cession from the Indians was a very small area surrounding Savannah in 1733. There was not another cession for thirty years until 1763, when another narrow strip to the north of Savannah lying between the Ogeechee and Savannah rivers was ceded, and also a tract almost square in shape lying west of the 1733 tract and between the Ogeechee and Altamaha rivers was ceded. In fact thirteen different cessions were made by the Indians, covering a period from the first in 1733 to the last in 1835, before even all the territory of this pistol-shaped Georgia was quit-claimed to Georgia, as colony or later as a State. GENESIS OF FORT HAWKINS The cession embracing that part of the site of Macon lying east of the Ocmulgee was made on November 3, 1804. This was done in a treaty made at the Creek agency on the Flint river, between Benjamin Hawkins and the chief men of the Creek nation; all of this was signed in December, 1805, at Washington, D.C., and ratified in June, 1806, the chiefs representing the Indians, and Mr. Dearborn, secretary of war, the United States, in presence of President Jefferson. This treaty reserved the tract of land, five miles along the river, and three miles in breadth, on a portion of the Old Ocmulgee Fields, to the Creeks, while granting the United States Government the right to establish thereon and continue a military post, and a factory or trading house. It was also provided, “that the navigation and fishery of the Ocmulgee, from it junction with the Oconee to the Ulcofauhatche should be free to the white people; provided they use no traps for taking fish; but nets and seines many be used, which should be drawn on the eastern shore only.” Another treaty was made with the Creek chiefs in 1805 at Washington D.C., but no further lands could then be secured for Georgia. This treaty was largely confirmatory of the treaty of 1804 and provided that the United States might build forts, factories, and trading houses among the Indians. A horse path was to be kept open through the Creek country, and travelers were to be allowed to pass through in safety. In consideration of all this, the United States paid to the Indians a large sum of money. This cession or extinguishment of the Indians’ title opened the way for the establishment of a United States fort and Indian agency on the hill on the east side of the Ocmulgee river in what is now East Macon. President Jefferson’s insistence in all the treaties upon the privilege of establishing a fort and trading post on the Ocmulgee 14

Old Fields was due to the recommendation of Col. Hawkins made to the war department in 1802. The right being now obtained, instructions were issued to the Commissioners to erect the necessary fortifications and buildings for the factory, or trading house, as it was commonly called. Colonel Benjamin Hawkins, who had been so long engaged as commissioner on the part of the United States, selected the site on the commanding eminence near the river, where the Fort Hawkins school now stands. One hundred acres of ground were, for many years, reserved for the use of the fort. The fortifications consisted of two large block houses, surrounded by a stone stockade. The stockade was built of posts of hewn timber, fourteen feet long, and fourteen inches thick; they were sunk in the ground four feet, with port holes for a musket in every alternate post. The area within the stockades was fourteen acres. The block house, which remained standing until 1882 or 1883, occupied the southeastern corner of the stockade, and the other one, the last relics of which were blown down several years ago, was located diagonally from the other, at the northwestern corner. The block houses were similarly constructed—about twenty-eight feet square, two stories and a basement; thirty-four feet high, surmounted with watch towers. The basement was built of blocks of stone eighteen inches thick, ten feet high, the first story was of hewn logs, twelve inches thick with port holes for cannon and musketry, and twelve feet high. Over the first story the second projected, on all sides three feet, with holes in the floors of the part projecting so that if the Indians reached the house, and attempted to scale the stone basement, in order to set fire to wooden work, they could be shot down from the projecting floors. The second story was also twelve feet high, and towers about eight feet. There were four long houses, one in the center of each side of the stockade, their fronts forming part of the stockade to the width of each house, about twenty feet. These houses were used for soldiers’ quarters, provisions, and for the factory goods to be sold to the Indians and peltries received in return. In the center, surrounded by oaks, were the officers’ quarters. The eighty-six acres surrounding the stockade were pretty much cleared of undergrowth and large trees, except a few trees near the fort, which were left for a shade to the soldiers not on duty. The object of clearing the grounds was, in case of an attack, the Indians would not find a protection within gunshot, behind the trees. The block house in the southeast corner of the stockade remained standing until 1882 or 1883, when Mr. Henry Jones, owner of the land upon which it stood, let it be known that he intended tearing down the building. A strong effort was made by Mr. E.D. Irvine, a public spirited citizen of that time, to have the city council purchase the building and remove it to Central City Park. But he failed to arouse any interest in the matter and Mr. Jones removed the building and rebuilt it on the rear of his lot on Main Street, in East Macon. For several years he used it as a barn until it was finally destroyed by fire. Mr. Irvine did make a painting of Fort Hawkins and this was all that was preserved to show future generations Macon’s humble beginning. The fort was, in Indian warfare, a very formidable one. The Indians had no artillery. Bows and arrows, the tomahawk,

battleaxe, with the rifle, were their most formidable weapons. The fort was built in 1806, and garrisoned by the removal of the troops at Fort Wilkinson, on the Oconee River, who occupied that fort in 1807. VOLUME OF TRADE AT FORT HAWKINS In 1812, Hon. William Eustis, secretary of war, transmitted to Hon. William Clay, speaker of the house of representatives, a statement of the capital employed in the Indian trade, showing the state of the trade at each of the trading posts, of factories for four years, and through his report he heads, “Fort Hawkins, No. 1,” out of the twelve factories then in the United States, though the trade there was not so large as other factories. In his report, the secretary said, “ It will be found that, generally, the Southern factories have lost, while the Northern factories have gained. The reason is obvious. At the first, the peltries (deer skins) are in most part received from the Indians. The quantity of the article supplied in the country greatly exceeds the home consumption. The market is on the continent of Europe. Since the obstruction to our commerce in that quarter peltries have not only received a depression in price, in common with other of our produce consumed in that part of Europe, but are subject to a considerable loss by being kept over, because of the difficulty and expense of preserving from damage by vermin.” At the latter (the Northern factories) hatters’ furs are generally taken; these not exceeding the home demand, are of good sale. Another consideration is, that at some of the Northern factories, the Indians of their respective vicinities have been encouraged to employ a portion of labor on objects that are not attainable near the Southern factories, such as preparing buffalo tallow and candles; in making maple sugar, in digging the ore and melting down lead. The secretary also speaks of Fort Hawkins being remote from the white settlements. The amount of business at the factory for four years, to September 30th, 1811, was $22,317.28. Jonathan Holstead was the agent of the factory. During the Creek war of 1812 and 1814, Fort Hawkins was a prominent post for the rendezvous and disposition of troops. At that time Captain Phil Cook, afterwards major, was in command. FIRST WHITE CHILD BORN AT MACON Here at Fort Hawkins on October 8, 1813, was born the first white child born in what is now Macon. She was Martha Pearson Cook, daughter of Major Phil Cook, Macon’s much beloved Mrs. Isaac Winship. They raised a large family of children and grandchildren, as follows: Emory Winship, son, whose children were Sarah Reid, Isaac, Lizzie, Alexander, Emory, Blanton, William Herring, and Mary Lizzie; Laura Ellen Winship, daughter, who married Nat Cook Robertson and died without issue: Anna Eliza Winship, daughter, who married Josiah A. Flournoy, and their children were Robert, Martha Cook, Josiah A., Gertrude Claxton, and Annie Laura; Martha Angelina Winship, who married John Hinton Lovejoy, and their children were Emory, Laura, Ida, John H. Jr., Isaac Winship, Irene Anderson, Burton Miles, Elizabeth Winship and Edward Taliaferro; Mary Cook Winship, daughter, who married Rev. J.G. Pearce, and their 15

children were Anna Lawrence, John Winship, Eva Leila, Russell Ellison, Irene Comer, Viola Bard, Flora Belle and Rosa Lee, Ida Louise Winship, daughter, who married Colonel Thomas Woodward Mangham, C.S.A., and their children were Fannie Graham, Thomas W. Jr., Lizzie and Ida Louise; Sarah Irene Winship, daughter, who married Lewis F. Anderson, and their children were Rosa, Ida, and Irene; Emily Lavinia Winship, daughter, who married Joseph Warren Cabaniss, and their children were Isaac Winship, Lila Peeples, Joseph W. Jr., Emmie Chipman, Eldridge Guerry and Emory Winship; Victoria Comer Winship, daughter, who married George W. Head, and their children were Nellie Victoria and George Winship; Nathan Robertson Winship, son, and present representative from Bibb County, and his children were Irene and North.

was greatly attached to his old roan horse which was wounded while bearing him in battle against the Indians. Shortly after young Hiram Warner was admitted to the bar Judge Strong was engaged against him in an intricate case at Monticello. The Judge complimented Mr. Warner before the court and jury upon his learning in the law, and predicted his future eminence in the profession, to which Mr. Warner replied with thanks, and said the compliment was more appreciated, as it came from a distinguished soldier who had received the special compliment of his commanding officer for bravery in battle, and that he hoped the judge and his war horse Roaney, would long survive the distinction predicted. Both horse and rider lived to good old ages. They were inseparable in life. Under any tree the roan was tied to, it was accepted that his master was near by; and if the horse was not standing near the court house, or his master’s office, it was settled that the judge was absent from the circuit, or had not come from Vineville.

FORT HAWKINS, NOTABLE EVENTS AND PERSONS Major Generals McIntosh, Floyd, and Brigadier Blackshear, were frequently at the fort during the war, in consultation with Col. Hawkins, whose quarters were at the old Creeks agency on the Flint River, near Knoxville. About two miles beyond the fort, on the Milledgeville road Camp Hope was located, where Floyd’s army of nine hundred and fifty men and four hundred of friendly Indians encamped in the summer of 1812. Several skirmishes with the Indians occurred in this vicinity during the war, and a battle was fought on the opposite side of the river, when the Indians retreated beyond Singer’s Hill, northwest of Macon. The origin of this war, in which the Indians were induced to take part against the Americans, is attributable to the action of the British Government, who in 1806 and 1807, issued a series of paper blockade, by which French ports were laid under embargo, and American vessels bearing French products were declared lawful prizes. The government of France retaliated by the famous Berlin decrees, which declared the British Islands in a state of blockade and all neutral vessels trading with them lawful prizes. Both of these decrees were ruinous to American commerce. One thousand American vessels, richly laden, fell a prize to the British navy, which was followed by continued impressment of American seamen. Endurance having become exhausted, the American Congress declared war on the 18th of June, 1812. Here, in 1814, after having conquered the Creeks, General Jackson made a treaty with them, by which the lands between the Chattahoochee and Altamaha were acquired. Colonel Hawkins, who had so great an influence among the Indian tribes, performed an important part in the execution of this important treaty. As a national mark of gratitude, the friendly Creeks bestowed upon General Jackson and his associate in the treaty, Col. Hawkins, three square miles of land to each, with a request that the United States government would ratify the gift; but this, though recommended to Congress by President Madison, was never carried into effect. Major Christopher B. Strong, afterwards an eminent lawyer and judge of the former old Flint circuit, and one of the earlier settlers of Macon and Vineville, won military renown in the army of General Floyd, and was highly complimented by him for skill and bravery in two sanguinary battles. Judge Strong

FORT HAWKINS IN THE WARS Fort Hawkins played a prominent part in the War of 1812 with Great Britain. General Floyd was in command of the forces defending Georgia’s frontier, but was disabled by his wounds, and Governor Early appointed to the command General David Blackshear, who had been engaged in building a line of forts on the Ocmulgee and Flint rivers, and subduing the Indians in that portion of the state. In October orders were received from the secretary of war by the governor of Georgia, to organize, arm and equip twenty-five hundred militia to join General Jackson at Mobile, Governor Early ordered General Blackshear to assemble at Fort Hawkins, by the 21st of November, the regiment detached from Major General Daniel’s division, commanded by Colonel David S. Booth, and the regiment commanded by Colonel Ezekiel Wimberly, including two companies from Brigadier General Lee’s brigade, in Jones county, also a company of artillery commanded by Captain James Saffold, in Clinton, Jones, county. At Fort Hawkins they were furnished with arms and accoutrements; and also with provisions by the United States army contractor, Farish Carter. Major General McIntosh and Brigadier General David Blackshear were appointed in command of this detachment of militia, which was inspected and mustered in by Major Phil Cook. The rendezvous of the troops were at Camp Hope, near Fort Hawkins. On November 23rd, General McIntosh, whose headquarters were now at Fort Hawkins, issued orders to General Blackshear to organize the detachment into two regiments and a battalion; but news having been received that the Seminoles were rising west of the Flint river, General Blackshear was ordered to march with Wimberly’s regiment of infantry to Hartford, on the Ocmulgee, and proceed from there to the Flint river and scour the country. The call from General Jackson being imperative for reinforcements from Georgia, General McIntosh left Fort Hawkins with the remainder of his command for Mobile, sending orders to General Blackshear to join him there with his forces, as soon as he had quieted the Seminoles west of the Flint river. After considerable delay, General Blackshear reached 16

the junction of the Flint river and Chattahoochee and discovered that Major Blue had destroyed and captured an army of hostile Red Stripes, and that Col. Hawkins had one thousand friendly Indian warriors at Fort Mitchell, and that the Seminoles had become quieted, and the British vessels had sailed toward New Orleans. On the 19th of January, 1815, Governor Early wrote to General Blackshear stating that a great crisis in our state had occurred. It was actually invaded by the British in large force, in its most vulnerable point. Two of their ships-of-the-line, seven frigates, and a number of smaller vessels had landed on the coast. General Blackshear was ordered to retrace his march to Hartford and proceed to join General Floyd; additional supplies would be sent him from Fort Hawkins. General Blackshear’s forces reached Hartford on January 21st and continued their march towards Savannah, having received information that the whole country below the Altamaha was overrun by British. Fort Hawkins, at this time, was the principal depository for army supplies, as was distributing rations for the army of Indians under Colonel Hawkins at Fort Mitchell, General Blackshear near the Altamaha, and General Floyd’s army below that point. On January 31st General Blackshear was one hundred and thirty-two miles below Hartford and in communication with General Floyd. The latter informed the former that the British were two thousand strong on land; that they had pillaged St. Mary’s and withdrawn to Cumberland Island. On Monday, the 26th of January, the line of news was brought through the line of runners from Mobile to Fort Hawkins of the brilliant victory of Jackson over the British on the 8th instant. A fue-de-joie of nineteen guns was fired in celebration of the great event, and it was the first salutation in its honor on Georgia soil. General Blackshear received the news on February 4th and sent it by courier to General Floyd, concluding his letter, “nineteen guns were fired at Fort Hawkins on Monday last in celebration of the signal victory gained over the British by General Jackson, at New Orleans. The report is that General Jackson killed one thousand dead, and took five hundred prisoners with only the loss of twenty men. Too good to be entirely true, I fear. Gloria Dei! Gloria Jackson!” There was peace between the whites and Indians after the treaty of 1814, until 1817, when the Seminoles and a few Creeks, at the instigation of Ambrister and Arbuthnot, who claimed to hold Florida in the name of Spain, commenced depredations on the frontiers of Georgia and Alabama. General Gaines was sent to suppress the Indians, but his force being insufficient General Jackson again took the field, leading one thousand patriots from Tennessee. The governor of Georgia reinforced him with nine hundred militia and a number of friendly Creeks. On the 10th of February, General Jackson arrived at Fort Hawkins with his Tennessee army and received the Georgia troops here and at Fort Early, where he made the plan for his Seminole campaign. He marched through Florida, capturing all the Indian towns, taking many prisoners, among them the Scotchman and Englishman, Arbuthnot and Ambrister, whom he ordered tried by court martial. Ambrister

was sentenced to be shot, and Arbuthnot to be hung. Subsequently the sentence in respect to Ambrister was reconsidered, and he was sentenced to be whipped and confined to hard labor. This sentence Jackson reversed and ordered both to be executed to the first sentence of the court. Previous to court martial, Jackson arrested two Indian chiefs whom he found engaged in insurrectionary acts among the Seminoles and Creeks. He ordered them hanged without trial. The conduct of Jackson in constituting himself a high court was extensively discussed in the congress of 1818 and 1819. The Military Committee of the House presented a report censuring his conduct, which, however, was voted down; a similar result followed a report of like nature in the senate. BENJAMIN HAWKINS Fort Hawkins was named in honor of the Hon. Benjamin Hawkins, a United States senator from the state of North Carolina. He had been an officer in the Revolutionary War, and enjoyed the esteem of General Washington. In 1785 his name appears as joint commissioner with Andrew Pickens, Joseph Martin, and Lachlan McIntosh, to negotiate with the Creek Indians. In the same year they made the treaty of Hopewell with the Cherokees and negotiated with some of Creeks at Galphinton without concluding a treaty. In 1795, President Washington appointed Mr. Hawkins, then a United States senator, George Clymer, of Pennsylvania, and Andrew Pickens of South Carolina, as commissioners to treat with the Creek Confederacy. This appointment was brought about in consequence of the inconsistency between the two treaties; the one at New York in 1790 placed the Creeks under the control of the Federal Government; while the one at Galphinton made them members of Georgia and under the state jurisdiction. In 1801 Mr. Hawkins was appointed principal agent of Indian Affairs, south of the Ohio, and together with General Wilkinson and Andrew Pickens, he made treaties with the Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Natchez. He was the principal actor in all of the treaties that have been mentioned, and in 1812 was the sole commissioner in Georgia. In 1816, he resigned his positions, after thirty years’ service among the Indians, and retired upon his farm at the agency on the Flint river, which was his residence and headquarters during his life in Georgia. While he had charge of all Indian affairs, he was not a military commander, nor did he reside at the fort which bore his name. He was a frequent visitor there and negotiated much of his official business at that place. During his long service of thirty years among the Creeks, he accumulated a large number of manuscripts, giving very valuable information of the history and customs of the Indians. His papers were collected by Mr. I.K. Tefft, of Savannah, and published in the collections of the Georgia Historical Society. He died on June 16, 1816, at his home on the Flint River, seven miles from Knoxville, where he was buried. Ex-Governor David B. Mitchell was appointed to succeed Mr. Hawkins, and in July, 1817, there assembled at Fort Hawkins over fourteen hundred Indians to receive their pay from the United States, through the newly appointed agent, and to 17

transact other business. The Indians remained at the fort several days, the chiefs dining with General Mitchell every day. During a frolic among them, one of their warriors, the next in rank to McIntosh, became intoxicated and killed his own nephew. According to the custom of the Indians, the murderer was instantly arrested and executed within an hour after the crime was committed. General Mitchell was succeeded by Colonel John Crowell, of North Carolina. Crowell figured very conspicuously in the treaty made at Indian Spring, on the 12th day of February, 1825, between Duncan G. Campbell and James Meriwether, on the part of the United States and a number of warriors and their chief, General William McIntosh. Crowell was a descendant of the famous Cromwell family of England. After settling in America they dropped the letter “m” in their name and assumed that of Crowell. It was believed by Governor Troup, the United States Commissioners, and a vast number of Georgians, that Crowell influenced a portion of the Indians to reject the treaty made at the Indian Spring, and created the dissensions that led to the atrocious murder of General William McIntosh, one of the purest, noblest and bravest of chiefs. The earliest white settlers upon the “Old Ocmulgee Fields,” in the neighborhood of Fort Hawkins, was the party under Roger McCall in 1819. In 1818, Roger McCall and Harrison Smith settled upon Swift Creek. McCall sent to the North for his brother, Eleazer, to engage with him in the building of boats for the navigation of the Ocmulgee river. In 1819, E. McCall, David Flanders, Joseph Willett, John Minor, Seymour Murray, George Clark, James Minor and a Mr. Beckwith, came to Swift Creek and built three cotton boats; one went to Darien, under Roger McCall; the other two were poled to the ferry, at the site of the present fair grounds, and loaded with cotton from Jones and Baldwin counties, and sent down the river. Messrs. Flanders and Willett cut down the bluff and established the first ferry where one of the city’s bridges has since stood for more than three-fourths of a century. The first house erected outside the fort was a wooden structure by Mr. Lyman, from Milledgeville, and used as a store where trade was carried on with the Indians. From this time

forward, other settlers began to come in and lease the lands around the fort and those which were contiguous to the river, until the treaty of 1821, when the Indians, except from fifty to one hundred, removed to the West. The settlement was called Fort Hawkins until about 1821, when the name Newtown was adopted, but throughout Georgia at Washington City, the locality was ever called Fort Hawkins. In 1820 a double log house was built a few hundred yards beyond the fort, and the first hotel in the limits of the section which was subsequently part of Bibb county. The hotel was kept by Messrs., Charles Bullock and Nicholas Wells, who were also engaged in merchandising and, in 1822, they issued the first change bills in this section of the country. Several of the bills were for many years kept in the hands of our oldest citizens as relics of primitive banking. In 1821 the lands between the Flint and Ocmulgee, and on the reserve in which Fort Hawkins stood, the remainder of the “Ocmulgee Old Fields,” were acquired by a treaty, which was made at the Indian Spring on January 8,1821, and ratified on the second day of March, the same year. The commissioners, on the part of the Untied States, were David M. Forney, of North Carolina, and David Meriwether, of Georgia; and on the part of the Creeks, twenty-six of their chiefs signed the treaty. In 1823, the Fort Hawkins property, embracing the original one hundred acres, was sold with the last of the reserved lands. Mr. Thomas Woolfolk was the purchaser, and by an Act of Legislature, the whole reserve was surveyed, laid off in lots, and Newtown incorporated into the town of Macon in 1829.

Fort Hawkins, the starting point in Macon’s history - 1806.


Chapter IV MACON AS A TOWN, 1821-1832 The treaty with the Creeks negotiated at Indian Spring, January 8, 1821, threw open to settlement the Fort Hawkins reserve, the remainder of Old Ocmulgee Fields, and the lands between the Ocmulgee and Flint rivers. The growing population of the growing twenty-four states of the young republic felt the onward urge of the pioneer. The advantageous position of Fort Hawkins, as the reserve continued to be called, although at this time the name was changed to Newtown, was fully recognized. It was the center of a rich agricultural territory, and the Ocmulgee gave easy transportation to the coast, with all the interchange of commerce thus implied. The first settlers, many of whom had come from North Carolina, partly because of the esteem in which Benjamin Hawkins, a native of the Old North State was held, soon took up the best leases on the river front. Other immigrants, crowding upon their heels, complained. The Legislature of Georgia was not deaf to these petitions and by an act of May 12, 1821, set apart a reserve on the western side of the Ocmulgee of the same extent as that on the eastern side of the river, which new reserve was to be disposed of by subsequent legislature. On December 23, 1822, an act was passed by the General Assembly and approved the same day by Governor Clarke, providing for the election, by the Legislature, of five commissioners, “to lay off a town on the reserve of the Ocmulgee river, on the west side of said river, at some convenient and suitable place near the bank thereof, to be called and known by the name of Macon.” The brilliant life and achievements of the distinguished North Carolinian, for whom the new town was named will be set forth more in detail elsewhere. Suffice it to say that he was held in the highest esteem by the greatest statesmen of his time; that he spent a long life in the service of his country; was called by Jefferson, “ the last of the Romans,” and that John Randolph, of Roanoke, who lived with him in democratic simplicity in Washington said:”He was the wisest man I ever knew.” There is a family tradition that Nathaniel Macon once came to Macon to visit his nephew, William G. Macon, who was among the early settlers. In addition to fixing the name of the proposed town, the act of the General Assembly provided that the Commissioners, within three months, should set up expose for sale not exceeding twenty half-acre lots, “first giving thirty days’ notice thereof in one of the public gazettes in the cities of Savannah, and Augusta, and in the town of Milledgeville,”and should receive four dollars

a day while in the service. Each commissioner was required to give bond in the sum of $20,000, and the terms of the sale were one-fourth cash, with payment of the remainder in three annual installments. On the evening of December 23, 1822, the House and Senate met in general assembly and elected Abner Wimberly, James Smith, Oliver H. Prince, William Hamilton, and Pleasant Philips as commissioners. The survey was duly made in 1823, by James Webb, the authorized surveyor, in the form of a rectangle, the plan of ancient Babylon, according to an early tradition, having been taken as a model. Provision was made for wide streets, running approximately north and south, east and west. The streets running north and south were named numerically from one to eleven, while those running east and west, beginning with the river side, were named Wharf, Walnut, Mulberry, Cherry, Poplar, Plum and Pine. The streets were, made in each case to alternate in width, first one of one hundred and eighty feet, then one hundred and twenty feet. Between each two streets were laid off, for building purposes, squares with intersecting alleys, dividing the squares into four equal blocks, which in turn were divided into two lots of onehalf acre each. The alleys running north and south were ten feet in width and those running east and west were twenty feet wide. Each square was four hundred and thirty-seven feet by four hundred and twenty-seven feet, each of the four blocks covered one acre and measured two hundred and eight feet and six inches on the sides. The Commons on the west and on the north of the town were each one thousand three hundred and sixty feet in width. In the survey of Macon, the square bounded by First and Second and by Wharf and Walnut streets was reserved for an academy, and there, in fact, the town’s first academy building was subsequently erected in the center of the square, in a grove of trees. The only trace of the former use of the square is preserved in the name of Academy Street, which exists today. The square bounded by Second and Third and by Walnut and Mulberry streets was reserved for a court house, and there a temporary structure facing Mulberry street was build in 1825. At the intersection of Fifth and Mulberry streets provision was made for a public square by leaving vacant the contiguous block of each of the four squares surrounding this intersection. A square of four acres plus the width of two streets at the intersection was thus framed with four L-shaped blocks. In this square the first brick court house was later erected and for many years served as the principal place of assembly for the town. 19

The block of four acres, bounded by Sixth and Seventh and by Cherry and Popular streets was set apart as church property, with burying grounds attached, and while the General Assembly in 1826 set apart other lots for church sites, the four acres were used as Macon’s cemetery until 1840, when Simri Rose secured for this purpose, and laid out, Rose Hill Cemetery, on the banks of the Ocmulgee. It was in his honor that the cemetery was given its present name; there he was buried, and for many years the cemetery itself was his only monument. In point of strict historical sequence, the county of Bibb is older than the town of Macon. By an act of the General Assembly of December 9, 1822, four new counties were laid out, from the counties of Houston, Twiggs, Monroe, Jones, Henry, Fayette and Gwinnett. One of these new counties was Bibb, and on December 23, of the same year. an act was passed to organize the new counties, to define the places of holding court, to authorize the commissioners to lay off the town of Macon, and to set apart four acres in Macon for public buildings. It is recalled that until a court house was erected, the house of John Keener, a double-room log cabin on Beall’s Hill, adjoining the present site of Mt. De Sales, afterwards occupied as the residence of Simri Rose, was appointed as the place for holding the Superior and Inferior Courts. The first session of the Inferior Court was held February 15, 1823. There were present their Honors John Davis, Tarply Holt, C. W. Raines, D. Lawson and L. K. Carle. James Flewellen was elected clerk of the court. The first acts of the court were to lay out the county in six militia districts, to establish boundary lines, and to appoint commissioners to superintend the few old roads and contract for the construction of new ones. On March 20, 1823, was held the first session of the Bibb County Superior Court, Judge Eli S. Shorter presiding. The sheriff returned his venire and the following persons constituted the first Grand Jury: Alexander Meriwetner, Josachel Bates, Charles McGardle, James Fitzgerald, Henry Williams, John H. Beard, Charles Ingram, Thomas House, Hardy Harrold, Lewis Foy, Roland Bivins, Redding Rutland, Jonathan A. Hudson, Thomas Bates, William Cummings, Nathan Braddy, Jonathan Wilder, Henry Audolph, James Henderson, John Douglass, Claiborne Bateman, Burrell Bullock, and George B. Wardlaw. The following were empanelled as Petit Jurors: Jesse Palmer, Richard Bullock, John Bullock, James B. Hamilton, John Gafford, Britton Brazill, Peter Stewart, Henry Turnage, Wade Harris, Zach Williams, Jr., Edmund Jones and Thomas Williams. Charles J. McDonald was solicitor general, Nicholas W. Wells was clerk, and E. C. Beard, sheriff. The first presentments were against two persons for gaming, and the first indictment was for stabbing. There were those in the General Assembly who were in favor of naming the new county Mercer, in honor of the celebrated Baptist divine, Jesse Mercer, whose name was subsequently conferred upon Mercer University (upon its removal here from Penfield in Greene county), but the choice finally rested upon Dr. William Wyatt Bibb, a native of Virginia, who settled first at

Petersburg, Elbert county, one of the “dead towns of Georgia” and later in Wilkes county. The details of his life and tragic death, while serving as the first governor of Alabama, will be given at greater length elsewhere. His service in the national House of Representatives, where he came within a few votes of being elected speaker, and later in the senate of the United States, covered a period of ten years. When Macon was first surveyed, there was not a frame building within its limits. It is probable that the first structure erected in what was later to be the town, was the single cabin at the ferry, above First street, where the Federal road crossed the river, occupied by E. C. Beard, who had been the ferryman since 1821, and who, as we have seen, became the first sheriff of the county. In 1822 Thomas Tatum built a log cabin containing several rooms, which were weatherboarded, and which was used that year and during the early part of 1823 as an inn. In 1822 and in the early part of 1823 a number of immigrants moved over to the reserve on the west side of the Ocmulgee and erected what were known as “board camps.” When the Macon lots were sold, these “squatters” were thrust back upon the Southwestern commons, where they established an independent settlement, called Tigertown, after their uncouth and belligerent leader Tiger Jenkins. There was a great deal of rivalry between the inhabitants of Newtown, which popular usage continued to call Fort Hawkins, and the inhabitants of the infant town of Macon, which as a whole was dubbed Tigertown, in derision, by those of the eastern reserve. The first sale of lots, which had been freely posted and advertised, took place on March 7, 1823, with Thomas Flewellen as the auctioneer. The bidding was spirited and the lots nearest the river brought the highest prices. The first tree felled for the construction of a frame house on what had now been laid out as the town of Macon, was cut by Joseph Willet, one of the six men who were first to come as settlers on the new reserve. It was located on the corner of Wharf (now Ocmulgee) and Fifth streets, commonly known as Bridge Row as soon as the Ocmulgee was spanned by its first bridge. The house was built by Henry G. Ross and Dr. S. M. Ingersoll. The lower floor was used as a store and the second story as a dwelling. As it was neatly built, and painted white, it was for many years regarded as “the most ornamental building in several counties.” Fifth street was the first to be built upon, and for many years its western portion was looked upon as the Mayfair in which aspiring citizens hoped to live. Sixth street nearest the river was rapidly developed, and for two years the section between Sixth and Fourth streets and between Wharf and Cherry streets, was the center of building activities. The War of the Revolution was still a vivid event to many of those who settled Macon, and on July 4, 1823, the anniversary of the Declaration of Independence was celebrated before the town had even begun its corporate existence. No assembly room being available one of the old buildings at Fort Hawkins was used for the occasion. The Declaration was read by John P. Booth, and the orator of the day was Solicitor General Charles J. McDonald. The company then adjourned to the double-room 20

log house near the fort, known as the hotel of Bullock & Wells, where, on the part of the youthful generation, a striking address was delivered by Richard T. Marks, a boy of thirteen, who was an apprentice in the office of The Georgia Messenger, which had been established at Fort Hawkins, by Major Matthew Robertson, on the sixteenth of the preceding March. The assembly was then ferried back to Macon, and a feast was spread in a grove in the public square at Fifth and Mulberry streets, where the first brick court house was afterwards built. The dinner, prepared by Major John Loving, was the familiar barbecue, with roasting ears, cucumbers, onions, bacon and greens in primitive abundance. Dr. Thompson Bird presided, assisted by Robert Coleman as vice president. The company drank thirteen toasts, in successive response to the salutes from a four-pounder, an old gun which had been left behind when Fort Hawkins was broken up as a garrison. To gain possession of this ancient piece of ordnance was the occasion of a picturesque but bloodless battle between the rival factions of Newtown and Macon, on the previous night, in which the former called upon Tiger Jenkins to join against the common enemy, only to find that he and his forces had gone over to the side of the Macon faction, lured by the prospect of the flesh-pots. The first election for members of the General Assembly from Bibb county took place in October, 1823, resulting in the choice of Charles Bullock for the senate, and Dr. Stephen M. Ingersoll as a member of the House of Representatives. The first effort to secure a bank for Macon was made on November 8, 1823, before Macon was even incorporated. On that date Senator Bullock introduced the following resolution: “Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Georgia, in General Assembly met, that it is recommended to the Board of Directors of the Bank of Darien to remove the branch of said bank from Marion (Twiggs County) to Macon, if they should deem it inexpedient to establish an additional branch at the town of Macon.” The resolution was read and ordered to the table. Mr. Bullock called up the resolution on November 10, but Mr. Blackshear offered a substitute motion to the effect that the Committee on Banks inquire into the expediency of establishing a branch at the town of Macon. The motion prevailed. On November 19, the Committee reported favorably, but Mr. Jones, of Baldwin, offered an amendment to the original motion by adding the words “after two years.” The amendment and the report were tabled. The branch bank of Darien was not opened in Macon until October 30, 1825. December 8, 1823, may be regarded in a sense, as the true birthday of Macon. On that day both branches of the General Assembly passed an Act introduced by Dr. Ingersoll, incorporating the town of Macon, and naming the Commissioners, Oliver H. Prince, David S. Booth, Samuel Wood, Charles J. Jenkins, and Seth Ward, who were to continue in office until their successors were appointed, according to the provisions of the Act. It was further enacted that “on the first Monday of January in every year thereafter, all persons, inhabitants of said town, entitled to vote for members of the General Assembly, shall assemble at the court house of said town, and by ballot elect five commissioners, who shall

continue in office one year, and until their successors are elected.” The Act gave the Commissioners “full power and authority to make any by-laws, ordinances, or regulations, and power to enforce the same, that they may deem best calculated to promote the general good of all citizens of that town,” so far as consistent with the State and Federal Constitutions. Their jurisdiction also extended to “the twenty-acre lots under lease from the general government on the east side of the river Ocmulgee.” The Act was signed by David Adams, Speaker of the House, Thomas Stocks, president of the Senate, and by George M. Troup, Governor. On January 1, 1824, the Commissioners took the oath of office, and Macon entered upon its career as a corporate town. Beginning March 9, 1824, forty half-acre lots were sold pursuant to an official advertisement which appeared in The Georgia Journal of December 30, 1823. From the “elegant and important situation” of the town, the Commissioners deemed “any recommendation on their part unnecessary.” The importance of the press and of public education was early recognized. In the year 1824 was established the first school in Macon, under the direction of the Rev. Oliver Danforth. Practically coincident with the first issue at Fort Hawkins of The Georgia Messenger a few days after the first sale of lots in Macon, there arrived a young man of twenty-four who had served his apprenticeship as a printer on The New Haven, Conn., Columbian Register. His name was Simri Rose, and he was destined to play, for forty-five years, a notable part in the upbuilding and beautifying of Macon. Three weeks after the first issue he purchased from the founder, Major Matthew Robertson, a half interest in the paper, and in 1824 the publication office was moved from the present site of the Bibb Manufacturing Company to the site adjoining the residence of Major Robertson, on the north side of Fifth street, between Cherry and Poplar. This old residence, later known as the Candler House, was still standing a few years ago. The first society of any kind organized in the town was the Lodge of Masons, which began work under dispensation July 28, 1824. Dr. Ambrose Baber, of whose civic interest and varied abilities we shall find much in this history, was chosen Worshipful Master; Eleazer McCall, Senior Warden; and Edward B. Tracy, Junior Warden. It was not until December 6, 1824, that it was chartered as Macon Lodge No. 34. After several changes it is now Macon Lodge No. 5. During the same year was built the Macon Hotel, later celebrated as the hostelry in which LaFayette was entertained on his memorable visit to Macon, March 29, 1825, and used during the Civil War under the name of the Wayside Inn, as a hospital for the sick and wounded soldiers, who were cared for, on their passage through the city, by the women of Macon. It faced the court house square, on that portion of the L-shaped block looking towards Fifth street and the east, with its north end abutting on Mulberry street. It was practically on the site of the present Bibb County jail, though facing, as indicated, in a different direction. It was rented first to Booth and Wilson and in the summer of 1824 to George Stovall, who had been engaged in the same business at Monticello, Georgia. 21

In the rear of this hotel, facing Mulberry street, was erected a two-story building, twenty by forty feet, the lower floor of which was used as a store, while the second story was the meeting place of the newly organized Masonic Lodge. This lower floor was also used for a time as the meeting place of the town corporation, and it is recorded among the diverting episodes embodied in the minutes of the Macon Lodge for January 19, 1926, that the privilege was granted only on condition that “said corporation enter into bonds to pay for the use of the same the sum of thirty dollars, payable January 1, next.” On the first Monday in October, 1824, the annual election of members of the General Assembly was held. Oliver H. Prince was elected to the House of Representatives and Dr. S. M. Ingersoll was elected to the Senate. It is further recorded that the first death to take place in the town of Macon, was that of John Clarke, a painter, who “was buried in the Cherry street burying ground”. On the first Monday in January 1825, the citizens of Macon assembled, for the first time, to elect their commissioners, though the names of the commissioners are now lost. It was the custom at this time for the commissioners to elect the Intendant, Secretary and other officers of the Corporation, and we know that the choice fell upon James H. Rogers, as Intendant, and Thomas G. Bates, as Secretary. The first ordinance passed by the board was to prohibit the sale of liquors, in quantities less than a quart, without a license, for which nine dollars was charged. In July, 1824, the Marquis de LaFayette, then in the sixtyseventh year of his age, after a period of forty years, had arrived on his second visit to the young republic with which he had cast in his fortunes as a youth of nineteen. Among the many vicissitudes of the intervening period, he had passed through the French Revolution and had suffered confinement for five years in Prussian and Austrian prisons for his love of liberty. In his progress he had been overwhelmed with popular applause when he arrived in the capital at Milledgeville, by way of Savannah and Augusta, in the last week of March. He had been met in Savannah by Governor Troup and his staff, conveying an official invitation from the General Assembly of Georgia to visit the capital of the state, and in the course of his journey he was extended a formal invitation by Macon Lodge of Masons No. 34, drawn up on March 24, 1825, to honor it with a visit on his arrival in Macon. On his journey through Georgia he was accompanied by his son, George Washington Motler de LaFayette, whose forty-six years partly attested how long it had been since the friendship began between the Father of his Country and the father of the boy. He was accompanied also by his secretary, and from Milledgeville to Macon had as escorts two of the Governor’s aides, Col. T. G. Holt and Col. H. G. Lamar. He left Milledgeville early on the morning of March 29, and the story of that eventful day is best complied from a contemporary account printed in The Georgia Messenger: “On March the 29th, at 12 o’clock M. a signal gun announced his approach to Macon, when the ladies and gentlemen proceeded to form in lines on Bridge Street, near the ferry. He dismounted from his carriage and crossed the river,

when he was received by the committee appointed for that purpose, and the commissioners of the town. On ascending the bluff, he was welcomed to the town, in behalf of the citizens, by James S. Frierson, Esq. to whom the general replied in substance: ‘That he was thankful for the manner in which the citizens of Macon were pleased to receive him; that he perfectly accorded in the opinion that a Representative Democracy was the best calculated to secure the liberties of the people, and requested that the people of Macon would receive his thanks for the manner in which they had been pleased to receive him.’” A procession was then formed and he was conducted to his quarters at the Macon Hotel, at the foot of Mulberry street. During the moving of the procession, a national salute was fired. Soon after his arrival he was waited upon by the ladies, who were individually introduced to him; after which every citizen who wished was introduced, to whom he gave a cordial grasp of the hand. Among them were many veterans of the Revolution. He was then waited on at his quarters by the brethren of Macon Lodge No. 34 and was addressed by Worshipful Master Ambrose Baber, who paid him a glowing tribute as the companion of Washington and the benefactor of mankind, who could not be dissuaded from a life of benevolent usefulness by the offerings of princes nor the frowns of royalty, and in whom “the assassins of sanguinary demagogues, nor the loathesome cells of the dungeon could not destroy the feelings of philanthropy.” He continues as follows: “Amidst this jubilee of feeling, permit me to offer you again the grateful rejoicings of my associates and brethren of the society of Free Masons in beholding you among us. Royal tyranny may condemn, ignorance may reproach and blaspheme the holy mysteries of our institution, yet with LaFayette for her support, the science of Masonry will continue to illumine and harmonize mankind for endless ages. Gratitude must have fled from the breast of man, humanity lose its seat ere the virtuous deeds of the generous, amiable, distinguished and exemplary LaFayette shall be forgotten.” To this address Gen. LaFayette replied: “The very grateful reception I have met among my brethren demands of me an expression of my most sincere and affectionate acknowledgements. Permit me to declare to you particularly and the brethren of your Lodge, an unfeigned obligation for the very flattering words you have been pleased to speak to me. “The science of Free Masonry, to which I have for many years been an humble votary, is wonderfully calculated to alleviate distresses and calamities to which mankind are exposed in their variegated and manifold duties in society, and when I recur to those scenes which you have been pleased so delicately to allude, I am constrained to acknowledge how much I have been cheered, sustained, and animated in the various vicissitudes of my life by the holy precepts and examples of our institution. That you and your lodge may be blessed with prosperity and harmony, that the rising and improving town of Macon may continue in its successful advancement, that Masonry may flourish, and the citizens enjoy all the social and intellectual blessings it so eminently inculcates, I pray you, sir, to accept as my most sincere and ardent wish.” 22

A dinner was given in his honor at the Macon Hotel, prepared by George Stovall, the landlord, after which the following toast was given by Edward D. Tracy: “Our illustrious guest: The friend of our country, of liberty, and of man.” In response General LaFayette gave the toast, “The town of Macon, may its prosperity continue to be one of the strongest arguments in favor of republican institutions.” Soon after the dinner, having made a stay in Macon of two hours and a half, he bade an affectionate adieu to the ladies and gentlemen gathered around him and resumed his carriage, at which time another salute was fired. He was accompanied several miles on his way by the Special Committee, the commissioners of the town, and a number of citizens, on horseback, and stopped for the night at the Creek Agency, on the Flint river. He had left Milledgeville early in the morning and the distance traveled that day was sixty miles. Indeed, there were relays of horses every ten miles for his use as the guest of the nation. The population of Macon at this time was about seven hundred and fifty. At about this time a wooden court house, thirty-five by forty-five, was built on the southeast corner of the block now occupied by the Lanier Hotel, and was used as a place of assembly for practically all public meetings. At the September term of the Superior Court, in 1823, the Grand Jury had viewed “with deep concern the want of public funds wherewith to build a court house and jail,” and complained that all money arising from the sale of lots in Macon was to go directly to the State, while in other counties west of the Ocmulgee, “the Inferior Courts have had the privilege of selecting the sites for this public buildings, selling lots for a county town, and receiving the profits arising from the increased value of the land and lots.” The Bibb County members of the General Assembly were, therefore, memorialized by the Grand Jury to urge the legislative body to bestow on the county the rents of reserve lands and public property in the county, or such a number of lots in the town of Macon, as would enable the Inferior Court to raise ample funds for the erection of public buildings in the county. On November 17, 1823, Dr. Ingersoll accordingly gave notice that he would offer a bill to authorize the agent at Fort Hawkins to pay over to the Inferior Court the rent arising from public property, for the purpose of building a court house and jail. The bill was passed, but apparertly it was not until the year 1825 was well advanced that the proceeds of such rent were sufficient to justify the erection of the desired buildings. The visit of LaFayette stimulated the military spirit and on April 23, 1825, the Macon Volunteers, who were to take a prominent part in all the wars in which this country became engaged, including the great war of 1914-18, were organized in a store owned by W. J. Dannelly. Sixty members were enrolled. Edward W. Wright was elected captain, W. J. Dannelly, first lieutenant; Robert Birdsong, second lieutenant; and John Chain, third lieutenant. The new organization took an active part in the celebration of July 4, of this year, for which elaborate preparations were made. The day was ushered in with a salute of twenty-four

guns, and at eleven o’clock a procession was formed and marched to the court house, where prayer was offered by the Rev. Lot Jones, the Declaration of Independence was read by Edward D. Tracy, who, after a brief address, was followed by the orator of the day, Benjamin C. Franklin. The military paraded and dined at the Mansion House, then nearing completion on the corner of the L-shaped block at Mulberry and Fifth streets, southeast of the site where the Macon Hotel now stands. Christopher B. Strong presided and a number of patriotic toasts were given, while the ancient piece of ordnance from Fort Hawkins was fired in response. It is chronicled as a notable coincidence that as Mr. Tracy, then a young man, read the Declaration of Independence, and made an address on this first birthday of the nation in which the Macon military participated, so it was his eldest son who made the last address on a similar occasion in March in 1860, and finally gave his life at Sharpesburg. In September, the Mansion House, on Mulberry street, across from the Macon Hotel, was completed, and opened to guests by William Bivins, who was soon succeeded by Bullock & Wells. The attention of the people of Georgia had begun to turn, somewhat haltingly, towards the construction of railroads, and on October 1, the survey of a line between Macon and Milledgeville was completed, the distance by the route taken being forty-nine miles. Nothing came of the movement at the time, but this stands as the first railroad survey made in Georgia. On the first Monday in October took place the regular election of members of the General Assembly, and the first election by the people of Georgia for governor. George M. Troup was the governor and was a candidate for re-election, while his old antagonist, Gen. John Clarke, was once more a candidate for the same office. The bitter rivalry between these two leaders, which has become a commonplace in the early history of the state, was never more acute. The spirit of factionalism divided families for years as a result of this contest and even invaded the pulpit. The Troup candidates from Bibb county were Benjamin J. Lamar for the senate and Samuel Gillespie for the House. The Clarke candidates were Timothy Matthews for the Senate and Harrison Smith for the House. In Bibb County the Clarke candidates were elected by a vote of three hundred and eighty-four to two hundred and four, but the vote of the State gave Troup the election by 750 majority. On October 30, the Macon branch of the Bank of Darien was at last opened. It stood on the corner of Cherry and Fifth streets, on the site covered by the south wing of the present Terminal Station, and was the first brick building erected in Macon. Mr. Samuel Wood was the first cashier. In the course of this year, 1825, two academies, Lake and Washington, were built, rectors employed, and pupils enrolled. Lake Academy was located on the Forsyth road on the site now occupied by Bass Chapel. Washington Academy was “in the northern part of the county in the Lamar settlement.” In this year also, Roger and Eleazer McCall, David Flanders, and Joseph Willet were actively engaged in building boats for the river trade to Darien, with a capacity ranging from three hundred to seven hundred round bales of cotton. A dozen trips 23

had also been made by small crafts known as “mountain boats,” which came down from Henry county, bringing from fifty to one hundred bales of cotton and returning with groceries and farmers’ supplies. A market house was built this year in the center of the intersection of Fourth street (now Broadway) and Mulberry street. The receipts of cotton during 1825, drawn from sixteen counties, amounted to seventeen thousand bales, and in January, 1826, a census of the town showed a population of eight hundred, with thirty-two stores. There appeared to be some confusion as to the names of the commissioners elected January 2, 1826, to serve for the ensuing year. Early records give them as E. W. Wright, William J. Dannelly, Robert Birdsong, Josiah Freeman and John Loving. The usual procedure was for the commissioners to select one of their own number as Intendant, and although the name of Edward Tracy is not mentioned as one of the commissioners, these records inform us that he was chosen Intendant for that year, with Josiah Freeman as secretary and treasurer. The first act of the new board of commissioners was to rent the stalls in the newly erected market, but of more lasting importance was the decision to begin the planting of shade trees along the sides and in some cases down the centers of the streets. Many of them are standing today. It is conceded that the work was undertaken at the suggestion of Simri Rose, who planted many trees on his own responsibility and was deeply interested in horticulture in all its forms. The Commissioners of Bibb County Academy had constructed a frame house for an academy on the square assigned for that purpose, between Walnut and Wharf (now Ocmulgee) and between First and Second streets, and assuming control as trustees, in 1826, appointed the Rev. Lot Jones as rectory of the academy. It was he who instituted the first Sunday school in Macon. Religious services were held in the court house, the academy, and occasionally in the Masonic hall. The year 1826 was a year of great religious awakening in Macon. The authorities are by no means clear as to the organization of the first religious denomination in Macon, but it seems fairly certain that Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist congregations were formed in this year, and that Christ Church was organized March 5, 1826. The meeting to establish Christ Church was held at the Masonic Lodge rooms. The Rev. Lot Jones was named as rector. Christopher B. Strong and Dr. Ambrose Baber were appointed wardens, and the vestrymen were Capt. Luke J. Morgan, Charles J. Bullock, Charles J. McDonald, Edward D. Tracy, Eleazer McCall, Robert Birdsong, and Thomas Campbell, with Simri Rose treasurer, and Nathaniel Baker secretary. In connection with the organization of this church it may be stated that in the following April the first convention of the Episcopal diocese of Georgia assembled in Macon, with Bishop Bowen, of South Carolina, in attendance. On June 18, 1826, in the county court house, on the southeast corner of Third and Mulberry streets, the first Presbyterian church was organized by the Rev. Benjamin Gildersleeve, and the Rev. Joseph Stiles, with a membership of twenty-five. Matthew Robertson and Samuel B. Hunter were

made ruling elders. In the course of the same year Mulberry Methodist Church came into existence as an organization. The initial meeting was held in a warehouse on Mulberry street, and the church began with twenty-six members. While this was not the first religious congregation organized in Macon, it was the first, as we shall see, to have a house of worship of its own, and the only church of any historical interest to remain continuously on the same site. In this same year, 1826, the First Baptist church was organized with the Rev. J. D. Gray as the first pastor. The congregation of nine members consisted of Richard W. Ellis and wife, Austin Ellis, James Hollingsworth and wife, William F. Brown and wife, Benjamin Russell and wife. On November 1, 1826, appeared the first issue of The Macon Telegraph with Dr. Myrom Bartlett as editor and proprietor. Dr. Bartlett, in 1831, tried the experiment of giving Macon a daily newspaper, the first in the town, but he was ahead of his time, and in 1833 the paper once more became a weekly. It continued as such until February 1, 1860, when Joseph Clisby, who had purchased the paper four years previously, once more brought it out as a daily. In this same month of November, 1826, the first bridge across the Ocmulgee river was completed. It had been built at the expense of the state by Daniel Pratt and Alexander McGregor, and while the superstructure was twice swept away by freshets, the granite pillars still remain. It was rented for the year 1827 for four thousand six hundred dollars. In the Autumn of this year, Gen. John Floyd was elected to Congress by a majority of twenty-six votes over Augus M. D. King and in an election for the General Assembly of the State, Timothy Matthews was sent to the Senate and John S. Childers to the House. On November 19, 1826, the Macon Bank began operations, in the basement of a building on the corner of Fourth and Wharf (Ocmulgee) streets, with G. B. Lamar president and James Rea, cashier. Below the line marking Eleventh street in the original survey, the land was low and subject to overflow, and being heavily timbered was also swampy. Dr. Ambrose Baber, a noted physician and public-spirited citizen around whom much of the early history of Macon revolves, recommended the preservation of the forest below Seventh street as essential to the health of the people. The General Assembly, in 1826, adopted the recommendation by passing an Act to that effect and “setting apart all the land within the plat below Seventh, together with a space of six hundred yards below, and a space of three hundred yards on the southwestern or outer sides thereof, to be vested in the corporate authority of the town: provided, that if any part of the land should be sold or leased it should then revert to the state.” The forest was then and still remains a beautiful growth of trees upon a portion of which stands Central City Park, where Macon’s Centennial pageant was presented in 1923. This same session of the General Assembly, in December 1826, authorized the sale of additional lots, and extended the limits of the town common half a mile on the northwest and southwest boundaries of the original survey. As the former sale, those lots lying immediately upon the river had been 24

reserved, but they were now directed to be sold. The sale took place in February, 1827. On the first day, ten half-acre lots on the river brought nine thousand eight hundred and eighty dollars. The lot nearest the bridge brought three thousand five hundred and fifty dollars. Nine others sold for seven thousand one hundred and fifty-five dollars, and seven quarter-acre lots in the court house square between Walnut and Mulberry, and Second and Third streets, were sold for four thousand five hundred and ninety dollars. The board of town commissioners elected to serve for the year 1827 consisted of John T. Lamar, William J. Dannelly, Robert Birdsong, Washington Poe and N. W. Wells. Washington Poe was elected Intendant. In February a new hotel, known as Washington Hall, located at the northwest corner of Second and Mulberry streets. was opened by Moreland and Townsend. This site, which is now occupied by what is known as Washington Block, was particularly well located to accommodate the travelers of that city. It was at the intersection of the Forsyth road, which was a continuation of Mulberry street beyond Second, in the direction of Lake Academy, three miles distant, and the Federal road, which followed the present route of Cotton Avenue towards the Tattnall Square of today, and thence toward the Old Agency on the Flint River, then to Fort Mitchell and the falls of the Chattahoochee, where the city of Columbus was laid off in 1828. The Fourth of July of this year was celebrated with more than the usual enthusiasm. The Declaration of Independence was read by Benjamin C. Franklin and the orator of the day was John G. Polhill. It is recorded as an incident of the day that a miniature brig-of-war constructed by William R., Israel F., and Eliphalet E. Brown, sons of William F. Brown, was placed on exhibition, and that its guns fired broadsides with striking effect. Eliphalet E. Brown, who built the original Brown House and gave to Macon its first theater, was present when the town of Macon was laid off, was present at the reception to LaFayette, and lived to a time well within the memory of many Macon citizens of today. Two small schools were opened during this year. Two camp meetings of four days each were held by the Methodists at which funds were raised for building a church, and in October a four days union meeting was held, the initiative having been taken by the Rev. Joseph Stiles. The Presbyterians also took active steps towards building a church. In October, Dr. Ambrose Baber was elected to the State Senate and Henry G. Lamar to the House. They were worthy members of an administration headed by John Forsyth, who, in November succeeded George M. Troup, as Governor. Following the treaty of Indian Spring, signed in 1825, by which the Indians ceded their lands between the Flint and Chattahoochee river, large numbers of immigrants were constantly crossing the Ocmulgee bridge with their wagons, stock and household goods, to settle in the newly acquired territory. The winter of 1827-1828 was long remembered for its mildness, with flowers and vegetables abundant at Christmas. The year 1828 began with the election of John T. Lamar, Robert Birdsong, John Corbitt, Marmaduke J. Slade, and John

S. Childers as commissioners, who in turn elected Mr. Birdsong as Intendant. On March 27, 1828, Capt. Basil Hall, accompanied by his wife, arrived in Macon, by way of Darien and Dublin. Capt. Hall, who, at the time of his visit had served twenty-six years in the British navy, was the son of Sir James Hall, the celebrated geologist and physicist. In the course of his extensive travels he had visited Napoleon at St. Helena, where the Little Corporal said to him: “Your father was the first Englishman I ever saw.” In his interesting book “Travels in North America in 1827 and 1828,” published in 1829, he devoted considerable space to a description of Macon. He mentioned “the rows of Pride of India trees planted along both sides of the street, in a sort of mockery, as it seemed, of the grim old forest which was frowning all around on these pygmy works of man.” Continuing he wrote as follows: “Macon appears to be in the South exactly such a town as Utica or Syracuse in the North or any other of those recently erected towns in the western part of the state of New York. It had not the vehement bustle of Rochester, it is true, but it resembled that singular village not a little in its juvenile character and might have been taken for one of its suburbs. “The woods were still growing in some of the streets, and the stumps were not yet grubbed up in others. The houses looked as it they had been put up the day before, so that you smelt the saw mill everywhere. The signs and sign posts were newly painted; the goods exposed before the doors were piled up as if not lifted out of the wagons; the bars of the numberless grocery stores, grog shops, were glittering with new bottles and glasses, barrels of “Holland,” whiskey and rum. “The inhabitants were unacquainted with one another’s residence; and I had to go to eight or ten houses in quest of one gentleman for whom I had a letter. As yet the streets had no name but they were laid out in perfect regularity, as I could discover my stakes here and there at the corners. “This town of Macon, though founded in 1823, had not yet worked its way to the maps and road books. At its first establishment it was thought the navigation of the river Ocmulgee on which it stands, might be so improved that a communiction could be opened to the sea coasts of Georgia, and consequently that a great portion of the upper part of the state could find its way to Macon as a depot. But these expectations not being realized, the rage for settling there had given place to newer fashions; other situations had been preferred, and this city which, in the opinion of its founders, was to have been one of the greatest in all the south, it was now feared would soon vanish entirely.” Captain Hall was not like Saul, “also among the prophets.” On April 11, the first hanging in Macon took place, when William Fields paid the extreme penalty for the murder of James O. Abbott. The sentence was executed within ten days from the time the crime was committed. By July 1828, the Mulberry Street Methodist church building was far enough toward completion to be used for religious services. Hon. Tarply Holt, while a member of the General Assembly, had secured from that body a grant of two acres of land, near a branch surrounded by a beautiful grove, 25

on the site still in use, but at that time just beyond the boundary of the town. Thomas Gardener was the local preacher. The women of the congregation gave him valuable assistance in collecting subscriptions of money, timber, and nails. Mr. Gardener, Alexander Richards, and Elliott Crews, all of whom were mechanics, contributed their labor, and in the Autumn the building, with a gallery on three sides for the colored people, was completed. The Presbyterians were building their first church on Fourth, between Poplar and Plum streets. In October, 1828, took place the last sale of town lots, together with all the reserve lands, in accordance with an act of the General Assembly of the previous year. A survey had been made of the reserves in Newtown, as the Fort Hawkins section was still called and lots were laid off and sold. The highest prices for one-acre lots were from seven hundred to one thousand dollars. The Fort Hawkins property, proper, consisting of one hundred acres of poor land, was sold to Thomas Woolfolk for two thousand one hundred and fifty dollars. The highest price paid for a half-acre lot in Macon was three hundred and five dollars, and no business lot remained unsold. One of the important acts of the town commissioners for 1828 was to secure the right to purchase the bridge over the Ocmulgee. It had cost the state nine thousand and two hundred dollars, and was sold to the town early in 1829 for twenty-five thousand dollars, to be paid in ten annual installment. Corn and cotton were exempt from toll. In October, 1828, W. B. Rodgers was elected to the State Senate, and H. G. Lamar was returned to the House, to serve in the administration of George R. Gilmer, who in November, succeeded John Forsyth as governor, following the election of Forsyth to the United States Senate. In January, 1829, the election for town commissioners resulted in the choice of Joseph Washburn, William J. Dannelly, Isaac B. Rowland and David Ralston, who selected Mr. Washburn as Intendant. The most notable event of the year coincided with the date of this election. It was the arrival of the steamboat North Carolina, which had made its way to Macon, under the command of Capt. Salter, from the Cape Fear river There were, at this time, between thirty and forty flat-bottomed boats, propelled by means of poles, and capable of carrying from four hundred to seven hundred round bales of cotton, plying in the trade with Darien. With such primitive means of transportation, freight from Savannah was from three to four weeks on the pole boats. Since the steamers could make the trip in three or four days, it is not surprising that the arrival of the North Carolina was hailed as marking a new era for inland traffic. The public expectations were in a measure disappointed, however, for it was not until four years later that steam navigation was regularly established on the Ocmulgee, and not until three years later still that more than one steamboat was thus engaged in the carrying trade. If the arrival of the North Carolina was the only outstanding event of the year, there was abundant evidence that the town which, less than six years before, had existed only on the plat of a surveyor, was pulsing with vitality. Newtown – still popularly

known as Fort Hawkins – was taken over as part of the incorporated town of Macon, and with this accession, the population consisted of nearly two thousand inhabitants, whose financial transactions had called four banks into service. A branch of the State Bank has just been established, in the second brick house erected in the town, on Walnut street, between Second and Third streets, with John T. Rowland president and Jacob Wilcox cashier. A branch of the Marine and Fire Insurance Bank was at about the same time located on the corner of Walnut and Fourth streets, with Harrison Smith president, and Joseph Washburn cashier. As an illustration of the simplicity of those early times, it is recalled that the offices of the three banks on Walnut street were in the residences of their respective presidents. Three public schools were open to the children of Macon, and travelers found entertainment at four hotels and several boarding houses. There were twelve lawyers and eight doctors, including several in both professions whose names have added luster to the early annals of the town. The south end of Fifth street was apparently no longer the Mayfair towards which social ease and elegance aspired, although men like Edward D. Tracy and Charles J. McDonell still lived there. Spacious Walnut street, lined with handsome residences that nestled behind overarching trees, such as still lend it their graceful shade, became the favorite promenade, terminating towards the west in the grove of the Academy, which not only commanded a charming view of the river, then crystal-clear, but to the scholarly minds of many of the great men of the time, steeped in the classics, must have recalled that first “grove of Academe,” where the Greek philosopher walked and talked with his disciples. Whatever preeminence this thoroughfare enjoyed, all the other streets were undergoing improvement. The center of trade and industry was well sustained by the prosperity of the county in which to cite two of the high lights, there were fourteen saw mills, and eight grist mills. Perhaps it is not strictly accurate to say that the arrival of the North Carolina was the most important event of 1829, for in that year the new county court house, begun the year before in the reserve square, at the foot of Mulberry street, was carried to completion, at a cost of twelve thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars. The contractors were Elam Alexander, George Smith, and Joseph Davidson. It was three stories high, ninetythree by forty-seven feet in dimensions, with handsome porticos on two sides, and was surmounted by a fine cupola, commanding a magnificent view of the town and surrounding country. In the basement were offices of various descriptions; in the second story there was a large room for Superior Court and rooms for other county purposes, while in the third story were rooms for clerks. The court room was for many years used as a place of assembly for various kinds of public meetings, and echoed the eloquence of many of the most gifted statesmen of the olden times. For a long period the building was regarded as the handsomest county edifice in the state. When the Autumn elections came on, Luke Ross was sent to the State Senate, and William J. Dannelly to the House. Mr. Dannelly, as we otherwise know, was one of the most popular men of the day. He had already been chosen to 26

succeed Capt. E. W. Wright, who was placed in command when the Macon Volunteers were organized. In January, 1830, together with Isaac B. Rowland, Thomas G. Bates, J. S. Childers and Alexander Meriwether, he was made a member of the board of town commissioners, and was elected by his associates as Intendant for the ensuing year. A little before sundown, on a mild Spring day of the year 1830, the landlord of Washington Hall at the corner of Mulberry and Second street, made his way through the groups of drovers from Tennessee, the planters of Georgia, and the miscellaneous idlers to be found at a town’s most popular tavern and assisted a lady to alight from the stage coach that had just arrived from Milledgeville. The lady to whom Landlord Townsend gave his hand was Mrs. Anne Royal, whose amusing sense of her own importance arose from the circumstance that she had won a certain popularity among the uncritical by literary productions which have long since been forgotten, but has retained a measure of renown by the invective which, in her sketches of travel, she poured upon the devoted head of all those who did not burn sufficient incense at her shrine. It is strange indeed that, with the courtly Gilmer in the executive chair at Milledgeville, some fancied slight should have drawn upon the State capital an outpouring of all the vials of her wrath. It is easier to understand how, with the urbane Dannelly at the head of the town administration, she should have hailed Macon as “the most flourishing, wealthy, and polite town, to the age of it, in the United States.” But if, like another Boswell, she was personally somewhat ridiculous, like him she has given us a portraiture that is photographic in its details, and her sketches of early Macon are the most valuable record of the men and manners of the time. On the road from Milledgeville she was aglow with admiration for the beauty of the scenery and the wilderness of flowers on every hand. The pomegranates at Clinton shared her enthusiasm with the Cherokee roses that formed a living hedge of white and green for miles and miles, and it is interesting to recall that a remnant of this hedge still blooms at the approaches to the bridge over the Oconee at Milledgeville. It will not be tedious if we quote somewhat liberally from her impressions of Macon: “Macon is a large, flourishing town, and has drained all the capital and refinement, not only from Milledgeville, but a great deal from other parts of the state, and is treading fast on the heels of Savannah. It is inhabited by gentlemen emphatically, men of liberality, taste and talents - the opposite to Milledgeville in everything. “I was not many minutes to the tavern before I was waited upon by the Intendant and several other gentlemen, nor was any of the rabble suffered to approach me. My landlord was attentive to this in particular, and my landlady was the kindest of her sex. They were not hawking tracts about nor making hypocritical long faces, but preparing for an elegant ball given by the officers. Macon has had the most astonishing growth of any town in the United States. It contains a court house, four banks, four churches, one hundred and fifty stores, two printing offices, fifty thousand bags of cotton exported imports of merchandise in proportion; four thousand

inhabitants, and is but seven years old. If any town ever increased more rapidly than this, I have never heard of it. The town is level, the streets wide and regular, and most of the buildings are elegantly built. The court house is a large, costly edifice from the top of which you have a most extensive view for many miles. The land is as rich as any in the western country, and produces everything in abundance. The whole town is one scene of activity. My time being short, I doubtless did not see the half of the people, and it rained most of the time. Amongst those who called were the Intendant, Capt. Dannelly, Dr. M. Bartlett, Tolland, Messrs. Wiggins, Rowland, Higgins, Hannah, Collins, Bivins, and several others, all wholesouled men - a little different from those at Milledgeville. I would not give one of these for the whole town of them. I had been apprized of this, however, and was not disappointed and the ladies, too, turned out. The Intendant, Capt W. J. Dannelly, is a stout, portly figure, quite a young man, with a round, fair, full, handsome face, and a fine black eye: he is noble and commanding in his appearance, and resembles Mr. McWillie, of Camden, in his disposition and manners, as nearly as possible. “Dr. Bartlett, I believe was the first to call on me: he is an intelligent Yankee, a bookseller and editor. The doctor is a tall, slender man, with an oval, thin face, and mild black eye, his countenance is steady and dignified, and his manner gentle and winning. The doctor appertains to the family of Bartlett in New Hampshire, if I recollect, but has been sometime in the south. The doctor is a true southron, a true Jackson man, and opposed to Tracts. “Dr. Tolland is also a spare, young-looking man, of very pleasing manners. “John T. Rowland, Esq., is a young, tall handsome figure, with a thin, (they are so overrun with business here, they are all thin) narrow face, with an intelligent countenance, and sprightly, elegant manners. But it is impossible to recollect them all distinctly. It is enough to recollect I was treated with respect and politeness, by the whole of them! Also Messrs. Collins, Bivins, Hannah, Rose, and Slade (The two latter editors, and saucy wags, too) Higgins, and a host of them, all your congenial souls, lofty, generous, and straightforward men - no pride or affection, but artless, and natural, plain in their dress, industrious and friendly to each other. No wonder at the prosperity of Macon. “It is quite a mistake about the people of the south being indolent and lazy, and playing the nabob. No such thing, there are not a more industrious, sober and attentive people in the United States. It is their pride and their pleasure: they have not only the talents, but a taste for business - nor is there any midway in the Southern States - no flippany-bit men here, they are fair steamboats. It is astonishing to look over the newspapers published here and witness the advertisements. The ladies of Macon are like the gentlemen, plain, simple, kind and familiar, divested of all frippery and folly of women in the Middle States, they are truly domestic. The ladies who called to pay their respects were Mrs. Bird, and Newcomb, Misses Smith, Ellis, and Bullock, all amiable, friendly women, and but for the badness of the weather, there would doubtless 27

have been many more. “I was, however, no little amused with the panic of a few of the citizens. Taking a walk to visit my friends, the editors, I stepped into the office of my friend Bartlett, and a great crowd flocked in after me. I was directing a letter to drop into the post office, next door, and unwilling to be gazed at by these Toms and Dicks, I resolved to drive them out of the office at once, and whispering to the doctor asked him if he wanted to see an evidence of what he had often heard the power of my pen. The doctor smiled, but evidently stood in some awe of himself. I took a piece of paper, and began to look at the group and write, when the whole flew out in an instant, excepting one man. He was aware of my meaning, and said ‘I could not frighten him.’ ‘Never fear, sir, you shall soon follow your companions.’ I clapped too with my pen again, while he eyed me awhile with defiance, playing with his watch chain. You have seen these Mr. Watch Chains? He had the bully in his face, and an impudent eye: he was dressed in a blue coat, black velvet vest, and mixed pantaloons. Seeing I was scrutinizing his dress and his manners, he was seized with a vacant stare, rolled his eyes, looked out of door, shook his seal still harder - turned red, and then a deadly pale and off he went. One very decent man, (from conscious innocence) only remained of the crowd. But I never saw a man more surprised than Dr. Bartlett. “The post office wants reform at Macon. The postmaster is deranged, and not fit to attend to his duty, which is left to a small, insolent, ignorant boy. “On my way from Dr. B’s home, I called to see Messrs. Rose and Slade, fine fellows too; and a few of the non-descript followed me at a distance. But I was not disposed to suffer even that liberty; and going into a printing office, also a book store, I found only Mr. Rose in, whom I had not yet seen. He received me with great kindness and said I need to be under no apprehension, the gawks should not intrude upon me, and taking me into the counting room, shut the door. Presently this store, like the other filled, but not seeing their object, departed. After chatting some time with Mr. R., his partner, Mr. Slade, came in and escorted me over town. But I had rather an unpleasant time, upon the whole, for the rain.” Mrs. Royal’s enthusiasm outruns strict veracity in attributing to Macon four thousand population at this time, since we know from the census of November, 1830, that the number of inhabitants in Macon was: White males, eight hundred and twenty-four; white females, six hundred and twenty-eight; male slaves, six hundred and ninety-four; female slaves, four hundred and eighty-nine; making a total population for Macon of two thousand six hundred and thirty-five, and there was a total population for the county of seven thousand one hundred and forty-nine, divided in about the same ratio between whites and slaves. Rainy weather defeated her efforts to visit the Indian Mounds in Old Ocmulgee Fields, but the effort to reach them brought her in contact with Solomon Humphreys, the free negro, whose business success and cordial relations with his white friends made him one of the notable characters of early Macon. She admittedly was uncertain in her recollection of his name, and at the time of her visit he was not a slave, but there

is no difficulty in recognizing him in the following sketch: “As we drove on, the gentlemen, all communication, gave me amongst other things, the history of a black man, who was amongst the first settlers of Macon-the most extraordinary I ever heard. The amount of it was, that from a small beginning, by his probity, industry, and gentle manners, he had become rich and was then the owner of considerable town property – carried on the mercantile business, with great success – was respected and esteemed by every one who knew him – was modest, sober, and obliging, and yet was unable to read! He first began with a small eating shop. ‘Many a lunch,’ said the Captain, ‘have I eaten in Sol’s house.’ “As we passed by his store, the gentleman observed, ‘There he is now, Mrs. Royal, we will call to him to inquire the road, that you may have a nearer view of him.’ Frank, which I think is his first name, very readily came to us, and saluted the gentlemen with much ease. They then introduced him to me, and with modesty he took off his hat, returned it to his head, and took my offered hand. He was a young-looking, stout man, rather fat, but not corpulent: he was dressed in a linen roundabout, and with equal plainness throughout. His clothes, soiled from his application to his business, with which he is said to be thoroughly acquainted, and applies himself with unceasing industry. He weighs himself and keeps clerks like other merchants, and maintains throughout an unblemished reputation. He never has any difficulty, for such is the esteem of his fellow citizens for him, that no one is permitted to insult or defraud him. The citizens of Macon are very proud of him, and well they may, their fostering care has not been thrown away. “He conversed with much facility with the gentlemen, just as an equal would do, and his language was quite pure. “His dwelling, setting back in the rear of his store, the gentlemen pointed out to me as it came in view. It was a small house, neatly painted white, and overspread with flowers. He has a wife, modest and amiable as himself, but no children. I am sorry I do not recollect whether he was a slave or a freeborn. Had I had time I would doubtless have taken tea with him. This is another proof of the falsity of these Missionaries, respecting the cruelty of the Southern people to their slaves: this man is a real pet and yet is not spoiled - but recollect he was nothing to do with Tracts. I am sorry his name is effaced in my notes.” It perhaps is not necessary to explain that the “missionaries” whose “tracts” so much disturbed the fiery author were the abolitionists, whose activities were a part of the stirring history of the times, and the “Church and State Party,” whose real or fancied intrigues were the basis of her liveliest apprehensions. During the year 1830 the general prosperity of the town was reflected in the extension of the streets beyond the original survey. Land on the commons had been bought up and the streets extended. Cotton Avenue, which had been simply a Federal Road, took on the aspect of a regularly built street, with considerable rivalry between merchants on Cherry and Mulberry streets as to who would get the most advantageous sites on the increasingly popular avenue. The closing event of the year was the first agricultural fair, which was held on the court house grounds. The first 28

premium, a silver tankard worth $100, was awarded to Mrs. Penelope Brown, of Twiggs county, for the best lot of cotton consisting of eight bales. In January, 1831, the town commissioners elected were Isaac B. Rowland, J. I. Lamar, R. Turner, T. G. Bates, and A. Darragh. These in turn chose I. B. Rowland Intendant, Simmons secretary, and Cumming, marshal. The first conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Georgia was held in Macon, closing its sessions on January 13, 1831. Under the auspices of this conference a paper called ‘The Georgia Christian Repertory was started on January 21, by the Rev. G. Capers. Beginning June 28, and continuing until July, the first great revival was held in the Methodist church. The Rev. Mr. Campbell, of the Baptist church, and other clergymen assisted, and there were 120 converts. In the present era of rapid transportation, when steam power itself has largely given place to electricity and men scale the skies as familiarly as our Cavalier forefathers

from Savannah to Macon, and thence to Columbus, and a line connecting Milledgeville with that route. 3. A line from Savannah to the head of navigation on the Flint river and thence to Columbus. At that time only 41 miles of railroad had been built in the United States, and five years later the mileage was only 918. Rumors of a servile insurrection threw the people of Bibb and adjoining counties into a state of intense excitement during the days, and more particularly the nights of October 3, 4 and 5, 1831. Contemporary details of the martial array called out to suppress imaginary invaders may provoke a smile, with thoughts of a fanciful Falstaff and the ever-growing numbers of men in buckram, but the tension of the times help us at least to understand some of the bitterness towards the abolitionist agitators. Negro superstition and signs and wonders in the heaven enter as ingredients in the picturesque annals, with the Blue Sun of August 13, 1831, as a culmination. Briefly, a negro leader by the name of Nat Turner, was instigated, according to report, by abolition emissaries, to incite the negroes of his native Virginia, near the North Carolina line, to rise in rebellion and assert their emancipation. He had been carrying on his propaganda some time when a combination of atmospheric phenomena, rare but susceptible of scientific explanation, caused the sun, at high noon on the date mentioned, to become enveloped in a mass of blue vapor, “which rolled around his majesty” – to quote The Macon Advertiser – “in fantastic shapes.” The streets were crowded with anxious citizens to view, through smoked glass and telescopes, the aweinspiring scene.

“Rode with Spotswood ’round the land And Raleigh ’round the seas.” it is difficult to conceive of a time when a newspaper should solemnly point out to Macon the disadvantages of railroad communication with Savannah; and yet this was done in 1831 by The Macon Advertiser. Strange as this instance may seem, it was by no means isolated, for while the idea of building railroads had been discussed in all its bearings, and much was gained when Peter Cooper, in 1829, demonstrated that a locomotive could be constructed so as to round a curve, it was not until January 14, 1830, that the Charleston & Hamburg railroad won the distinction of being “the first in the world formally to adopt the steam locomotive as its means of propulsion, for transportation purposes.” The minds of Macon citizens were groping cautiously toward the light, and on August 30, 1831, a public meeting was held at the court house to appoint delegates to a convention to be held at Eatonton on September 26 following, for the purpose of discussing the transportation question. In a sense it was understood that this was to be a railroad convention, but public opinion was still so undecided whether railroads, turnpikes or canals were to be preferred that, when the meeting at Eatonton was assembled, the secretary was directed, in making up his journal, to avoid committing the convention, by any formal style in the caption, but should say generally that the convention was called to consider “the expediency of promoting internal improvements.” The August meeting in Macon was presided over by Oliver H. Prince, (who later presided over the Eatonton convention itself), and W. P. Hunter was secretary. The subject was freely discussed by Henry G. Lamar, Washington Poe, Charles J. McDonald, Oliver H. Prince, and J. H. Polhill. Mr. Prince and Dr. W. B. Rodgers were appointed delegates. The result of the Eatonton convention was to adopt resolutions urging the “patronage of the state” for internal improvements, and recommending surveys of the following lines: 1. From Savannah to Augusta, thence to Eatonton and thence in a westerly direction to the Chattahoochee. 2. A line

“As when some great painter dips His pencil in the gloom of earthquake and eclipse.” The strange phenomenon continued through the remainder of the day and while generally the sun simply sank in a sea of vapor, in the vicinity of Nat Turner’s labors, it sank upon a scene of blood. The negro agitator told his deluded followers that the Blue Sun was a heavenly signal to strike for their freedom, and ninety white people, mostly women and children were murdered, before the insurrectionists were suppressed and finally hanged. The apprehensions engendered in August among the whites were still alive early in October, when “a lone horseman” rode into Macon from Jones county with the rumor that the negroes were in a state of insurrection. The Macon Volunteers were placed as guards around the town. A temporary cavalry company was organized, with Dr. Ambrose Baber as commander. Scouts reported that they had never seen the negroes so quiet and orderly, but this was interpreted as a sinister evidence of deep and calculated villainy. George Lunsford was dispatched on the night of October 2 to the residence of Gen. Ellas Beall, at Forsyth, that he might proclaim the counties in his military division in a state of insurrection and order the whites under arms, which he did. The miscellaneous assortment of rusty swords and pistols hastily brought from their hiding places furnished a theme for 29

the gentle ridicule of the historians of the time. Reduced to solid fact, it seems that there had been a small affray among the negroes themselves in Jones county, and a slight encounter between Indian slaves and white traders, near Fort Mitchell, on the Chattahoochee. The rest was distempered imagination, and the “army” was disbanded. It was on October 1, 1831, that The Macon Telegraph, founded as a weekly in 1826, became Macon’s first daily newspaper, though it was discontinued as such on December 31, 1833. In the regular October elections Dr. Ambrose Baber was sent

to the State Senate and Tarply Holt to the House. In the same month a new road, Georgia Avenue, was opened above the Methodist church to connect with the Forsyth road. There was no street above that church at the time. The first destructive fire in Macon occurred on the night of December 27, 1831, with a loss of $50,000. Two blocks were consumed on Mulberry street, between Third and Fourth streets, with the exception of the law office of Tracy & Butler. The buildings, though small, were new, for the site upon which they stood had been a fish pond which, two years before, was drained and filled up. Upon this site Macon’s first brick hotel was afterwards erected and named the Central Hotel. Third street at that point had to be filled in to the depth of twenty feet, and even then the hotel stood six feet above the street level. In January, 1832, was elected the last Board of Commissioners of the town. The board consisted of Levi Eckley, Isaac B. Rowland, David Flanders, Isaac G. Seymour, and Jeremiah Smith. Levi Eckley was chosen Intendant. On May 8, the Georgia Guards, of Milledgeville, and the Monroe Musketeers arrived and went into camp a mile below the city. This was the first encampment held in Macon, and the place was named Camp Newcomb. In July the failure of the Macon Bank was announced. Many hundred thousand dollars worth of its bills were in circulation, and the resulting distress was widespread, principally among the country people. It was charged that the bank was sold to new stockholders who were ignorant of its insolvency. So intense was the excitement and so unaccountable the failure that when the General Assembly convened, a joint committee was appointed from both houses to investigate and report. “Unfortunately,” says Mr. Butler, in his Historical Record of Macon, “the principal witness, who was an innocent man, through the exasperation of some of the parties, lost his life.” The committee made a majority and minority report, but both agreed

Plan of the Town of Macon, Georgia from the Macon Telegraph Advertiser of July 29, 1831.


Chapter V MACON AS A CITY, 1832 - 1839 At the end of a corporate existence of nine years as a town, governed by a Board of Commissioners, Macon was chartered as a city, by the General Assembly in December, 1832, with its jurisdiction defined to extend, on the east side of the river, from a line drawn parallel with First street, northward, as far as the existing jurisdictional limits, and thence on a line, eastwardly, until it intersected a line running parallel with Seventh street. By authority of the same Act, an election was held on January 17, 1833, for five aldermen, and the following were elected: Isaac B. Rowland, Isaac G. Seymour, David Flanders, Jeremiah Smith and David F. Wilson. The Board then chose the following officers: Isaac Seymour, mayor; William Cumming, marshal; John H. Offut, clerk of council; H. A. Candler, clerk of markets, and Thomas G. Bates, sexton. On January 30, 1833, the steamboat Pioneer arrived from Darien. This was the second vessel to navigate the waters of the Ocmulgee under steam power, and the first steamboat to be devoted to the trade of Macon on this river. It had been built in Macon from timber cut in the immediate vicinity. It was poled to Darien with a load of cotton and receiving its machinery there, returned with a large cargo of its own, having in tow two heavily laden barges, the Bonnets o’ Blue and Lallah Rookh, consigned to the owners, Day & Butts. On March 21, during a freshet, a large boat was swept from its moorings and carried along by the force of the current, broke through the center arch of the Ocmulgee river bridge and left that structure a wreck. In the same month the Central Hotel, later known as the Floyd House, at the corner of Mulberry and Third streets, was completed. It was a brick building, regarded as one of the handsomest of the time, and was opened by John Carter, of Clinton. In the summer and autumn of 1833, the subject of railroad communication was receiving warm support. Augusta and Charleston were moving in the matter. On October 25, a meeting of Macon citizens presided over by Christopher B. Strong, was held at the court house. Resolutions prepared by Dr. Ambrose Baber, were adopted and a committee was appointed to meet with a like committee from Savannah at Milledgeville, when the Legislature next assembled, to adopt measures for the buildings of a line from Savannah to Macon. In December the citizens of Forsyth also held a meeting and prepared to unite with Macon in building a railway to that place. The old Bibb County Academy, having been destroyed by fire, a

new one of brick, two stories high, with porticos and cupola had been erected, and in December of this year was opened for exercises under the control of Mr. and Mrs. Darby. The number of pupils was so large by this time that male and female departments were organized separately. The building which was destroyed by fire in 1879, is still remembered by many citizens of Macon. In March, 1834, at a sale of half-acre residence lots on the north common forty were sold for the sum of $20,377 and twenty-three, less desirably situated, brought $7,165. The entire proceeds went into the city treasury. April saw the beginning of the first turf sports in Macon. The events over the Central Course, now Central City Park, lasted five days, concluding with a sweepstake purse for the best two in three. At this period the Bibb County Calvalry with Captain Goddard in command, had just been organized, and in May, 1834, a second encampment was held in Macon. The tents were pitched on the future site of Wesleyan College, on the eminence which for many years was known as Encampment Hill. The visiting companies were the Georgia Guards, Capt Cuthbert, and the Washington Guards, Captain Schley. In the contest which closed the encampment of four days, a handsome medal was won by Mr. Juhan, of the Georgia Guards. The new Forsyth road, above Mulberry Methodist church, was now widened and made a continuation of Mulberry Street, to the top of Encampment Hill. The only frame house on the hill at that time was a small one-story building erected by Dr. Robert Collins. Opposite to it was a double log house, owned by the Rev. John Howard, who died there in 1836. This property was sold to Judge Eugenius A. Niabet, who moved to Macon in 1837 and built the residence which still stands upon that site. Nearby stood the cabin of Jacob I. Todd, who had some local notoriety as an eccentric character. Hon. A. O. Bacon, long a senator from Georgia, afterwards built his residence there. In the rear of this lot was an excavation on the side of the hill, from which flowed a fine spring, one of the sources of Macon’s first water supply, while all around abounded grapes and other fruits. The rural aspect of the neighborhood at that time was frequently mentioned. In this year, 1834, the salary of the mayor was fixed at $300 a year, and the other city officers as follows: City marshall, $600; city attorney, $150; clerk of council, $300; bridge keeper, $500. For the first two years of the Macon city government the mayor was elected by the Board of Aldermen, but by an Act of


1834 it was provided that thereafter the mayor, city marshall and clerk of council should be elected by the people. Accordingly, in 1835, Robert Augustus Beall was elected mayor. Alexander McGregor, marshall, and W. D. Pitts, clerk of council. The aldermen elected were: David Ralston and T. L. Smith, first ward; Henry G. Ross and David B. Butler, second ward; Isaac G. Seymour and George Vigal, third ward; and Thomas Brown, East Macon, or fourth ward. The city of Macon had now arrived at a high degree of prosperity, and the events of 1835 were of great and lasting importance. The population had grown to more than 3,000, including both whites and slaves. The cotton receipts for the previous season had been 69,000 bales. Four steamboats were making regular trips on the river, while others came occasionally from Darien and Savannah and between forty and fifty pole boats were doing a lively business. Three new banks were in operation with a capital of about $1,000,000 and the merchandise on hand was estimated at another $1,000,000. Wealthy planters from the neighboring counties were establishing homes for their families in Macon, while many industrious citizens were arriving from the North. It is not surprising that in such an atmosphere, two of the great institutions intimately associated with Macon, Wesleyan College and the Central Railroad, should have received an impetus which made them a certainty during this year of 1835. Colonel Duncan G. Campbell, of Washington, Wilkes county, has been truly called the father of the movement for the education of women in Georgia. Already for many years he had been advocating this cause, when, in November, 1825, he offered a bill in the General Assembly “to establish a public seat of learning in this state for the education of females.” Under its terms a “Board of Trustees of the Female Seminary of Georgia” was to consist of fifteen males and fifteen females. Although the bill, after passing the House by a large majority, was defeated in the Senate, the names of the men and women proposed as trustees in the measure are worthy to be remembered as among the most eminent of their time. They were: Joseph Stiles, William T. Brantley, Rev. Mr. Howe, Freeman Walker, Alonzo Church, Lovick Pierce, Joseph Bryan, B. B. Hopkins, E. H. Burritt, David A. Reese, William Turner, Joseph H. Lumpkin, Peter Gautier, John Schley, Charles J. McDonald, Mary Smelt, Mary Wayne, Calendar Lumpkin, Eliza Longstreet, Ann W. Cook, Narcissa Boykin, Martha Fort, Elizabeth Smith, Louisa Guthbert, Mary G. Campbell, Margaret Telfair, Wilhelmina Terrell, Sarah M. Andrews, Catherine McDonald, and Martha Gibson. Following the death of Col. Campbell in July 1828, the interest he had aroused in the education of women languished until 1834, when, at the annual commencement of the State University, at Athens, Daniel Candler, Esq., delivered an address on the subject, which had a far-reaching effect. In behalf of the trustees of the University, Hon. John M. Berrien offered a resolution of thanks to the speaker, which was unanimously adopted, together with a request for a copy of the address, that the board might circulate 5,000 printed copies. The influence of this powerful appeal was felt in Macon. Her citizens had been considering the expediency of building a seminary for young women, independent of the male academy,

with grades equal to a college course, when the Georgia Methodist Conference assembled in their city, and it was ascertained that the Conference had in contemplation the establishment of a thoroughly organized institution for women. The citizens of Milledgeville had raised a subscription of $3,000 for the same purpose, which they tendered, together with a lot of land as a site, for the proposed seminary, if the Conference would locate the institution at that place. The citizens of Macon bestirred themselves. A mass meeting was held in June, at which it was resolved that Robert Augustus Beall, Jerry Cowles, Robert Collins, and Henry G. Lamar be appointed a committee to secure the influence and cooperation of the Rev. John Howard, the Rev. M. Sinclair, and the Rev. Mr. Tally, resident ministers of Macon and members of the Conference, to represent to that body the intention of Macon citizens to establish a college for women. The Conference adjourned before all the members could be consulted, and Bishop Andrew, Lovick Pierce, Ignatius A. Few, William J. Parks, Charles Hardy, William Arnold and Benjamin Pope were appointed to fill the place of trustees to communicate with the citizens’ committee, until the subject could be brought fully before the Conference when it reassembled in January, 1836. Macon citizens in the meantime took steps to provide a

Top: The Georgia Female College (later to become Wesleyan College) was built by Elam Alexander in 1837-38. (This is on the present location of the Main Post Office.) Right: George Foster Pierce was the first President of the Georgia Female College 1836-1840.

site for the college. When the lots were laid off on the common, two years before, for the purpose of sale, the five acres on Encampment Hill were reserved for a college, or some other public building. The citizens now made application to council for a grant of this reserve for the proposed college. Council agreed to dispose of it for $2,500. At a called meeting of citizens on July 8, 1835, the sum of $9,000 was subscribed in a few hours, and the amount was afterwards increased. When the Methodist Conference met in Macon in January, 1836, the offer of the citizens of Macon was unanimously accepted. The Macon Female College was taken 32

under its care, and Wesleyan became an accomplished fact. Important projects of railroad development now began to take shape. Augusta and Savannah were putting forth their energies for the construction of a line into the interior, and were looking for a central point from which lines might reach out to the Chattahoochee and the Tennessee rivers. Augusta had a powerful ally in the capitalists of Charleston, who were ambitious to draw Georgia trade to their own port. A temporary survey of the route from Savannah to Macon had been made at the expense of the city council of Savannah, and books of subscription were opened at both places. On the first three days in June seven hundred shares were taken by the citizens of Macon in the stock of the Savannah and Macon Railway and up to that time more than a million dollars had been subscribed in Savannah. In October the books of subscription were also opened for the road from Macon to Forsyth. The sum of $200,000, which was practically the entire capital stock, was subscribed in Macon in a few days. On December 10 Monroe Railroad stock sold in Macon at a premium of 10 per cent. On the same day intelligence was reached of the passage by the General Assembly of the bill chartering the Central Railroad Company, with banking privileges. The news was received with enthusiastic demonstrations. The bells of the churches and steamboats were rung, and cannon were fired. When night came on, public buildings and private residences were illuminated, and bon-fires were lighted throughout the town. The market house, at Mulberry and Fourth streets, which had just been completed, vied in splendor with the court house, just below. On the court house square floated a large banner, bearing the inscription, “The Central Railroad - the Salvation of Georgia,” while either end carried the names, “Baber of Bibb,” and “McAllister of Chatham,” the two senators who had so ably struggled for the bill. There was no provision for state aid in the bill, for none was asked. The years were but few, and yet it was a far cry in experience from the days when a public journal had seriously argued that railroads would be the ruin of Macon. During the summer of 1835, there were again reports of a servile insurrection. Young men were called upon to enlist either in the Macon Volunteers or the Bibb County Cavalry. Vigilance committees were organized. After strict investigation it was learned that incendiary publications from the Abolitionists of the North were being disseminated by emissaries in the state, and that much of the matter was circulated through the mails. Efficient remedies were adopted and the evil was suppressed without violence. It was noted as an evidence of the progressive spirit of the times that The New York Journal of Commerce had been received in Macon in five and a half days after its issue, and the steamer news, bringing the Liverpool cotton reports, came through in twenty-six days. Negotiations for the removal of the Indians from Georgia had for years furnished a background of excitement for current events, and in the period we now approach the tension became even more acute. It will be remembered that in 1802 the State of Georgia ceded to the Federal Government all that territory out of which the state of Alabama and Mississippi were subsequently formed, on condition that the national authority extinguish all

the rights and claims of the Indians in Georgia. When the dominant faction of the Creeks, by the Indian Spring treaty of 1825, ceded all their land between the Flint and Chattahoochee, and the Creek nation, carrying a large element of discontent, retired into Alabama, the state of Georgia pressed the United States government to hasten the redemption of its pledge by coming to terms with the Cherokees, who had established “a state within a state” in Northwest Georgia, and complete the removal of the Indians to the West. Among the Cherokees, the treaty party, favorable to removal, headed by Major Ridge and his son, John Ridge, was opposed by John Ross, principal chief of the Cherokee Nation. The factional rivalry among the Cherokees was complicated and intensified by the efforts of the state of Georgia to establish and enforce its lawful authority in the Cherokee Nation. By an Act of 1834, Governor Wilson Lumpkin had formed the Georgia Guard, with W. N. Bishop in command, to maintain order in the Cherokee country, where many white persons had settled. A reign of lawlessness, undoubtedly prevailed as between the whites and Indians, and between individuals of each race separately, but it seems clear that the Georgia Guard was guilty of many excesses, and that Captain Bishop was anything but an ideal commander. Into this net-work of passion and intrigue came John Howard Payne, with consequences which endangered his life and created a profound sensation throughout the country. Returning from a long residence abroad, in the course of which his immortal song, “Home Sweet Home,” had been first sung, May 8, 1833, as an aria in his opera, “Clari, the Maid of Milan,” at Covent Garden, London, Payne announced his intention in 1833, of establishing a periodical which was to be largely devoted to a better understanding abroad of the manners and customs, the virtues and resources of the American people. His journey to gather material and solicit subscriptions for his periodical had carried him through several states when he entered Alabama, following a protracted stay in New Orleans and he spent some time among the Creeks. On July 21, 1835 Payne and Mirabeau B. Lamar, author of “The Daughter of Mendoza,” and future president of the republic of Texas, were guests in Montgomery of Judge Samuel E. Goode. Little dreaming of the experiences that awaited him in Georgia, Payne, in his merriest mood, wrote in the album of Miss Emily Goode: “Lady, your name, if understood, Explains your nature to a letter; And may you never change from Goode, Unless, if possible, to better.” By way of a reply for Miss Goode, Lamar wrote in the album: “I am content with being Goode, To aim at better, might be vain; But if I do, it’s understood, Whate’er the cause, it is not Payne.” Traveling presumably by way of Columbus, and the old Indian Agency on the Flint river, Payne arrived in Macon, and on August 8, 1835, wrote to his sister: “Here I am, all alone, in a strange place – Macon, in Georgia – 33

a good sized, handsomely built town, nearly twelve years old, and with 4,000 inhabitants. I arrived about eleven last night. I have no acquaintances here yet, so, for the sake of company, will brush up my recollections of some of my adventures.” In the course of this letter he gave the best description extant of the Indian Green Corn dance. The adventures to which he alluded were among the Creek Indians, of whom he wrote in this letter; “The United States have in vain attempted to force the Creeks to volunteer a surrender of their soul for a compensation.” In Macon, Payne bought a horse and traveled towards Augusta for the purpose of conferring with Judge Augustus B. Longstreet, author of Georgia Scenes and editor of The States Rights Sentinel, with regard to furnishing stories of his travels. On the way, according to a recent authority, he stopped at Sandersville, Washington county, where Dr. Tennille, a brother of William A. Tennille, then Secretary of state of Georgia, advised him to study the Indian removal problem. First he went by horseback, from Augusta, to see the wonders of North Georgia, the falls of Toccoa, Amicalola, and Tallulah, the towering peak of Yonah, the gold fields of Dahlonega, where nuggets were picked up in the streets, and to the saltpeter cave near Kingston. In September he arrived in Athens with a letter of introduction to Gen. Edward Harden, who, as a resident of Savannah, ten years previously, had entertained LaFayette in his home. Payne was received as a guest in the Harden home, and at once fell in love with the general’s brunette daughter, Mary Eliza Greenhill Harden, a school girl of great beauty, to whom he gave some Indian relics and to whom, still later, he wrote a number of ardent love letters. In company with Governor Lumpkin, Gen. Harden, and Col. Samuel Rockwell, Payne set off in the Harden carriage, and arrived at Red Clay in Whitfield county, on the border of Tennessee, in advance of the Indian Treaty council, set for October 12. In a vindication and appeal addressed “to his countrymen,” subsequent to his arrest and release, Payne explained that on September 28, while waiting for the council to meet, he went to the cabin of Ross, at Blue Spring, Tenn., eight miles across the border, for the purpose of securing certain historical data concerning the Cherokees, and remained some time to make fair copies of these documents. With Ross he attended the Council at Red Clay, which lasted nineteen days, and returned with Ross to Blue Spring to continue his research. On the night of Saturday, November 7, 1835, he was arrested by a detachment of the Georgia Guard, headed by Absalom Bishop, brother of Capt. W. N. Bishop; his private papers, together with those of Ross, were seized, and both were forced to ride through the driving rain, at night, to Spring Place in Murray county, 40 miles away, where Ross and Payne were confined as prisoners in an outhouse belonging to the 800-acre farm of Joseph Vann, a prosperous Cherokee Indian. That the thread of local interest may not be lost, it may be noted in passing that in the previous March, Spencer Riley, who had served for many years as deputy and later as sheriff of Bibb county, was besieged by members of the Georgia Guard, at the instigation of Capt. Bishop, in the second story of the large brick mansion belonging to this estate, to which he had a claim under the lottery drawings, and barely escaped with his life.

Payne was subjected to all manner of humiliation during his captivity. A brutal sergeant of the Guard had struck him in the mouth when he attempted to remonstrate, at the time of his arrest in Tennessee. For thirteen days, in his narrow prison house at Spring Place - near which a memorial tablet has recently been erected - he was subjected to indignities, while no specific charges were preferred against him. Payne was told, during his incarceration, by the sergeant in command of the squad who arrested him, that the action had been taken by the order of Maj. Benjamin F. Currey, Indian agent for the Cherokees east of the Mississippi, who was endeavoring to get the Indians to unite in a treaty of removal. The petty malice vented upon Payne by the Georgia Guard was partly due to the discovery, among his papers, of an article he had tentatively prepared for the press, in which he said the Guard “looked like banditti.” He seems, in fact, to have been suspected as an agent of the Abolitionists, and perhaps a spy, sent to arouse the Ross party to resist removal. At all events, he was released on Friday morning, November 20, and was told by the self-important Bishop to “git out of Georgia.” Payne made his way on horseback with great difficulty, across the border, and from Knoxville issued an address “From John Howard Payne to His Countrymen,” which was published in The Knoxville Register of December 1 and reproduced in The Georgia Constitutionalist, of Augusta, December 24, 1835. The entire affair was reviewed by Payne to the extent of eight columns. Georgia and the country were aroused. The General Assembly of Georgia adopted resolutions denouncing “this act of wanton and uncalled-for vandalism” on the part of the Georgia Guard, calculated to “bring down upon the people of the state the inevitable and odious charge of inhospitality and cruelty to a stranger.” Payne had vowed never to set foot on Georgia soil until the state government had apologized. He went by a circuitous route to Hamburg, S. C. to get his trunk, which had been left at Augusta, across the Savannah river, and returned North by way of Charleston. Whether the apology was sufficient we do not know but the tradition that he returned to Athens in 1842 to see his brunette sweetheart and renew a fruitless suit is unconfirmed. As the year 1835 drew to a close, the Indian situation became more alarming in Florida. The hostile Seminoles were gathering in large numbers, headed by their chief, Osceola, the half-breed son of an Englishman by the name of Powell, who had settled among the Indians between the Flint and Chattahoochee rivers, where the son was born. Major Wiley Thompson, who had been a distinguished member of Congress, from Georgia, was deputized by the United States government as an agent to treat with the Indians in Florida. After an interview with Osceola and other chiefs, his terms were rejected. On the following day, while Major Thompson and his companions were at dinner, Osceola and more than a hundred warriors surrounded the house and opened a fusillade with murderous effect. On the morning of December 28, 1835, Major Dade, who had been dispatched with a command of 112 men to join Gen. Clinch at Fort King, Fla., was attacked by an overwhelming number of Indians, and while they made a gallant defense, only three men 34

survived and managed to make their way through the woods to Tampa Bay, sixty miles away. Further intelligence was received at the Executive Department at Milledgeville that “the merciless Indians were ravaging in bloody triumph, the whole country east of the Suwanee river.” It was reported that the Creeks were preparing for hostilities in Alabama, along the Chattahoochee, and it was feared they would form a junction with the Seminoles. Governor Schley, in anticipation of a requisition from the War Department at Washington, called attention to the “hostile conduct of the Indians on our western frontier,” and to the actual state of war existing in Florida, and issued orders on January 13, 1836, to the commanders of the Volunteer corps to hold themselves in readiness to serve their country at a moment’s warning, if they should be required. As a matter of fact, while some depredations were committed by the Creeks in Alabama at this time, it was not until May that a general war was commenced in that quarter. The first Georgia troops were therefore ordered to Florida. The Macon Volunteers, under Capt. Isaac G. Seymour, were among the first to respond to Georgia’s call for service. The infantry companies ordered into service from the interior of the state by the governor were five in number: The Monroe Musketeers, Capt Sureton, 67 men; The Hancock Blues, Capt. Brown, 63 men; The State Fencibles, of Putnam, Capt. Meriwether, 67 men; and the Macon Volunteers, Capt. Seymour, 92 men. The five companies were formed into a battalion at Macon on February 4 by the election of Mark A. Cooper as major. On that day the hospitalities of the city were extended to them and on February 5 the battalion was reviewed and addressed on the field by Governor Schley. On Sunday, February 7, at 10 a.m., the necessary boats on the river were ready, and the troops departed in the presence of a large concourse of people. The battalion reached Picolata, East Florida, on February 18, and were mustered into service by Lieut. Col. Bankhead. General Scott arrived at Picolata on February 22. On the following day his first orders, together with the articles of war, were read to the troops. On March 10, the battalion was joined by three companies of cavalry from Hancock, Washington, and Jefferson counties. Nine days later they were ordered to Fort Drane, and joined the forces of General Scott and General Clinch, which numbered 2,000 men. On March 26, they moved to Tampa Bay, and had a battle at Ouithlacoochee, in crossing that stream. The Macon Volunteers acted as advance guard. They crossed the river under fire, and after a sharp engagement the Indians were put to flight. Three of the Macon Volunteers, Privates Dannelly, Williams and Flewellen, were wounded. After a march of thirty miles, Gen. Scott proceeded to Tampa Bay with the main army, leaving Maj. Cooper’s battalion to build a fort and remain in charge until further orders. In three weeks’ time the little garrison, though constantly under fire from the Indians, built a two-story block-house with a stockade around it. The fort, which acquired considerable celebrity during the short campaign, was named Fort Cooper, and was further known as the Post of Honor. The rations became exhausted and the men of the battalion were using their last tallow candles for food, when Maj.

Cooper ordered his horse to be killed to supply sustenance for the sick. At this moment a courier arrived, announcing that Gen. Scott was returning from Tampa with a supply of commissary stores, which in fact, reached them the same day. The battalion which had undergone many hardships and dangers, was highly complimented by Gen. Scott and Gen. Clinch. Before reaching the Ouithlacoochee, the camp of the battalion was aroused at midnight by the arrival of an express from Picolata. From the signals of the sentinels it was at first thought an attack impended and preparations were made for action. To the surprise of the camp it was found that the “foe” was but one man, and he a member of the Volunteers, who had been left at the hospital at Picolata with several others, on account of illness. The invalid was Corporal E. E. Brown, who, on learning that important dispatches had been received at Picolata for Gen. Scott, volunteered to perform the perilous duty of riding ninety miles through the enemies’ country to deliver them. The young corporal, on reaching the camp, was conducted to Gen. Scott, who, after reading the dispatches, interrogated the daring corporal on the particulars of his expedition. He gave him a draft of Old Holland from his private flask, and pronounced him “the bravest man in the army.” On April 27, the battalion evacuated the Post of Honor and joined the main army. They were assigned to duty at Fort Drane to guard trains and improve fortifications, until they were relieved by the United States Regulars, in the month of May. On the morning of May 25, a salute from “the old gun” on the banks of the Ocmulgee at Macon announced the return of the Macon Volunteers and the Monroe Musketeers, who, on their arrival, were met by the Macon Guards, Capt. Poe, and a committee of citizens. On the following day a dinner was given them at which thirteen regular and seventy volunteer toasts were drunk, partly in honor of the returned heroes of Ouithlacoochee and partly in memory of the Georgia Battalion, massacred near Goliad, in the Texas War of Independence, on March 27, 1836. These were indeed times when the war drum throbbed day after day and the streets of Macon echoed to the measured tread of Georgia volunteers, hurrying to suppress Indian depredations on the state’s own borders or to share in the desperate struggle which made the Fannin massacre a companion picture of the shambles in the Alamo. To the scenes in Texas, taking place while the Macon Volunteers were braving the tomahawk of the Seminoles, we shall return hereafter, but the very festivities with which Macon’s oldest military organization was welcomed home were darkened by preparations for the departure, two days later, of her cavalry company to the scenes of Indian warfare in Alabama. At various times in the earlier part of 1836, the Indians were committing depredations along the further side of the Chattahoochee. By the last of April the situation in that part of Alabama and Georgia had become alarming. Open warfare was made upon the whites. Many families were arriving daily in Columbus, seeking protection from the Indians, who had slain more than a hundred persons, plundered plantations, destroyed white settlements, seized the stages, robbed the mails, and murdered the passengers. Governor Clay, of Alabama, and 35

Governor Schley, of Georgia, called out the militia of their respective states. The Georgia companies, numbering forty-four with a strength of about twelve hundred men, quickly assembled at Columbus. The Bibb County Cavalry, under Capt. Eleazer McCall, left Macon on May 27, for the scene of action. Governor Schley passed through Macon on May 29 for Columbus, accompanied by Gen. Scott and Gen. Jesup. After disposing of the troops at Columbus, Gen. Jesup selected the Bibb and Talbot cavalry as an escort for a reconnaissance of the Indian camps between that place and Tuskegee, Ala. They passed within three miles of Neah Micco’s camp, which contained 700 Indian warriors, and came upon a large body of them. The two companies were formed for action and fired, killing two Indians and wounding several others. After riding sixty miles, they reached Tuskegee that night, and the next day proceeded to a point within twenty-five miles of Montgomery, Ala. Upon their return to Tuskeegee, Gen. Jesup, in an order issued June 5, 1836, returned his thanks to Capt. McCall and Capt. Bush, and the officers and soldiers of their commands, for their “good conduct and soldierly deportment” on this march, “and particularly for the promptness with which they formed for action, and the firmness they evidenced when the enemy was reported to be in their front.” The two companies made a perilous circuit of 160 miles, and found but two white families, both of which were under the protection of the forts. On June 10 they reached Columbus, where more than 2,000 soldiers were encamped. Five days later the Bibb County Cavalry was detailed as a guard for the governor to Fort Mitchell. Returning, they encamped three days at Camp Starvation, so named because of the absence of rations for two days. On June 20, they joined the expedition for Roanoke, where they arrived five days later, only to find that the place had been reduced to ashes by the Indians. Orders were given to pursue the hostile savages who had crossed the Chattahoochee and were committing great outrages in Georgia. On June 27, they reached Concord, twenty-five miles from Cuthbert, and near the place where thirteen persons, including women and children, had been massacred, and a large number badly wounded. On the twenty-ninth they arrived at Chicasawhatchee swamp, where the Indians were hidden. The cavalry dismounted, and leaving their horses under guard, formed an infantry and went into the swamp. On the thirteenth day they were reinforced by two companies from Thomas and Decatur counties. On July 2, the trail of the hostiles was found. The companies were formed into a battalion under Col. Beall, and orders were given to march through the swamp. After wading through water several miles they were fired upon by the Indians, who killed one and wounded seven. The battalion gave a simultaneous yell and war-whoop and fired. This was followed by an order to charge, when the Indians fled, leaving everything in their camp upon a hammock, except their women and children. The bodies of fifteen of their dead were left in their flight. On July 4, 1836, the Bibb, Monroe, Talbot, and Upson companies celebrated the birthday of liberty in approved fashion by preparing a sumptuous dinner. On July 12, the battalion was stationed outside, while the

celebrated Paddy Carr, with his friendly Indians drove the swamp. The camp of the hostiles was again found but the Indians had fled. On July 17, the battalion returned to Columbus, where they remained until they were discharged five days later. Gen. Scott was ordered to Washington early in July, and the entire command fell upon Gen. Jesup, who speedily conquered the Indians in Alabama, and brought the war to a close. The Bibb County Cavalry returned to Macon on July 25, and were given a cordial welcome by the citizens. A salute was fired and a dinner given them by the Macon Volunteers. They had lost none of their number by war or disease. Far different was the fate of the gallant little band which went from Macon in the Spring of 1836 to fight in Texas. Most of them gave their lives to the cause in which they enlisted and special interest attaches to the fact that it was the daughter of a Bibb county citizen who gave to Texas the first Lone Star flag, whose symbol was later adopted for the flag and seal of the republic, and subsequently of the state. It will be recalled that in 1821 Mexico finally threw off the yoke of Spain, and in 1824 adopted a federal constitution. In 1835, Santa Anna overthrew the Constitution and established a despotism. Representatives of the various settlements met at San Felipe de Austin in October and November of that year to consider the situation. Under the influence of Stephen F. Austin, who had established the first permanent Anglo-American settlement at San Felipe de Austin , on the Brazos river, the delegates rejected a resolution favoring independence and recommended a union with the Mexican Liberals for the restoration of the Constitution of 1824. A provisional government was organized, with Henry Smith as governor, James W. Robinson at lieutenant governor, and Sam Houston as major-general of the armies of Texas, while Stephen F. Austin, William H. Wharton and Branch T. Archer were appointed commissioners to seek aid in the United States. It was this call for aid which reached Macon. In the meantime hostilities had already begun. The Texans routed the Mexicans near Gonzales on October 2. A force of about a hundred men, under Col. James Bowie and Capt J. W. Fannin, defeated a Mexican force near Mission Conception on October 28, and after a campaign of nearly two months, Bejar was surrendered to them on December 2. Unfortunately, in the Matamoras expedition the Texans were weakened by a quarrel between Governor Smith, who desired independence, and a the majority of the Council, who favored union with the Mexican Liberals. The command was divided between Houston, who was supported by the governor, and two leaders, Frank W. Johnson and J. W. Fannin, who were appointed by the council. Long before these dissensions had become acute, Macon was responding to the appeal for aid against Santa Anna. A public meeting of Macon citizens was held on November 12. Capt. Levi Eckley, of the Bibb County Cavalry, presided, and Simri Rose, acted as secretary. Robert A. Beall, John Rutherford, Samuel M. Strong and others, addressed the meeting. Lieut. Hugh McLeod, recently graduated from the military academy at West Point, made a stirring appeal, pledging himself to resign his commission and enlist as a volunteer, Col. William Ward, of Macon, proposed to form a company of infantry to serve in the army of Texas, 36

whereupon thirty-two citizens came forward and enrolled. The chair appointed Robert A. Beall, Henry G. Lamar, T. G. Holt, James A. Nisbet and Dr. Robert Collins as a committee to solicit subscriptions, and before the meeting adjourned $3,150 was handed in to the committee, Dr. Collins paying in cash the greater part of the amount. As the volunteers passed through Knoxville, Crawford County, Georgia, Miss Joanna E. Troutman, daughter of Hiram E. Troutman, of Bibb county presented them with the Lone Star Flag, which became the official symbol of the Republic of Texas and later of the Lone Star State. This fact is witnessed, if such were necessary, by an old copy of The Galveston News, which in explaining the origin of the name “Long Star State,” as applied to Texas says: “The flag of the Lone Star that was unfurled in Texas was that borne by the Georgia Battalion, commanded by the late Lieutenant-Colonel Ward, who, with almost his entire command, was massacred at Goliad in the Spring of 1836, in what is known as Fannin’s Massacre, he being next in command to the lamented Col. James W. Fannin. “The flag was presented to Col. Ward’s command as they passed through Knoxville, Crawford county, Ga., by the fairest daughter of the state – the beautiful, gifted, and highly accomplished Miss Joanna E. Troutman. “It was made of plain white silk, bearing an azure star of five points on either side. On one side was the inscription, in rich but chaste colors – ‘Liberty or Death,’ and on the other side the patriotic Latin motto, ‘Ubi Libertas habitat, ibi nostra patria est.’ ” This was the banner that floated over Velasco, for the first time, January 8, 1836. This was the flag that was carried by Fannin from Velasco to Goliad and hoisted to the top of the flagstaff on March 8, six days after the Council at Old Washington had declared the independence of Texas. This was the flag, which, entangled in the halyards, was never dipped to friend or foe, and still fluttered in fragments over Goliad when all but four of the Georgia Battalion, and all but twenty of the Fannin command of 371 had gone to death, under the murderous fire of Santa Anna’s treacherous Mexicans. That the flag bequeathed, virtually, by a Bibb county girl, was the first ensign of the Lone Star state is additionally attested by the official acknowledgement of Gen. Memucan Hunt, the first minister of the republic of Mexico to the United States. This twenty-seventh of March, when 251 of the men in Fannin’s command were brutally slaughtered, after surrendering as prisoners of war, was an even bloodier day than the previous sixth of March, when the garrison of the Alamo was exterminated, leaving “no messenger of defeat.” But the Georgia Battalion and their comrades among the Texans did not die in vain. The massacre served to unite the Texas factions, and Gen. Houston, placed in supreme command, swiftly brought the war to a close with the defeat of Santa Anna at the battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836. At the defeat and capture of the Mexican despot, his silver service was taken, and some of the trophies of the victory, including massive spoons, forks, etc., were sent to Miss Troutman by Gen. Rusk, “in token of the regard she had inspired in the hearts of the stern, scarred patriots of the revolution, as they gazed upon the

virgin ground and lone blue star of the flag she had wrought, and which had led on many of their brave compatriots to death, themselves to victory.” The officers of the ill-fated battalion were: William A. Ward, major; William J. Mitchell, surgeon; David I. Holt, Q. M.; Henderson Cozard, A. Q. M.; Capt. W. A. O. Wadsworth, Capt. James C. Wynn, and Capt. Urich J. Bullock. Among the four men of the Georgia Battalion who escaped from the massacre near Goliad, was Samuel G. Hardaway, a lad of sixteen, of Macon. When he began his journey home, the Creek war had commenced in Alabama, and he met with another perilous adventure. Taking the stage at Chehaw, Ala., with five other passengers, they were fired upon by the Indians. The stage horses were seized and three of the passengers were killed. Hardaway, with a fellow passenger, again made his escape, closely pursued and fired upon by the hostiles. Mr. Hardaway was afterwards a prominent merchant of Montgomery, Ala., and a gallant officer in the Confederate army. In spite of the excitement incident to two wars on the borders of the state in 1836, peace had her victories along many lines of endeavor. A memorable day of this year was January 22, when the Georgia Methodist Conference formally assumed charge of the Macon Female College, and accepted the spacious grounds tendered for the erection of the necessary buildings on Encampment Hill. Two days previously, on January 20, was taken the first of a series of steps in the matter of railroad development, which alone would have made the year notable in the history of Macon. At a meeting of Council, the Mayor was unanimously instructed to subscribe for 2,500 shares of the stock of the Central Railroad Company. The subscription had already been recommended at a previous meeting of citizens, in which Jerry Cowles had taken the leadership. In February the books of the company were again opened, and 4,713 shares of stock were subscribed among the citizens of Macon. In April a branch bank of the company was established in Macon. The presidency was first tendered to Dr. Ambrose Baber, but he declined, and Mr. Cowles was elected. Isaac B. Rowland was elected cashier. A handsome bank building was erected by the company in the course of the year on the east side of Mulberry street, between Third and Fourth streets. This building was afterwards used as the home of the Southern Botanico-Medical College. On September 15, the survey of the Central Railroad was commenced at Macon, under L. O. Reynolds and R. W. Ellis. They were assisted by Virgil Powers, who thus began his first service with the Central Railroad, with which he was so long and so prominently identified. The Monroe Railroad was now being pushed forward, and on October 31, at a meeting of the stockholders, Gen. L. L. Griffin was reelected president of the company. On December 31, the House of Representatives, by a large majority, passed a bill extending the charter of the line to the Chattahoochee river, with banking privileges, the principal bank to be located in Macon. For that purpose a large building was erected, which, on the failure of the company, was bought by Jerry Cowles. It was later, converted into the first fire proof warehouse in the city, and, greatly altered and improved, is now used as the City Hall. The entire state was now aroused to the importance of railroad 37

development. A number of Middle and Western States were seeking lines of transportation to connect with the ports of Georgia and South Carolina. Work had begun on the construction of the Georgia Railroad from Augusta, but its terminal point had not yet been decided upon, and as the Charleston and Augusta Railroad was approaching completion, those two cities were encouraging a route leading to Knoxville, Tenn., which would have diverted the line to and through Athens, Ga. On July 4, 1836, an important convention of delegates from seven states was called to meet in Knoxville, to determine the route of a railroad from Cincinnati to a Southern port. A public meeting of Macon citizens was held and Messrs. Chappell, Poe, Butts, Cowles, Tracy, and Lamar were appointed delegates to represent the interests of Central Georgia in the convention. The four delegates first mentioned went on horseback, making a survey through the wild and mountainous country. On their arrival at Knoxville, they found a large body of delegates representing the wealth and enterprise of seven states. Indeed, it was generally regarded as the most important meeting of capitalists ever held in the South, up to that time. But they were uninformed as to the topography and natural resources of Georgia, and particularly were of the opinion that the entire cotton crop, in which their interests largely centered, was grown on the lowlands of the rice-growing sections. The Macon delegation was able to inform them that the heart of the cotton belt was in the middle and southwestern sections of the state, and that four of their number, journeying on horseback, had traversed many fertile valleys and lofty hills, intersected by numerous rivers and other streams. As a result, the convention recommended the building of roads from Cincinnati and points west to Knoxville, thence to connect with the two roads under construction, the one from Macon and Forsyth and the other from Augusta. When the Macon delegates returned home, it was decided to call a convention of all the Georgia counties interested, to outline a uniform system for the routes of the projected roads, and to recommend the building, by the state, of a main trunk line between the Chattahoochee and Tennessee rivers. A committee of thirty members were appointed to prepare the business of the convention. An admirable report, prepared by the chairman, A. H. Chappell, met with the unanimous endorsement of the convention. The General Assembly in December, 1836, adopted the recommendations of this report; extended the charters of the several roads, and passed a bill to build the state road between the Chattahocchee and Tennessee rivers. It was in advocacy of this bill that Alexander H. Stephens, as a member of the General Assembly, began his long and useful career of public service. To the action of the citizens of Macon in assembling this convention from all parts of the state to cooperate with them in their efforts to connect the Tennessee river with the seaboard, by a railroad through the interior of the state, we are indebted for the present system of railroads. This system also gave birth to the city of Atlanta, originally known as Terminus, by making the White Hall tavern the connecting point, of the three railroads. On December 18, 1836, fourteen additional lots were sold on the common in the vicinity of the Female College. Five one-acre lots brought $13,925, while three one-acre lots in the rear

brought $3,720. The other six lots were of two acres each, west of the college, and brought $17,950; a total of $35,145. The lots on the hill were in demand for residences, and there the first frame house had been erected by Dr. Robert Collins, who later removed it and built a handsome home on a commanding site of

Elam Alexander built what is now known as the Woodruff House on Bond Street, in 1848, for Jerry Cowles. It is owned today by Mercer University. The house was sold to Samuel Coleman in 1879 – the park in front of the house was named “Coleman Hill.”

four acres. Adjoining it was erected at the same time, by Jerry Cowles, the imposing colonial mansion now owned by B. P. O’Neal. The contractor who built these residences and the Macon Female College, was Elam Alexander. In 1836 was completed the brick market house in the center of Mulberry street, at the intersection of Fourth street. Its dimensions were 100 feet by 40 feet, with a Council room and offices for city officials in the second story. It was surmounted by a fine cupola, in which was the town clock, with a bell weighing 1,200 pounds. A contract was made for the building of a new jail below the court house. Two of the most notable citizens claimed by death during 1836 were Gen. Robert Augustus Beall, who died on June 16, and the Rev. John Howard, who passed away on August 22. Gen. Beall had been mayor of Macon, a member of the General Assembly, and held many other offices with great credit. He was a brilliant member of the bar, a leader in the organization of the States Rights Party, and one of its candidates for Congress. He died at the early age of 32. The name of Mr. Howard is closely woven with the history of Methodism in Georgia, and he was one of the factors in the establishment of the Macon Female College. The last day of the year 1836, was marked by the organization of the Macon Lyceum and Library Association, of which Dr. Ambrose Baber was elected president; Washington Poe and Jerry Cowles, vice presidents, and twelve other substantial citizens as directors. Something of the political temper of the times may be gathered from the fact that in this year the Macon lodge of Masons brought a member to trial for calling a fellow-member an Abolitionist. The beginning of the year 1837 found Macon in the enjoyment of a high degree of prosperity. Seven regular steamboats were engaged in the river trade, and two others came to the junction of the Oconee and Ocmulgee rivers; sixty-two boats were entered at the wharves. There were six daily stages for the accommodation 38

of travelers, and three lines of hacks, operating every other day. In Macon there were fifteen lawyers, ten doctors, three dentists, one hundred merchants, seven blacksmith shops, seven master masons, ten master carpenters, and two to three hundred journeymen, nine cotton warehouses, eight banks, and one agency with a capital of $1,500,000, which was inadequate for the trade of the city. Five merchants had obtained $600,000 from abroad to meet the demands of business. The estimated value of goods in store was more than $1,500,000. No wholesale business was carried on, except with country merchants, and the greater part of the business was directly with the farmers. There were two weekly papers, three printing offices, two bookstores, two book binderies, ten confectionery stores, three drug stores, three jewelry stores, two auction houses, three livery stables, and four hotels, also stores for the sale of hardware and millinery. The population of Macon within the incorporate limits was 4,000; of Vineville, 500, and of the outer environs, 500 more. The number of families west of the river was 275; East Macon, 30; Vineville, 40; and outer environs, 40. There were four churches, and the Presbyterians were erecting a new edifice near the new market house. It was being constructed of Philadelphia brick, at a cost of $15,000, with a seating capacity of 800. There were also six schools, all of which were well patronized. There was one furnace for casting and repairing steamboat machinery, and one lathe for turning iron, owned by James Goddard. There was a further demand for building lots, and on February 4 a sale was made of lots on the common in the neighborhood of the hills. One hundred and seventy lots were sold for $110,000, which, covered into the treasury, gave the city a handsome surplus of cash on hand. On April 10, the Ocmulgee Bank was organized with Jerry Cowles, H. G. Lamar, E. Hamilton, James Rea, Eugenius A. Nisbet, W. B. Johnston, and Elijah Sinclair as directors. The board then elected Jerry Cowles, president, James T. Lamar, cashier, and Joseph A. White, bookkeeper. It was contemplated that the entire capital of $500,000 should be paid in by the end of the year. Publication, on April 19, of the list of stockholders of the Monroe Railroad and Banking company showed that 6,000 shares, valued at $300,000 were held by 130 shareholders, mostly farmers. It was upon a scene of such prosperity and activity as the foregoing facts have indicated that the “panic of 1837” fell like a thunderbolt. If the apprehension incident to President Jackson’s withdrawal of the government deposits from “Nick” Biddle’s United States bank was felt in this section of the country, there was little in the history of Macon to indicate it. Contemporary students of finance attributed the troubles that now followed more directly to the course of events in England. The Bank of England had been compelled to contract its operations, which brought about many failures, and a general depression in trade. Speculation and a sudden contraction of the currency in this country were undoubtedly important factors, however. In January and February cotton had been selling at fourteen to sixteen cents a pound and in March the price rose to sixteen and a quarter cents. But the steamers from England, arriving early in April, brought the news of disaster abroad, and spread

the contagion in this country. During March and April business failures in New York city alone totalled $100,000,000. The price of cotton in Macon fell to ten cents on April 6, and to six cents a month later, after which time there were practically no quotations until the new crop came in the following Autumn. While all classes were affected in the South, the greatest loss fell upon the merchants. Many banks throughout the country had suspended specie payment. To allay the general excitement, protect the banks, and to diffuse exact information on the condition of the country among the masses of the people, a public meeting was held in Macon as elsewhere. Speeches were made by prominent citizens and resolutions were adopted, recommending that the Macon banks suspend specie payment for the time being. Five banks in Macon did suspend such payment without injury to their credit. Business continued dull until the Autumn, when the new crop of cotton came to market. It was sold at prices ranging between eight and nine and a quarter cents during the remainder of the year. The general depression became less acute, but it was still several years before real prosperity returned. In November, 1837, a consolidated statement showed the capital stock of the banks in Georgia to be $10,307,633; circulation, $4,854,870, and specie, $2,374,921. In the midst of this general depression arrived the news of the tragic death of Major Oliver Hillhouse Prince and his wife, who were drowned off the coast of North Carolina, October 9, 1837. Major Prince, who was born in Montville, Conn., in 1782, moved to Washington, Wilkes county, Ga., in his fourteenth year, and assisted his aunt, Mrs. Hillhouse, in the publication of The Monitor and Impartial Observer, which she carried on many years after the death of her husband. Mr. Prince studied law, and without help or patronage of any kind, became a prominent member of the bar of the Northern Circuit. Having been appointed by the legislature the chief of the commissioners to lay off the metes and bounds of Bibb county and then the town of Macon, he came to this county in 1822 and settled in the Howard district. It is to him that the city is indebted for its wide streets. He opened a law office in Macon and practiced for ten years with his usual success. In 1824 he was elected to the State Senate and in 1829 was appointed to the United States Senate. He presided over the first railroad convention in Georgia, was deeply interested in the subject of railroad development in general and was one of the first stockholders and directors of the Georgia railroad. He was among the founders of Macon’s first educational and literary institutions, while his genial wit is evidenced by his known authorship of some of the whimsical sketches in Longstreet’s Georgia Scenes. In 1832 he abandoned the practice of law and became the editor of The Georgia Journal, the leading organ of one of the political parties of the state. In 1835 he moved to Athens, to devote his time to the domestic circle and the education of his children. He had spent some time in compiling a digest of the Laws of Georgia, by special authority of the General Assembly, and in May, 1837, went North to superintend the printing of this work. He was requested by a friend in Athens to secure in Boston an expert gardener, which he did. Returning to New York he embarked with his wife and the gardener on board the steam packet Home, which was making her second voyage from that port to 39

Charleston. On October 8 the vessel encountered a severe gale and sprang a leak. At 8 p.m. on October 9, the water was gaining so rapidly that the engines were stopped. The women were sent to the forward part of the vessel, but a heavy sea struck the packet and more than half of these were lost. Life boats were launched, loaded principally with women and children, but the sea broke over the boats and few escaped. Of the ninety passengers and a crew of forty-three persons, only twenty of the former were saved. Among these was the gardener, but Maj. Prince and his wife were drowned. The wreck took place six miles north of Ocracock bar, North Carolina. The year 1838 opened with an outlook that had been brightened by a good cotton crop during the preceding season. Up to May l, 102,174 bags had been received and sold at prices ranging from six to nine cents, advancing in the Autumn to twelve and a half cents. It is recorded as one of the notable events of the period that in April, one hundred tons of ice were received. The quantity seemed large in contrast with the slender supply that had been usually transported in the boot of the stage and retailed at ten and twenty cents a pound. The election of State officers was approaching, and the political excitement ran high, between the Democratic, or Union party, on the one hand, and what was variously known as the States Rights party, Republican or Anti-Van Buren party. Many members of the latter party were, in fact, Democrats, but were strongly opposed to Van Buren and the bank policy of Jackson. A recent grand jury had already called attention to the evils practiced during exciting elections, and a large number of citizens now assembled in a public meeting, over which Edward D. Tracy presided, with John J. Gresham serving as secretary. The chair stated that the object of the meeting was to enforce the recommendations of the recent grand jury for the suppression of the “alarming evils of electioneering by treating in spirituous liquors, public barbecues and bribery,” and resolutions were adopted pledging the subscribers not to support any candidate who used such methods, or countenanced them in others, or who, “by false argument or by force,” endeavored to induce another to vote contrary to his conscientious convictions. Committees were appointed to secure subscribers to these pledges before August 1, following, and three hundred names were subscribed to the pledges. The elections in October passed off quietly, and resulted in the election of a States Rights candidate to the State Senate, in the person of Dr. Ambrose Baber; one States Rights member of the House of Representatives, Col. H. G. Lamar, who ran without opposition, and one Union member of the House, Edward D. Tracy, who received a majority of twenty-seven over his opponent. On October 9, 1838, the first bar of iron was laid on the Monroe Railroad. In November the first locomotive, called the Ocmulgee, arrived, and on the twenty-second of that month was put in operation by the master machinist, Robert Findlay, on a trial run of five miles. On December 9, the track was completed to Forsyth, and on the following day the first train was run to that place from Macon. On board was a large delegation of Macon citizens, who were greeted with enthusiasm on their arrival and entertained at a public dinner. Toasts were drunk to

the Monroe Railroad, to Macon, and to the editors of The Georgia Messenger, and to Gen. Lewis L. Griffin. In responding to the latter, Gen. Griffin himself offered a toast “to the city of Macon;” on behalf of the ladies a toast was offered, “Our Guests,” with his wish that their pleasure trips might soon be extended to the Tennessee river. John J. Gresham toasted “the Georgia Railroad,” with the wish that “when her first locomotive reaches the main trunk, may the puff of the Ocmulgee be there to greet her.” The president of the Monroe Railroad and Banking company gave a toast to Daniel Griffin, chief engineer; L. N. Whittle, assistant engineer, and Robert Findlay, principal machinist, all of whom were commended for their “ability and unprecedented perseverance.” The year 1839 opened with prospects brighter than for a long time. The banks were all solvent and cotton was bringing fourteen to fifteen cents a pound. The crop was large and trade was very active until the Autumn, when there was another decline in the price of cotton. On August 29, the location of the route for the continuation of the Monroe Railroad was completed, and contracts were made for its extension from Forsyth to the State road terminus, at which is now Atlanta. The survey for the State road had already been completed. In the Autumn, Charles J. McDonald, a Macon man, was elected to the executive chair to succeed Governor George M. Gilmer. If the modern drama is in large part a development of the old Miracle and Morality plays, that were staged under the patronage of the church, the process is closely paralleled by the history of the theater in Macon, which had its beginning about 1839. In 1838 the Baptist congregation, having outgrown its building on the corner of Cherry and Sixty streets, made an arrangement with A. D. and Israel Brown, carpenters and contractors, to erect a new church at the corner of First and Plum street, and take the old structure, valued at $2,000 in payment. The two brothers dying soon thereafter, the old building fell to the other brother, E. E. Brown, founder of the Brown House. As Macon had no theater at the time, entertainments being given in the court house or in the town hall, over the market, Col. Brown had the building rolled through the streets to the corner of the alley, on Third street, between Mulberry and Walnut streets, in the rear of what is now the automobile filling station of Stewart & Company. Col. Brown had decided to use the building as a theater, and leaving a force of carpenters at work remodeling it, he went North for scenery and other accessories. On his return he had the house painted and the pews were still utilized as seats. Many persons of all denominations were hostile to Col. Brown first, because he had converted a church into a theater and second, because they were opposed to the theater in general. The venture was profitable, however, the first performance netting Manager Brown some $500, although the seating capacity was only 600. The first minstrel performance in Macon, which was given in this theater, was the New Orleans serenaders. In this little wooden theater appeared the elder Booth, Macready, McCollough, and all of the great stars of the time. Associated with Col. Brown in this theater was John L. Jones, and other prominent citizens. It was later moved to the corner of the alley below, and used as a carriage stop. 40

Chapter VI PERIOD OF 1840 TO 1849 The ruling price for cotton during the year 1840 was five to seven and a half cents. In May of this year occurred the first of the two memorable freshets, and in March of the following year, the second. The former was given the name of “the Harrison freshet,” by people east of the Oconee river, as it continued during the session of the convention at Milledgeville that nominated General William H. Harrison for the presidency. Not since the Yazoo freshet of 1796 had there been so great overflow and destruction of waters east of the Oconee river and beyond the Savannah river and in Carolina. Augusta and Hamburg were submerged. In March, 1841, after President Harrison’s inauguration, the big freshet west of the Oconee occurred. The Ocmulgee, Flint and Chattahoochee rivers overflowed with greater damage than had ever been experienced. The people west of the Oconee call this the Harrison freshet, causing confusion in after years in distinguishing between the two. Distinction was drawn, however, by terming one “The Nomination freshet” and the other “the Inauguration freshet.” At the Milledgeville convention, the Anti-Van Buren party in Georgia nominated as candidate for the presidency General Harrison, hero of Tippecanoe and numerous other battles against the Western Indians, and for the vice presidency John Tyler, of Virginia. Mr. Van Buren having endorsed the overthrow of the United States bank policy of his predecessor, Andrew Jackson, many Democrats joined in the convention in support of its nominee. Then, too, General Harrison was in accord with Southern institutions, whereas Van Buren was not. On motion of General Elias Beall, for his Bibb constituents, the convention unanimously adopted a resolution recommending a grand convention in Macon on August 13th to ratify the nominations. Tippecanoe clubs were organized in every county of the state, and arranged to send delegates to Macon. The great Harrison convention was the largest gathering that had ever assembled in the state. Although there were but few miles of railroad then, the delegations came from the far counties, on horseback and in vehicles. Some of the latter were log cabins on wheels, large enough for a dozen men to sleep in, and drawn over the roads for some fifty to eighty miles. The first delegation, from Troup and Coweta, numbered 300 men, riding two abreast, bringing a band and a log cabin, with the banner, “Alford, the war-horse of Troup,” at the head. There were 550 members in the Bibb delegation, and their three banners read: “General Harrison, the Rod of Aaron Among the Magicians,”

“The Last Hope of the Republic - A Southern Man With Southern Feelings,” and “We Will Teach the Palace Slaves to Respect the Log Cabins.” The delegates numbered 4,205, and the entire number of persons present was estimated at about 15,000. For a period of three days the wide streets of Macon were crowded as never before. The convention was called to order by General Beall, chairman of the Bibb County Tippecanoe Club, and John M. Berrien was elected permanent chairman. A. H. Chappell, of Bibb, introduced a resolution whose preamble expressed opposition to the corruption and misrule of the Van Buren administration, which resolution and its amendments were adopted unanimously. An amendment by Mr. Toombs, of Wilkes, set forth that “while as State Rights Republicans we must ever repudiate and condemn the principles embraced in the Proclamation and Force Bill, yet we feel ourselves called upon as patriots to forego our peculiar opinions of the means to secure the great ends of State Rights, popular liberty and honest administration of the property of the government of the people, and extend a cordial invitation to our countrymen of the Union Party to unite with us in the deliverance of our common country from the hands of `the spoilers.’” An amendment by C. B. Strong, of Bibb, approved the “able and patriotic conduct of the faithful six of our Representatives in Congress, to-wit: Alford, Dawson, Habersham, Nisbet, King and Warren; and will support them, with Foster, Gamble and Meriwether and use all honorable means to promote their election.” Speaking for the resolutions were William Law, Robert Toombs, Andrew J. Miller and Henry W. Hilliard. Judge Berrian delivered the closing address of the Convention, which adjourned amidst wild enthusiasm. After some debate among the town’s citizens over location of the depot of the Central Railroad, a site in East Macon was chosen. On December 7, 1841, a contract for construction of the road between Macon and the Oconee was given to Robert and Charles Collins and Elam Alexander. The year 1841 was marked by several disasters. In addition to the Harrison freshet in March, there was another damaging freshet in September; and in October, the entire northwestern block of the square on Cherry street was destroyed by fire, including the Columbus Insurance Band and the Ocmulgee Bank on Second street, and about sixteen other buildings. New Year’s day of 1842 was marked by disorder. A city election was held at the court house, and a number of excited 41

men whose votes had been challenged during the day, broke into the building at the close and destroyed the ballots. They were afterwards arrested and penalized. Cotton receipts during the years 1841-42 were over 40,000 bags short of the two preceding years, and the effects of the panic of 1837 were severely felt. City growth and commerce were adversely affected, and it was not until 1845 that the price of cotton again reached a satisfactory level. The State Rights convention assembled at Milledgeville on June 7th. Following adjournment of this convention, the name of Whig was adopted for the first time in Georgia. The first convention of the Whig party was held at Milledgeville on June 19, 1843, with John M. Berrien presiding. George W. Crawford was nominated for governor. A. H. Stephens for Congress, and Mr. Berrien for the vice presidency. By this time, the new cemetery, founded in May, 1840, and named Rose Hill in honor of Simri Rose, by whose plans it was laid off, was being completed and was attracting admiration. The first passenger car arriving from Savannah over the Central Railroad reached the temporary depot at McCall’s Mill, two and a half miles from Macon, on August 1st. In cutting through the edge of the mounds near the city to build the road, a number of Indian relics were found; also, some skeletons and bones. On the 13th of October, a grand festival was given in honor of the completion of what was then the longest railroad in the world built and owned by one company. The Georgia Messenger, of Macon, which, had earnestly advocated the enterprise since 1834, stated that “it is strictly a Georgia road, projected by Georgians and carried through by Georgia enterprise and capital.”. . . Honor, then, imperishable honor to the memory of William W. Gordon. Henry Clay visited the city in January 1844, the hospitalities of the city having been extended him on his tour through the South. He was accompanied by his son John Clay, T. Butler King and a committee from Columbus. A national salute of twenty-six guns announced his arrival. He was entertained in the house of former Congressman Nisbet, with whom he had been friendly in the National Congress. He spoke at the court house. Before he left Macon the Sage of Ashland was complimented with a soiree and ball. Twelve buildings were destroyed by fire, which started at the corner of Mulberry and Third streets on August 19th. James Willingham, foreman of The Macon Telegraph, lost his life in pulling down a parapet of a wooden building which fell upon him. The city erected a monument over his grave at Rose Hill. A large Democratic mass meeting took place in Macon on August 22nd, and over forty counties were represented. Charles J. McDonald presided. Nomination of Polk and Dallas was ratified, and principal discussion ranged about the Texas and Oregon question. Annexation of the “Lone Star Republic” was enthusiastically recommended. On the first of July, Mayor James A. Nisbet published a statement to the effect that the city’s indebtedness was $237,842, annual expenses, $7,700, annual interest $23,000, resources $17,000. The banks were bled of their deposits and cotton went down to as low as four cents. The Central Railroad stock, which was paying no dividends at the time, was sold at a greatly

reduced rate, and the debt of the city largely lessened with the aid of strict economy. In 1845, cotton dropped as low as two and half cents. The state debt was slightly over a million and a half. On June 15th, the people of Macon held an extensive public demonstration to the memory of Andrew Jackson, who had died on June 8th. Sale of all the property of the Monroe Railroad and Banking company, bankrupt, was held on the first Tuesday in August, Jerre Cowles, representing a Northern party, bid the road in at $155,100. Its indebtedness amounted to nearly a million dollars, with assets of value amounting to less than $200,000. In October a census was taken, placing the population of the county at 10,588, and of the city 4,188. On December 19th, in election of Supreme Court Judges, Eugenius A. Nisbet of Bibb was elected for two years, which established the first organization of that high tribunal. In 1846, the annexation of Texas resulted in war with Mexico, as predicted, and there was eagerness on part of the young men of Macon to take part. The Macon Volunteers offered their services for six months, and the Floyd Rifles also volunteered but the War Department determined not to receive troops for less than a year’s service, and an independent military organization was formed in Macon by Captain Holmes, of the Volunteers. Within three days one hundred men were enlisted and their services accepted. They departed on June 4th, after being presented with a standard by the women of the city and entertained by Judge Bailey. Captain Holmes was given a sword, and the company also received a streamer bearing the inscription, “Macon Guards Remember the Alamo.” A thousand dollars was donated to the departing troops, $800 being presented by citizens, and $200 by City Council. They joined the Georgia Regiment of Volunteers at Columbus, where Captain Holmes was offered the post of Lieutenant-Colonel but declined. Captain Henry R. Jackson was elected Colonel. A portion of their trip west was made by boat down the Alabama river, from Montgomery to Mobile. In passing Selma, the pilot gave a blast from the steamer’s whistle. A company on board from Cherokee county had never heard a noise like this before, and concluded the boiler had exploded. A number of them leaped overboard, and several were drowned. During the voyage on the Gulf of Mexico, Private Robert Bridges, of the Augusta Blues, fell asleep on the wheelhouse and rolled off into the Gulf. The steamer had gone half a mile before his absence was discovered, and by the time the young man was rescued, he had been swimming for more than an hour. William King, of the Macon Guards, located him. Bridges went to the captain and politely apologized for delaying his vessel. The regiment arrived at Brazos Island, encamped about two weeks, then marched up the Rio Grande. Wood had to be cut from the forests for the furnace of the steamboat employed by those who made the trip on the river. At Carmago, an unfortunate misunderstanding arose between a portion of an Illinois regiment and the Jasper Greens, of Savannah, in regard to orders and six men were killed; five of the Illinois regiment and one of Savannah, Sergeant Whalan. 42

During encampment at Carmago, many died from sickness, and gun boxes were used as coffins. The regiment numbered 910 men in the beginning; it decreased to barely 600. Removing to Monterey, it found that location healthful. Captain Isaac Holmes, mayor of Macon prior to enlisting, died on December 1st at Camp Monterey after a short illness. He had been an officer in the State Bank in Macon, was for many years a member of the Macon Volunteers and was greatly beloved. He was a brother of Dr. A. T. Holmes, a former pastor of the First Baptist church. The regiment remained at Monterey until March, guarding trains and performing other duties, and then was sent to Tampico, almost being lost at sea during the voyage. An extract from a Georgia paper of the period reads, in part, as follows: “While the people of Georgia are heartily rejoicing over the brilliant victory of Cerro Gordo, they cannot but regret the sad fate of the Georgia Regiment in not being able to reach the ground before the rout of the Mexicans. The brave Georgians have been peculiarly unfortunate. After having traversed onehalf of Mexico, enduring all the rigors of climate, and obtained the reputation of being one of the best drilled regiments in the service, it appears to be their luck to always be hard by, but never in a fight.” Deaths and discharge from sickness, however, had reduced the regiment to less than 500. After the battle of Cerro Gordo, the Georgia Volunteers term of service expired and they were dismissed. On the 20th of June, a company of Regulars, 100 men, raised in Bibb under the command of Captain Alexander Scott, left for the Mexican War under command of Second Lieutenant Oliver H. Prince. Joseph White was first lieutenant; but these officers were

forced to resign on account of sickness, and Captain Duncan L. Clinch commanded the company to the close of the war. Dr. Ambrose Baber, who came to Macon in 1823, within a year after its settlement, and the leading physician of the section, died on March 1st from an overdose of physic but compounded according to Majendies’ Recipe, as published in the seventh edition of Ellis’ Formulary. Dr. Baber fought in the War of 1812, was a surgeon in the Indian War under General Jackson, and represented Bibb county in the state senate four years. In 1841, he was appointed by President Tyler as Charge d’Affaires to Sardina, returning in 1844 to resume practice of his profession. The year 1847 marked the end of the ten-year depression in the commercial world. Cotton went up as high as ten and a quarter cents. The company for which Jerre Cowles had purchased the Monroe Railroad, began work of rebuilding and completing the line to Atlanta. Another railroad was planned to connect Macon with Southwest Georgia, and through the enterprising activities of Jerre Cowles was granted a charter by the Legislature in December for building the road. Elam Alexander was made chairman of the six commissioners appointed and became first president of what was called the Southwestern Railroad company. In 1848, the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph was introduced into Augusta and Savannah, and through the public spirit of Elam Alexander and Dr. Robert Collins, the main line was brought to Macon. The line was opened to New Orleans and Washington City on July 19th. The corporation became the Southern Telegraph Company later, and during the War Between the States, its operators actively and officially served the Southern cause, although the company’s offices and sympathy were really in the North. (?) p. 182 Butler’s. On February 20th, 1849, Judge Edward D. Tracy, one of the

Two of the early settlers and leaders of Macon died in the late 1840’s - Dr. Ambrose Baber and Judge Edward D. Tracy.


fathers of Macon, passed away. He was one of the committee who received General LaFayette in 1825 on his visit to Macon, conversing with the distinguished visitor in French and Spanish, and also in the Indian tongue. LaFayette said to Judge Tracy: “You are the only Anglo-American that I have met with who could speak the true American vernacular.� He was a personal friend of Decatur, Jones and other naval heroes, who seemed to regard him with great esteem. These friendships came about through the fact that at one time Mr. Tracy was employed by a commercial house to take charge of a branch in England. He settled in Macon in 1824. Macon was visited on the 12th of March by ex-President James K. Polk, his wife and two nieces and ex-Secretary of the

Treasury Walker, on invitation of citizens and city authorities. They were enthusiastically received, and entertained at the Floyd House. The Central Horticultural Society held its first exhibition on July 9th and 10th at the store of Charles Day and Co. Simri Rose received the premium for fine apples. On August 1st, a large meeting was held to discuss the construction of a railroad directly connecting Macon and Augusta, and committees were appointed to canvass for stock subscriptions. General Clinch died in Macon on November 27th. A guard of honor from the Macon Volunteers and Floyd Rifles escorted his body to Savannah.

Left: The Female Academy occupied this building, on Pine Street, in 1844. In 1894 the building was bought by the Macon Hospital Association. Bottom Right: Poet Sidney Lanier was born in this cottage on Feb. 3, 1842. Bottom Left: Rose Hill Cemetery was constructed in 1840 and named for Simri Rose.


Chapter VII PERIOD OF 1850 TO 1859 The year 1850 marked the beginning of a period of tense feeling and excitement in Macon, over the questions of slavery and Southern rights. The thirty-first Congress, in December, ‘49, had begun the consideration of “Clay’s Omnibus Bill” - which dealt with the five disturbing features of the question of slavery which were then before the Congress. Calhoun, Webster and Clay were the towering figures of the Congress, which convened for almost nine months. Repeated offers had been made by the South for the adoption of the “Missouri Compromise Line,” but these were repeatedly rejected. Georgia was divided politically, and much bitter political discussion occupied the press and platform. Ultimately the legislature instructed the governor to call a special convention to consider the state of the country, and if necessary to act in behalf of the commonwealth. Two parties had grown up in the South, the Southern Rights, or Fire Eaters, as they were called by their conservative enemies, and the Union party or Submissionists. On August 31, 1850, a Southern Rights mass meeting was held in Macon, attended by delegates from all parts of the state, and by representatives from Alabama and South Carolina. ExGovernor Charles J. McDonald and Christopher B. Strong were elected presidents, with nine vice presidents and two secretaries. Many brilliant addresses were made on the subject of states rights, and resolutions firmly insisting on the adoption of the Missouri Compromise Line were adopted. In September a meeting of the Union party was held at the Bibb county court house, Hon. T. G. Holt presiding. A set of resolutions endorsing the acts of congress were introduced by Hon. Washington Poe and adopted with enthusiasm. Frequent meetings of both parties were held throughout the year and much excitement prevailed. The strongest men in both elements were put forward as candidates for delegates to the convention at Milledgeville, and the elections which were conducted with wild enthusiasm and tense feeling over the state, resulted in the victory of the Union candidates in Bibb county, Dr. Robert Collins, Washington Poe, A. P. Powers and William Scott being elected. On December 10th, the Convention met in Milledgeville, with Honorable Thomas Spalding, of the County of McIntosh, to preside over its deliberations. Every county was represented and every delegate present. On the thirteenth of the month, a report was adopted by the convention declaring that the state of Georgia will and ought to resist even to a disruption of every tie

that binds her to the Union, any action of Congress incompatible with the safety, rights and honor of the slave holding states. Much gloom was cast over the city in the autumn of 1850, by the wrecking of the bark Isaac Mead, of New York, which was run down by a steamship and sank, carrying down several Macon citizens. Among those lost was the wife of Mr. Bradley of the firm of Wood & Bradley, and Mrs. Lyman Barnes. Mr. Bradley and a Mr. Stanton were among those rescued. Early in the year a very destructive fire occurred on Cotton Avenue, destroying all the buildings on the north side of the street and also a number in the Triangular Block. The loss was more than $100,000, most of the buildings being wood. As soon as weather permitted the work of replacing these structures with handsome buildings of brick, began. On June 12th, the Lanier House was opened to the public, under the management of Messrs. Logan and Meara. Other hotels, then in use were the Macon House on First Street, opposite the Baptist church, near Popular, and Washington Hall, situated on the corner of Mulberry and Second streets. Washington Hall was operated by H. P. Redding, known as “Honest Hatton” Redding. Two academies for young ladies were in operation in Macon during this period, one at the crest of the hill on Cotton Avenue, near the present site of the Macon Hospital, the other near the river between First and Second streets, cornering on Walnut. In this building William C. Singleton taught the first public school organized in Macon for boys, and in the same building Miss Catherine Clark conducted a private school for girls. A census taken late in 1850 showed the population of Bibb county to be 12,688; whites 7,004; slaves 5,633, free negroes 51. The population of the city of Macon was reckoned as 5,763; whites 3,322, slaves 2,352, free negroes 88. Vineville had a population of 850. Macon’s first waterworks were put in operation by C. A. Ells, the source of the water being a huge cistern at the foot of the hill fronting Wesleyan College. This water was used by Mr. Ells and the hotels of Macon, the entire expense of operation being borne by Mr. Ells. The year 1851 was a prosperous one for Macon. Most of the city debt had been paid, and the mayor, George M. Logan, issued a statement at the beginning of the year which showed the resources of the city to be ample, so that the bonded debt of the city could be retired without embarrassment. On February seventh occurred a sordid tragedy in Vineville, 45

when a Mrs. Swinden barricaded the house, cut the throats of her children with a razor and then set fire to the house. The fire department arriving, found the well rope to be cut, and the house past saving. It is supposed that the unfortunate woman was mentally deranged at the time. During this year a movement was launched in Macon for the education of the blind in Georgia. At a meeting called by Dr. James Mercer Green action was taken which later grew into the wonderful Academy for the Blind now owned by the state. A Mr. Fortescue, himself blind and highly cultured, came to Macon, and at the meeting call by Dr. Green it was voted to raise funds sufficient to enable Mr. Fortescue to educate four blind children. More than a thousand blind children were then in the state of Georgia. Eight hundred and two dollars was contributed, and the school was started with four sightless pupils, Francis Hodges, Mary Wimberly, Mary Fairner and Mary Wootten. On July 10th the institution was organized with Nathan C. Munroe, president of the board of trustees, and Robert A. Smith, secretary. A bill was drafted for presentation to the legislature providing for the incorporation and endowment of an Academy. In January, 1852, the legislature enacted the bill to incorporate and endow the “Georgia Academy for the Education of the Blind,” and made an appropriation for the years 1852 and 1853 of $5,000. Until October, 1852, the Academy occupied a building at the corner of Mulberry and Third streets. In 1854 the trustees of the institution drew $10,000 from the state treasury and purchased for the academy the residence of Mr. Charles Cotton, on College Street.

The Georgia Agricultural Society held a notable exhibition in the summer of 1851. The fair which had formerly been held in Atlanta, and at Stone Mountain, was permanently moved to Macon during that year. The week of the exhibition was a gala week in the town, visitors being present from practically every county of the state and from many other Southern states. January 1852, was noted as the coldest month in twenty years. The mercury fell to zero, and many destructive fires resulted from overheating and the scarcity of water owing to the hard freeze. On the 19th of the month a terrific holocaust swept Cherry street, destroying a whole square near Second. Only the residence of Major James Smith, corner of Second and Poplar streets, and the warehouse of Hardeman and Hamilton, on Poplar and Third, were saved. In May the new Christ church was dedicated by Rt. Rev. Bishop Thomas Elliott. The last of the “great three” of Congress passed during this year, when both Daniel Webster and Henry Clay died. Early in the year Squire Eleazar McCall died. He was Macon’s first justice of the peace, and was located at Fort Hawkins before the city of Macon was laid out. He was also a captain of the Bibb Cavalry during the Creek war. In March, Council considering the question of municipal lighting, subscribed $10,000 to the organization of the Macon Gas Light Company. This company was fully organized in 1852 with a capital stock of $42,000. A. J. White was elected president of the company. Mr. White was also president of the Macon & Western Railroad. Plans were also proposed for the supply of water for extinguishing fires, the system of employing wells and cisterns for this purpose having proved utterly inadequate, as witnessed by the number of destructive fires during the past two years. Also the equipment of the fire department was declared to be totally inadequate and inefficient. Many improvements were made in the city during this period, James A. Ralston erecting a handsome block of brick buildings on Cherry and Third streets, and on Second street the Baptists beginning the building of a new church. Firms in business in Macon during these years were Hardeman & Griffin, dealers in wholesale and retail provisions, Bostick & Kein, dry goods; Lewis H. Andrews, books and job printing, and many cotton warehouses and stores. Solomon Humphries, a free negro, who had been a slave in the household of John Humphries and given his freedom by a kind master, was also in business in East Macon, keeping a general store in which only white help was employed. Humphries, who was known as an honorable, industrious and humble negro, had the respect of all white people and was very prosperous. In 1854 a war began between the city of Macon and the railroads. A bill introduced into the legislature provided for the consolidation of the Macon & Western and Central Railroad companies. This bill was bitterly fought by citizens of Macon under the leadership of the mayor, Edward L. Strohecker. Resolutions stating that the amalgamation of the railroads would submit the commerce and interests of the city to the control of a monopoly were passed at a meeting. A compromise was afterward effected, by which the railways were

In 1857 the General Assembly appropriated $55,000 for the construction of the Georgia Academy for the blind.

In 1857 the General Assembly appropriated $55,000 for the erection of a new building. This building erected on College street, the lot lying between College and Orange, was begun in 1858, the cornerstone being laid by Thomas Hardeman. The trustees were James Mercer Green, N. C. Munroe, R. A. Smith, Nathan Bass, Lewis Whittle, Washington Poe, Jackson DeLoache. The death of many important persons occurred during the years 1850 and 1851. On March 12th, 1850, John C. Calhoun died in Washington. Appropriate notice of the passing of this great Carolinian was taken in the city. Later, on July 12th, occurred the death of President Taylor. In May, 1851, Major James Smith, a member of the commission that laid out Bibb county and the town of Macon, died. Hon. Christopher B. Strong passed away in Perry on May third of that year. 46

connected, paying the city $5,000 annually for the privilege. In April occurred another disastrous fire, which destroyed all the buildings on the southeast corner of Mulberry and Third streets. Two new fire engines, lately secured, were used in fighting this fire and at the numerous fires which followed. On the 20th of April, ex-President Millard Fillmore and his secretary, John Kennedy, visited Macon and were received with a lively demonstration. A delegation of citizens was sent to meet the party on the Muscogee railroad, and escort him to the city, where a procession of military and citizens greeted him. The welcome address was given by Hon. Eugenius A. Nisbet. The summer of 1854 was very hot, and although Savannah suffered a terrific scourge of yellow fever, Macon was singularly free from the plague. Refugees from the stricken city came to Macon, and many died here, but few citizens contracted the disease and none died. In November, at the abatement of the disease the governor appointed a day of Thanksgiving. Macon having so miraculously escaped the plague the mayor appointed that the same day be specially observed. The day was observed with religious celebrations in all the churches of the town. On July 15th ex-Governor George W. Towns died of paralysis, at his home. He was a prominent and influential citizen of Macon for many years following his term of office as chief executive of the state, and his funeral was made a day of public mourning, the city officials, military and fire companies escorting his body to Rose Hill Cemetery where it was interred.

On March 29 a fire breaking out in the stable of the Floyd House spread over the entire square, and it was with great difficulty that the market house and the Floyd House were saved. The efforts of a young negro, known as Lit Young, in saving the Floyd House and market house were recognized by his election as an honorary member of Fire Company No. 1. Many prominent persons died during the latter part of this year, among them L. O. Reynolds, president of the Southwestern Railroad company. In 1855 the Southwestern Railroad owned a system ninety-two miles in length. It was completed as far as Fort Valley in 1851 and later extended. Solomon Humphries, a free negro merchant died during this year. January 1856, was noted for its unusual storm. Sleet and snow fell for several days, and thousands of trees which had been preserved with much pride by the city, were broken down and destroyed. Sleighs were improvised and seen in Macon, were in use on the streets, and the snow remained upon the ground for more than a week. A hotly contested election resulted in the election of Herschel V. Johnson, Democrat, for governor of the state. The Whig party had passed out of existence with the deaths of Clay and Webster, and the Know-Nothing party, a secret political organization, had risen to power in many states. Henry G. Ross, the oldest resident of the city, died in January, 1857. He had settled at Fort Hawkins in 1818, and filled many public offices. Major Mathews Robertson, first proprietor and editor of The Georgia Messenger, died on February 11th, 1857. The year 1857 was noted for one of building. The burned brick blocks had been replaced, and the Washington block, replacing old Washington Hall, was completed. Early in June, the stockholders of the Macon & Brunswick railroad held their first meeting. Judge A. E. Cochrane was elected president and E. C. Rowland secretary and treasurer. The state democratic convention assembled in Milledgeville, and Judge Joseph E. Brown was nominated for governor. In September Wm. Wadley resigned as superintendent of the Central Railroad. He was presented by the operatives of the road and company, with a handsome silver service. In June a delegation of citizens of Memphis were guests of the city, en route home from a visit to Charleston and Savannah. A grand ball was held in the large hall over the passenger station, and a supper given at the Brown House. Business in the Autumn of 1857 began auspiciously. Cotton was selling at twelve and fifteen cents. Then came a series of crashes in Wall street, with many northern and western railroads declared insolvent because of tremendous speculation in western lands. Many immense firms in New York, Philadelphia and Boston failed. Banks suspended in rapid succession, and in the north many factories were forced to suspend operations. The panic soon extended to the South and the banks of South Carolina suspended. By the first of November every bank in Georgia had closed except three. Every enterprise and industry in the state had been in a prosperous condition, the people had been generally free from debt and the reaction was rapid. But such tensity of feeling was evident against the banks that their action in suspending in violation of their charters was brought before the legislature in December. Governor Brown had just

Across the street from the Blind Academy was the home of T. D. Tinsley built in 1854.

In September Washington Hall, the famous hostelry, was burned along with many other buildings in the block fronting Mulberry street between Second and Third. The general passenger depot, newly erected on Fourth and Plum streets, for the accommodation of all the railroads, was opened in December. It had been built to replace the old depot on the opposite side of the river, built in 1843, and the cost of the new structure was $100,000. Opposite this magnificent building was erected the new Brown House, built by Eliphalet E. Brown. This hotel stood for many years as the most important and modern hotel in this section of the south. It was visited by many persons of prominence, in the period of its popularity, and was often the center of tense political controversy, and a rendezvous for statesmen and men high in affairs of state. It was burned in 1878. 47

been inaugurated. He was a stranger to the people of the state, but a strong, simple, and just man. The Legislature passed a measure similar to that of 1840, allowing the banks to suspend for a year. Brown vetoed the bill, but it was passed again over the executive veto. The panic soon passed, and the south recovered rapidly from the effects, which had been so disastrous to the north and west. On the 5th of February, 1858, Thalberg and Vieutemps, pianist and violinist, appeared in Macon at Ralston Hall. During the spring there was much religious enthusiasm in the city. Rt. Rev. Bishop Elliot at Christ church, Rev. Dr. Stiles, of New Haven, one of Macon’s earliest ministers at the Presbyterian church, and Mr. Kennedy, the boy preacher, at the Baptist church, held daily services for weeks and attracted large crowds. Yellow fever again appeared in Savannah in the early fall of 1858, but the epidemic was less virulent than before and the loss of death less. No cases are recorded in Macon during that plague. Agitation for the Macon & Brunswick railroad, was again begun in the winter, a meeting of citizens being called by the mayor to ascertain public feeling toward a subscription. A resolution favoring the donation by council of $200,000 to be paid into the capital stock of the company when a like amount had been raised by other interested parties, was finally adopted, after some discussion and opposition. The death of Colonel Joseph Bond, a former officer in the Bibb Cavalry, shocked the community at this time. Colonel Bond was murdered by a discharged overseer. He was one of the largest cotton growers and most progressive farmers of the state. On November 30 occurred the death of Robert Findlay. He was a native of Scotland and came to Macon in 1836, in charge of the steam machinery of the Monroe Railroad. He built and ran the first locomotive on that road to Forsyth. The census of 1858 showed a marked increase in the population of the city. The total population was reckoned at 7,453; whites, slaves and free negroes. There were about 2,000 inhabitants in the environs of the city which were not counted in the census. At this time there were published in the city five weekly newspapers, each with large subscription lists and more than two pages of advertisements. The South was very prosperous, cotton was profitable and the railroads were in excellent condition. The Macon & Western submitted its report in 1859, showing that the road was entirely debt free, with a cash balance in the treasury. The Jackson Artillery, a company having eighty-six members, was in its prime at this period. On March 16th the company was presented with a handsome flag, donated by patriotic citizens, in an elaborate ceremony staged in front of the Lanier House. The speech of presentation was made by Philip Tracy, Esq., and responded to by Capt. Theodore Parker. The Macon Volunteers, at this time, floated from their armory on November 20th, a national flag with but fifteen stars and the coat of arms of Georgia. The Jackson Artillery frankly paraded the flag of the Southern Confederacy with the old device of the arms of Georgia bearing the snake and the motto “noli me tangere.” Tension became keen, and there was much agitated discussion and fiery oratory.

Johnston-Felton-Hay House built in late 1850’s. This is the rear view of the house from Cherry Street.

On February 6th, the first meeting of the stockholders of the Macon & Brunswick railroad was held. The president reported sixty-six and a half miles of road under contract, the total cost of the road to be $2,176,712. On May 16th the stockholders met at Augusta. Lewis N. Whittle reported that subscriptions exceeded the requirements for a charter for the company. A board of directors was then elected and the Macon & Augusta Railroad organized. S. D. Head was elected president. Macon City Council subscribed $50,000 and citizens contributed about the same amount. On December 12th, the Belgian Fair was held in Macon, in the state fair ground at Camp Oglethorpe at the foot of Pine street. Two ships brought loads of goods from Belgium for display, and during the fair, which continued for some weeks, many sales were made and orders taken for Belgian wares, chiefly perfumery and soaps. Capt. Thos. L. Massenburg, of Massenburg & Son, then the principal druggists, foresaw the impending of war, and farsightedly purchased the entire stock of perfumery and soaps from the Belgian commission, which he kept on sale during the embargo and shortage of the war. At the same time the Cotton Planters Fair was held in Macon. The planters, sensing the disturbances in the air were resolved on establishing direct trade with Europe, as a protection to the industry of southern agriculture in case of war. The year 1859 closed prosperously. Many improvements had been made in the city, and values were high, and shipments heavy. Cotton receipts were large, and the business of the railroads had increased almost beyond their capacity. Seventeen new stores were built during the year, and numbers of handsome residences. The increase of travel required the building of an additional hotel, two new hostelries, Granite Hall and the Stubblefield House being erected. The Lanier House was also extensively improved and enlarged. The Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in 1859, established a book depository in Macon, under the charge of Rev. John W. Burke, and a board of directors, which was a success from the beginning. Joseph Clisby at heavy personal expense printed and circulated a daily paper, giving the telegraphic news of the tense situation then felt throughout the country. The year 1859 ended with every Macon industry and business in a thriving condition, with her horizon bright with promise. But to the northward there were rumblings. This era, the brightest the South had ever known, was destined not to endure. 48

Chapter VIII PERIOD FROM 1860 TO 1865 When telegrams reached Macon announcing the nomination of Breckenridge and Lane, a very large meeting was held at the court house. This was participated in by a large majority of the democrats of Bibb county. The nominations were endorsed and one hundred guns were fired in honor of the occasion. The other wing of the party worked diligently for its candidates. The failure of the Charleston Convention of the National Democratic party to agree on a platform of principles, and candidates for president and vice-president, resulted as is well known, in a split in the party, most of the Southern delegates withdrawing. One branch of the party assembled in Baltimore and nominated Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, for president. The Southern wing nominated John C. Breckenridge, of Kentucky, for president, and Joseph Lane, of Oregon, for vice president. In the meantime, the Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln on a platform inimical to Southern interests, while a new party, the American, nominated John Bell, of Tennessee, for president and Edward Everett for vice-president. Hon. Stephen A. Douglas with his wife visited Macon on October 31, 1860. Hon. A. H. Stephens accompanied the party. Many from surrounding counties assembled in Macon to hear the opinions of these two eminent statesmen upon the questions of the day which were causing such division in the party. After meeting many influential citizens, Mr. Douglas, from the balcony of the Lanier House, addressed a few remarks to the large crown assembled, stating that they should hear from him and also from Mr. Stephens, the greatest intellect and purest statesman of the country, upon the principles for which they stood. Over five thousand persons irrespective of party gathered at the passenger depot building at 2 o’clock p.m. to hear the two “little giants.” Judge E. A. Nisbet introduced Mr. Stephens who spoke for an hour and a half, reviewing the political situation for some years and advising calmness and deliberation. He expressed every confidence in Mr. Douglas, and Governor Johnson, the nominees, respectively for president and vice-president of the Baltimore convention, and urged his belief that all parties could unite upon them and adopt their principles to maintain the Constitution and the laws. Mr. Douglas followed and spoke until five o’clock p.m. He was again highly complimentary to Mr. Stephens and endorsed all that he had spoken. He made a lucid explanation and vigorous defense of his Squatter Sovereignty theory. He made a sharp attack upon the Secessionists and argued with force against

secession as a Constitutional right. The speech was forcible, plain, argumentative, and national in spirit. It was received with respect and courtesy by all present and with much enthusiasm by his own friends and the advocates of Mr. Bell. In the Electoral College the votes stood: Lincoln, 180; Douglas, 12; Breckenbridge, 72; and Bell, 39; showing a good majority for Lincoln, over the combined strength of his opponents. The election took place on November 7, 1860. There were four candidates before the people and on the result of this election the fate of the Union depended. There were 2,002 ballots cast in Bibb county. Bell received 884; Breckenridge, 812; and Douglas, 306. In the state of Georgia, Breckenridge had the lead over Bell. On the day of the election, realizing that all hope was lost, the citizens of Macon held a public meeting to consider measures for securing their political and domestic welfare. Hon. Washington Poe was chosen to preside. He urged calmness and deliberation but advised determination. A committee of ten was appointed to report business for the meeting. The meeting adjourned to reassemble in the evening at half past seven o’clock to hear the report of the committee. “Report: “The original thirteen states of the United States were organized out of the thirteen distinct colonies of Great Britain, wholly separate and independent of each other; and when they separated from the Mother Country, they did it as separate Confederated Communities, and were in the treaty of peace so recognized by the king, for he treated with them by name, as thirteen distinct Sovereign Powers. These powers, or separate nations, confederated and united by treaty and alliance for their mutual defense, conceding to each other as a whole certain specified powers; but never surrendering the one to the other, or one part to the other part of the Confederacy, their sovereignty; hence they constituted United States or Sovereign Confederated Powers, and of course absolute equals without regard to size or population. The government which they formed for the Confederacy was only their agency to protect weak communities, not a government for their populations, where majorities ruled; for had it been so, the six largest states would now be entitled to govern all the rest, for these have a greater population than all the balance united. The Sovereigns were composed solely of white men, and they formed governments only for white men. “Blacks were numerous amongst them all, but were every49

where regarded not only as servile subordinates, but as chattel property, and were so recognized by the laws of all and each of the Confederates, and so treated as commodities of commerce in the Constitution of the Confederacy, and in all treaties between them and foreign powers. But slave labor soon proving unprofitable in the inhospitable climate of the North, the slaves were transferred further South, and slavery was prohibited by the states North. And no sooner was this done, than these states commenced, and have continued their aggressions upon the states further South; and this they did, avowedly, to lessen the political power of the South, and enhance their own. This was boldly proclaimed by their greater leader, Senator Rufus King, upon the floor of the Senate. The men of that day were too magnanimous and manly to conceal their designs under the hypocritical mantle of philanthropy. “That the Southern people have suffered and are suffering from the North, wrongs too grievous to be borne, let facts be submitted to the just judgment of a candid world. “After the South had voluntarily surrendered to them the vast empire northwest of the Ohio, they insisted upon the prohibition of slavery west of the Mississippi and kept Missouri out of the Union until they forced the South, unwisely, to consent to a compromise by surrendering to them territory enough for twelve states, retaining to herself territory only enough for three; and yet after enjoying its benefits they have ever since repudiated the obligations of that compromise whenever it might inure to the benefit of the South. Their citizens, without rebuke and without punishment from their tribunals, have for a long series of years stolen and carried away our slaves; when we have asked for redress the have replied with mockery. “They have by their State Legislature, nullified within their borders the most explicit injunction of the Federal compact binding them to surrender fugitive slaves, and their courts have sustained such unconstitutional laws. “Their citizens have uniformly mobbed, maltreated, and in several instances put to death Southern citizens when seeking to reclaim their lost or stolen property within their dominion, and in no instance have the wrong-doers been tried or punished by their tribunals. “Their citizens have, in several instances, come within the slave-holding states, stolen and carried away our slaves, and their governors have refused to surrender on demand the felons as fugitives from justice, on the ground that it can be no crime to steal a slave. “Sixty-eight of their prominent members of Congress have without rebuke subscribed for, patronized and encouraged the publication and the circulation of a book that recommends to the slaves the indiscriminate massacre of their masters and the re-enactment of the horrors of St. Domingo upon our wives and daughters. “The notorious thief and murderer, John Brown, with his band of assassins, failing to effect such a massacre and paying the penalty of the law with his life, is canonized as a saint by many of the presses, pulpits and thousands of their citizens and no mark of censure is branded upon them but rather approbation and increased patronage.

“They have driven our citizens by hired assassins with Sharp’s rifles, out of our common territory, purchased with the blood and treasure of our citizens; and then to deceive the world, have pretended such territory was not adapted to slave labor, when it is notorious that such labor is more profitable in states bordering on such territory than in any other part of the country. “They have prohibited the common hospitality of civilized nations to our citizens traveling through or visiting their state, by taking from them their domestic servants who may be in attendance upon their sick families, while citizens from the North annually travel through and remain in the South, unmolested; with whatever servants they may prefer. “They have expelled our citizens from their most popular churches as too impure for their communion. “They have crowned their long series of insult and wrong by putting; over us, without our aid, and in contempt of our protest and remonstrance, a man – as President – whose sole claim to their popular regard, is his avowed pledge to maintain an `irrepressible conflict’ for our destruction. “It therefore becomes our duty, a duty which we owe to ourselves, our country, and our posterity, to arrest these aggressions and take prompt and effectual measures for the protection of our rights. Therefore: “Resolved, That the Senator and Representatives of the county of Bibb, be requested, at the earliest possible date, to introduce into the Legislature of Georgia a bill for the speedy call of a convention of the people of the state, to take such action and devise such measures as will protect themselves and families from impending ruin. “Resolved, That our Senator and Representatives be requested to introduce and support a bill for the procuring of a sufficiency of good arms to every male citizen subject to military duty. “Resolved, That we recommend to our fellow citizens of Georgia in every county, to proceed at once to organize and arm themselves, as well as they may be able for their protection against impending dangers. Samuel T. Bailey Robert A. Smith Charles J. Harris Lewis N. Whittle John B. Lamar Joel R. Branham Edward L. Strohecker J. H. R. Washington James Mercer Green T. R. Bloom Committee.” The committee recommended that resolutions be adopted, for the appointment of a “Committee of Safety,” and for the organization of “Minute Men.” Their report was read as a whole, then re-read, and adopted by sections, by rising vote and amid wild applause. Their recommendations that “Minute Men” be organized resulted in a Constitution for the organization of Minute Men being adopted and published on November 9, 1860. 50

Prior to the State Convention appointed for the 16th of January, 1861, at Milledgeville, many stirring events took place, and Macon was the scene of many masterly and impassioned addresses by notable speakers. Hon. Washington Poe and E. A. Nisbet addressed the “Minute Men” and the public on December 1st. Senator Robert Toombs spoke for two hours on December 3rd. On the 9th, Hon. Thomas R. R. Cobb at the invitation of the “Minute Men” addressed them at Concert Hall. He was listened to by an immense crowd for four and a half hours. After the organization of “Minute Men” which originated in Macon, other organizations were formed throughout the state. Their purpose was to “sustain Southern Constitutional equality in the Union, or failing in that, to establish our independence out of it.” On December 20, 1860, South Carolina, under an ordinance of secession passed in Sovereign Convention, withdrew from the Union of the United States and assumed her State sovereignty. This was the first step in the Great Civil Commotion of the Century. Immediately one hundred guns were fired in Macon amidst the ringing of bells and the shrieks of the people. At night a procession of 1,500 persons was formed, that marched on the principal streets carrying banners and torchlights. The following is taken from Minutes of the Macon Volunteers: “Armory Hall, Macon Volunteers, December 26, 1860 “Called meeting: Pursuant to orders the company assembled at 7:30 o’clock p.m., Capt. R. A. Smith in the chair. “The minutes of previous meeting were read and confirmed. “The roll was called by Sergeant Campbell and a very large majority of the corps answered to the call. “The petition of Joel Branham, Jr., and William F. Brown for membership were read for the second time and they were duly elected. “Capt. Smith then rose and stated to the meeting that the following telegraphic dispatches from Charleston were received in this city at noon this day. “Last night at 8 o’clock the garrison at Fort Moultrie spiked their guns and burnt their barracks, cut down their flag staff, and returned in a schooner to Fort Sumter, leaving only four commissioned officers in Fort Moultrie. As the last boat left they fired the last gun and spiked it. The news that Fort Sumter was garrisoned caused intense excitement in Charleston. Two regiments immediately ordered under arms and the convention ordered the forts taken. Buchanan generally execrated as playing a double part. By telescope the barracks of Fort Moultrie can be seen in flames, large gangs of men are landing stores and ammunition at Fort Sumter from the schooner. The governor and principal state officers are in council. One of the officers of Fort Moultrie has just landed in the city and states that Major Anderson says he ordered the transfer on his own authority and he is believed. He has now the strongest Fort in the harbor. A collision is not improbable. Troops from the interior en route for the city.’ “Capt. Smith then stated upon receipt of these dispatches he had telegraphed to Governor Pickens of South Carolina and tendered to him the services of the Macon Volunteers if needed. (This announcement was received by the company with

enthusiastic applause); that the other military companies of this city and those of Savannah, Atlanta, Augusta, and Columbus had also tendered their services to Governor Pickens. “After repeated cheers Lieutenant Butts offered the following resolution: “Resolved, That we confirm the acts of our commander in tendering the services of the corps to the governor of South Carolina.’ “The resolution was seconded by several members and on being put was unanimously adopted by a rising vote and with repeated cheers. Capt. Smith then ordered the company to be ready to take up the line of march if called upon. The following motion was then adopted: “Moved that Capt. Smith be authorized to apply to Gov. Brown for a supply of knapsacks for the corps and that he be authorized to appoint some member to carry the application and bring the knapsacks.’ “Surgeon G. G. Grivin was appointed to discharge that duty. “The revised by-laws were then read, etc, etc. “Capt. Smith then ordered the company at each alarm of fire at night to repair to the armory in fatigue dress, fully armed and having six rounds of ball cartridges until further orders.” The meeting then adjourned. A short time after adjournment, the following telegraphic dispatch was received from Charleston. “Charleston “Dec. 28, 1860. “To Capt Smith: “Many thanks for your prompt offer. I will call upon you if necessary. By the order of the governor. “W. M. Elliott, “Aide de Camp. “U. Van Geisin, “Secretary M. V.” On the third of January, 1861, Governor Brown ordered A. R. Lawton, of Savannah, to seize Fort Pulaski and the Savannah defenses. There was a spirited rivalry among the volunteer companies of Savannah to participate in this duty. Governor Brown’s action was instigated by the information that the government of Washington had decided on the policy of coercing a seceding state back into the Union and he thought it wise to have no hostile force in command of Georgia’s defenses until the convention of the state of Georgia had decided on a policy in this emergency. This action of Georgia’s governor stimulated the war spirit and immediately gave Georgia the prestige that she held to the end of the conflict. The “Minute Men” of Macon passed unanimously some resolutions of Charles J. Harris, Esq., approving the seizure and pledging themselves to sustain Governor Brown at any sacrifice. A little episode occurred at this time that will exemplify the popular feeling as well as Gov. Brown’s spirit. The officers of the volunteer companies of Macon, Capt. R. A. Smith, Capt. E. Smith, Capt. E. Fitzgerald, Capt. T. M. Parker, Capt. L. M. Lamar, and Lieut. Wm. H. Ross, telegraphed the governor asking “if he would sanction the movement of Georgia 51

Volunteers going to the aid of South Carolina.” His prompt response was, “I will not. Your first duty is to Georgia. South Carolina is able at present to take care of herself. You may be needed at home very soon. Joseph E. Brown.” Mississippi, on the 9th of January, 1861, passed an ordinance of secession. On the 10th of January, Florida seceded; Alabama took the same step on the 11th day of January, 1861.

Smith, of North Carolina. At three o’clock p.m. March 4th, the first flag of the young republic was spread to the breeze over the capitol of Alabama where the Congress was in session, and was greeted with an artillery salute. MACON’S FIRST CONFEDERATE FLAG The design of the flag was telegraphed throughout the Confederacy and on the night following the same day, Mrs. Thomas Hardeman, of Macon, sat up all night to make the first flag of the Confederacy to be raised in Georgia. She presented it on March 5th to the Floyd Rifles, and they proudly placed it on their armory and fired the first salute in the state in honor of the Confederate colors. In proportion to its population no county in the Confederacy contributed more troops to the war during the whole four years than Bibb. Macon sent several companies to Georgia’s coast defense before the first gun was fired in Charleston Harbor. Twenty-six Bibb county companies were scattered on hundreds of battle grounds. On the 19th of April President Davis telegraphed Governor Brown for two or three companies to go at once to Norfolk, Va., and inquired when he could have them ready. From Milledgeville Governor Brown telegraphed for volunteer companies in Macon, Griffin, and Columbus. In twenty-four hours the men were in cars for Norfolk, Va., and were the first troops outside Virginia to arrive in defense of her homes, arriving there even a little before the Virginia troops reached the Seaboard of their own state. These four companies were formed into the famous Second Georgia Battalion and were: The Macon Floyd Rifles, Capt. Thomas Hardeman, first lieutenant. The Macon Volunteers, Capt. R. A. Smith, first lieutenant, George S. Jones, second lieutenant. Columbus City Light Guards, Capt. P. H. Colquitt, and the Spalding Grays, a Griffin company under Capt. Doyal. Capt. Thomas Hardeman was elected major of this battalion, and he and they did some of the finest service performed in the war.

The Secession Convention A convention of the people of Georgia, known as the Secession Convention, assembled in Milledgeville on January 1, 1861. The Convention of 1861 was composed of the finest material in the state. Among the delegates none were held in higher esteem than the delegation from Bibb county. Judge E. A. Nisbet, the author of the Ordinance of Secession, had always been a very conservative public man. He was a small gentleman, though of great personal dignity. He possessed unusual culture and erudition, probably wrote more literary articles for the leading papers and delivered more literary addresses than any lawyer in the state. He was a Christian of profound piety and was an elder in the Presbyterian church of Macon for many years and held this office until his death. He had been Congressman and a Justice of the Supreme Court of his state when it was first organized. Hon. Washington Poe settled in Macon in 1825. Among the early lawyers associated with him at the bar were Oliver H. Prince, Edward D. Tracy, John W. Campbell, Christopher B. Strong, and Charles J. McDonald. He commanded a large practice and was a citizen of Macon and practicing petitioner of law for more than half a century. He was a member of the Presbyterian Church and was ruling elder for many years, continuing in that office until the time of his death in 1876. He was active in organizing Macon’s first schools, churches, railroads, and nearly every other institution that the city had enjoyed. A history of his life and experiences would be a history of Macon. He held with striking ability many public offices. He was Intendant two years after coming to Macon. He was later Solicitor of the Circuit, then mayor of the city and held both of these offices when firmness and fearless discharge of duty were vitally necessary to maintain peace and order in the community. He was elected to Congress but resigned this office to attend to pressing business affairs at home. Col. John B. Lamar was a man of refined manners and culture. He had served in the legislature and in Congress. He cared little for the honors of public office but preferred to devote himself to literary attainments. He was a man of wealth and he delighted in unostentatious benevolence. He was liberal to important benevolent institutions and to the church and was deeply interested in their success. He entered the army of Virginia as aide to his brother-in-law, Gen. Howell Cobb. He was killed when 2,000 Confederates heroically held the pass against 15,000 Federals during the Battle at Hampton Gap by a minnie ball as he was riding alone through the storm of the enemy’s bullets to deliver an important command. On March 4th, in Montgomery, Alabama, the Confederate Congress adopted the “Stars and Bars” as the flag of the Confederate states. The flag was designed by Orren Randolph

MACON SOLDIERS WHO WORE THE GRAY The following companies served during the war from Macon and Bibb County: Cavalry Bibb County Cavalry, Captain Samuel S. Dunlap. Ocmulgee Rangers, Capt. T. G. Holt, Jr., Co. A., 19th Georgia Cavalry, afterward Company F. 10th Confederate Cavalry. Infantry Macon Volunteers, Capt. R. A. Smith, Co. D, 2nd Georgia Battalion. Floyd Rifles, Capt. Thomas Hardeman, Co. C, 2nd Georgia Battalion. Brown Infantry, Capt. George A. Smith, Co. C, 1st Georgia Regiment. Independent Volunteers, Capt. J. W. Aderhold, Co. A, 1st Georgia Regiment. Central City Blues, Capt. J. G. Rogers, Co. H, 12th Georgia Infantry. Lochrane Guards, Capt. Jackson Barnes, Co. F, Infantry Battalion, Phillips Legion. 52

Ross Volunteers, Capt. Richard F. Woolfolk. Whittle Guards, Capt. Jones, Co. D, 10th Battalion, Georgia Infantry. Huguenin Rifles, Capt. Cicero A. Tharpe, Co. D, 30th Georgia Regiment. Lamar Infantry, Capt. T. W. Brantley, Co. A, 54th Georgia Regiment. Rutland Guards, Capt. J. W. Stubbs, Co. B, 27th Georgia Regiment. Sparks Guards, Captain J. B. Cumming. Thomson Guards, Capt. J. A. Van Valkenburg, 10th, 13th, 61st Georgia Regiment. Macon Guards, Capt. Lucius M. Lamar, Co. C, 8th Georgia Regiment. Gresham Rifles, Capt. M. R. Rogers, Co. A, 45th Georgia Regiment. Mangham Infantry, Capt Chas. J. Williamson. Scott Infantry, Capt. T. J. Pritchett, Co. B, 64th Georgia Regiment. Lockett Infantry, Capt. Chas. J. Harris, Co. K, 59th Georgia Regiment. Artillery Jackson Artillery, Capt. Theo W. Parker. Afterward captained by Georgia A. Dure and afterward by Thos. L. Massenberg as Massenberg’s Battery. German Artillery, Capt. F. Burghard. Napier Artillery, Capt. LeRoy Napier. Afterward became Macon Light Artillery, Capt. Henry N. Ells. Home Guards Macon & Western Railroad Guards, Capt. John S. Wise, Macon Volunteers, Co. B, Capt. C. H. Freeman; Floyd Rifles, Co. B; Fireman Guards, Capt. Geo. S. Obear: Bibb Volunteer Guards, Capt. H. L. Jewett; Companies A and B of Ordnance Battalion. Two conventions were held in Georgia in June, 1861, of public interest. The first was at Atlanta, a “Bank Convention of the Confederate States,” which met June 3rd, and did important work in aiding the financial measures of the new government. G. B. Lamar, of Macon, was president and Isaac Scott, of Macon, was one of the Georgia delegates. The second convention was the Cotton Planters’ Convention in Macon. A committee composed of J. H. R. Washington, Pulaski S. Holt, and Nathan Bass was appointed to issue a call for a Confederate Cotton Planters’ Convention, which was done.

many more workers engaged in the manufacture of smaller weapons. There were also smaller institutions for manufacturing such articles as swords, enamelled cloth, buttons, soap, wire, matches. Georgia was in the center of the Confederate States, and Macon being in the center of Georgia, became an important place for depositing and distributing supplies. The Treasury Department established a depository in Macon and Wm. B. Johnston was appointed to take charge of it. At one time there was $1,500,000 in gold under the protection of this institution. This depository was next in importance to that in Richmond. In seven days in February, 1864, during the funding of the first issue of Confederate notes, the Macon Depository counted in and took up $15,000,000. After the fail of Vicksburg, Georgia was the main state to supply the Confederate armies west of the Alabama river with food. The South Georgia fields which formerly were given over almost entirely to growing cotton for New England and European manufacturies were now green with corn. Macon became an important point for Quartermaster and Commissary Departments. With so many Georgia troops in defense of the frontier states, it became necessary to form an army of reserved forces for the protection of the state, since the Federal Standard had been planted on Georgia’s coast and the invaders were gradually advancing into Tennessee. This reserve army consisted chiefly of old men, youths, and the feeble and infirm and the operators of the departments. Gen. Lee detailed Gen. Howell Cobb for this organization and command and he established in Atlanta in 1863 “Headquarters of the Army of Georgia Reserves.” In 1864 headquarters were removed to Macon. Gen. Cobb was greatly loved and respected in his native state and he put new spirit into the people. He soon had successfully organized this army for state protection, which also acted as an aid to Tennessee.

THE CONFEDERATE ARSENAL AT MACON The arsenal at Savannah, under charge of Col. R. M. Cuyler, was removed to Macon in May, 1862, and the large foundry establishment of Messrs. Findlay, with all its machinery was appropriated for the use of that department. A dozen of the largest store houses and other buildings were occupied for deposit of various articles connected with the Ordnance Department. More than three hundred and fifty artisans and workmen and at one time as many as five hundred were kept at work in the manufacture of cannon, shot, shell, saddles, harness, etc. The twelve-pounder Napoleon guns made by the arsenal were the pride of the army. The laboratory and armory establishments kept as

Public Meeting in Macon Macon, February 17th, 1863. In pursuance of a call published in The Daily Telegraph, a large number of the citizens of Macon and the surrounding country, assembled this day in the City Hall. The meeting was organized by calling the Hon. T. G. Holt to the chair and appointing W. D. Williams, secretary. The chairman, on taking his seat, made known the object of the meeting, and announced that it was ready for business. On motion of Col. Whittle, a committee of five was appointed by the Chair, to-wit; Messrs. L. N. Whittle, Nathan Bass, J. J. Gresham, W. B. Johnston and A. Lockett, to consider and report business for the action of the meeting.

A LITTLE COERCION USED The year 1862 ended with one dollar of gold being equal to three and four of Confederate money. Our Confederate currency was rapidly depreciating and patriotic men in vain resisted it. The following appeared in The Georgia Journal and Messenger of February, 25th, 1863.


The committee having retired, returned and reported the following preamble and resolutions, which, on motion of Col. W. K. deGraffenried, were unanimously adopted. “Although happily for us, we ourselves are remote from the actual din of battle and clash of arms, and are allowed to enjoy in ease and security, the comforts of our homes and firesides, still we recognize the fact that we of Georgia, together with our sister states of the Confederacy, are in the midst of revolution and war, and that these blessings are allowed us in consequence of the energy and gallantry of our young men, of our brothers, sons, and friends, who have rushed to the fields and are now confronting our enemies, offering themselves willing sacrifices for us for our property and for their families whom they have left behind and in our keeping. “We are engaged in a war, whether considered in view of the numbers engaged on either side or the mighty results which must inevitably follow to us. involving liberty and independence on the one hand or utter subjugation and ruin on the other, of such magnitude as the world never before saw, and this with one of the most powerful nations of the earth, outnumbering us near three to one, requiring on our part not only unity of purpose but concert of action, and the actual development of every power and aid to assist and sustain our young government and brave troops in the mighty and unequaled contest, in which we are engaged; with this union and concert, smiled on as we feel we have been heretofore by a kind gracious Providence we must succeed, unless, we shall be shorn of our strength by enemies lurking in our midst, under the guise of friends. “To wage this war does now require and will require to keep troops almost innumerable in the field, to supply them with clothes, sustenance and transportation, to manufacture and supply immense quantities of arms and all the munitions of war, to provide for and take care of the wives and children whom our volunteers have left in our charge, while they are away battling, and if need be, dying in our defense; these and each of them, will require large sums of money to procure and supply, and without which the struggle must be given over; indeed, without money for the future, as well as now, we are already vanquished. “Our young government, not yet two years old, being cut off from all commercial intercourse with the world hemmed in by the powerful navy of the enemy is forced to rely on her own resources for money as well as for all other requisites to carry on this war for our independence, and although containing within itself all the elements of wealth sufficient even for this great emergency which is upon her, she is forced while the blockade of her ports shall continue, to resort to her credit until she shall be able to send abroad and dispose of the rich commodities with which almost every farm in the land is filled, so that for the time, this credit as used by our government, the Confederate currency is to us, all in all. “Destroy this credit, break down this currency, and our armies must of necessity at once give up the fight and come home, and we with them occupy the position our enemies in no other way have been or will be able to force upon us, that of serfs and slaves to the bigots of New England and their allies and friends. “He would thus work our ruin, would not hesitate to lead

our troops into the ambush of the enemy, or by any other means in his power, short of taking the field as an open enemy, work our ruin. “Therefore, Resolved, That we will hold all persons as enemies of this Confederacy, who shall by any means, depreciate the Confederate currency or shall refuse to receive it in payment of debts, and will use our best endeavor to bring all such to condign punishment by legal means, if the law provides such a punishment, but if not, to punishment with or without law. “Resolved, That in as much as the Confederate government has made its treasury notes a legal tender in payment for the army taken from the citizens by impressment, by compelling such citizens to receive them in payment for such supplies, and also in payment of its troops, we deem it both the duty and interest of the government, as well with the view of sustaining its credit, as an act of impartial justice to all its citizens, to make such notes, by legislative enactment, a legal tender in payment of all debts. “Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be sent to our Senators and Representatives, to the end that they may bring the subject before Congress, and either pass a law making the Confederate currency a legal tender, or a law inflicting severe punishment on all who shall endeavor to depreciate or lower its value. “Resolved, That the Mayor and Council of the City of Macon are requested to appoint a vigilance committee, to be composed of twenty-five of our best and most substantial citizens, who shall be clothed with all the power of the city police, and, whose duty it shall especially be to collect any and all facts they can, bearing on this subject, and bring the offenders to punishment. “Resolved, That the committee who shall be appointed by the City Council, collect as far as they can, the names of all the persons in the city, who have refused to receive the currency in payment of debts due them, that they may be brought to the notice of the public and to punishment; *(on motion of C. J. Harris) that any attempt tending directly or indirectly to depreciate the currency of the country, is unpatriotic. “Resolved, Therefore, That during the continuance of the war, the attorneys of this city be recommended to reject all claims for suits, where the party plaintiff refuses to accept Confederate money in payment of the same.” On motion of J. Rutherford, Esq. the proceedings of this meeting were ordered to be published in the city paper, and all journals favorable to the objects of this meeting, requested to copy. The meeting, then, on motion, adjourned. T. G. HOLT, Chairman. W. D. WILLIAMS, Secretary. The following committee was appointed by the City Council, in conformity with the above proceedings: T. G. Holt, J. B. Ross, J. J. Gresham, Wm. B. Johnston, Charles Collins, J. W. Fears, G. M. Logan, S. T. Coleman, P. E. Bowdre, Thomas A. Harris, J. T. Boifeuillet, David Flanders, J. DeLoache, J. A. Ralston, E. L. Strohecker, Nathan Bass, G. T. Rogers, C. C. Sims, W. T. Lightfoot, Robert B. Barfield, George W. Price, W. Massenberg, A. Mix, J. H. R. Washington, Dr. M. S. Thomson. 54

In 1861 Eugenius A. Nisbet, of Macon, was a candidate against Gov. Brown for the high office of governor of the State of Georgia. Brown received 46,493 votes and Nisbet 32,802. Street gossip was “Brown is elected but we have a Nisbet Legislature that will give him the devil.” Macon was particularly well situated for hospitals. No people in the world could have been more unselfish, hospitable, and patriotic. Her climate was fine and healthy and her water supply abundant and pure.

SOME FIGHTING AROUND MACON Macon has very little actual fighting to record. On the 29th of July, 1864, Capt Dunlap in command of a party of Scouts, reported Federal troops (Stoneman’s), on the Clinton road, approaching Macon. Gov. Brown was in the city and called on every man, citizen or refugee, who had a gun of any kind or could get one, to report at the court house. The citizens responded promptly and by seven o’clock on the 30th, Gen. Cobb had 2,000 men posted in line of battle between East Macon and Walnut creek. Six hundred Tennesseeans, under Major John W. Nisbet, from Andersonville, and one thousand state troops, on their way to Atlanta, were detained in Macon. The Confederates under Col. J. B. Cumming formed on

LADIES’ SOLDIERS’ RELIEF SOCIETY As early as April, 1861, Macon women organized a society called the “Ladies’ Soldiers’ Relief Society.” The officers were Mrs. Washington Poe, president; Mrs. Thomas Hardeman, vice president; Miss N. E. Bass, secretary; and Miss Julia Wrigley, treasurer. They made and furnished “lint bandages and garments to the sick and wounded soldiers in the field.” Later they undertook to furnish clothing to the troops of Bibb county, and hospital supplies to the sick and wounded. Before the first of September two hundred and two members had been added to this society. This included an auxiliary society of juvenile patriots which completed and contributed in two months thirty-six pairs of drawers, twenty pairs of socks and thirty-three shirts. The Wayside Home was the name given by a company of ten citizens to the old Macon Hotel which they purchased and placed under the charge of the Relief Society. They converted it into a hospital and eating house for the disabled soldiers on the trains and it proved to be one of the most useful works of the society. Mrs. L. N. Boykin succeeded Mrs. Bass as secretary of the Relief Society and continued in office until the close of the war. In 1862, Mrs. E. L. Johnston was made treasurer and chairman of Committee on Hospital supplies. The daughter of Major Philip Cook, Mrs. Isaac Winship, who was born within the stockade of Fort Hawkins and said to be the first white child born in the vicinity of Macon, played an important part in the Confederate work in Macon. No Southern woman responded with more devotion and sacrifice to the call for assistance from the wounded. In 1862, she organized and fitted out the first Confederate Hospital in Georgia. The sick and wounded were often carried to her own home where they were tenderly cared for. She visited the battlefields and superintended the removal of Confederate dead and then saw that their graves were marked. She was president of the Memorial Association of Macon after the war, and it was largely through her efforts in 1879 that the Confederate monument was unveiled. The women of the South almost clothed their soldiers and supplied the hospitals with lint bandages and other articles. In 1864 and 1865 there were no less than six thousand disabled troops in and around Macon, a number equal to the white population of the city, including women and children. Every state from Maryland to Texas had disabled men receiving ministrations from Macon women. The old brewery which stood formerly on Pleasant Hill was another building that was converted into a hospital for disabled troops.

Judge Asa Holt built this home in 1853. The home was struck by a cannonball on July 30, 1864 and is known today as the Cannonball House.

the Clinton road. There was also a battery of three pieces under Captain Peschke. A battery under Major Edwin Taliaferro was stationed on a hill beyond Fort Hawkins. Lieutenant Colonel Findlay’s Georgia Reserves were between the two. On the west side of the river, Company B, Macon Volunteers under Capt. B. F. Ross, was stationed, also a company of operators from the Macon Factory under Major M.R. Rogers, a company of convalescents from the hospital, under Lieutenant Colonel C. M. Wiley; the Fireman Guards under Lieutenant Nicall. The Silver Grays (a full company of aged gentlemen) under Capt. J. R. Armstrong, were posted on the Vineville road. The enemy had placed a battery at Dunlap’s farm and fired shot which fell around the suburbs of Macon. One shot fell into the heart of the city, tearing away a portion of a column of the home of Mrs. Asa Holt on Mulberry street. The home stands now as then and is occupied by the grandchildren of Mr. Holt’s wife, Mrs. Robinson and Mrs. Martin. As the enemy approached down the Milledgeville road, Nisbet’s Battalion was ordered to charge. The enemy retreated to Cross Keys. Cumming lost seven killed and thirty-six wounded. Stoneman with 5,000 troopers and McCook with 4,000 had gone to meet on the Macon road and expected to rip up matters. Both commands were surrounded. Gen. Wheeler defeated McCook at Newnan and Gen. Cobb at Macon defeated Stoneman. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston was present in Macon and tendered his services to Gen. Cobb. Gen. Cobb asked him to take command, which he 55

declined to do, but stood by Gen. Cobb and gave directions as to the arrangement of the line of battle. Stoneman on arriving at Clinton had been surprised to learn that the city bridge at Macon had been carried away by a freshet a short time before, and that Gen. Johnston was at Macon. Finding he could not capture the city, he kept one column of about a thousand men, principally sharp-shooters, with a couple of rifled pieces of artillery, to make a feint on Macon while he marched after another column to undefended points on the Central Railroad where he tore up tracks and burned bridges over Walnut Creek and the Oconee river. He also destroyed locomotives and cars at Gordon and Griswoldville. The enemy were retiring from Macon, when on August 1st, they were met by Gen. Iverson at Sunrise church near Clinton, and after a short battle, surrendered. The main body of Stoneman’s troops was not in the battle at Sunrise but Iverson entered Macon bringing Gen. Stoneman and 500 prisoners. For several days numbers were caught in the woods and brought in as captives. All of Stoneman’s artillery and over one thousand eight-shooter rifles and a number of horses were trophies of the Confederates. Gen. Johnston in his narrative says: “It (Macon) was attacked by a division of United States cavalry with the object, probably of destroying the valuable workshops which had been established there by the Chief of Ordnance, Gen. Gorgas. The place had neither entrenchments nor garrison. Fortunately, however, two regiments of the militia promised me while commanding the army, by Gov. Brown, were passing on their way to Atlanta. Their officers were serving the army as privates, so they had none. “With them, and as many of the mechanics of the worshops or volunteers of the town as he could find arms for, in all fifteen or eighteen hundred Gen. Cobb met the Federals on the high ground east of the Ocmulgee, and repulsed them after a contest of several hours, by his own courage and judicious disposition, and the excellent conduct of his troops who heard hostile shots then for their first time.” In his report to Major General H. W. Halleck, chief of staff at Washington, Gen. W. T. Sherman says: “At the moment of starting Gen. Stoneman addressed me a note asking permission, after fulfilling his orders and breaking the road, to be allowed with his command proper to proceed to Macon and Andersonville and release our prisoners of war confined at those points. There was something most captivating in the idea - I consented that, after the defeat of Wheeler’s Cavalry which was embraced in his orders, and breaking the road, he might attempt it - I have as yet no report from Gen. Stoneman who is a prisoner near Macon. He did not succeed in crossing the Ocmulgee at Macon nor approaching Andersonville - One Brigade, Col. Adams’, came in almost intact; another commanded by Col. Capron, was surprised on the way back and scattered. Many were captured and killed - His mistake was not making the first concentration with Generals McCook and Garrard near Lovejoy’s, according to his orders, which is yet unexplained.” The fall of Atlanta and Gen. Sherman’s frightful “March to the Sea” left the Confederacy sick at heart, although Lee had repulsed every assault in Virginia, with a seemingly untouched

capacity of resistance and Jubal Early had won startling success in the valley. The Union which had been greatly depressed took on new courage and inspiration. Lincoln was reelected and $500,000,000 was recommended to be insued for the continuance of the war. Gen. Sherman and “Mr. Lincoln represented the National cause, and Gen. McClellan had accepted the nomination of the Democratic party whose platform on the war was a failure, and that it was better to allow the South to go free to establish a separate government whose corner-stone should be slavery. Success to our (Union) arms was, therefore, a political necessity, and it was all important that something startling in our interest should occur before the election in November. The brilliant success at Atlanta filled that requirement, and made the election of Lincoln certain.” In September Gov. Brown addressed a letter to Gen. Hood withdrawing the state troops from his army stating they had been placed there for the defense of Atlanta and since the city had fallen they were needed on the farms to gather crops. President Davis called upon Gov. Brown for the state militia to remain with Gen. Hood. Gov. Brown declined the request. PRESIDENT DAVIS ADDRESSES OUR CITIZENS President Davis visited Macon on the 23rd of September and at the solicitation of a large number of citizens made an address at the Baptist Church. Although Davis’ visit was unexpected, the meeting at the church was very large. He spoke very hopefully as to the final outcome of the war, notwithstanding the fall of Atlanta. He explained that Gen. Johnston had been removed because he would not fight. He repelled the charge of sacrificing Georgia for Virginia and was vigorous in denouncing Gov. Brown. He stated the armies had been greatly reduced by sickness and absence without leave, and urged the citizens and women especially to induce them to return to their posts. He announced his purpose of sending Hood’s army to the rear of Sherman to destroy supplies and thus force the enemy into starvation. The Macon papers carried a full account of his speech and it was carried to Atlanta and telegraphed all over the country. The papers were full of the Davis-Brown controversy. Hon. B. H. Hill and Judge L. Q. C. Lamar came from Richmond to Georgia and addressed the citizens at Macon in defense of President Davis. As Gen. Hood was moving into Tennessee there were no forces to oppose Sherman’s march except three thousand Georgia State troops under Gen. Gustavus Smith and Wheeler’s Cavalry. Smith, by presenting a bold front at Griffin, Forsyth and Macon, caused Howard to pass these places unmolested. At Griswoldville the State troops, contrary to Smith’s orders, made an attack upon an entrenched Federal Division and were repulsed with a loss of fifty-one killed and four hundred and seventy-two wounded. Wheeler, with his cavalry harassed the Federals as much as possible, defeating exposed attachments, preventing their foragers from venturing far from the main body, defending cities and towns along the railroad lines and in some cases saving depots of supplies and arsenals. Along the line of Sherman’s march his “Bummers” entered private homes, taking from them everything that was of any 56

value and destroying what they were unable to carry off, sometimes setting fire to the house itself. Rings were taken from the fingers of ladies and old men were hung up to make them tell where their treasures were concealed. Sherman entered the city of Savannah on December 23rd. He wired to President Lincoln “I beg to present to you as a Christmas gift the city of Savannah with one hundred and fifty heavy guns and plenty of ammunition and also about 2,500 bales of cotton. In Sherman’s official report he states that he had carried away with him, 10,000 horses and mules and a countless number of slaves. He said, “I estimate the damage done to the state of Georgia and its military resources at $100,000,000, at least $20,000,000 of which has inured to our advantage and the remainder is simply waste and destruction.” Sherman makes no boasts of having accomplished a great military achievement. He says he marched “unobstructed and without opposition to his infantry column, while on the wings the cavalry had only occasionally some slight skirmishes.” After Milledgeville was raided the capital of the state was moved temporarily to Macon. Macon was already full of refugees from other cities who had been left homeless by Sherman’s army.

“No. 1. Gives authority to raise revenue necessary to pay debts, provide for the common defense, and carry on the government, etc. “No. 11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water. “No. 12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriations of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years. “No. 13. To provide and maintain a navy. “No. 14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces. “I know of but two modes of raising armies within the Confederate states, viz., voluntary enlistment and draft, or conscription. I perceive, in the delegation of power to raise armies, no restriction as to the mode of procuring troops. Congress is to have power “to provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Confederate States, suppress insurrections and repel invasions. . . . .reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the offices, and the authority of training the militia. Congress may call forth the militia to execute Confederate laws, the State has not surrendered the power to call them forth to execute State laws - the authority over the militia, so far as granted, appears to me to be plainly an additional enumerated power intended to strength the hands of the Confederate Government in the discharge of its paramount duty, the common defense of the States.”

THE LEGISLATURE CONVENES IN MACON The Legislature convened in Macon in February, 1865. The governor’s message took up two pages, (fourteen columns) of The Macon Telegraph. It expressed considerable dissatisfaction at the administration of President Davis. It advocated calling a convention of representatives of all the states, in the hope that an armistice might be agreed upon, and a peaceable solution of the difficulties between the sections at war attained. The Senate passed a resolution very complimentary to President Davis and expressed warm approval of the administration. The Legislature adjourned before the resolution came to the House. There had been no harmony between Gov. Brown and President Davis from the early part of the war. Gov. Brown, as early as May, 1861, expressed his dissatisfaction that troops from Georgia were accepted into the Confederate service over his head. Gen. Howell Cobb, at the special invitation of a number of prominent citizens, addressed the people at Ralston’s Hall on February 16th. He made a bold and earnest defense of President Davis. He believed with a united action and firm resolve, the South would be triumphant. He saw no good to arise from any State Convention. The Confederacy was only a combination of states with a head to represent the wishes of the whole. No man could render Lincoln a better service than to destroy the confidence of our own people in their own government. In a letter to Gov. Brown, President Davis expressed his views on the power of the Confederate Government over its own armies and militia. “The main, if not the only purpose for which independent states form unions, or confederations, is to combine the power of the several members in such manner as to form one united force, in all relations with foreign powers, whether in peace or in war - the war powers granted to Congress are conferred in the following paragraphs of the Constitution:

GENERAL WILSON CAPTURES MACON It was on April 20th, 1865, that Gen. Wilson and his corps of cavalry numbering 13,500 entered Macon. He was met at Tobesofkee Creek on the Columbus road by Gen. Cobb’s flag of truce. Gen. Howell Cobb received at twelve o’clock noon, April 20th, a telegram from General Beauregard stating that Johnston and Sherman had agreed on an armistice, which would close the war, and to halt Gen. Wilson’s advance on the spot where this communication could reach him. Gen. Cobb withdrew forces and disbanded them, considering the war at an end. Capt. John A. Cobb gives the following account of Wilson’s occupation of Macon: “General Cobb sent a flag of truce on each road on which the Federal columns were approaching. The leading column was the 12th Illinois cavalry; the colonel stated to the bearer of General Cobb’s communication that General Wilson was in the rear and that he would communicate with him; but continued to advance. Major Morgan, of Gen. Cobb’s staff, who had carried the communication rode rapidly back to Macon and notified Gen. Cobb of what had occurred. Gen. Cobb had already sent out notice to his troops that the war was over, and that no resistance was to be made to the approaching Federals. Gen. Cobb surrendered to the colonel of the 12th Illinois under protest. The Federal troops immediately took possession of Macon, and Gen. Wilson arrived in the city that night. General Cobb had been sent to Montgomery, Alabama, to take command there, upon the approach of General Wilson’s troops to Montgomery and had fallen back and collected his troops at Columbus, Georgia, where a serious battle was fought with 57

General Wilson’s command; and Col. C. A. L. Lamar was killed in that battle. General Cobb, and what force he could collect, retreated from Columbus to Macon. General Wilson had of troops and camp followers, over 20,000 men, who soon exhausted the Confederate stock of supplies and provisions at Macon; and he sent out foraging parties through the surrounding country to collect supplies. General Cobb went to General Wilson and told him that his (Wilson’s) orders would not be respected beyond where his troops were stationed; but that the orders of General Cobb would be obeyed anywhere in Georgia; and that there was a large lot of Confederate supplies in the depots on the Southwestern Railroad; and that if he would send out no foraging parties he, General Cobb, would have these supplies sent into Macon and turned over to him; which was done. A condition existed then that never has existed before or since. General Cobb maintained his military headquarters with staff and couriers, and for two weeks issued regular military orders. A prisoner of war, maintaining headquarters and assisting the Federal general who had captured him. General Cobb had his headquarters in the former home of his brother-in-law, Col. John B. Lamar, who lost his life, acting on General Cobb’s staff at Hampton Gap, Maryland; as did also Col. Jefferson Lamar, a brother of Lucius Q. C. Lamar, who commanded the infantry of Cobb’s Legion. “These were the only two officers of General Cobb’s command who were killed in that battle, and both of whom were his relatives by marriage. Gen. Cobb, after completing the task of turning over supplies to General Wilson, went to his home in Athens, Ga. A short time afterwards Gen. Wilson received from Secretary of War Stanton an order sending General Cobb to Washington City. General Wilson sent an officer to Athens who arrested General Cobb, and they started to Washington. General Wilson telegraphed Secretary Stanton, `I have complied with your order to send General Cobb to Washington. General Cobb had not violated the terms of the parole that I gave him. I demand his instant release; and if this is not done, please accept my resignation as Major-General of the United States forces.’ General Wilson then was only thirty years of age. General Cobb was released and returned home. This occurred more than two weeks before the same action was taken by General Grant in regard to General Lee. General Cobb was arrested a second time and released, which he was satisfied was due to the influence and efforts of General Wilson. He was never molested by the Federal authorities afterwards. “When the Spanish-American War came on, General Wilson having resigned from the United States army, his name was sent to the United States Senate for appointment as Major-General. His friends knowing of the capture of Macon by General Wilson, and that Senator Bacon was a citizen of Macon, feared opposition by him to the confirmation of Wilson. To their surprise, Senator Bacon seconded the nomination for confirmation, and passed a handsome eulogy on General Wilson and his conduct at Macon. “After the occupation of Macon by Wilson, the Federal soldiers burned two blocks on Mulberry street, and made several other incendiary attempts. They expected to reap a harvest in Macon and would have laid it in ashes had there been

resistance. To the prudence of General Cobb in destroying the liquor and disbanding his small force of troops, the city was indebted for its escape.” General Wilson in his book “Under the Old Flag” recounts some interesting events during his occupancy of Macon. He tells of giving permission to resume the publication of The Macon Messenger, which had been stopped on his arrival in Macon, and of supplying printers from troops of 4th Michigan Cavalry to get the paper out, when the former printers had gone on a strike. He recounts the part he took in the capture of President Davis. He acknowledged that the details of the flight and capture of President Davis had been ridiculously exaggerated in some accounts. After President Davis and his party had been taken into custody at Irwinville, they were brought to Gen. Wilson’s headquarters at the Lanier Hotel, Macon, May 13th. Gen. Wilson recounts his conversation with President Davis, and of President Davis’ reference to Lincoln’s untimely death, and his remark that he was both surprised and pained to learn, on the road from Irwinville to Macon, that he had been suspected of complicity in the assassination. The following incident, which occurred during Wilson’s occupancy of Macon, is related by Mr. Edgar Ross. Gen. Wilson also relates it in his book “Under the Old Flag:” “INSULTING THE FLAG” “Immediately following the close of the War Between the States, and for several years following, Macon was subjected to martial law. General Wilson, general commanding, and Col. White, provost marshall. Over the sidewalk on Mulberry street, about where Ed. Loh’s place is now, was suspended a United States flag. I was walking with my sisters, Ellen and Julia, and cousin, Viola Ross, when Viola suggested that we walk around “the old rag,” which we did. We had proceeded only a few steps, when a soldier tapped me on the shoulder and said, `Col. White wants to see you.’ I returned with him to Col. White’s office, and was put through a pretty severe questioning. He asked my name, which I gave him, and the name of the young ladies. I told him Ross. He asked if they were my sisters. I answered, “Two of them are and the other is a cousin.’ `What’s her father’s name?’ I answered, `John,’ thinking they would not know I meant `Uncle Jack.’ `Where does he live?’ I answered `I don’t know.’ `Is he related to you?’ `Yes, my uncle.’ `Where does he live?’ `I do not know.’ `Your uncle and you don’t know where he lives?’ `That’s right.’ He had sold his home and I did not know where he was living at the time, but I did not explain. About then a soldier came in with the girls and they were questioned and gave sharp answers and no information. The provost allowed them to leave, but ordered me under the flag for thirty minutes, under guard, where I was made to march thirty paces and back for the required time. When the girls entered the office they were accompanied by a friend of ours, Loren Dickinson, who seeing that I was excited, whispered to me, `Don’t attempt anything here! The snapping of a cap would cause another riot. There is great excitement on the street.’ I had a small pistol in my hip pocket, and , as I 58

wore a white linen jacket, and dark trousers, I was afraid it would be noticed, but I was not searched, and it was not discovered. I was allowed to proceed on my way after I had completed my sentence of thirty minutes. “When Gen. Wilson visited Macon and was entertained by Judge Emory Speer he asked to meet the party who refused to walk under the flag. Viola, then Mrs. Anderson Reese, met him and they laughed over the incident. I declined Judge Speer’s invitation and my sisters were not in Macon at the time.” In many particulars, the Federal soldiers acted very cleverly. Gen. Wilson turned over to Gen. Ira Foster the Confederate mules, horses, wagons, and harness for distribution among the poor, and Col. J. H. R. Washington, of Macon, was associated with Gen. Foster to aid in the distribution. Gen. Wilson directed Mayor Collins to continue his duties as mayor of Macon and keep the civil machinery going and appointed Col. J. H. R. Washington as postmaster. Among other things the theater was re-opened and for a few days Confederate money was received to pay for the tickets. One of Wilson’s soldiers, William E. Doyle, relates that Mrs. Jessie Crisp played

C. D. Findlay’s iron works was appropriated for use by the Confederates in 1862. In later years it was used as the State Farmer’s Market.

at the Ralston Hall and that when Confederate money was realized to be worthless, rations from the Confederate stores were used to pay for the tickets. Hon. James Johnson, of Columbus, had been appointed by President Andrew Johnson, provisional governor of Georgia, to reorganize the state. He made an address in Macon on July 15th, 1865, at the city hall, Gen. Wilson and Hon. Thomas Hardeman being with him on the stage. He declared he was appointed for the single object of enabling the people of Georgia to form a government - that slavery existed no more and the fact would have to be constitutionally recognized. Mr. A. P. Burr, editor of The Macon Journal and Messenger, took the amnesty oath, and published in his issue of July 20, 1865, the oath that after “the performance we smiled.” For this harmless pleasantry he was arrested, his office seized, and his paper suspended. SADNESS AND SORROW For Macon, the period of 1860-65 was one of varying scenes and conflicting emotions. The high water mark of joy and

Old Clisby Home c. 1836, formerly faced Vineville Avenue. Federal officers were quartered here when Macon was occupied in 1865.

Macon City Hall was built in 1838 for the Monroe Railroad and Banking Company. In 1848 it was turned into a cotton warehouse. Purchased by the city in 1860 and remodeled in 1904 and 1933.


enthusiasm was followed by its abyss of sorrow and despondency. In many cases loved ones saw their soldier kin march off with banners flying to martial strain, only to greet them on the return with a funeral dirge. Many of the flower of this city had fallen in battle. Col. John B. Lamar, Col. Robert A. Smith, Col. John Hill Lamar, Major Phillip Tracy, and a host of others had given their lives for their country. Those who kept the home fires burning likewise suffered, and met every turn of adversity with stout hearts. Georgia’s heroism and suffering during the Confederacy is strongly illustrated by comparing her losses with those of the other states: Georgia lost $481 million, or over three-fourths of her wealth; South Carolina, 326, or two-thirds; Mississippi, 355, or two-thirds; Virginia, 186, or two-sevenths; North Carolina, 160, or one-half, Kentucky, 104, or one-fifth; Louisiana, 185, or

two-fifths; Tennessee, 69, or one-fifth; Florida, 36, or one-half; Missouri gained about 286 million. Georgia sent to the field over 120,000 soldiers, or 20,000 more than her voting population at the beginning of the war. From such wreck, Georgia was to begin the work of reconstruction. Governor Jenkins, in closing his inaugural address December 14, 1865, said: “Peace restored – the machinery of government once more put in operation – public and private enterprise aroused from their long slumber – educational institutions reopened - our sacred temples and our altars with their holy ministrations frequented as of yore, and the blessing of Almighty God overspreading and vivifying all earnest effort, Georgia will illustrate the teachings of adversity by speedily achieving an enlarged prosperity.”

Georgia Campaign Map, 1864

Above: Judge E. A. Nisbet introduced the Ordinance of Secession at Georgia Convention January 1, 1861.


Chapter IX PERIOD FROM 1866 TO 1875 With her currency gone, her credit ruined, her labor system demoralized, many of the flower of her young manhood killed, her late enemies conspiring to see how they could further humiliate her, the President and Congress at loggerheads as to what policy to pursue, with carpetbaggers swarming for attack, the citizens of Macon faced the future with heavy but heroic hearts. Sharing her hardships during this period were a number of the sons of the Northern States, who settling in Macon shortly prior to the war, went through those scenes of carnage with their comrades of their adopted State, and had now returned and remained to share whatever fate awaited her. These men, who fought against their kindred and in behalf of their newly acquired neighbors and friends, and who did not forsake them when the clouds of war took the form of the gloom of reconstruction, deserve to have their names perpetuated, and while this list is not complete, among the number were the following who not only did their duty as soldiers, but stood four-square in the darker days to follow: Chas. H. Baird D. B. Woodruff I. B. English Levi H. Wing Thurston Bloom Lorenso (Dow) Ripley Frank Bloom E. Feutchwanger Chas. Campbell Simeon Theus Nathan Weed W. A. Hopson Chas. Bannon G. W. Dingler J. N. Kein Geo. A. Keith Theodore Parker Charles Pruden W. W. Parker Let us take a glance at the commercial and industrial life of our city at this period. In 1866 Stephen Collins was Mayor of Macon with the following aldermen: James V. Grier, Lewis J. Groce, W. T. Lightfoot, Geo. S. Obear, Virgil Powers, Geo. B. Turpin and Ed A. Wilcox, Marshal, John B. Cummings, Captain of Police, Jas. A. Simpson. Judge Superior Court, Carlton B. Cole; Judge of County Court, Powhattan B. Whittle; Ordinary, Wm Riley; Sheriff, J. Joseph Hodges; Clerk Superior Court, Albert B. Ross, Tax Collector, Frank M. Heath; Tax Receiver, John Jeffers; County Treasurer, Jno. A. McManus. Postmaster, J. H. R. Washington. Macon Manufacturing Co., (now Bibb) John J. Gresham, president; Wm. B. Johnston, Jas. D. Carhart, N. C. Munroe, and T. G. Holt, directors; J. E. Jones, agent at head of First street.

Macon & Western Railroad, A. J. White, president; B. Clarke, superintendent. Macon & Brunswick, George Hazlehurst, president; Geo. A. Dure, superintendent. Southwestern, Wm. S. Holt, president; Virgil Powers, superintendent. Muscogee Railroad, J. L. Mustian, president. Georgia Railroad, Jno. P. King, president; E. W. Cole, superintendent. Central Railroad, Wm. M. Wadley, superintendent. Business houses in 1866; agents, insurance, 8; agents, real estate, 4; artists, ambrotype and photograph, 3; auctioneers, 3; bakers, 2; banks, 1; bankers, 4; barbers, 1; bars, 12; bookstores, 3; boots and shoes, 6; brewers, 2; carriage dealers, 2; confectioneries, 9; cigarmakers, 1; clothiers, 8; commission merchants, 7; cotton buyers, 8; cotton warehouses, 4; crockery stores, 2; dentists, 5; dressmakers, 2; druggists, 5; dry goods stores, 25; flour mill, 1; furniture stores, 2; gas fitters, 2; grocers, 42; gunsmiths, 3; hardware dealers, 5; hats and caps, 2; house furnishing goods, 1; hotels, 5; ice dealers 2; jewelers, 8; livery stables, 2; machine shops, 3; marble works, 1; merchant tailors, 4; milliners, 8; music dealers, 2; newspapers, daily, 2; weeklies, 1; monthlies, 2; painters, 2; restaurants, 3; saddles and harness, 3; soda bottlers, 2; tin shops, 4; watchmakers, 5; wines and liquors, 3. Justices of the Peace, 3; attorneys, 20; physicians, 22. Of all the mercantile houses, that of L. P. Strong & Sons comes nearest to being the oldest here now. The present house of the Strong Shoe Company is, you may say, the last of the old house. In the same way J. S. Schofield’s Sons represent the old business of the Schofield Iron Works, and members of the family are still in it. The Findlay Iron Works, Schofield’s competitor, was taken over by the Confederate government in 1863 and converted into an arsenal for the manufacture of cannon and ammunition. The Findlays practically gave up the business after the war. The drug store corner of Mulberry and Third was among the first stores in Macon. In 1866 it was occupied as a drug store by Massenburg & Son, and for nearly a hundred years has never been used for any other purpose. The same can be said of the store under the Hardeman building, corner Mulberry and Cotton Avenue. It was built by George Payne in the early ‘50s and has been a drug store ever since. Pastor First Baptist Church, Rev. E. W. Warren. 61

Rector Christ Church, Episcopal, Rev. H. K. Rees. the Nussbaums, S. T. Coleman and A. R. Lamar. Pastor First Street Methodist Church, Rev. W. M. Crumley. The first part of the period dealt with in this chapter was full Pastor Mulberry Street Methodist Church, Rev. Jos. S. Key. of exciting times brought about by the presence of Federal Pastor Presbyterian Church, Rev. David Wills. troops garrisoned in our midst, the restlessness of our white St. Joseph’s Catholic, Father W. J. Hamilton and Father J. F. citizens, and the activities of the Freedman’s Bureau and the O’Neill. effect of freedom on the blacks. Wesleyan College, John M. Bonnell, president: faculty - Rev. For a time the negroes, carpetbaggers, and scalawags made C. W. Smith, W. C. Bass, Mons. A. A. Frise, A. S. Sclichter, P. O. themselves politically very obnoxious. Pulaski Holt, a negro Gutenberger. merchant, who bore the same name as a prominent white Academy for the Blind, W. D. Williams, principal; Mrs. citizen, was elected an alderman over Mr. J. B. Ross, and a negro Hannah Gillan, teacher; Vincent Czurda, professor of music. barber, Ed Woodliff, likewise defeated Mr. Ben C. Smith for a At this time there came to Macon a number of new citizens seat in council. Jeff Long, a negro tailor, was elected to whose lives added richness to our community life, and who Congress from this District. Macon had two negro postmasters, were destined to play a large part, not only locally, but many of one by the name of Belcher; and the other, Henry M. Turner, them, exerted a state-wide influence. afterwards a Bishop in a negro Methodist church. From a From Forsyth came J. W. Cabaniss, so long prominent in newspaper account of Turner’s appointment and of some of his banking circles here. From Hawkinsville came Robert H. troubles in connection therewith, the following is taken: Brown, afterwards president of the Central Georgia Bank. From Sparta, where he had taught school, came N. E. Harris, A BRIEF TERM OF OFFICE afterwards governor of the State. Fresh from the University of The latter part of May, 1869, a press dispatch from Georgia, came here to practice law, Augustus O. Bacon, many Washington brought the startling news that President Grant times speaker of the Georgia House of Representatives, and for had appointed H. M. Turner, a negro preacher, postmaster at a long time and until his death, a United States Senator. From Macon. A wave of indignation swept over the city and The Jones County, whence he served as a field officer in a Georgia Telegraph, commenting on the situation, closed an editorial Regiment, Isaac Hardeman, prominent lawyer and churchman; with the following words: and James H. Blount, who after rounding out twenty years in “Well, the faster the administration falls, the sooner it will Congress served as special commissioner to Hawaii under meet bottom.” During the early days of June a mass meeting President Cleveland; and Mr. R. F. Burden. From Albany, came was called and a committee of three prominent citizens, Richard F. Lyon after a service on the Supreme Court of headed by Judge C. B. Cole, was directed to go to Washington, Georgia. From Perry, W. R. Cox; from Fort Valley, Judge call on the President and ask a revocation of Turner’s Samuel Hall and his son, Hon. Joseph H. Hall. From appointment. Judge Cole immediately adjourned court and Knoxville, T. J. Simmons, afterwards president of the Georgia the committee hastened to the Capital. They were cordially Senate and Chief Justice of Georgia. From Monticello, Charles received and given a respectful hearing. The President stated L. Bartlett, legislator, solicitor general, judge, that he realized the appointment was a and for twenty years Congressman from this mistake and had already instructed District. Postmaster General Creswell to advise From Walton County came James Turner not to qualify. The Committee Jackson, Judge and Congressman and later to returned home much elated, but soon the be Chief Justice. From Milledgeville came T. news began to filter in from various sources D. Tinsley and Dr. Charles H. Hall. From that the appointment would stand. This Pike County, Major J. F. Hanson. was due to a change of attitude on the part From Athens, the great Howell Cobb, of the President, or to interference by Congressman, speaker of the National House, members of his cabinet. Turner Governor, Secretary of the Treasury, member experienced difficulty in making his bond, and president of the Provisional Congress of but finally qualified and took charge of the the Southern Confederacy, and Major office early in July, 1869. A few days General in the Confederate Army. thereafter a negro woman by the name of From New York came Edward and Harris appeared in Macon and was arrested William Wolf. From South Carolina came for passing stolen national bank notes, to Benjamin L. Willingham and his son-in-law, which bank officials’ names had been A new Court House was built at Second Richard F. Lawton, prominent in the forged. She implicated Turner, who was and Mulberry Streets in 1870. The business and social life of this city. also arrested, and both were taken to building was demolished in the early From East Tennessee came J. M. Atlanta for a hearing before the United 1920’s and replaced with the present courthouse. Johnston and his brother, Wm. McEwen States Commissioner. The evidence against Johnston, who were among the builders of Turner was not sufficient to hold him, Macon. Other newcomers to Macon at this time were E. J. therefore he was discharged. The hearing, however, developed Johnson, William B. Johnston, S. R. Jaques, the Dannenbergs, gross immorality on Turner’s part and his removal followed. 62

His tenure of office did not exceed two weeks. Pending the Central City Park was beautified by the city authorities in reinstatement of J. H. R. Washington, the office was in charge 1871 at an expense of $300,000.00. of Special Agent Woodward.” Certain important charter changes took place in this decade. This same negro, the year previous, while residing in Bibb, March 21, 1866, an amendment to the charter was had, had been a member of the Constitutional Convention of the giving the city power to compel property owners to pave sideState of Georgia – the “black and tan” convention of 1868. walks (believed to be the first paving law for Macon); to extend During this period, the courthouse was removed from the the city limits: to create a board of health; to establish and old square at what is now the foot of Mulberry Street to its control one or more markets; and increasing the power to tax. present site; but not without engendering the greatest series of December 11, 1871, an amendment to the charter gave the political fights Macon ever witnessed. The contest was to city the right to “issue bonds of the city bearing seven per whether it be placed at the corner of Second and Mulberry, or cent interest to the amount of two hundred thousand dollars, whether the present city hall should be bought and utilized for for the purpose of providing for the payment of the present that purpose. On this issue, the people were divided, many mass debt of the city.” meetings were held, much oratory flowed, and a high state of Another section of the same act gave the Mayor’s Court jurisfeeling was manifested. Finally, the former location won out, diction to try and punish for certain violations of the State Laws. and in 1870, the corner stone of the courthouse (remodeled and August 27th, 1872, a new and comprehensive charter for the greatly enlarged in 1923-24) was laid. It was erected under the city of Macon was granted by the General Assembly. administration of Charles T. Ward, Ordinary, and Joseph M. March 2, 1874, an act was passed to amend the city charter Boardman, Lewis N. Whittle and Gabriel Roberts, as a Building so as to prevent the mayor and council from issuing “change Committee. During this period the elementary schools were bills,” or to increase the city’s bonded debt, or to borrow money greatly strengthened, the Board of Public Education and on the faith and credit of the city, or to levy taxes in excess of Orphanage having been established in 1872. one percent; and providing that any city official who offends or Appleton Church Home was founded in 1868. violates any of the provisions of this act shall be guilty of a Mercer University moved to Macon in 1872. misdemeanor. The Municipal authorities had issued what were Pio Nono College established here in 1874. called “Shinplasters,” that is, paper promises to pay of small Mt. de Sales Academy founded here in 1876. denomination, intended to, and which did circulate as The educational interests of Macon are treated in a special currency. Some of these quaint bills may still be found in the article incorporated in this volume, for which reason no further scrap books of Macon’s oldest residents, mute reminders of the mention will be made in this narrative of these institutions depressing days in which they passed from hand to hand. An which have done so much for the welfare of this city. act was passed in 1871 in which it was expressly said that “nor The Macon Public Library and Historical Society was shall the mayor and council hereafter make and issue any bills, organized in June, 1874. L. N. Whittle was its president. When notes or other securities in the form of currency and intended one thinks of the old library there is to circulate as such.” almost certain to come to mind the March 3, 1874, an Act was passed picture of that attractive and somewithdrawing from the Mayor’s Court what erratic gentleman, long identified the power which had theretofore with it as its librarian, who, a native of been granted it of exercising juristhe Blue Grass State, always signed his diction over offenses against the name, “Charles Herbst, of Kentucky.” penal laws of the state. The Central Bank of Georgia At the end of 1875, generally, opened in December, 1869, John E. matters had gotten back to normal; Jones, president, T. W. Manghum, but the sufferings and privations of cashier. our people in the first few years The Exchange Bank of Macon, subsequent to the War Between the organized as a Building and Loan States had hardly been exceeded by Association, was in 1872, converted those during war’s actual existence. into a bank with S. G. Bonn, But at last, the “scalawag’ and the president, R. F. Lawton, cashier. “carpetbagger” had been silenced; The Capital Bank of Macon, the reins of government, state, chartered in 1872 as The United Loan county and municipal had passed Association, was changed into a bank into the hands of these who in in 1874, Henry L. Jewett, president, reality represented the will of the Nathan M. Hodkins, cashier. people. Macon’s population The Macon Savings Bank of Macon increased, her trade expanded; her commenced business in March, 1874, industry multiplied; her credit J. M. Boardman, president, H. T. became reestablished and happiness Mercer University moved from Penfield, Georgia to Macon in 1872. Powell, cashier. had returned. 63

Central City Park was given to the city during its early settlement as a reserve. In 1871 many structures were built at the park for the Georgia State Fair, including this entrance gate, which burned in 1913; a bandstand, a pond and a race track - still in use.

Near right: Central City Park scene, 1870’s. Below: Central City Park with bandstand.

Right: Central City Park Race Track


Chapter X PERIOD FROM 1876 TO 1885 The history of Macon for the years 1876 through 1885 has little of dramatic interest. These were the years in which the little city was building its foundations deep and strong for the growth of years to come; as is always the case, the foundation work is not spectacular, but it was good work here and work which to this day is helping Macon grow. The day of the carpetbagger was over; the wounds of the Civil War were at least beginning to heal, and the citizens of Macon young and old were fixing their eyes to the future ever holding in mind the glorious achievements of the past, but at the same time resolving to build for a greater and more glorious future. 1876 found Col. William A. Huff in the Mayor’s chair. It would be difficult to find any man more marvelously suited to the difficult duties of this office in troubled times than was Colonel Huff. Possessed of an intellect second to none, and sense of justice as deep rooted as the granite in the Georgia hills and with an imagination which could conceive of a Macon which would rise from unpaved streets and village ideas to a municipality of the first rank, he worked both as Mayor and as private citizen for the rights of the common people and the growth of the town he loved. To him we owe Central City Park, the old public library and many other of those things which we of modern Macon have come to look upon as commonplace. It would be hard to pay Colonel Huff the tribute which he deserves without appearing more fulsome than is proper in a historical resume of this kind. The year 1876 witnessed the passing Cotton Avenue express wagon with oxen, 1876. of two of the older citizens of Macon, each of whom had played a tremendous part in her history and must not now be forgotten with the passing of the years. Carlton B. Cole, who died on January 28th, 1876, was a lawyer and jurist of such vision and character that it would be hard to estimate the influence which he had on the young community. Assuming the Superior court bench shortly after the Civil War,

he presided during those dark years when might was largely right and by his unflinching bravery and legal strength took a foremost part in re-establishing that law and order which is the genius of an Anglo-Saxon people. In addition to this he established a law school which did much to add to the culture and growth of the bar of the state. Judge Cole was a man of tremendous force and vigor and a man who was well fitted for the times in which he lived. Later in the same year - on October 1st - the Nestor of the Macon Bar was called to his reward - the Hon. Washington Poe. No man has ever known Macon as he knew it. It is perhaps best expressed by the resolution passed by the Macon Bar Association after his death; “There is no person among the living or the dead who has been so long and so prominently identified with the history of our city. When he settled here Macon was a small village, the courthouse was a rough wooden building on Mulberry Street, the county jail was a structure of logs which occupied the site of Christ Church, and Fifth street was the fashionable residence street of Macon. He saw the organization of the corporation, the laying of the corner stone of its churches, colleges and public institutions, the breaking of ground for its railways, and was its Mayor, its alderman and its attorney.” Certainly this should bring to mind a realization of the youth of our country and the marvelous progress it has made in a little over a hundred years. The same year witnessed the birth of three institutions which have played a prominent part in the cultural and educational side of Macon. On February 28th a charter was granted to the Trustees of Pio Nono College, and on the same day another charter to the Trustees of Mount de Sales Academy, both Roman Catholic institutions. Pio Nono College was operated by the Jesuits until 1922 when it was destroyed by fire and the property on which it was located on the west side of Vineville Avenue subdivided into one of Macon’s leading residential sections. Mount de Sales Academy operated as a convent by Sisters of Mercy is still enjoying an untroubled existence. It is an institution of the highest standing and is loved and respected by all our citizens. On June 30th of this year the Public Library and Historical Society was incorporated among the names of the incorporators being T. G. Holt, R. E. Park, B. M. Zetler, John P. Fort, B. C. Smith, C. E. Campbell, William B. Volger, T. O. Chestney, R. W. Jemison, A. E. Broadman, J. L. Hardeman and W. B. Hill. The library which was maintained by the society on Mulberry Street, in the building occupied by the Knights of 65

Located on the site of the present Federal Building overlooking Washington Park, Wesleyan College was remodeled in 1881 and burned to the ground in 1963.

Columbus, was for many years the only library in Macon and the impress made on the younger citizens at least by Colonel Huff and the ever loved Charles Herbst was profound. The writer has no more striking personal recollection than that of the old library on a drowsy summer’s afternoon when Mr. Herbst would gather two or three youngsters around him and instill in them the love and respect which we are due to the leaders of the Confederacy, a cause which was to Mr. Herbst always a living thing. On July 14th, 1876, Harry S. Edwards was admitted to the bar of this circuit. The whole country knows Mr. Edwards as a writer and historian of the old South; it seems worthwhile to mention this incursion into the realms of the law. This year seems to have been a favored one for the beginning of enterprises which have taken a real part in Macon’s history and among the list must be included the Y.M.C.A. which was organized on April 13th with Walter P. Ross as President, B. F. Josey as Vice President, H. T. Conner as Second Vice President, H. B. Davis, Secretary, and W. W. DeHaven, Treasurer. This year also witnessed the birth of the Bibb Manufacturing Company, a corporation which is now one of the boasts, not only of Macon, but of the entire state. The next year witnessed the passing of the third of a trio of legal giants who had brought the bar of Macon to the forefront of the entire state. On September 28th, 1877, Judge Barnard Hill passed away. Judge Hill was born in Massachusetts and cast his lot in the South, and after a full lifetime of leadership in public and private affairs was called to the bench of Bibb Superior Court in January, 1873, and held this position until his death. Judge

Hill was a lawyer of a great school and his passing caused universal sorrow not only in Macon but throughout the state. On April 27th, 1878, the corner stone was laid for the Confederate Monument, which now stands at the corner of Mulberry and Second Streets. Only a Southerner can truly appreciate what these Confederate Monuments mean and have meant to us of the South; the marble figure of this private soldier of the Confederacy looking down over the ever growing city will always be a reminder of the sacrifices and heroism of the sixties. In this day of good roads and constant travel, it seems hard to realize that as late as February, 1879, there was a toll gate at Seven Bridges on the main road to Houston County. This toll gate had been in operation for over forty years, and the County made a real step forward in its purchase. On April 1st of the same year the old Bibb County Academy, located in the square between First and Second Streets and Walnut and Ocmulgee Streets, was burned. Many of Macon’s most prominent citizens received their early education there and before the days of free schools it served a tremendous purpose. On November 14th, 1879, the Appleton Church Home was chartered. This Episcopal institution for orphan girls had already, through the generosity of Dr. D. C. Appleton, of New York, and others, begun this work, a work which was characterized by Bishop John W. Beckwith in one of his annual addresses in the following terms: “The Appleton Church Home continues to do its quiet work of training orphan girls in the nuture and admonition of the Lord.” The Appleton Home remained at its then site on College Street next to St. Paul’s Church until 1923 when it moved into larger and more 66

modern quarters on the Holton Road, the old building having been since purchased by St. Paul’s Church and now used by this church as a Parish House. This year ended with another step toward the growth of Macon from a village to a city when on December 18th free delivery of mail was granted to the city. This delivery began on January 1st of the following year, and is now taken as a matter of course. The delivery began with five carriers, who were amply sufficient to supply the needs of the city. On January 26th, 1891, the first water mains and fire hydrants were installed replacing the old wells which for so long had served as a water supply. Old citizens can well remember the wells which stood at the more prominent street corners and the volunteer fire companies which did their best with such primitive facilities. It is a far cry from those days to the present municipal water works furnishing the city with pure water at a ridiculously small cost. The bar in former years occupied a much more prominent place in the life of the community than it now does and 1880 has its chief significance in that on December 1st of that year Judge T. J. Simmons - then Judge of the Superior Court, later the gifted Chief Justice of the Supreme Court - admitted to the bar William H. Felton, Jr. No man has meant more to Macon and Middle Georgia than did Judge Felton. After a short and brilliant career at the bar, he was elected Solicitor General, in which office he displayed those gifts for which he was known and became a model for the ideal Solicitor to follow. After his distinguished services in this capacity he became Judge of the Superior Court for the Macon Circuit which office he filled with a distinction rarely equaled and never excelled. His mind was filled with those basic principles of the common law and the rules of evidence, without which a Judge is helpless and with it all he had a sense of justice and a knowledge of business which made him the ideal Superior Court Judge. After many years on the bench he resigned to become head of the Street

Railway Company, which position he held until shortly before his death. Judge Felton’s works as solicitor, jurist, business man, lawyer and Christian gentleman made him for fifty years an outstanding figure in this community. From 1880 to 1883 Macon’s Mayor was one of those Macon Volunteer Armory was bulit in 1884. remarkable characters whose name should not be allowed to perish - Captain Felix Corput. Born in Belgium, he came to Georgia when a boy. At the outbreak of the war he organized a company in Rome and at the end of the war was paroled at Macon a captain. In 1879 he was elected alderman of Macon and the following year mayor, in which office he served for four years. After his term as mayor he moved to Cave Springs of which municipality he was later made mayor, thus having the unusual distinction of being mayor of two different cities of Georgia. His wife, Miss Martha Hoge, was a member of one of Macon’s most prominent families and this alliance made Mr. Corput doubly a citizen of Macon. A man of impressive and most lovable personality, he was a most exemplary citizen and admired executive and a man of whom the city can well be proud. In this year when a greater Wesleyan is raising its walls at Rivoli, it is interesting to recall the gifts made in 1881 by George I. Seney to this historic Methodist institution. His gifts enabled Wesleyan to erect new buildings and remodel the old, and, he

In 1883, the Marsh Johnston home was built on Coleman Hill. The house was razed for the INA building in 1955 and in 1976 it became the campus of Mercer Law School.


must be given credit for a great part of the accomplishments of this oldest of women’s colleges. On September 9th, 1881, Sidney Lanier died. Beyond all material achievements, Sidney Lanier stands as Macon’s far most outstanding contributor to his country and to the world. Musician, soldier, lawyer, poet, he combined within himself all the true elements of greatness and while Athenian cities may quarrel over the birthplace of dead Homer, it is Macon’s proudest boast that she gave birth to Sidney Lanier. In 1882 shows further evidence of material progress. On July 8th the first train arrived from Atlanta over the East The “New” Brown House replaced the old one that burned in 1878. Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroad (now the Mulberry and purchased the property from Dr. John S. Baxter Southern), and on December 1st, electricity for lighting for $12,000.00. A handsome brick structure was erected on purposes was turned on in Macon for the first time. On the this property, which has later been replaced with the present 24th of January in the year following, the first contract was marble building. made to light the City by electricity and replace the old gas On August 8th, 1885, it was announced that a contract had lights which had for so long been regarded as the high water been let for building the Macon, Dublin and Savannah Railway mark of progress. from Dublin to Jeffersonville and into Macon. The city was 1884 was principally marked by the expected to donate or sell at a reasonable election of Grover Cleveland as president, figure the land necessary for terminals the first Democratic president after the and shops which was later done, and the Civil War. It is hard for us to realize what M., D. & S. thus brought into the city. this meant to the South. The celebration On August 17th of the same year the which Macon held that night was without city court of Macon was created and Hon. question the most spontaneous and Charles J. Harris appointed as first judge. joyous occasion the city has ever known, Those of us who are familiar with its long eclipsing even the gaiety of Armistice line of distinguished judges, such men as night. Old citizens have been heard John P. Ross, Robert Hodges and Dupont frequently to declare that it was the Guerry, among others – regard this as a happiest night of their lives, and the notable event in Macon’s history. 1885 biggest night that Macon has ever known. closed with Hon. S. B. Price, familiarly 1885 marks the close of this decade and affectionately known as Daisy Price of progress. The post office at one time as mayor. Mr. Price served as mayor from had been located in an old building on 1884 through 1891 and his work largely what is now the site of part of the Hotel belongs to the next decade of this history; Lanier but was later moved to the court however, he can well be mentioned here house in the rooms afterwards occupied since he took the management of the city by the first city court. On July 10th, affairs at the conclusion of those years Mulberry Street Methodist Church was torn 1885, a commission selected the present down in 1882 and this third building at the same which mark the beginning of so many of location was erected. location at the corner of Third and Macon’s enterprises and institutions. 68

Chapter XI much improved by the discovery of three new springs at Tuft’s PERIOD FROM 1886 TO 1895 The year 1886 was momentous in Macon for an intensity of Springs, south of the city, thus allaying the anxiety of many feeling over the liquor question. The mayor and council had citizens concerning the adequacy of the supply. In July, the fixed the retail liquor license at $100 apparently against the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia railroad (now, the Southern wishes of a large majority of the citizens, and much System) advertised for bids for the erection of a passenger condemnatory speech and comment was heard on all sides. On station at Macon. During this year the Y.M.C.A. was established January 3 The Macon Telegraph condemned the action and in the city, an opening reception being held on August 21st. predicted that the coming session of the legislature should In July the county commissioners determined on the erection declare for prohibition. Thomas Hardeman, was appointed of a home for dependents, and during July called for bids for postmaster during this year. the erection of the Roff Home. W. A. Huff, W. H. Felton and J. Early in the year occurred the death of Colonel Andrew J. E. Schofield were elected members of the state legislature from Lane. Colonel Lane died at Sparta, Georgia, on January 2. He Bibb county. had served in the War Between the States as colonel of the Many prominent residents died during the year. Colonel Forty-Ninth Georgia Volunteers, and was severely wounded in Lewis N. Whittle passed away on February 18th in his 68th year. the engagements around Richmond. Later he engaged in During his lifetime he was one of the foremost men of Macon. railroad contracting and was associated with George N. He served in the legislature of 1863 and again in 1876; was Hazelhurst in the building of the Macon & Augusta railroad president of the board of trustees for the Asylum for the Insane, and other southern roads. At one time he represented Bibb of the Academy for the Blind, Board of Education and Macon county in the state legislature. Free School. He was also a trustee for the Alexander Free The winter of 1886 was declared by many to be the coldest in Schools, and of the University of the South, and a warden of fifty years. The thermometer registered from three to five Christ Church. degrees above zero, and on January 12 the Ocmulgee river froze. Mrs. Julia Parkman Jones died on March 18th in that year. From the cemetery to the Macon & Brunswick Railroad bridge, Her home on Walnut street was left by her to be maintained as a five miles below the city, the river was jammed with ice. The home for Aged Women. She also willed valuable property on bitter weather caused a disastrous fire loss when Ralston Hall, Walnut and Ocmulgee streets to Christ church. corner Cherry and Third streets, and seven stores were destroyed on January 14. Freezing hydrants and hose handicapped the firemen, rendering the department helpless to cope with the holocaust. L. Monroe Jones was chief of the department during 1886, with L. Vannucci and Berry Smith as assistants and David D. Craig as secretary, Edgar P. Strong, treasurer. During January, 1886, certain lands of the city reserve were deeded to the Macon & Covington railroad, under an agreement whereby the city was to receive $1,000 each year from the road for the privilege of crossing the river. The work of building the road was begun that year. Many important improvements occurred during the latter part of the year. The Wadley monument at the intersection of Third and Mulberry streets, was completed and enclosed in a stout iron fence. A contract for the erection of a new Baptist church at the head of Bird’s eye view in 1886 from Volunteer Armory shows Poplar Street and the Baptist Popular street was let, the old church having been Church, damaged by fire just prior to its completion. burned the previous year. Macon’s water supply was 69

On August 31st, a slight earthquake shock was distinctly felt in Macon and vicinity, doing considerable damage in the way of shattering windows and chimneys. Early in the year 1887 agitation was begun for organization of a paid fire department. Late in January an ordinance was passed creating the paid department, to be effective February first, and providing for a system of electric alarms. In May this alarm system was completed and put in service. L. M. Jones, then chief of the volunteer department, was elected chief of the new department, and a special Macon was the center of eleven railroad lines. committee from council reported the installation of 200 fire hydrants and many drinking fountains. On January 6th, 1887, occurred the wedding of Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar, one of the South’s most imposing figures and a jurist of national note, to Mrs. Williams S. Holt, of Macon. Mrs. Holt was a daughter of a prominent Georgian, James Dean. By act of the State Agricultural Society, a prominent controversy as to the location of the State Fair was settled, the decision being that the fair should remain in Macon. A new contract for the water supply of Macon was drawn by council, and submitted to the people, but in an election held on March 5th, the contract failed of adoption. On March 9th the mayor was authorized to hold an election to vote on the project for building a public market house. An ordinance was passed consolidating Johnson, Sparks and College streets under the name of College street. The Johnson property, located in what is now Huguenin Heights, was sold on February 2nd, for $60,000. This section began a rapid development. An article appeared in The New York Star on March 18th, entitled “The Hub of the South,” giving many interesting facts concerning Macon, “the fast-growing Georgia city.” During this year a mass meeting of citizens was called to consider the project for launching the Macon & Birmingham Railway. Much interest was felt throughout the section in the venture of I. C. Plant, banker, who had begun the cultivation of pecans on his Ocmulgee swamp farm. One thousand trees had been set out and results were being watched keenly by agriculturists of the state. In May the new Roff Home was completed and accepted by the county commissioners. On October 25th, the city was honored with a visit from the beloved president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis. Mr. Davis,

with his party, arrived on Sunday night, and were guests at the home of J. Marshall Johnston on Cowles’ Hill, where the former president was greeted and acclaimed by a host of loyal friends. In 1888 Council gave right of way for the building of a dummy line from Macon to Vineville. Much violent opposition to the building of the line was expressed by citizens and property owners along the proposed route, and for a time the project appeared to be defeated. The line was built and operated later, but was never a financial success. In June a contract for the construction of the line by the Central City Street Car Company was voted. Expansion of trade and the beginnings of new industries had sharpened interest in the matter of railway construction. Much discussion of various railway projects was heard, and the building of the Georgia, Southern and Florida Railway was well underway. This road, promoted by W. B. Sparks was being built to connect Macon with the eastern cities of Florida. It was partially completed in 1890 and the first train was run from Macon to Palatka. In March of 1888 occurred a disastrous flood. All the lowlands bordering the Ocmulgee river were overwhelmed with the flood water, and much damage was done to wharfs and warehouses, as well as to streets and private property. The flood persisted for five days, and many localities were practically marooned without food supply or water throughout the duration of the freshet. In the spring of this year the new market house on Poplar street was completed and formally turned over to the city Nancy Hanks timetable, 1893. commissioners. Ordinances concerning the conduct and rules of the market had been passed, and on June 3 a formal opening with exercises was held. A terrible epidemic of yellow fever at Jacksonville moved the city authorities to establish rigid quarantine regulations in Macon. Travelers from Southern points were not allowed to arrive in the city and all goods were rigidly inspected and fumigated. 70

During this year stormy period several important preceding the War citizens were called to Between the States, and their reward. On April rendered brief military 6th Reverend Cosby W. service as lieutenantSmith, of the faculty of colonel of the Wesleyan College died Nineteenth Mississippi at his home. The Regiment. Most of the following day occurred period of the war he the death of Emory spent in Europe, Winship, one of Macon’s however, having been most prominent commissioned by citizens. James H. Jefferson Davis as Campbell, editor of The minister from the Macon Telegraph, died Confederate States to in February of that year. Russia. Much dissatisfaction After the war, was still felt concerning during the dreary time The City Market stood in the median of Poplar Street near City Hall in 1888. It was the purity of the city’s of desperation and demolished in 1916. water supply, and blight in the South, considerable agitation caused press comment and much Colonel Lamar was a heroic figure. In 1872 he was elected to argument in council. James H. Blount was elected speaker of the national congress, being the first Southern Democrat to the House of Representatives, pro-tem, on motion of enter Congress after the war. He encountered an atmosphere Congressman Mills. of hostility and suspicion so cruel as to daunt even the Riverside Cemetery, a new privately owned burying staunchest heart, but fortunately a rare opportunity came to ground, was opened in July, 1888. In December Lamar in an invitation to deliver an address at the memorial announcement was made that the new Federal building was service to Senator Charles Sumner. This epoch-making speech about ready for occupancy. made the first rift in the pall of gloom and misunderstanding The year 1889 was marked by many forward strides in the which had oppressed the Southern States. history of the city, not the least important of which was the In 1884 Senator Lamar was made a member of President introduction of bills in the legislature providing for the conCleveland’s cabinet, accepting the position of Secretary of the struction of sanitary sewers, parks, and paving in Macon. New Interior. Later, a vacancy occurring in the bench of the maps of the city were completed and circulated, showing the Supreme Court of the United States, President Cleveland sent recently established corporation lines and growth of the city. the name of Lucius Q. C Lamar to the Senate. Strong In February the South Macon Baptist church was dedicated. opposition developed against him in the North, but in 1887 the The Macon Telegraph announced the installation of a new Goss appointment was confirmed and Lamar stood vindicated before printing press, the first of its kind to be used in the South. In the nation. April the steamer Ida arrived in Macon. This was remarkable as His first wife was a daughter of Judge A. B. Longstreet, marking the reopening of river navigation, no steamer author of “Georgia Scenes.” She died in 1879, and in 1887 having docked at Macon wharves in twenty-five years. he was married to Mrs. William Holt, of Macon. He died Owing to the rapid narrowing of the channel by sand bars suddenly in Macon, and was temporarily buried in that the attempt to revive navigation was short lived and few city. Later his body was removed to Oxford, Mississippi. projects were launched thereafter. The year 1891 was marked by financial depression and During the year 1893 occurred the death of Colonel much agitation concerning the city’s water supply. By Lucius Q. C. Lamar. Honorable L. Q. C. Lamar was born spring the supply of water had become so inadequate that in Putnam county, Georgia, in 1825, the son of an unfiltered water from the river was turned into the eminent jurist. Early in life he went to city mains. A bill was introduced into the Mississippi, where he was prominently legislature for the construction of a connected with the State University. pumping station on the Ocmulgee Later he returned to Georgia, and was river, which was passed in elected to the legislature where he September. A severe business became a conspicuous figure in a failure occurred in the collapse of troublous period. In 1855 he the Macon Construction Company. removed again to Mississippi, Business conditions following this where the remainder of his life was failure amounted almost to panic, spent. He was an orator of power, a and public alarm and lack of Entrance to Riverside Cemetery in 1888. bulwark of loyalty during the confidence were manifest. 71

Crowd’s formed to see Macon’s first electric street car, 1892.

A new chapel erected at Mercer University was dedicated in April, and in August “Old Joe,” a cannon captured by the Macon Volunteers during the War Between the States, was christened with elaborate ceremonies and mounted in the Armory Park. Human bones of enormous size were found in the vicinity of Macon, late in the spring, causing much excitement and cogitation concerning the earlier inhabitants of this region. River navigation received another impetus in the arrival of the steamer John C. Stewart. Railway bridges crossing the river were altered to permit the passage of the craft and much speculation as to the development of navigation was heard. Late in the year Council voted to install an electric police patrol system and series of alarm boxes and to purchase a patrol wagon. The death of Thomas Hardeman, Jr., statesman and soldier, occurred on March 8th, 1891, and on October 18th John J. Gresham passed to his reward. He was an honored and prominent citizen, and after whom one of the public schools was named. Late in the fall occurred a disastrous fire which destroyed the old Union depot. The year 1892 was marked by the persistent financial depression. Judge Emory Speer appointed receivers for the defunct Central Railroad Banking Company. Several small failures contributed to the continuing feeling of apprehension. The Georgia peach crop, at that time, was beginning to be recognized as an important contribution to the agricultural and financial circles of this part of the State, and the Macon papers of June and July made frequent mention of it. Agitation for a new charter for the city began in the fall of 1892. Mass meetings were held and committees appointed to draft a new form of incorporation for the municipality.

In 1893 a bond election was held for the construction of sanitary sewers. The bonds carried overwhelmingly, and contracts for construction were let late in the fall of that year. Joseph M. Boardman, a prominent citizen of the town, died on June 28th, 1893. The following Synagogue Beth Israel built in 1874 on the fall Mrs. Mary Baber, corner of Second and Poplar Streets. widow of Ambrose Baber, prominent citizen of Macon and active in the early history of the city, died at her home on Walnut street, aged 87 years. Dr. W. C. Bass, president of Wesleyan College, died on November 16th, 1894. Judge Charles L. Bartlett was nominated for Congress in August and formally elected in November. Augustus O. Bacon was elected by the legislature to the United States Senate. The Autumn of 1894 was noted for many important events. In November long distance telephone service between Macon and Atlanta was formally opened, and connection established. The Macon Hospital was thrown open to the public on November 1st. Later in the month the Mulberry Methodist church occupied its new building. The Macon Chamber of Commerce was organized, succeeding the Board of Trade. The steamer “Gypsy” docked at the Macon wharves. 72

Chapter XII equally strong indicated that those affected were not yet ready PERIOD FROM 1896 TO 1905 Macon emerged from the census enumeration of 1890 credit- to link their destinies with the city of Macon. With this ed with 22,746 men, women and children, residing within a one- question as the issue, a struggle was precipitated between two mile radius of the City Hall. That officially established the city’s factions that was destined to last for several years, with varying population for the succeeding ten years. Expanding this circle fortunes, but ultimate success to those championing the cause an additional mile north, east, south and west its confines would of progress. On October 14th, 1897, a mass meeting discussed cover another group of almost similar numerical proportions. the question for Vineville, with nothing definite accomplished. While this second group, to all intents and purposes, moved, Then a bill was drawn that contemplated disposing of the issue lived and had its being in the city of Macon and was as a matter in the coming session of the Legislature. Much pressure was of fact an integral part of the city’s commercial and social life, its brought to bear on the Bibb delegation by opponents of the personnel could not be officially recognized and had to be treated measure and when the session adjourned the issue was still as alien, so to speak, as far as the census was concerned, as it did unsettled. At the close of 1899 no solution had been reached, not reside on the inner side of an imaginary line that separated but in the early months of 1900 there were several mass the municipality from the outside world. meetings resulting in an election being called for April 16th, Macon, ever mindful of the propriety and justness of this 1900. The opponents of annexation, fearing the result of an principle, represented by the mythical line, made no appeal from election, sought an injunction when the application of Toney et its application, but immediately set in motion an agitation that al was filed in Bibb Superior Court. On grounds that the Court sought the official obliteration of the line by pulling up the considered good and sufficient the question, or rather its stakes and re-locating them another mile in every direction. The solution was held in abeyance until December 12th, 1900, one and only way to accomplish this was by annexation of the when the Legislature passed a bill authorizing the qualified outlying territory. voters in the territory affected to express their wishes at the No really worthwhile objective is ever reached without polls. The result was favorable to annexation, but the courts opposition. No project, even though it contemplates the were again appealed to. On August 6th, 1903. the Macon betterment of annexation bill conditions for all passed the concerned, is ever General Assembly accomplished by an without a struggle overwhelming and unforeseen majority, obstacles to providing that overcome. Thus Vineville and started the Huguenin Heights movement to be merged with annex certain the city of Macon. suburban sections Then followed an known as appeal to the State Vineville, Supreme Court Hugenin Heights, and on a decision East Macon and rendered, South Macon. November 29th, There was strong 1903, the result sentiment in each was unfavorable to of these suburbs the objectors. But for annexation, the champions of Spring Street Bridge built in 1897 and replaced in 1935. while influences a failing cause 73

were tenacious and had apparently not lost all hope, for a final appeal went to the United States Supreme Court. The months were many and the months were long, but this court of last resort, by dismissing the appeal on December 5th, 1904, for lack of jurisdiction removed the last object in the way of a Greater Macon. In point of population and commercial importance Macon had long been the fourth city in the state with a laudable ambition to acquire third place in the 1910 census. Statistics further on in this narrative will show that this ambition was realized in the first returns, but President Taft was responsible for Augusta having a second count, resulting in that city regaining her lost prestige by a narrow margin. Macon, however, reached the coveted goal in 1920 by a substantial majority over Augusta. Facts as well as figures show that Macon’s growth has been slow but steady, resulting from natural causes and unsupported by a cosmopolitan population. This statement is verified by census statistics showing that the white population of Bibb County is 98 per cent native born American. While this statement is made with pride, let it be understood that Macon’s gates are open and a cordial welcome awaits worthy immigrants.

The contract was later let to the Brackett Bridge Co., Toledo, Ohio, for a steel truss bridge. Early in 1900 the work of tearing away the old bridge was progressing satisfactorily and a temporary bridge was opened for traffic on June 10th, 1900. Street car service was discontinued, as cars were not permitted on the temporary structure. In this connection a unique coincidence is noted. Captain James A. Simpson, the veteran bridge keeper, was the first person to pass over the old bridge on its completion, and the last to cross it when abandoned. On June 25th, 1900, the western span of the old bridge was washed away by high water, taking the temporary structure with it. It is interesting to note that its predecessor shared a similar fate on June 27th, 1864. The temporary bridge was replaced and the new steel bridge was completed in October, 1900, and formally accepted by the city on October 9th of that year. During the period the temporary bridge was used 90,000 vehicles passed over it, in addition to 270,000 pedestrians. APRIL 15TH, 1896 A bond election held on this date was practically unanimous, the result being 1225 votes for and 62 against the bonds. The total of the issue authorized was $180,000, $130,000 for paving, and $50,000 to take care of a treasury deficit. This was the beginning of Macon’s street paving. The bonds representing the city’s part meant a total paving program of $390,000. The first paving was laid in October, 1897, at the corner of Fourth (now Broadway) and Pine streets. The material used was granite cubes, furnished by the Georgia Quincy Granite Co., of this city, chosen to withstand the heavy traffic to and from the freight terminals. Other materials used at this period was vitrified brick, laid on most of the down town streets where the granite cubes were not used.

JANUARY 10TH, 1896 On this date, in response to a call from East Macon, fire apparatus in crossing the Fifth street bridge broke through the flimsy, worn floor of that structure. The incident not only emphasized the urgent need of a new bridge at this point, but was responsible for a renewal of the agitation of an additional bridge, north of Fifth street. This agitation rapidly assumed tangible form and negotiations were soon pending between property owners and County Commissioners, supplemented by a liberally signed petition from Jones County planters. Property owners on the east side of the Ocmulgee who would be benefitted by another bridge, proposed to pay a substantial portion of the cost. It was on May 29th, 1896, that the Ohio Bridge Co., Toledo, Ohio, was given the contract for a steel truss bridge at Spring street, to be completed by October first, following. The cost of this bridge was approximately $25,000.00, prorated - $16,000 to the county for 460 feet of the structure, the balance to adjacent property owners and the Southern Railway Co., whose tracks it spans at this point. The cost in dollars and cents to Bibb County did not exceed $9,500, about $6,500 being represented by grading and filling done by the chaingang. This bridge appears to have been built without expense to official Macon. However, the city, since its completion has provided for its maintenance. The Spring street bridge was not designed for what is commonly rated as heavy traffic, nor was it contemplated that street cars would cross it. It has been reinforced by the city, however, and should withstand such strains as it may normally be subjected to.

NEED OF MUNICIPAL AUDITORIUM During the early months of 1896 conventions were coming to Macon and the city was beginning to realize the need of adequate facilities in the way of a meeting place where large gatherings could be accommodated. It was then that the agitation for a municipal auditorium began. This resulted in no definite action, however, for the time being, and later came the SpanishAmerican war, when the question was dropped. It was revived in 1904 and on August 3rd of that year a contract was let to Wilder & Paullin for an addition to the City Hall to cost about $17,000.00. This was known as the City Hall Auditorium and was formally opened with appropriate exercises on March 9th, 1905. In building this addition it was necessary to remove the two story brick building that stood in the center of First street, then used as headquarters for the police patrol, but originally occupied by Defiance Company No. 5 of the old volunteer fire department. The auditorium served its purpose for several years and proved an asset to the city, but the seating capacity (1,500 to 1,800) was inadequate for large gatherings. The result of further efforts in this direction and the magnificent building now rising at Cherry and First streets will be mentioned in another chapter.

JANUARY 31, 1899 The need of a new bridge at Fifth street had manifested itself for several years and was apparent to all who had occasions to cross the river at this point, but it was not until the above date that City Council authorized the Mayor to advertise for bids.

JUNE 11TH, 1896 In the interest of efficiency, safety and economy the Southern 74

Bell Telephone Co., petitioned the city for authority to put its wires underground in certain sections. This contemplated the removal of unsightly poles and a net work of wires from the principal thoroughfares. The petition was granted and the work began early in September, 1896. The business of this company in Macon grew with such rapidity, and the demands for adequate housing and other facilities were such that a permanent and handsome home was erected in 1904 at the corner of Poplar and Second streets. The telephone was first introduced to the public at the Centennial Exposition, held in Philadelphia in 1876. An exchange was established in Macon in 1879 said to be among the first established in the United States.

This arrangement, will obviate the necessity of marching or transporting manacled prisoners through the down town thoroughfares to and from the courthouse. In this connection it is a noteworthy fact that a contest is ever on between two opposing forces - the trained engineer and scientific builder on the one hand, pitted against the resourcefulness and ingenuity of the professional criminal on the other. The genius of the latter has more than once rendered obsolete the accomplishments of the former. NAVIGATION It is noted in The Macon Telegraph of October 21, 1897, that the “City of Macon,” built in this city, was launched on the preceding day. Records also show that this boat made its maiden trip on December 29th,1897, going down the Ocmulgee a distance of thirty miles and returning with a cargo of staves consigned to a local cooperage plant. Later the “City of Macon” made a trip to Brunswick, carrying a good cargo, returning on February 14th, 1898, heavily laden with an assortment of freight for Macon merchants. Under her published schedule she was to sail for another trip on February 17th. In the pioneer days of Macon, particularly in the thirties and up to the civil war period, river boats plied the Ocmulgee regularly and successfully, the city being wholly dependent on this method of transportation for many years. Macon ranked high as an inland cotton market, most of the cotton coming in by boat from river points, although many bales were received overland by wagon, coming distances of one hundred miles and less. River traffic, of course, decreased with the advent of rail competition. After the close of the war in 1865, boats maintained rather intermittent schedules, suspending entirely for varying periods. Beginning in the eighties spasmodic efforts were made to revive navigation, with a degree of success that was not encouraging to those fostering the undertaking. These efforts came about once in a decade. Navigation companies were organized; special committees from the Chamber of Commerce devoted much time, thought and energy to their operation, but enthusiasm waned and a period of inertia followed. There were perhaps no direct benefits to those interested, although Macon merchants may have been benefitted by reduced freight rates on certain commodities for which river transportation was responsible. In the competition between boat and rail time was a dominant factor and the advantage in favor of the latter could not be overcome, especially on commodities requiring prompt delivery. The distance from Macon to Brunswick by rail is 187 miles; by river 360 miles. The time between these points by rail is from five to six hours; by river, at least three days under favorable conditions, but stretching into a week or longer, when low water must be reckoned with. The difference in favor of rail is even greater between Macon and Savannah, as the distance by water is 450 miles, and about 190 miles by rail. Whether this inland waterway that is viewed ordinarily as one of Macon’s natural advantages will again be used to practical advantage, is a question that time must decide.

DIED AUGUST 9TH, 1896 Shelton P. Sanford, a noted educator and princely gentleman, for many years professor of mathematics at Mercer University, and author of Sanford’s Arithmetic. DIED DECEMBER 25TH, 1896 Henry J. Lamar, prominent business man of Macon, and founder of the Lamar drug interests. DIED JANUARY 28TH, 1897 Henry L. Jewett, treasurer of the Georgia Southern & Florida Railway Co. DIED JANUARY 31ST, 1897 Joseph E. Willet, member of the faculty of Mercer University and for fifty years professor of chemistry at that institution. On January 10th, 1898, the announcement was made that the Berzelius Society had honored the memory of Professor Willet by placing his portrait on the walls of its new hall at Yale University. Membership in this society was limited to scientists. Professor Willet was its first president and a graduate of Yale. FEBRUARY 1ST, 1897 At this period interesting data was published concerning Bibb County’s early jails. Supposedly authentic information fixes the year 1823 as the time when the first jail was built. The material used was hewn logs, which doubtless made a very secure, though perhaps not an imposing structure. This jail was located on lower Walnut street, probably hear Bridge Row. In 1827 a new jail was built at the foot of Cherry street, opposite the cemetery. This was a substantial wooden structure of two stories, all openings made secure with heavy iron bars. This jail served its purpose until sometime in the forties, when a stronger and more commodious building was erected at the foot of Mulberry street, used until 1865, when burned. The origin of the fire was never definitely known, but charged to Federal troops then in Macon with Wilson’s army. Following this the old “Guard House” on Fourth street, between Cherry and Poplar streets was used for many years, until a modern brick jail was constructed at the corner of Mulberry and Fifth streets. As demands created the necessity this building has been added to and facilities increased. As this narrative goes to press a thoroughly modern and up-to-date jail is nearing completion on the top floor of Bibb County’s new courthouse.

MACON’S PART IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR The controversy between the United States and Spain, 75

brought on by the Cuban situation, reached an acute crisis with town five miles from Manilla. As he neared the shore he was the blowing up of the battleship Maine in Havana harbor on the fired on by Filipino troops that largely outnumbered his night of February 15th, 1898. War seemed inevitable and a command. Lieutenant Winship personally handled the declaration soon followed. This was the first time the nation machine gun in the bow of his launch and notwithstanding the was confronted with war since the wounds of the sixties began fact that he received five wounds, stood by his post, his gun to heal, and in some sections of the country speculation was playing havoc with the enemy till the landing was effected and rife as to the probable attitude of the South – or rather the its purpose accomplished. On October 3rd, 1899, while on a degree of patriotism that might be shown. But Dixie rose furlough home, Lieutenant Winship was presented with a proudly to the occasion, and all over the South loyalty was handsome sword by his fellow citizens. The presentation was splendidly in evidence and patriotism at fever heat. Macon was made in the Council no exception. Military organizations and individuals were Chamber, Major volunteering on every hand. Major O. T. Kenan, of Macon, Wm. Henry Ross formed a battalion that on May 7th, 1898 entrained for Griffin, making the preGa., to go into training for service in Cuba. A few weeks later a sentation speech. regiment began recruiting at Central City Park, known as “Rays’ Immunes.” This regiment was fully recruited and trained here DIAMOND JUBILEE and was officially designated “Third Regiment of Immunes.” Chartered as a municipality in 1823, Macon reached the 75th Under the command of Colonel Ray, an officer in the regular year of her existence in 1898. In the fall of that year her army, it entrained on August 6th, 1898, for Savannah to embark Diamond Jubilee was celebrated. The celebration started on for Cuba. Other Macon units that trained for Cuban service October 11th, and continued four days. These were days of were Macon Volunteers, Macon Hussars and Floyd Rifles. The merry-making and pageants; interspersed with many social war was of short duration, however, and comparatively few of functions, graced by chivalry and beauty representing the entire the volunteer or National Guard units reached the front. In this state. The climax was reached at a brilliant gathering on connection it is noted that in August, 1898, James H. Blount, Coleman’s Hill, where the coronation of the King and Queen Jr., of Macon was appointed Judge Advocate at Santiago, Cuba. took place. The King was represented by Mr. Prentice Huff, and In March, 1900, he was transferred to the Philippines, still in the the Queen by Miss Martha Johnston. military service of the United States. On September 24, 1898, the First Georgia Regiment, including several Macon units, DECEMBER 1ST, 1898 returned to this city to be mustered out of the service. In the At this period sentiment in favor of prohibition was spreading fall of 1898 Macon was chosen as one of a number of Southern over the state, and under the local option law, many counties had cities where troops returning from Cuba could be acclimated banned the sale of whiskey by a majority of votes. The counties in before being mustered out. About eight regiments were sent which the larger cities were located were the last to enlist under here, going to Central City Park, Ocmulgee Park and Camp the white banner of prohibition, therefore it was not surprising Harris, beyond Vineville. On December 19th, 1898, President when, on the above date, the prohibition election held in Bibb McKinley visited Macon on a inspection tour of camps and County was lost by a decisive vote. An analysis of the vote follows: troops. The review took place in the city, the presidential party Registration, 5,816; votes polled 3,958; against the sale, 1,280; occupying a brilliantly decorated stand at the intersection of for the sale, 2,678; majority for the sale, 1,398. This fight, with Cherry and Second streets. The President was highly gratified liquor as the issue, continued for another decade when, as with his visit here, particularly the cordial greeting and succeeding chapters will show, state-wide prohibition prevailed. attention of Confederate veterans. Under the terms of JANUARY 21ST, 1899 peace the Philippine Islands John J. Gresham, an were ceded to the United honored citizen of Macon and States by Spain on payment for many years a member of of $20,000,000 to the latter. the Bibb County Board of Then following the Filipino Education, went to his reward insurrection, that was more on October 17th, 1891. formidable than the war from On January 21st, 1899, the which it resulted. One of the John J. Gresham Memorial heroes of this struggle was Building for the Macon Lieutenant Emory Winship, Hospital was formally delivU.S.N., of Macon. In the late ered to hospital authorities by spring of 1899, Lieutenant LeRoy Gresham, of Baltimore, Winship was placed in who made the presentation command of a launch to speech in behalf of Thomas B. Scene at Central City Park during Spanish-American War, 1898, known as cover a landing of American Gresham, his father, formerly Camp Price. troops at Malabon, a small of Macon, and his aunt, Mrs. 76

Arthur W. Machen, in memory of their father.

homes. Chickens returned to their roosts; a few of the more superstitious were stricken with fear, and to all there came an indefinable sense of loneliness, ere the dark pall lifted.

DIED JANUARY 22ND, 1899 Col. L. A. Jordan, for many years an esteemed citizen of Macon and the owner of extensive farm interests in Southwest Georgia.

OCTOBER 5TH, 1900 The new $12,000,000 building of the Young Men’s Christian Association at First and Cherry streets was opened with an informal reception. Dedication exercises were held in the main auditorium on Sunday afternoon, October 7th. Several prominent speakers participated in the program, including exGovernor Northern of Georgia. This institution has maintained a steady growth in Macon and its further expansion and progress will be touched upon in later chapters of this narrative.

MAY 8TH, 1899 Thomas J. Carling donated to the city a two-story brick building to be used by the Price Free Library. This institution was formally opened to the public on January 6th, 1900, with Miss Sallie Boone as librarian. DIED JULY 4TH, 1899 Thomas C. Dempsey, prominent citizen and capitalist. Death occurred at Ashbury Park, N. J.

MACON’S WATER SYSTEM As far back as 1893 concern was felt over Macon’s water supply and far-seeing citizens were predicting municipal ownership. If this was the expression of a hope at that time, its realization was bounded by years, though many agreed that this eventuality alone could bring the assurance of absolute safety in that direction. Every public utility is an important factor in the economic life of the community that it undertakes to serve. Each, with its particular function to perform, is essential to the municipality that would be rated as well rounded, well ordered and well-balanced. Utilities vary in the degree of importance and usefulness in which they are held. Some might suspend for an indefinite period, resulting in discomfort and confusion, but people would continue to live. We might get along without the telephone, but the sacrifice would be great and the cost greater. We might abandon street cars and other means of personal transportation, temporarily, First waterworks built on river, 1897. and survive it, but unless very temporary, our world would backslide to the middle ages. Suppose, however, our water system were to suspend for a period of one short week; what would be the condition of our city and its people at the end of the seventh day? Late in October, 1900, this subject was taking on more tangible form and much was being said and written concerning it. The Macon Magazine, published by the Macon Chamber of Commerce, contains in its December, 1923, issue an article by City Clerk Osgood Clark, entitled “Macon’s Water System, Chronologically,” This article is a collaboration of facts taken from the minutes of the City Council, listed in order, and makes interesting, as well as authentic reading. The minutes of Council covering the period from 1823 to March, 1834, were destroyed by fire sometime prior to the Civil War. Therefore,

DIED JULY 14TH, 1899 Walter B. Hill, a beloved citizen and a resident of Macon until he became Chancellor of the State University. DIED NOVEMBER 22, 1899 At the Macon Hospital, Sylvester B. Price, for many years Mayor of Macon and closely identified with its commercial interests. He was usually called “Daisy” Price. DECEMBER 3RD, 1899 Bridges Smith, City Clerk, and well known newspaper writer, named as Mayor of Macon at the general election following the death of Mayor Price. DIED DECEMBER 19TH, 1899 Clifford Anderson, well known member of the Macon bar. He was former Attorney General of Georgia, one of the Codifiers of the George Code of 1895, and a Confederate Congressman. APRIL 23RD, 1900 On this date The Macon Telegraph makes mention of an interesting relic presented to the city by Captain John A. Cobb, of Americus, Ga. This relic is a bell that was used on a river steamboat that plied the Ocmulgee in the thirties. It is suspended from an iron arch, appropriately lettered, that rests on a brick pedestal in the apex of Elk Park, at the intersection of Second street and Cotton avenue. MAY 28TH, 1900 A phenomenon of world-wide interest was the eclipse of the sun that took place on the morning of the above date between the hours of seven and eight o’clock. As it was practically total here, Macon was one of the most favorable spots in the world from which to view it. Business was suspended and people generally availed themselves of the opportunity that comes to comparatively few to view (in a total degree) a weird and fascinating spectacle. As the light of the sun was slowly obscured by the dark disc that shadowed it, twilight seemed to be settling over the city and lights were turned on in most 77

the record given below deals with the period from March 13th, 1834, down to and including October 2nd, 1911, when the city became the owner of the plant heretofore operated by the Macon Gas Light and Water Company, and turned it over to the Board of Water Commissioners as provided for by an Act of the Legislature (1910). Quotations from Mr. Clark’s article follow: May 1, 1834: “Resolved that the Commission on Pumps be and they are hereby authorized and directed to have or cause the hickory pump on Mulberry street to be repaired with as little delay as possible.” Oct. 17, 1834: “Ordered that Alexander McGreggor be appointed Pump Connector for the remainder of the year.” Jan. 25, 1839: “An Ordinance: Every owner or occupant of a building shall be provided with buckets to correspond with the number of fire places in dwelling, which, on every alarm of fire, it shall be the duty to repair with to such fire, etc.” May 13, 1840: “Resolution: Whereas, it is of the first importance that in case of fire in the City that an immediate supply of water should be had; “Be it resolved that a reward of ten dollars be given to any drawman who shall furnish the first hogshead of water within 20 minutes of the alarm of fire, at the place of conflagration.” The second and third paragraphs offer $5.00 and $3.00 respectively for the second and third hogshead to reach the fire within 30 minutes. 1846: During this year a contract was made with Collins and Ellis, which provided that the cisterns should be kept full of water, carrying the privilege that they could sell the excess supply.

(Wesleyan) and run pipes to their plant, with the understanding that the city could place hydrants along the line. Nov. 8, 1861: Macon Gas Co. took over the business of Collins and Ellis, asked permission to lay more pipes and to supply consumers heretofore served by Collins and Ellis. (Mention was made here of there being five cisterns in the city.) A contract was made with the Macon Gas Company to fill the cisterns. CHARTER IS GRANTED March 27, 1866: A charter was granted the “Macon Canal and Water Works,” to conduct water from the river - to furnish water power for mills, for watering and cleansing the city, for fire purposes and apparently with the understanding that the city would take stock to the amount of $25,000. I am not sure that this concern had any connection with the Macon Gas Light Company, for on October 23, 1866, a contract was entered into with the latter concern “to increase the supply of water for fire purposes.” Mention is made in this new contract (as in the one of July 1861), of the right to collect the waste from the springs at the foot of College Hill in reservoirs, transmit it by pipes to the works of the company, to fill the cisterns and sell the excess to citizens. It was further provided that the “small lead pipes should be replaced with three inch iron pipes.” This contract was executed on the part of the City by Stephen Collins, Mayor, and for the Gas Company by J. M. Boardman, president. Feb. 10, 1881: New contract with Macon Gas Light and Water Company. Provided for payment of $5,180 or for fiftythree hydrants at $60.00 each “to take effect on completion of reservoir (at Second and Boundary Streets) but not changing in any way the existing contract for filling cisterns” and then “for fire purposes” for the use demands of the fire department in its practicing and parades. All hydrants were to be located below Spring street and any hydrant above was to be provided for by a future contract. July 5, 1887: New contract with the Macon Gas Light and Water Company was signed by Mayor S. B. Price and President J. M. Boardman, to run for five years with privilege of renewal. Rates as follows: Hydrants $50.00 each, for as many as fifty. For sewers and sprinkling, 10 cents per one thousand gallons. Drinking fountains, $50.00 each, taking place of pumps. One faucet, $10.00, each additional faucet $3.00. Meter rate 30 cents per 1,000 gallons. Cost of meter rental $3.00 per annum. June 17, 1890: Council failed to approve water bill for $2,000, giving as the reason; “contract violated, insufficient water pressure; supply inadequate; water from Tuft Springs not sufficient and while no reflection on management is intended we must look around and overcome difficulty.” June 24, 1890: Plan of Council to take action was endorsed by the Macon Board of Trade. George T. Kershaw, Secretary. July 8, 1890: Communication from Macon Gas Light and Water Company asking for a new contract. July 29, 1890: Macon Canal and Water Company gave notice of its intention to bid for the new contract.

ESTIMATED INCOME $7,400 July 9, 1857: Report of the Committee on Water on the project to organize a company to build a reservoir “in the rear of Colonel Ponds,” and buy equipment to cost $60,000. “If a company is organized, city is to take stock in the sum of $25,000.” The Macon Gas Company was already operating and had 4,600 consumers so it was estimated that the net income from a water plant would be about as follows: 400 customers at $25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$10,000 Saving from discontinuance of pumps . . . . . . . . . . . .1,000 Railroads and Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,000..$12,000 Expenses to include fuel for pumping wages of Engineer and firemen, superintendence and collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4,600 Net income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$ 7,400 Apparently the project failed to materialize, for on April 17, 1860, Collins and Ellis presented a petition to Council asking the use of any spring or springs in the Town commons; stating that the supply of water from sources used since 1846 was now so curtailed that it was difficult to keep the cisterns filled. May 8, 1860: Council authorized certain ditches to be cleared so that Collins and Ellis could increase the supply of water. July 23, 1861: Council approved petition of the Macon Gas and Light Co., for permission to sink a receptacle in front of the springs in the bottom “in front of the Female College,” 78

ENGINEER’S REPORT RECEIVED July 7, 1891: Report of B. S. Church, Consulting Engineer, on the possible water supply from Tuft Springs, Peters Pond, the Swamp, Ocmulgee (this latter referred to as the City Engineer’s plan, Hendrix), Swift Creek and Boggy Branch, was received. July 21, 1891: Bill approved for the legislature to pass, authorizes the city to build “a separate system of water works,” etc. Nov. 24, 1891: Ordinance was passed, calling for an election to pass on the issuance of bonds for a water system. Nov. 25, 1891: New contract with Macon Gas Light and Water Company, to become effective February 1, 1892, and to run for twenty years was signed by Mayor S. B. Price and W. A. Jeter, vice president of the water company, with the right for the city to purchase incorporated, provided the following rates: Hydrants at $40.00 each up to 200. Sprinkling and flushing sewers 10 cents per 1,000 gallons. To consumers – Single opening $6.00 and then a long schedule providing a special rate for every possible use and by every class of users. Meter rates 30 cents per 1,000 gallons with a sliding scale. Jan. 26, 1892: Above contract was amended to provide scale of rates for manufacturing purposes on 25 cents per 1,000 gallons basis, with scale. Jan. 26, 1892: Election pursuant to ordinance 11-24-91 held with this result: For Bonds 4, against Bonds 174. Aug 30, 1892: Reported daily capacity of Tuft Springs was 1,400,000 gallons. May 2, 1893: Mayor appointed Committee to remedy grievances; many complaints against the water coming in. June 19, 1893: Contact amended, to furnish water for flushing sewers at 3 cents per 1,000 gallons in the event election for sewer bonds should carry. Reference made contract of 11-25-91. July 11, 1893: Council gave notice to water company of city’s intention to buy its plant. July 25, 1893: Water company offers plant for $550,000. Arbitrators were appointed. March 13, 1894: Arbitrators reported and City decided not to purchase the plant or a 7-11 interest in it. April 3, 1894: Bond election was called by Council.

Cherry Street, 1902.

by which the City could become owner of its water system. As a matter of fact the Committee was directed under the resolution to investigate street lighting systems also and to include estimates of a light plant in their report. As is well known, however, nothing came of the effort made to start something in that direction. October, 1909: Report of the above Committee was submitted and ordered printed, in order that, “at their leisure, the Citizens might read and decide as to whether they wanted the water works or not.” Nov. 9, 1909: Hon. John T. Moore was elected Mayor and Alderman, W. T. Anderson was appointed Chairman of the Water Committee of Council. March 8, 1910: Resolution: Requested the water company to furnish the people of Macon through the Mayor and Council a proposition for the sale of their plant with an alternative proposition in the way of a new contract. March 22, 1910: Mayor Moore addressed Council, referring to the above resolution and appointed the Water Committee headed by Hon. W. T. Anderson and three citizens, Messrs E. W. Stetson, O. E. Dooly and Chas. A. Caldwell, these to constitute a special committee to handle the matter. THREE PROPOSITIONS CONSIDERED Note - It should be kept in mind that the City was considering at that time choosing one of the following three propositions: (1) Purchase the plant now operated by the water company; (2) build a new one; (3) renew the contract with the Macon Gas Light and Water Company. The first idea appealed to the people more than any other; a smaller number favored the second and a still smaller thought well of the last suggestion. At that time paving on a large scale was in progress and an extension of the sewerage system to take in Vineville and North Highlands was about to begin. Bonds had been issued for these two projects. With another bond issue of $900,000 needed for the purchase and improvements of the water plant, it simply meant that the total of bonds would be within $30,000 of the city’s bonding capacity as provided by law. It was a matter of concern to those who favored the purchase of the old plant that the margin between the contemplated bond

MAYOR VETOES CALL April 10, 1894: Mayor vetoed call for election. April 17, 1894: Election was called off. April 27, 1894: Water Company was directed to lay pipes of adequate size to prevent again having to tear up pavement. July 21, 1908: During the administration of Hon. A. L. Miller, Mayor, resolution by alderman J. E. Hall was adopted, calling attention to the fact that on February 1, 1912, the contract with the Macon Gas Light and Water Company would expire and asking that the Mayor be authorized to appoint a Committee from Council and an advisory Committee of Citizens whose duty it should be to take steps to secure the passage of the necessary legislature to investigate systems of other cities of similar size and obtain all possible facts and figures as to the original cost as well as the cost of maintenance and operation, etc., and to report in May, 1909, a complete plan 79

issue of $900,000 and the $699,000, the price finally agreed upon by the arbitrators, might prove insufficient to improve the plant to a point of proper efficiency. It was generally conceded that the plant was more or less run down. It was natural that the water company would hesitate about making extensive improvements during the last few years of the contract with the possibility of having to turn over such improvements to the City on a second-hand basis. It seems to me that it was a real man’s job to decide what to do in these circumstances. There was a big responsibility on those in authority at that time and certain it is, the careful and systematic manner in which everything seems to have been handled, up to and including the purchase must needs excite the admiration of everyone. June 28, 1910: The Mayor notified the Water Company of the intention of the City to buy the plant as authorized by resolution of Council. July 13, 1910: Council approved charter amendment proposed by the City Attorney.

higher rate than they would be able to furnish to themselves through Commission management, will remove management as far as possible from politics.” March 18, 1911: Returns of election for bonds showed; For 1521, against 18. There were 1776 registered voters. March 21, 1911: Council declared “Bonds carried.” May 16, 1911: Resolution was adopted by Council to advertise for bids for bonds, for only $700,000.00. May 16, 1911: Resolution: Provided for spending $30,000.00 by Water Committee of Council, the Macon Gas Light and Water Company insisting that their contract was at an end. This money was spent for improvements needed in the water system. July 10, 1911: Bids are invited for water main extensions.

BONDS ARE SOLD July 27, 1911: Contract was awarded to J. B. McCrary and Company, of Atlanta. Sept. 4, 1911: Bids for the $700,000.00 bonds were received. Sept. 12, 1911: The Finance Committee reports sale of bonds to A. E. Leach & Co., of New York, for $702,661.00 and accrued interest. PIPES ARE EXTENDED July 19, 1910: Extension of mains provided for, to be paid for Sept. 20, 1911: The election of Water Commissioners resulted by the City, sanitary sewers being laid. Water pipes were as follows: Hon. W. H. Fetner for six-year term; Hon. W. A. Huff extended to meet the emergency in for four-year term; Hon. Cliff T. North Macon and Vineville. Williamson for two-year term. There September 15, 1910: Resolution of were nine in the race. Council; City offered the water Sept. 26, 1911: Mayor was company $500,000 for their plant. authorized to pay the water company The water company through its $699,000 and to deposit the balance secretary, Mr. W. G. Solomon, with Hon. A. R. Tinsley, Treasurer. declined and said plant was worth Oct. 2, 1911: Hon. John T. Moore, $800,000. Mayor, reported transfer of property Oct. 19, 1910: the City appointed to the City of Macon and payment representatives on the Board of therefor: $479,905 to the Fidelity Arbitration, O. E. Dooly and E. W. Trust Company, to settle outstanding Stetson. The Water Company named Pythian Castle, first public library and First Presbyterian bond issues of the Macon Gas Light Church along Mulberry Street, 1898. Nesbit Wingfield and A. W. and Water Company and $219.095 to McCallum. It was provided that the Treasurer of the water company. these four men should select three additional members. They Note - Mr. Fetner was succeeded in 1917 by Mr. B. L. Hendricks selected John W. Alvord, Leonard Metcalf and George W. Earl. who, in turn, succeeded himself in 1923. Nov. 21, 1910: The arbitrators met: John W. Alvord, Mr. Williamson was elected in 1913, succeeding himself. In Chairman, and Oscar E. Dooly, Secretary. The Honorable N. E. 1919 Mr. Anderson was elected to succeed Mr. Williamson. Harris was attorney for the Water Company and the Hon. A. W. Mr. Huff passed away before his term expired, having been Lane represented the City of Macon. reelected in 1915, and Mr. J. D. Kinnett succeeded him. In 1921, Dec. 2, 1910: The report of the Arbitrators (which is a Mr. Williamson succeeded Mr. Kinnett. voluminous document, and shows wonderful care and completeness) was filed and the amount agreed upon was DIED OCTOBER 30TH, 1900 $699,000.00. O. G. Sparks, in the 88th year of his age. Mr. Sparks served as Dec. 20, 1910: Ordinance passed providing for the election to Mayor of Macon from December 16th, 1857, to September 11th, pass on the bond issue of $900,000.00 ($200,000.00 was needed 1860. On account of ill health he resigned prior to the expiration for improvements.) of his term. Jan. 3, 1911: Resolution provided for special registration for the bond election to be held March 18, 1911. DECEMBER 31ST, 1900 Jan. 17, 1911: Resolution passed asking the people to vote for During the months immediately preceding the above date bonds, said in part “It will be a great disadvantage if the much had been written of the “Fin de siecle,” and Macon opportunity is not seized in view of the fact that another contract people were about to experience a sensation that comes (with will have to made next year tying the city up for twenty years at a few exceptions) but once in a life time - the transition from 80

one century to another. The nineteenth century was nearing its close and in a few hours would pass into history, forever buried in the archives of the past. As the lingering sand filtered slowly through the glass and the pulse of the fading year grew fainter and fainter, fair Macon, vibrant with life and with pride in her past, faced the dawn of the twentieth century hopeful and expectant.

OCTOBER 29TH, 1902 At a meeting of the Masonic Grand Lodge, Senator A. O. Bacon offered to donate one hundred acres of land for a Masonic Home. The offer was accepted and the necessary action promptly taken for the work to proceed. The corner stone was laid October 17th, 1903, and the home opened its door to residents on June 13th, 1905. The building is located on the east side of the Ocmulgee river, almost opposite the water works pumping station.

DIED SEPTEMBER 10TH, 1901 In New York City, Dr. Wm. F. Holt, a prominent and well beloved physician of Macon.

FEBRUARY 28TH, 1903 News received from Washington that Congress appropriated the sum of $306,000.00 for new United States Courthouse and Postoffice. On June 28th, 1905, the announcement was made that the old building would be razed to make room for a larger and more modern structure. The former building was offered for sale to the highest bidder and brought $750.00, the purchaser to tear it down and remove it. This building represented $125,000.00, the material alone costing $50,000.00.

SEPTEMBER 14TH, 1901 An item of noteworthy interest was the publication in The Macon Telegraph of the above date, the roster of the Macon Volunteers at their organization April 23rd, 1823. The commissioned officers were, Captain Edward W. Wright, First Lieutenant William J. Danielly, Second Lieutenant Robert Birdsong, Third Lieutenant John Chain.

MARCH 8TH, 1903 James H. Blount, of Macon, who retired after serving the Sixth District in Congress for twenty years, died on the above date. After his retirement, Mr. Blount was sent by President Cleveland as Special Commissioner to the Hawaiian Islands to investigate conditions there.

OCTOBER 22ND, 1901 Annual reunion of the Georgia Division of United Confederate Veterans was held in Macon. Mayor Bridges Smith delivered the address of welcome, which was responded to by General Clement A. Evans. More than 7,000 veterans were present. DIED FEBRUARY 21ST, 1902 Major William Henry Ross, prominent in business and social life, and Chesterfieldian gentlemen.

MARCH 14TH, 1903 An event of more than passing interest to Macon’s citizens was the launching of the S. S. “City of Macon” at Chester, Pa., on the above date. Miss Rietta Etheridge, of Macon, (now Mrs. Merrell P. Callaway) was sponsor and christened the new boat as it left the ways for Delaware. The boat was 390 feet in length, 49 feet beam, 27 feet depth, 5250 tons freight capacity and had accommodations for 8 first class passengers. The vessel was built for the Ocean Steamship Company, of which J. F. Hanson, of Macon, was president. It was used on the Savannah Line, plying between New York and Savannah.

DIED JUNE 7TH, 1902 John J. Brantley, noted educator and for many years a member of the faculty of Mercer University. The touch of this modest and scholarly man enriched the lives of hundreds, who will teach their children and their children’s children, to revere his honored name. SEPTEMBER 20TH, 1902 Henry Cozzens Appleton, son of David Appleton, well known New York publisher who founded the Appleton Church Home, of Macon, was a visitor to city and inspected the home. He made the statement that his father was an admirer of Bishop John W. Beckwith, of Georgia, and endeavored to persuade him to go to New York City, where his talents would bring him wonderful opportunity. The Bishop however, told him his work was in this field and he felt in duty bound to remain. He further stated there were many orphan girls in the Diocese, as a result of the War Between the States, and he would make an effort to provide a home for them. Mr. Appleton then agreed to buy the land and erect the building. The home was completed and opened in 1868. The demand for room and the more wholesome environment of the country caused the Trustees to build a new plant at Breezy Hill, a few miles beyond Vineville. Removal to the new plant took place during the summer of 1924.

APRIL 23RD, 1903 Joseph Jefferson the actor of Rip Van Winkle fame, visiting the city at this time, spoke interestingly of his early associations with Macon. The first theatrical performance ever given here was in 1852 by Mr. Jefferson, his company remaining for a period of about two weeks, stopping at the United States Hotel, on Fifth street. This hotel was also known as “The Ark.” Mr. Jefferson stated this his performances were given on the second floor of a building near Second street, over a jewelry store. This is identified as Concert Hall, No. 3 Cotton Avenue, over the store then occupied by J. A. and S. S. Virgin. Doubtless the main reason for Mr. Jefferson’s tender feeling toward Macon was that his eldest son was born here.

OCTOBER 6TH, 1902 The National Farmers Union met in Macon and was in session four days.

SEPTEMBER 20TH, 1903 It appears from an article in The Macon Telegraph of the above date, contributed by Mr. J. R. Moseley, that William 81

Makepeace Thackery visited Macon in 1856, at which time he delivered a lecture. In a letter written from Macon to his daughter he said: “This is a great big rambling, shambling village, which they call a city here.”

OCTOBER 28TH, 1903 At this period a fair held in Macon was more largely attended than on any previous similar occasion, or possibly since. Statistics show that on the date named 50,000 people passed through the gates at Central City Park.

Sills of old MD & S trestle that once crossed the river parallel to Central railroad bridge, 1905.

APRIL 4TH, 1905 Contract was let to Artope and Whitt, of Macon, for monument in honor of the Women of the Confederacy. The corner stone was laid November 5th, 1905, with Roland Ellis as orator for the occasion. (This is the monument that now adorns the park opposite the City Hall.)

NOVEMBER 30TH, 1903 The superiority of Macon’s race track was demonstrated when on this date Dan Patch, the celebrated pacer, created two new world records. The one mile record was lowered from 2.06 1/2 to 2.04 3/4, and the two mile record from 4.19 to 4.17.

DIED APRIL 13TH, 1905 Washington Dessau, of Macon, one of the ablest and best known lawyers of the state. Death came suddenly, while addressing the Supreme Court, of Atlanta.

FEBRUARY 20TH, 1904 The City of Macon appropriated the sum of $2,500.00 for the Georgia Building at the St. Louis Exposition. This building was used to exhibit the products of the State of Georgia.

MAY 30TH, 1905 Blind Academy on College street and on Orange street sold to a local syndicate for $50,000.00. This property was later the site for the Nevarro Apartments, facing Orange street.

MAY 14TH, 1904 Main building burned at Central City Park. This was a long wooden building that burned so rapidly and with such intense heat that one of the city’s fire engines, placed at a nearby hydrant to fight the flames, was destroyed before it could be moved. Insurance on the building amounted to $23,900.00. On May 26th, 1904, City Council voted three new brick buildings to replace the one burned. The cost of the buildings was - one, 50 feet by 300 feet, $7,000.00; one round building, 100 feet in diameter, with dome, $6,300.00; one small building for machinery exhibits, $1,600.00.

DIED SEPTEMBER 13TH, 1905 Thomas J. Simmons, of Macon, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia. Interment was made in Rose Hill cemetery. He served his country in the sixties as colonel of a regiment in Stonewall Jackson’s Corps, was subsequently president of the Georgia Senate; Chairman of the committee that investigated the Bullock bonds and was Solicitor General and Judge of the Macon Circuit. SEPTEMBER 29TH, 1905 Macon Street Railway properties were bought from the Williams syndicate by Macon and Savannah capitalists for $400,000.00.

DIED AUGUST 12TH, 1904 Dr. W. E. Mumford, founder of the Georgia Industrial Home. SEPTEMBER 18TH, 1904 A new order known as the Knights of Columbus, was organized in Macon on this date. The start was made with sixty men, which number has steadily increased.

OCTOBER 20TH, 1905 President Theodore Roosevelt, en route to Florida, spent ten minutes in Macon on the evening of the above date. Notwithstanding the late hour of his arrival, he made a brief address from the rear of his train to several thousand citizens. During the year dealt with in this chapter, Macon’s expansion was perhaps greater than in any previous period of her history.

DIED MARCH 6TH, 1905 J. Marshall Johnston, prominent banker and business man. 82

Chapter XIII building accomplishment of this period began with work on the PERIOD FROM 1906 TO 1916 The decade from 1906 to 1916 might appropriately be called new post office building, to cost $300,000.00, three-fourths of the period of building and expansion. It was marked by the which was spent in Georgia. It is a structure of beautiful design, annexation and incorporation into the city of all the outlying built of Georgia marble and replaced a building erected in 1888. suburbs and by the construction of some of Macon’s most The post office activities were transferred to rented quarters expensive structures of a public nature and of business and nearby and the demolition of the old building was actually residence construction at a large aggregate expenditure. begun in November, 1905, and completed early in 1906. In a The 1910 census showed that Macon’s population had grown little more than two years, on August 7, 1908, it was formally to 40,665 from 23,272 of ten years earlier, a 47.7 percent gain. opened to the public. The greater part of this gain came from the annexation of South The Chamber of Commerce, on May 23, 1906, issued a Macon, Western Heights, Napier Heights, Vineville, East Macon beautiful Book of Macon de Luxe, as Macon’s Own Book, with the and West Macon. sub-title, “The City of Macon and Vicinity.” Mr. James T. Grady And Macon’s greatest building activity for this period kept compiled it and it was a work of art, describing Macon’s beauties pace with its great growth in population. Some of the new and industrial advantages. buildings and improvements of a public and semi-public nature On January 19th the city council by ordinance established a which during this period increased Macon’s facilities to the city chaingang for violators of the city’s laws. public and at the same time the attractiveness of the city’s Early in January, 1906, the retail liquor men of Macon appearance were: began to profess both progress and morals. They formed a “law Post office building; the Dempsey Hotel, Georgia Casualty and order league,” to “purge the profession” and compel it to Company’s twelve-store office building, in connection with the obey the laws. But two years later they were relieved of this organization of this great corporation; the splendid levee system duty and at the same time of their “profession” by the Georgia which protects the industries and lands below the city from the Legislature’s state-wide “bone dry” law. They no doubt were Ocmulgee’s inundations; the Georgia, Southern and Florida realizing then that public sentiment had determined upon the Railroad shops; the State’s Academy for the Blind; the new two doom of the liquor business. million dollar railroad joint terminals; the Bay street underpass; The Macon Fair Association’s report of January 23, 1906, Young Men’s Christian Association building. showed that the balance on hand, above all liabilities, was The City’s operating expenses for 1905 had exceeded the $1,326.78. On the 12th of February the Hon. Bridges Smith appropriations by $21,224.83. The Council now presented its was elected president to succeed Mr. George A. Smith, who 1906 budget requiring $275,283.00, but at its January 23, 1907, had resigned. meeting increased this to For many years the $305,878.00. Georgia State Fair was W. J. Butler, the receiver held in Macon. But the of the defunct First National State Agricultural Society Bank of Macon, on January in February determined by the 22nd paid the final five a vote of eighteen to per cent to the depositors, sixteen to accept Atlanta’s with three and one-half per offer and hold the 1906 cent interest. With this Fair in Atlanta. payment the depositors’ But the Macon Fair total payments aggregated Association determined to 100 per cent, amounting to continue to have a Fair in $50,000.00. The bank had Macon and immediately failed about eighteen erected a new fair building, The seven story office building was built in front of the old Academy of Music months prior to this time. fifty by two hundred feet at on Mulberry in 1905. Now known as Grand Opera House. The greatly enlarged Central City Park. 83

The city began in August to make great preparations and gave a splendid welcome to the delegates when they met in convention here on September the 4th. About five hundred negroes attended a convention of that race in Macon on February 12-14, 1906. A distinguished guest was Judson W. Lyons, former Registrar of the United States Treasury. They complained against what they termed unjust discrimination against negroes in business, politics, and other lines, specifying the advocacy by the Hon. Hoke Smith, then a candidate for Governor, of a more stringent law for the qualifications of voters. Washington’s birthday was also an anniversary of a very notable Macon institution. The Georgia Industrial Home was established on February 22, 1899, by the Rev. W. E. Mumford. It was started and has been operated largely by faith and prayer. It opened with but one house, not paid for, on a small plot of land. By 1906 it was caring for more than 150 children and possessed property valued at $30,000.00. The report for Bibb County’s schools appeared in May, 1906, and showed that the county would receive for its school fund $60,000.00, and that in 1905 there was an increase in attendance of two hundred and eighty-one and five hundred were turned away. In September, 1906, the 1906 attendance showed a four hundred increase. In March, 1906, work began on Macon’s levee. This levee begins on the west bank of the Ocmulgee near the entrance to Central City Park and runs along the river bank for a mile or more. It was made necessary by the fact that the lands in the lower or southern end of the city are swampy and much of them below the river level. This land had been part of the city reserve, and a number of large manufacturing plants were scattered over it; even farther away were brick yards and factories. But all this section was easily overflowed in wet weather when the river rose. This levee drained and shut off from the river two large bodies of water, Loggerback and Napier sluices, and made them dry. The work was financed and directed by the Ocmulgee Levee Company, chartered by Bibb Superior Court and the city paid the cost of building that part of the levee on the city’s property. Macon proceeded at the same time in efforts both to fight the river’s overflow and to utilize its channel flow by freight navigation. The United States government undertook to provide a channel of navigable depth. From its first trip in March, 1906, the Government snag boat, Oconee, made repeated trips to Macon for several years, keeping the channel cleared of snags and other obstructions to navigation. This boat was originally named The City of Macon and was built with Macon money. Then in its old age The Oconee came home for a renewal of its youth. The old boat’s body was decrepit, but its organs were still sound. In 1908 the Government had Mr. T. L. Thacker to build in Macon’s ship yard a new boat to fit the Oconee’s machinery. The Government was led to have Mr. Thacker build the boat by its admiration of the steamer, A. E. Chappell, then being built by him for the local navigation company.

Hotel Lanier and old Post Office on Mulberry Street.

In 1906 they lost money, which was expected, but a splendid fair was held. Mr. J. A. Newcomb, owner of the Lanier Hotel, on January 22nd, made the first published suggestion of a tourist hotel in Macon. During the month of April, 1906, there was much tourist hotel discussion. The Chamber of Commerce and special committees gave much thought and time to the question and the interest of the people generally steadily increased. Plans of tourist hotels in other places were studied, a nine-hundred-acre tract in Vineville was offered for a site, and a tourist hotel expert from Boston visited Macon and investigated the matter. The first real definite step, however, was taken on May 13, 1906, when a committee of the Chamber of Commerce began canvassing for subscriptions to stock. On the 14th of July, T. S. Jones left for Boston to raise money there. At a meeting on the night of April 6, 1911, all the stock of the new Dempsey hotel was subscribed, amounting to $200,000.00. The hotel was to cost $350,000.00, and the $150,000.00 above the capital stock would be raised by a bond issue. The hotel was to be ten stories high with 250 rooms. The sum of $50.000 would be spent in furnishings. A committee was appointed to apply for a charter. It was several years before the hotel was completed. The Hotel Dempsey was formally opened on March 12, 1913. The Macon Hospital’s 1905 report showed its remarkable growth and usefulness. It treated 1,114 patients, and in 1904 it treated but 939, and but 390 in 1901, its first year. The death of General Joe Wheeler in Brooklyn on January 25, 1906, was mourned in Macon and a tremendous throng attended the memorial services for the beloved Confederate and SpanishAmerican War veteran held at the auditorium on the 29th. At its meeting on January 30, 1906, the Mayor and Council invited the State Democratic party to hold its convention this year in Macon; to the Council’s work were united the efforts of the Chamber of Commerce and other organizations and the newspapers. As a result the State Democratic Executive Committee at its April meeting, by a vote of twenty-eight to seven, selected Macon for the convention. 84

As early as September, 1906, Chairman T. E. Burton, of the Congressional Committee on Rivers and Harbors, visited Macon and inspected the river, etc, as to its value for navigation and whether it should receive congressional aid. The boat Ocmulgee bore him and his party down the river. A public reception at the Lanier Hotel and a dinner at the Cherokee Club was given in his honor. The Chamber of Commerce and business men persisted in a thoroughly business-like manner in pushing the matter of boats on the Ocmulgee. In April, 1906, they considered the matter of subsidizing boats to operate on the Ocmulgee. In May it chartered a boat to begin carrying freight between Macon and Brunswick on June the first. This was the Nan Elizabeth. A tariff list for freight was ready and the Chamber estimated that this river tariff could be made from twelve to twenty per cent lower than the rail rates. This activity aroused in the hearts of older citizens the hope of seeing a return of the early days when the Ocmulgee was a scene of busy boating bearing bales of cotton and other freight to and from the sea. Then this river bore eighty per cent of the state’s traffic and the rate for a bale of cotton to Brunswick was one dollar and it was now $1.70. The Nan Elizabeth measured one hundred by twenty-four feet and continued to ply between Macon and Brunswick. Many difficulties were overcome, one being the indication at one time that the boat would be unable to secure a docking place at Brunswick. Large delegations of business men often met it at the dock here and some of them once made a trip on it down the river to Hawkinsville. By August this boat had demonstrated that the Ocmulgee was navigable and that Macon could be made to reap great benefit from navigating it. Consequently a corporation was formed to establish a regular line of boats. Books for subscription to the stock were opened, and by November 2, 1906 $15,000.00 of the $25,000.00 had been raised. The city of Brunswick and its press showed hearty sympathy with Macon in its efforts for river transportation. In April, 1906, the Macon companies of the National Guard, began building a rifle range at Holton and in May began the erection of a steel bridge across the Ocmulgee at the range. In March, 1906, the council instructed the city engineer to prepare a plot of the city reserve, with a view of selling the undisposed of parts. The city reserve was the low land lying below the city property, below Fifth street. This was laid off and is shown in regular size lots in the first map of Macon, but these lots were not sold in the 1823 sale. At various times since then various lots or small parcels were sold or leased to various business concerns as sites for manufacturing or other industrial plants. A sale of part of the remainder was made in April, 1836, for $113,310.00, and the city applied $86,750.00 of this to the city’s floating debt. But a large part of it remained unsold and still the property of the city. At that date, seventy years before, Macon had 3,000 population, now grown to 54,000. Then the estimated value of all the property of the city was $200,000.00; now in 1906 it was

$1,000,000.00. In May, council sold to the railroad seven acres of this reserve for $20,000.00. In June it sold to the Central of Georgia Railroad for $32,500.00 the famous triangle in the reserve and this became the site of that road’s shops, costing a million and a half dollars. In August, 1906, the City Reserve blocks 48 and 53, containing seven acres, were sold to H. F. Haley for $4,000.00. The same month also saw the spreading of Macon in the sale of lots for homes in the new suburb of North Highlands. Heimath Hall, a home for working girls, formally opened on June the 9th. A house at 568 Walnut street had been secured for the purpose. Mrs. J. V. Langford was matron. This Christian home for business women was opened and operated under the auspices of the Missionary Union of all the city’s churches. Credit for establishing this much needed institution is due to the untiring efforts of a small band of noble women. Heimath Hall kept open house to visitors on Sunday, June 17th, with programs morning, evening and night. This year the Ladies’ Memorial Association merged into Sidney Lanier Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. Easter Sunday in Macon in 1906 was notable for several events of importance. Mr. Louis Cohen had died in New York on Monday and his remains were interred in Macon on Sunday. Dr. Young J. Allen, for many years the most noted American Missionary to China, on Sunday night made an address at Wesleyan College. His wife was a Wesleyan graduate. On the night of May 27, 1906, Dr. Allen preached at Wesleyan Chapel on Missionaries. On this Easter Sunday, Professor J. G. Weisz presided over the organ at St. Joseph’s church for the twenty-sixth consecutive Easter. A great throng attended a mass meeting on the 21st at the auditorium and raised several thousand dollars for relief of the San Francisco people so severely stricken by the earthquake and fire of April the 18th. During the week of April 21, 1906, the last superior court was held at the historic old town of Clinton in the adjoining county of Jones, as the court house was moved to the town of Gray. But little now is left of the once proud village of Clinton. On April the 27th and 28th a most excellent music festival was held at Wesleyan College. Some of the best musical talent in the country was secured and the splendid patronage of the performances by the Macon people was in keeping with the traditional fame of her people as lovers of the finer things in life. In April, 1906, ground was broken for the new Academy for the Blind at Crumps Park and in May the trustees selected Mr. G. L. Oliphant as superintendent. It was a wise selection, for Mr. Oliphant has held the position ever since and has achieved a national reputation for his excellent work with the blind. The old building and site on College street has been sold for $50,000, but this was exhausted before completing the new building and the state was asked for $25,000 more. The new plant of this institution was ready for opening in November, 1906. 85

In June, 1906, a construction company was organized to do the building. Later the railway corporation was formed and in October moved its headquarters from Atlanta to Macon. The city of Macon granted a franchise to the Albany end of the proposed line in December, 1906. Surveys were made and much work was done, but several years were consumed in the preliminary work and the panic incident to the 1914 opening of the European war suspended all operations and they have never until now been resumed. Macon’s 1906 celebration of the Fourth of July was notable and the address was made by Judge James H. Blount in favor of independence of the Philippines; he was at home on such a subject because of his official residence for several years in those islands as Judge of the United States Court there. On August 1, 1906, Council created the office of food inspector, and on September 12th the City Board of Health appointed to the office Mr. George Cherry. On August 2, 1906, the carpenters, car inspectors and a few roundhouse employes of the railroads in Macon went on a strike for higher wages. The street car operatives had already been on a strike several weeks without disorder. On the night of the 19th the car tracks were greased, one car ran from the track, stopping all cars, and torpedoes were placed on the tracks. On the next day the strikers and the street railway company agreed to arbitrate. The disorders had caused the cars to cease running, but the strikers returned to work on the 21st and the cars again were running. On September 1, 1906, the Hon. W. A. Huff opened in the Public Library a free night school for illiterate white men over eighteen years of age, to be open two hours each night for four nights each week. The school was well attended for a while and accomplished much good. The Macon Street Railway Company announced that it was installing $100,000.00 worth of new apparatus bought the preceding fall. A shooting match opened at the Holten Rifle Range on August the 28th, and Dr. Holmes Mason led in the match. On the morning of September the 9th, Dr. C. H. Hall died at his home on College Street. He was 74 years of age and had come to Macon near the close of the War Between the States, having practiced medicine here for forty years. On the 14th day of September Wesleyan College opened its fall term under President Dupont Guerry, with a large attendance. On the 18th day of September the Macon Daughters of the American Revolution announced that they would exhibit at the State Fair in October a life-size portrait of William Jones, whose parents then resided at Millen. He commanded one of the regiments at Fort Hawkins in the War of 1812. With the portrait was also exhibited the orderly book containing the full

Tent City at Central City Park. (Confederate Veteran’s Reunion, 1912.)

On May 9, 1906, Macon’s first auto meet opened with racing in the afternoon and a splendid automobile parade at night. The meet lasted two days and was well attended. On May 26, 1906, the trustees of Wesleyan College met and reelected the Hon. Dupont Guerry president. On the 29th was announced the addition of two new chairs to the faculty, Biology and History. At its meeting on May 29, 1906, City Council changed the name of Columbus road to Montpelier Avenue, for the famous spring and the academy to which this thoroughfare once led and upon petition for the change by the residents on the street. The City Council and the Chamber of Commerce requested the Central Railroad to use the old compress site as the site for a new station, and at its June meeting council authorized the appointment of a committee to request the roads to build a union station. A mass meeting on August the 17th also requested it, pledging the cooperation of citizens, Council, Chamber of Commerce, etc. On June the 6th Dr. C. L. Smith resigned as President of Mercer University, having been elected in July, 1905, and one of the trustees, Dr. S. Y. Jameson, was elected to succeed Dr. Smith. On July 23, 1906, the Fourth National Bank was formally organized. It was opened on the morning of September 20, 1906, in the Jaques Building. The officers were: W. M. Lewis, of Montezuma, President; Chas. B. Lewis, Cashier; F. E. Williams, Assistant Cashier. The capital stock was $250,000, which was $25,000 over-scribed. The first day’s deposits were $165,000.00. Mr. Gus C. Mathews died on June the 15th after a long illness. He was associate editor of The Macon Telegraph, having served successfully as literary editor, news editor, and associate editor, and with The Macon News for about three years. He returned to The Telegraph on September 1, 1901, as Managing News Editor. The Democratic Primary election, held on August the 22nd, selected Joe Hill Hall, T. E Ryals, and Ben Fowler as Bibb County’s Representatives in the Georgia Legislature, the Hon. T. S. Felder, of Macon, for the State Senate, and the Hon. Charles L. Bartlett was renominated for Congress. For sometime a movement had been on foot to build an electric interurban railway line from Atlanta to Griffin, Macon and Albany. 86

roster of the names of men who served under him. On September the 21st Mercer University opened under Dr. Jameson as President and on the 29th the contract was let for the erection of a new dormitory. On September 22, 1906, the street car workers went out on a strike, but nearly all cars continued to run. The strike continued for some time and there were race riots in Atlanta, which caused the Macon authorities to require all saloons to close at six o’clock each evening. On the 29th some strike sympathizers had a pistol duel with two street car workers, but nobody was hurt. But the violence grew to such proportions that on the evening of the 30th the three local military companies, the Hussars, the Volunteers, and the Floyd Rifles, left for Atlanta under command of Colonel Walter A. Harris. Governor Terrell called them to help quell the riot but they returned to Macon the next afternoon. The Macon Fair opened on October 2, 1906, at Central City Park. There were fine exhibits and a variety of interesting entertainments and amusements, races and stock auctions. The fair was not a success financially. The heavy rains early in the week and the street car strike, with the shooting affair later in the week, combined to reduce the attendance. On Saturday night, September 8th, a mob attacked the county jail, and with steel rails battered down the iron doors, and released the prisoners. The mob was seeking a negro, named Henry Fews, being held for the shooting on the night of the 6th of two white men, Will Solomon and Charles Adams, at the Fair grounds. But Fews had that night been taken by Officers Bunch and Mayfield to Atlanta. At midnight two local military companies, the Hussars and Floyd Rifles, marched to the jail and dispersed the mob. The negro Fews was himself wounded four times in the same affair in which two white men were shot, and a few days later the report came from the Atlanta jail that he was dying. Dan Richardson was arrested on the charge of shooting a helpless negro prisoner at the time a mob stormed the jail Saturday night. On December 3rd Henry Fews was convicted of shooting two white men at the Fair Grounds in October and was sentenced to serve ten years in the penitentiary. On October the 8th about one thousand machinists of the Southern Railway went out on a strike. This included the few machinists of that company in Macon. In October, 1906, the Hephzibah Orphanage bought from the Ross estate property in Vineville for $6,000.00, intending to move its plant there. On October the 16th occurred the deaths of two notable persons. Mrs. Jefferson Davis died in New York after a week’s illness with pneumonia. Sam P. Jones, the noted evangelist, died suddenly on a train near Little Rock, Ark. His body was buried at Cartersville, after it had lain in state all Friday at the State Capitol in Atlanta. At 9 o’clock on the morning of the 17th day of October, the Confederate flag was flown over the Volunteers’ Armory, by order of Commander Cabiniss, of Camp Macon, No. 1477, U.C.V. A meeting was also called for the 19th at 7 o’clock in the

evening at the Volunteers’ Armory for a public expression of the sorrow of the city’s people. A resident of Macon and member of the U.D.C. sent to The Telegraph a letter Mrs. Davis had written to a Macon friend and the letter mentioned Mr. Davis’ love of the yellow jasmine. On October the 30th, 1906, the Grand Lodge of the Masons of Georgia convened in Macon in its one hundred and twentieth annual session, with twelve hundred delegates. Grand Master Max Meyerhardt, of Rome, presided. On November 5, 1906, the Macon Gun Clubs opened a trap shoot at Macon and the champion shots of the world attended. On the 20th day of November it was announced that Dr. R. Holmes Mason, of the Macon Volunteers, won the Georgia State Medal for the best rifleman at the Sea Girt, N. J., shoot in September. Georgia’s Federation of Women’s Clubs met in State convention in the Wesleyan chapel on November 7th. It was their tenth annual meeting and the convention last two days. On November the 9th Macon made a $9,000.00 reduction in its bonded indebtedness. During the year the city also had purchased $27,900.00 of its bonds and paid $10,000.00 on others. Its outstanding bonded indebtedness now was $894,100.00. On November the 12th the negroes opened their fair at Central City Park, with a splendid parade through the city’s streets. The 15th was “white folks” day at this fair. On Sunday the negroes’ feature of their fair was a religious congress and the fair closed on Monday, November the 19th. On November the 18th Mrs. Georgia Palethorpe was buried here. At the beginning of the War Between the States Mr. Palethorpe left the life of a sailor and he and she came to Macon. He enlisted with Major C. D. Findlay in the 5th Georgia Reserves, but was detailed for duty in Macon in connection with the manufacture of ammunition. Mrs. Palethorpe was overseer in charge of seven hundred girls employed in the manufacture of cartridges. She also found time to minister much to sick soldiers and after the war became a trained nurse. On November the 24th at 1:20 o’clock P.M., Colonel Daniel G. Hughes died at his home in Vineville. He was the father of Dudley M. Hughes. Colonel Hughes was born in Twiggs county in 1828. He went to the war in 1862 as a private and became a colonel on General McKoy’s staff. He was a graduate of the University of Georgia. When General Robert Toombs was escaping and a price had been put on his head, Toombs stopped and was sheltered at Colonel Hughes’ home in Twiggs County and was harbored by the Colonel until Toombs could escape. In 1866 Colonel Hughes served one term in the Georgia Legislature. He moved to Macon about 1889, seventeen years before his death. He remains were interred on November the 26th beside his father in Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta. On the night of December the 9th the Empire Store of Burden, Smith & Company, located in the triangular block 87

between Cherry and Second streets and Cotton avenue was burned. The buildings were owned by Mrs. S. T. Coleman and C. B. Willingham, Sr. Burden, Smith & Company lost their entire stock, estimated at $155,000 with $130,000 insurance. Mrs. S. T. Coleman’s loss was $60,000 with $30,000 insurance. C. B. Willingham’s loss was $10,000 with insurance of $6,600. One hundred and thirtyfive persons were thrown out of employment. On December the 29th was announced the securing by Burden, Smith & Company of a ten-year lease on the big J. W. Shinholser building on Third street. At midnight on December the 10th the Trustees and the Governor at Griffin decided that the new Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Sixth Congressional District should be located at Barnesville. The decision was not reached until the 80th ballot, Joe Hill Hall had threatened to enjoin Bibb County from making its donation offered to secure the college and, when Bibb received five votes in the balloting, Governor Terrell stated that Joe Hill Hall had informed the Attorney General that he would enjoin Bibb County from making the gift. The city treasurer’s report on December the 21st showed Macon’s current and floating indebtedness to be $109,065.60, but that there was uncollected taxes of $45,000.00, leaving a net total indebtedness of $64,065.60. The bonded debt was $894,100.00. On December the 28th The Telegraph announced that Mayor Bridges Smith had entered upon the closing year of his fourth term. The next election would be in November, 1907. The Telegraph of December the 28th published the fact that A. T. Holt had received his Christmas cake from his Virginia friends. This custom was begun by Mrs. Crouch. Mr. Holt was ill and cared for in her home when he was in the Confederate Army at Petersburg, Va. They nursed Mr. Holt back to health. When Mrs. Crouch died, her daughter, Mrs. Mattie V. Crouch, kept up the custom of sending Mr. Holt a Christmas cake. On December the 27th the Central of Georgia submitted to the City Engineer the plans for the Bay Street underpass, to be constructed of concrete. The appropriation for Macon for 1906 by the City Council amounted to $305,000.00. The year 1907 was marked by the deaths of three men whose lives had been prominently identified with the history of Macon. The Hon. Clem P. Steed died on January 27, 1907, after several weeks’ illness. He was born November 21, 1861, graduated from Mercer in 1882, and came to the bar in 1884. For several years he had been the leading spirit in the Mercer Law School, a deacon of the First Baptist Church, a member of the Board of Trustees of Mercer University, and of the Executive Committee of the Georgia Baptist convention. He was a member of the law firm of Steel and Ryals. Dr. A. J. Battle died on September 30, 1907, at the age of 81. He was a graduate and tutor of the University of Alabama, and had been president of girls’ colleges at Tuscaloosa, Tuskegee, and at Judson, Warrior County, Alabama. He became president of Mercer University in 1872 and served

until he resigned in 1889. His first associates in the faculty of Mercer were Professors S. P. Sanford, J. E. Willet, E. P. Steed, John J. Brantley, and W. G. Woodfin, all of whom Dr. Battle survived. Mr. G. Bernd died at his son’s home in Philadelphia on November 29, 1907, and was buried here. He was a Confederate soldier and he and his brother, Adolph, came to Macon just after the war and founded the house of Bernd, now one of the South’s largest leather houses. He was 82 years old and had retired from business before his death. Miss Florence Bernd, of Macon, was his daughter. Emanuel Hunt, an aged and well known negro of the Pleasant Hill section, died on February 27, 1909. Every morning at five o’clock Emanuel regularly would produce a few musical notes by blowing on a tin horn or bugle, six feet long, and every negro in the section soon came to depend on it to wake him. He also kept a pack of the best fox hounds and loved the chase and delighted in directing young hunters to where the foxes were. In April, 1909, Mrs. Morris Happ presented to the city a beautiful drinking fountain as a memorial to her late lamented husband; the fountain stands in front of the Grand building. On September 29, 1909, the announcement was made that the Georgia Life Insurance Company had bought the Masonic Hall building and land on Mulberry Street and would at once build an office building there. This company was licensed by the State of Georgia on August 15, 1909, to do a general insurance business and began business on the first day of the following September. It was then the largest capitalized company in the South. Later it changed its name to the Georgia Casualty Company. On November 4, 1909, President Taft visited Macon and the Macon Fair. He made an address at the Fair grounds, being introduced by Colonel Nat. E. Harris. On February 1, 1910, Macon’s bond commission dissolved by operation of law, after thirty years’ existence. Seven hundred thousand dollars in bonds had been issued and now only $136,000.00 remained outstanding. February 2, 1910, marked the fiftieth anniversary of Mrs. A. P. Wheeler’s membership in the First Baptist Sunday school. She joined on the first Sunday in June, 1860. For many years she had been at the head of the primary department and among those who were her pupils are some whose parents and grandparents were taught by her in their childhood. On Sunday, February 2, 1910, the Sunday School gave a special program in expression of its appreciation of her life and labors of faithful service for half a century. The election which made South Macon, Western Heights, and Napier Heights a part of Macon occurred on March 2, 1910. This annexation added 15,000 to Macon’s population, thus producing the 17,393 increase shown by the 1910 census. The city’s property values also were greatly increased. A tremendous crowd met in a mass meeting at the city auditorium on March 8, 1910, in the interest of Greater Macon. Mayor John T. Moore presided. Judge Emory Speer was at his best and spoke for more than an hour on “Annexation and A Greater Macon.” He received a great ovation. Judge John P. 88

Ross introduced him. The Hon. Roland Ellis spoke eloquently on “The Greater Macon Spirit.” On March 19, 1910, East Macon voted to become a part of Macon, after a three weeks’ campaign, and a movement began for the annexation of West Macon. Macon Shriners heard on April 14, 1910, that Imperial Council at New Orleans had just granted a temple to Macon to be named Al-Sihah. Macon had been working for this since 1908, Savannah at first objecting. A new water commission, composed of council’s water committee and a citizens’ committee appointed to study the question of Macon’s water supply held its first meeting on April 16, 1910, in the Confederate veterans in front of the Central of Georgia RR ticket office. During the UCV reunion Mayor’s office. in Macon, May 1912. Ticket office was at 603 Cherry Street (1912 address). The contract between the city and the short time a modern and spacious fire-proof steel and concrete company then in force gave the city the right to purchase the building was completed and a plant of the very latest design was plant at any time, the price to be fixed by arbitration if not placed in it, in which was included a large four-deck Goss press. agreed upon. Arbitration had been begun several years prior An effort to have the State Capitol removed from Atlanta to to 1910 and the arbitrators fixed the price of the plant at Macon was begun at a mass meeting at the Chamber of $550,000.00, but Mayor Price vetoed the proposal of purchase Commerce on the night of November 23, 1910. because of lack of funds. The subsequent history of this movement and of how a A public subscription was taken to save a negro from lockmeasure for such a vote was many times introduced and at one jaw because the city had no funds provided to purchase the time signed by a majority of the members of the Legislature, expensive medicines necessary to cure his case. and how the Atlanta influence repeatedly prevented a vote on it, The Telegraph of June 9, 1910, announced the successes as all belong to a later period in this history. an inventor of Burgess Smith, a son of City Clerk Bridges Major J. F. Hanson died suddenly in Atlanta on December 15, Smith. For years Burgess had been connected with the United 1910, at 6:50 o’clock in the morning at his apartments at 69 States Treasury Department in Washington. He had invented a East Fourteenth street. He was 74 years old and had been process of laundering and fumigating paper money. He was on suffering for several months with a liver trouble, but it was not the committee appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury to considered serious. consider the matter of fumigating currency and utilizing old He came to Atlanta from Macon two years before his death, and soiled currency. when the Central of Georgia Railroad’s headquarters were All the ink used by the Government in printing its postage moved to Atlanta. stamps is made from a formula furnished by Burgess Smith. He was born in Monroe County on November 25, 1840. He September 5, 1910, was celebrated in Macon as Labor Day was a Confederate soldier, one of the Spalding Grays and of the with a parade, motorcycle races, trotting races, a baby show, Second Georgia Battalion. He was incapacitated and sent home athletic events, a baseball game, etc., at Central City Park. On the night of September 5, 1910, Macon’s white way lights after the battle of Sharpsburg. Major Hanson entered the mercantile business at Barnesville. were turned on, the button being pressed by little Blanche Neel, A few years later he moved to Macon, and took charge of the the daughter of Mrs. Joseph Neel. The light flooded Cherry Bibb Manufacturing Company. On December 7, 1903, he Street and 2,000 voices cheered. The exercises were held on a platform on Cherry Street in front of the store of Joseph N. Neel became president of the Central of Georgia Railway Company and he had several years before that been made president of the Company. Ocean Steamship Company. On the night of November 3, 1910, the Macon Telegraph’s The Bibb Manufacturing Company began operations in 1876 plant was destroyed by fire and C. R. Clay, a printer, was burned with but 1,280 spindles and $36,000.00 capital. to death. Some very valuable newspaper files were destroyed, When Major Hanson in 1908 sold his interest and withdrew and these of course could not be replaced. from connection with it, it was operating 70,000 spindles and The Macon News gave The Telegraph the use of The News had a surplus of cash assets over liabilities of a million dollars plant and so enabled The Telegraph to appear without missing and had no encumbrance of any kind on any of its seven mills. an issue. Of the Central Railroad, Major Hanson became a director in On November 18, 1910, The Telegraph announced its 1895, Chairman of the Board of Directors in 1900, and President purchase of the lot and building at 452 Cherry Street and in a 89

of the Company in 1903. For a number of years Major Hanson owned The Macon Telegraph; he secured the controlling interest in it in 1880 and undertook its management. In 1881 he began a series of editorials favoring a school of technology. He interested Mr. Pendleton in a suggestion to come to Macon and purchase The Telegraph. He and Harry Stillwell Edwards paid $800.00 per share for The Telegraph stock and sold it for $1,800.00 per share. Major Hanson served as a member of the First PanAmerican Congress in 1889 and later was a member of the United States Monetary Commission. In Macon he was a member of the Bond Commission until he moved to Atlanta. The year 1911 opened with an enthusiastic dinner in favor of the Capitol removal on January the 7th and on the 11th the city of Atlanta proposed to move Mercer to Atlanta. On March 18, 1911, the people voted in favor of the city’s owning its water works system and for a $900,000 bond issue to pay for same. At an election nineteen years before the proposal was defeated, only four voting for it. The new water works commissioners met and organized on September 26, 1911, by electing the following officers: W. H. Fetner, Chairman; W. A. Huff, Vice-Chairman; and C. T. Williamson was the third member. The formal transfer of the old water works by the Macon Gas Light and Water Company to the Commission took place in New York on Saturday, the 30th, the sum of $699,000.00 being paid for the old plant. At an election on the question of paving bonds on June 26, 1909, the bonds were defeated, but were carried at an election on December 8, 1909. On February 8, 1911, power was turned on from the Central Georgia Power Company’s new plant. On the night of April 6, 1911, subscriptions to $200,000 capital stock for a new hotel on the Dempsey corner were completed. On May 17, 1911, at Chattanooga, the Southern Baptist Convention elected as its moderator, Dr. E. C. Dargan, then pastor of the First Baptist Church of Macon. On the same day the city of Macon entertained the Georgia Legislature at a splendid barbecue. At its closing session at Little Rock on May 17, 1911, the Confederate Veterans reunion decided to hold its 1912 reunion in Macon. Only the able and tireless efforts of a number of Macon ladies and gentlemen won for Macon. These were: Secretary E. H. Hyman, of the Chamber of Commerce; Colonel C. M. Wiley, Colonel J. W. Preston; Miss Grace Lumpkin; Mrs. W. D. Lamar; and Miss Regina Rambo, of Marietta. The Macon Telegraph opened its new building to the public on the night of August 14, 1911, and ten thousand people attended and saw the paper in the making. On the 16th The Telegraph issued from its special new home, a housewarming edition. Williams Sanitarium was opened in October, 1911. John C. Butler died at one o’clock on the afternoon of August 17, 1911, at his home, 1056 Walnut Street. He yielded to paralysis caused by a hard fall.

Pilot, Ely, was killed when his plane crashed at Central City Park, 1911.

He was the author of Butler’s History of Macon. This was the best local history of the Southeast at that time. For a book compiled and written by one man, the number of errors and inaccuracies in the work is remarkably small. He did a tremendous amount of labor on it. Mr. Butler was 78 years of age and was a son of David and Rebecca Campbell Butler. He had a remarkable memory and ability as a writer. His History of Macon covered its existence up to 1869. He was one of the pioneer telegraph operators of the country. He was at Montgomery when the design of the Confederate flag was adopted. Butler wired the flag’s description to Captain Hardeman, of the Floyd Rifles, and on the same night the Vineville ladies made the first flag carried by the Floyd Rifles. He was the first person to read telegraphic messages by sound, instead of on the tape. He was an office boy in the first telegraph office in Macon in 1848, and in three months was made assistant operator. He was chief of the Third section, embracing Georgia and a portion of Alabama. His remains were interred in Rose Hill Cemetery on August 18, 1911. The Georgia State Fair opened at Central City Park on Tuesday, October the 10th and closed on the 20th. On the 18th the largest crowd in the history of the Fair attended, about 30,000. An unfortunate event of the closing day was the death of Aviator Ely, who was making exhibition flights at the Fair. His plane fell with him and almost instantly killed him. Ely was the first person to alight in a plane on board a man of war. On the night of February 10, 1912, the old Confederate laboratory at Crumps Park was burned. This was a very large two-story brick building originally built by the Confederate government during the latter part of the War Between the States as a laboratory for the ordnance department. It was not much more than ready for large scale operations when the surrender came. When Macon was surrendered, the Federal Government took it and acquired “title by conquest.” The first fair held in Macon after the war was held in this building in 1868 under the auspices of the State Agricultural Society. 90

On March 11, 1912, the Central of Georgia Railroad announced that it was drawing plans for a new station to cost one and a half millions, and that it would be on the site of the present station. Two years prior to this Major Hanson, president of the Central, stated that this road would build its own station, and that terminal stations were ruinous. The Macon Chamber of Commerce had been working on his particular proposal for several weeks and Vice-President Winburn, of the Central Railroad, was asked to come to Macon to advise with the Chamber about it. It was stated that, on the failure of the railroads to do something, the State Railroad Commission would be asked to order a station built. The Hon. Walter J. Grace, Solicitor General of the Macon Circuit, died on March 31, 1912. He had been Solicitor General three years and was an aggressive, fearless prosecuting officer but willing always for justice to be tempered with mercy. He was born November 27, 1868, at Hawkinsville and had lived in Macon twenty years. The interment was at Rose Hill Cemetery on April the first. Governor and Mrs. Woodrow Wilson, of New Jersey, visited Macon on April 20, 1912, and he spoke to two thousand people that night at the city auditorium. In the afternoon he visited Mercer and Wesleyan. On April 21, 1912, it was announced that Miss Mary Scandrett was elected as Queen of the Confederate Reunion, to be held in Macon on May the 6th to the 9th. The new, handsome Young Men’s Christian Association building at the corner of First and Cherry Streets was formally opened on May 1, 1912, with appropriate exercises. Addresses were made by the President, Mr. George S. Jones, and the Hon. W. B. Stubbs, of Savannah. The Seventeenth Annual reunion of the United Confederate Veterans opened in Macon on the night of May 6, 1912. This opening meeting was a meeting of the veterans, sons and daughters, under the auspices of the Sons of Confederate Veterans. This meeting was given over to welcome addresses and responses. Mr. Bryan B. Davis, of Macon, made the city’s address of welcome and Mr. A. L. Gaston, of Chester, S. C., responded. The sponsors and maids and the queen of the reunion were introduced. Then followed three days of glorious comradeship and deliberations by the veterans, the sons, and the Ladies Memorial Association separately, closing with a splendid parade on the 9th. The newspapers issued their special reunion editions and all the people of Macon became charming hosts to the men in grey and other visitors. Colonel Walter A. Harris was the chairman in charge of all the local management of the meeting and handled every detail with splendid ability. One feature was the fact that the Thomas Hardeman Camp of the Sons of Confederate Veterans had then reached such size that it was the largest in the world, having been organized in 1894. Fully forty-six thousand out-of-town people came to the reunion on the first day. Colonel C D. Findlay, former alderman and one of the older

citizens of Macon, died on September 29, 1912. The year 1913 began with a movement on January 23rd to erect some kind of memorial to Sidney Lanier. Much enthusiasm was shown at first, and several hundred dollars were raised. Since that time a few leaders still hope and in time the memorial will no doubt be erected. On February 2, 1913, was announced the organization of the Camp Fire Girls in Macon. On February 20, 1913, Alderman W. W. Williams died. On March 12, 1913, the new Hotel Dempsey was formally opened. This structure is one of Macon’s most beautiful and imposing structures and one of the finest in the South. Mr. Addison R. Tinsley, who was for many years Macon’s city treasurer, died on July 10, 1913. On July 13, 1913, the Centenary Methodist Church dedicated its handsome new church building. The temperature in Macon on July 8, 1913, was 104, the highest in the weather bureau’s history. In July, 1907, it reached 102. On July 22, 1913, the Cherokee Heights property owners petitioned for incorporation into the city of Macon. On the night of November 17, 1913, there was a dinner at the Hotel Dempsey in which all the articles of food served were produced in Bibb County. The beginning of 1914 saw the birth of the civic club idea in Macon, when the Rotary Club was formed on January the 7th. Colonel Charles R. Pendleton died on January 16, 1914. He had been editor of The Telegraph and president of The Telegraph Publishing Company. Colonel Pendleton was a writer of energy and ability and his editorials attracted nation-wide attention. United States Senator Augustus O. Bacon died on February 14, 1914. His body lay in state in the city hall on the 19th and the funeral and interment were on the 20th. On February 15, 1914, Mr. Thomas J. Carling was made the Supreme Chancellor of the Knights of Pythias. On April 13, 1914, the steamboat “Navigation” reached the dock at Macon. On June 30th a navigation company was organized to take up again the efforts to secure a permanent river freight service. In the primary election of the Democratic party on August 20, 1914, Judge Nat. E. Harris, of Macon was nominated for Governor. The Confederate Veterans of Georgia held their State reunion in Macon on September 16, 1914, elected the Hon. Bridges Smith, Adjutant, and made Macon their permanent headquarters. The new and handsome Lanier High School opened on September 21, 1914, with a large attendance. On December 10, 1914, the Board of Education endorsed military training for Lanier High School. The Hon. Isaac Hardeman died on September 20, 1914. On December 8, 1914, the city council turned over to the park commission Tattnall Square Park. It also named the small parks throughout the city for prominent citizens. The one at the intersection of Cotton Avenue and First Street was later named for Mr. Theo. W. Ellis, Sr. 91

Mr. Henry Horne, a former Mayor of Macon, died at his home in Milledgeville on December 28, 1914. On March 9, 1915, there was an election on a $300,000 bond issue for paving, sewers, and the hospital. The bonds won. On June 29, 1915, the management of the Macon Hospital was placed in the hands of a commission newly created for the purpose, and its debts of $20,000 were transferred by the City to the commission on July 6, 1915. The Hon. Orville A. Park was elected chairman of the Hospital Commission on July 9, 1915. The new barge on the Ocmulgee river made a successful start on July 20, 1915. Near the close of the year 1912 a very modest step was made which finally resulted in Macon’s realization of its thirty years dream of a new union passenger station. On September 28, 1912, the Hon. Robert L. Berner filed with the Georgia Railroad Commission a petition asking that the railroads entering Macon be required to erect an adequate union passenger station in Macon. His petition stated that he presented it in his own behalf, and in behalf of all the citizens of Macon and the adjacent territory. Subsequently he filed with the Commission the names of 600 or more citizens, who asked to join as parties. For many years the citizens, the Chamber of Commerce, the Mayor and the Council, and various other Macon organizations had met, passed resolutions, appointed committees, visited and petitioned the railroads for a new union passenger station without success. Colonel Berner was the first to appeal to the official body having jurisdiction to compel action. The Central of Georgia Railway Company on February 6, 1913, submitted blue print plans showing the proposed erection of a new passenger station at the foot of Cherry street. Colonel Berner persisted with his petition and on February 24, 1914, under his complaint, the Railroad Commission ordered the Central Railroad to file complete plans of a new station with the Commission and the plans were finally filed on August 11, 1914. Then, at a later date, the Commission ordered the Terminal Company organized to build, own, and operate the new station to file complete specifications not later than September 15, 1915. On October 5, 1915, the actual work was begun on preparing the site for the erection of the station. Many problems had to be worked out. A law had to be enacted by the Legislature and later amended, the City’s consent had to be secured to close Cherry street by building the station across it and the city had to approve the plans,

expensive approaches had to be built for the roads to enter the new station, litigation had to be concluded with damaged property owners, and not least, the bonds of the Terminal Company had to be sold to secure the funds with which to finance the project. All of this consumed much time. But the new station was finally complete in every detail and the trains began using it on December 1, 1916. Probably nothing in Macon’s history of a mere material nature has ever influenced the city and aided its growth more than this new station. It is a large, handsome, fire-proof building of stone and steel, representing an expenditure of nearly two million dollars. It substitutes one splendid station for two old stations not at all creditable in appearance or accommodations. The station necessitated many changes in the physical appearance of the entire lower end of Macon and converted lower Cherry street from a squalid dirty section to the main business thoroughfare of the city. In its love of fairness and desire to see credit given where credit is due, The Macon Telegraph, in an editorial on April 6, 1917, said this of the man entitled to the greatest credit: “The chances are ten to one that the one man who on the record as it stands started the whole thing going and is certainly entitled to credit in individual remembrance will not even be thought of. “It is a little belated, but it seems to The Telegraph that Robert L. Berner ought to get some sort of conspicuous recognition for his part in it. Nobody was even thinking of a new station, except that the Central of Georgia would build one for itself in its own time which might been soon, when Mr. Berner as a citizen went alone before the Railroad Commission, drew attention to the inadequate and almost disgraceful facilities prevailing in Macon and singlehanded, stayed with it until the ball began to roll. Then we all came in with a whoop and helped along, more or less. “But he did it. It is doubtful if any real movement would have been started even yet if he had not acted when he did, because it was not so long after the war developed and who in the world would dream of asking for improved passenger facilities in wartime?” This chapter should close with the end of the year 1915, but the erection of the station runs into the next decade and this chapter, therefore, completes the account to the opening of the station, leaving other events of 1916 to the next chapter.

Panoramic view of Downtown Macon, 1912.


Chapter XIV MACON FROM 1917 TO 1924 here. The organization meeting of the Rotary Club was held on Treading close on the heels of organized destruction, there January 7, 1914, at the Dempsey Hotel. Twenty-three carefully always comes a movement of organized reconstruction; a tradiselected business men were chosen as charter members: W. T. tional truism, but highly descriptive of the instant situation in Anderson, Homer Arnett, T. A. Bardwell, W. G. Billings, E. W. the greater portion of the world, and apropos as an introduction Burke, W. A. Chapman, J. Walker Collins, Chas. Cone, W. E. to a brief sketch of the contemporaneous history of Macon. Dunwody, H. B. Erminger, Jr., R. J. Flournoy, John W. Hancock, The World War taught anew the advantages of organized Richard F. Lawton, Albert McKay, John J. McKay, Jas. A. Porter, effort. Everywhere the tribal consciousness was aroused, ranging Dr. Wm. C. Pumpelly, Marion A. Ramsey, Malcolm Ross, W. G. all the way from the national to the parochial, and affecting every Reed, W. A. Scott, Eugene W. Stetson, C. W. Stroberg. John W. unit large and small. The war over, attention was turned to Hancock was elected as the first president. Such was the rebuilding. In this country, physical reconstruction being beginning of Rotary in Macon. For six years this club was not unnecessary, the movement centered on the problems of political only the pioneer in Macon but the lone representative, and as renovation, industrial progress, and commercial prosperity. The such was doubly confronted with all of the problems and communal spirit was awakened in Macon as never before, and obstacles which threaten the early existence of every such manifested itself in team-work, co-operation, and organized, protect. For a long time Rotary was regarded as a close-trading intelligent civic upbuilding. A healthy growth and unification sect, sworn to deal with each other to the exclusion of other resulted during the five years from the Signing of the Armistice houses in similar businesses. It was hard for those outside to to the Centennial Celebration in May, 1923. realize that a group of business men would devote time and Upon this one unifying thread of civic organization and money for unselfish service. As the Rotary spirit began to show business building must be hung the narrative of multi-colored results, the public was won over and soon learned that Rotary events, in an effort to lend continuity to an otherwise random stood for service and not profit. Since its first meeting, the club tale of modern city life. In Macon, as elsewhere, the vanguard of has increased in membership from twenty-three to one hundred the movement was the Chamber of Commerce; and this, and seventeen. The subsequent presidents in consecutive order together with the formation and growth of the civic clubs, has were: Judge Malcolm D. Jones, John D. Camp, Guy E. Paine, Dr. formed a nucleus around which all subsequent efforts have R. Holmes Mason, G. Frank Oliphant, Frank F. Jones, J. Hook turned. These two factors have risen to such power that scarcely Spratling, Ellsworth Hall, E. W. Burke, W. D. Anderson, and anything is attempted without their endorsement, and any Broadus Willingham, Jr., (1925), each holding office for a year. enterprise which they sponsor is assured of success. The civic Rotary International has increased to a total membership of club movement is nation-wide, and, although of recent origin, 86,350, being composed of 1,332 clubs located in 22 countries in its effects are already being felt everywhere. It is well to consider addition to the United States. The Macon Rotary Club has in detail the coming of these clubs to Macon. The ideals and proved its worth, and is continuing to serve Macon at every purposes are practically the same in every club; to serve and opportunity. Operating on a budget basis, it finds little trouble upbuild the community through the medium of efficient in financing its undertakings. organization, by intelligent Kiwanis International and systematic study of the comprises more than 900 problems of complex city life. clubs scattered throughout The membership is made up the United States and Canada, of one or more of the leading with a combined membership citizens drawn from each of of more than 75,000. Its the many classifications in objects are: To promote business and professional life. fraternalism among its In the latter part of 1913 members; to study and several Macon citizens became discuss the science of interested in the subject of business building; to promote Terminal Station at the foot of Cherry Street under construction in 1916. Rotary and its establishment the spirit of co-operation 93

among its members; to encourage the living of the golden rule, in private, civic, social and business life; and to serve and upbuild the community in every possible way. As a part of the international organization and to serve these purposes in Macon and Georgia, the Macon Kiwanis Club was formed. On February 17, 1920, the national field secretary met with J. M. Cutler, Sr., R. C. Corbin, Campbell Jones, E. C. Scott and H. F. Martin, and the details of organization were worked out. These men were appointed to form the nucleus of a governing board and membership committee, to which were later added E. G. Jacobs, Jesse Hart, Walter A. Harris, A. E. Barnes, Jr., Morris Michael, and W. E. Markwalter. From that time the work moved rapidly, and within a few days the membership of one hundred necessary to organization had been secured. The first real organization meeting was held in the Hotel Dempsey, March 12, 1920, at which one hundred and thirty-three members were present. Two weeks later the charter was presented to one hundred and fifty-four charter members at a Charter Day dinner held in the Hotel Lanier, and the club became a full-fledged organization. Walter A. Harris was elected as the first president and in 1921 became district governor of the Kiwanis Clubs of Georgia. The succeeding presidents were: Dr. C. C. Harrold, 1921; P. T. Anderson, 1922; William Russell Owen, 1923; Francis E. Williams and Harry S. Strozier, 1924; Wilbur Collins, 1925. The Macon Kiwanis Club encountered none of the difficulties which beset Rotary in its early struggles for existence and recognition and it immediately joined with that organization in taking an active part in every civic movement inaugurated in Macon, and contributed most substantially to a number of enterprises. The next year a third civic club came to Macon to take its place beside the two already in existence. The first meeting of the group of men who later became the nucleus of the Macon Lions Club was held at Ed Loh’s Cafe on April 18, 1921. Those attending were: Baldwin Martin, W. C. Stokes, George E. Patterson, William H. Felton, Jr., Marshall J. Ellis and Allen Chappel. After several preliminary meetings in which an organizer from the International Association of Lions Clubs outlined the plan for the formation of a Lions Club in Macon, a final organization meeting was held on May 6th, when twentysix charter members were present, and officers were elected with George E. Patterson as president. The newly installed officers were confronted with the task of strengthening the membership, organizing a club which would have no difficulty in taking its place beside Rotary and Kiwanis. This task was energetically undertaken and within a short time the work of the Lions Club was being recognized and the genial spirit of its meetings had become known. By the end of the year its membership totaled more than sixty and grew to almost ninety by the time of the Centennial Celebration. M. J. Witman was elected to fill the unexpired term of President Patterson, who was forced to resign owing to the pressure of his business. In June, 1922, Roland Neel was elected as his successor. The unexpired presidency of P. N. Calhoun (June 1923-24) was filled by Clem Powers. He was succeeded in office by T. H. Halliburton for 1924-25, and Marshall J. Ellis for 1925-26. During its short existence, the Lions Club has been continually active in movements for the advancement of the city.

A growing and worthy enterprise never lacks support. The civic club movement had now gained an impetus that assured its future prosperity. It had become a dynamic force in Macon’s life. Scarcely had the Lions been received into the fold, when the younger brother Civitan Club raised its head; truly a younger brother, for its membership was, and always has been, drawn from the more promising young men of the city. The field organizer of the International Association of Civitan Clubs arrived in Macon June 1, 1921. After several preliminary meetings with a group of representative citizens, he secured special permission to organize the local club with a membership of only twenty-five. Accordingly on June 3rd, an organization meeting was held at the Masonic Club, and temporary officers were elected and committees appointed. One week later, the final organization meeting witnessed the election of officers to serve until the annual election in October, and the presentation of a charter to twenty-five charter members as follows: Dr. T. A. Cheatham, A. B. Crump, J. G. Edwards, B. J. Fowler, R. L. Hanberry, Walter T. Johnstone, Harry Kendall, Dr. J. R. Jordan, R. H. Kingman, John T. Larkin, Harry P. West, W. A. Taylor, John A. Parks, N. D. Mallory, Tom Marcy, Cecil Morgan, J. E. Morgan, W. E. Mobley, Fred D. Pitts, John W. Roberts, Dr. R. H. Stovall, E. A. Struby, T. R. Turner, Rev. Martin A. Wood, F. H. Hattrich. T. Rad Turner was the first president, being re-elected in October, 1921, for another year. He was succeeded in office by John B Harris. Geo. Sparks was president in 1924, and McKibben Lane in 1925. The membership has increased to eighty-one and the Civitan Club has now received its deserved recognition, and has become an indispensable cog in the civic machinery. Unique among Macon’s civic clubs stands the Pilot Club, which is composed of business women. In this Telegraph column, “Just Twixt Us,” Bridges Smith made a random suggestion that having gained the franchise, all that women needed to complete their independence was a down-town club. The suggestion brought fruit. The Pilot Club was organized by Miss Elizabeth Leonard on October 18, 1921, in the Hotel Dempsey. Roger Miller, of the Chamber Commerce, and Mrs. C. C. Harrold, newly elected alderman, assisted in the organization. All of the other civic clubs welcomed the Pilots, and entertained them with dinners, making them feel that they really had a place in the city’s field of civic workers. Although the movement originated in Macon, its scope is broad, and already there are five other Pilot Clubs in Georgia and Alabama. The presidents in consecutive order (to 1925) have been: Miss Elizabeth Leonard, Miss Carolyn Smith, Miss Margaret McKenney, Miss Janet Ross and Miss Freida May. August, 1922, saw the organization of the Masivic Club. This club came as a natural off-shoot into definite civic service of the long established and altruistic order of Masons. Membership in this club does not interfere in any way with membership in any other civic club. It is simply an international organization which promotes civic work through the Masonic Fraternity. P. T. Anderson as president of the Macon Masivic Club, has led it into active co-operation with the other clubs for a greater Macon. For a year Macon had all the civic clubs that could be readily assimilated. But the vast strength of citizenry had scarcely been 94

tapped and in the early spring of 1923, a representative of the Exchange Club in Miami enlisted the first two members of the local club. R. L. Anderson and E. J. Kinney were the first local men to become interested in the project, and were elected as president and secretary respectively, the former representing the attorneys, and the later the realtors of the city. Although just in the embryonic stage at the time of the Centennial, the charter was formally presented on July 14, 1923, to twenty five charter members. Since that time it has grown to a membership of over fifty, and now challenges the spirit and energy of the older civic clubs in the city. Mr. R. L. Anderson was re-elected president for 1924, and was followed in office by Mr. Idus E. McKellar for 1925. The one hundredth birthday of Macon found it the home of seven lively civic clubs, (since the Centennial, the Business and Professional Women’s Club has also joined the ranks) emerging into its second century with promise of greater results through these efficient organizations. It is impossible to catalogue all of the activities of these clubs, and since the field of work is practically the same for all, a brief sketch will have to suffice. Weekly luncheons held by all the clubs maintain a close club fellowship, and the very nature and purposes of the clubs, as well as the scope of their work, has built up a spirit of cooperation between them that is as happy as it is inevitable. This cooperation has been sponsored by the Inter-club Council, which is composed of the president, secretary and one memberat-large from each club. Educational work has claimed much attention. Scholarships have been awarded to both Mercer and Wesleyan students, and a substantial loan fund has been raised for needy students at these institutions. In order to encourage higher education eminent speakers have been procured to visit the public schools and talk to the boys and girls. Athletics at Mercer and Lanier High School have been sponsored and annual field days for the school children have been maintained. Liberal contributions have been made to such worthy movements and institutions as: the Boy Scouts; the Near East and Armenian Relief Funds; Orphanages at Christmas times; Community Chest, Red Cross and American Legion Campaigns; the completion of the Georgia Bay in the National Memorial at Valley Forge; Greater Mercer and Greater Wesleyan drives; the plan for the drainage of the swamps and the elimination of the mosquito menace; an open-air school for crippled children; sending tubercular children to the mountains; the opening of the Washington Memorial Library; a camp for the Girl Reserves; the publication of the present volume; all sorts of relief funds as, Japanese earthquake and Ohio storm sufferers; and all manner of various charities and welfare organizations. The clubs have also assisted in the advertisement of Macon, the encouragement of farm boys of surrounding districts, the staging of Safety Week, Fire Prevention Week, Education Week and all the other special “Weeks� in the year; in movements to prevent the curtailment of train service to Macon, in various activities looking to the improvement of health conditions in the city, and in all of the various bond campaigns for the municipal stadium, paving, and school improvements. This list does not attempt to be all-inclusive, but merely to show the broad scope of civic club activities, and to give an idea of the good being accomplished, by citing a few typical examples of the service rendered. The activities were at

first random, but now each club has adopted a definite program of work. In addition to material accomplishment, these clubs also lend the moral support of more than five hundred leading citizens as an organized back-bone for all movements of civic upbuilding. It is well now to review in chronological order the progress of the city under this capable leadership. On December 10, 1918, orders were received from Washington, D.C., for the abandonment of Camp Wheeler, and it was not many months before the last physical vestiges of war were removed from sight. Civic pride, once awakened, now turned its attention to city building.

World War I housing for soldiers at Old Camp Wheeler.

It takes the perspective of years to give color to events, and allow natural processes to erase the unimportant from and emblazon the important on the life of any people or community. But some things are stamped with the seal of significance from the time of their inception. So it was when the County Commissioners ordered a special bond election on January 23, 1919. This was the outstanding event of the year, and marked a great step forward. The original proposal was for $1,200,000, but numerous taxpayers expressed a wish to increase the amount, and it was accordingly raised to $1,500,000, $700,000 of this was for permanent highways, $400,000 for schools and $400,000 for a new court house. The bonds were to be issued in denominations of $1,000 each, bearing interest at 4 1/2 per cent per annum. They were to be retired in thirty years at the rate of $30,000 a year for the first fifteen years and $75,000 a year for the next fifteen years. Assistance on the main highways was promised from the proposed state road bond fund, and this was later obtained. The Federal government added a gift of $700,000 to be used with the equal amount voted by the county for highways. March 6th was set as election day, and orders were given to the county attorney to advertise it for thirty days. A constitutional amendment required 2,423 votes in favor of the bonds. The local newspapers aided in overcoming the little opposition that existed when the matter was first proposed and the campaign workers under the chairmanship of Eden Taylor, Jr., saw that the voters reached the polls. The result was that the bonds carried with nearly four hundred votes to spare, and with less than one hundred listed in the ranks of the opposition. The Superior Court ratified the election in due form, showing that a majority of the voters favored the bonds according to law. The bonds were then issued and bids advertised for. Actual work was begun on the roads about the first of June. By the following summer the full eighty miles of paved roads were completed. 95

The money from the school bonds was turned over to the County Board of Education. The building of the new court house was delayed for some time due to difficulty in securing temporary quarters. This subject and that of the new school buildings will be treated more fully later in this chapter. The importance of these bonds can hardly be over-estimated. It is true that it is not a sound financial policy for a community to load itself down with a burdensome debt, but Bibb County is well able to take care of this responsibility, and the method of retirement of the bonds will distribute the burden over a number of years. The benefits from such a project are not immediate but they are lasting, and the County will continue to profit from this investment. An almost unpardonable circumstance in Macon’s intellectual life for a number of years was the inadequacy of its public library facilities - in fact, its almost total lack of reading matter of a higher order, available for public use. It is almost inconceivable how this city, with its cultural atmosphere and wide reputation as an intellectual center, rocked along for nearly a century content with the depleted shelves of the Macon Public Library - a dusty pile of cheap novels interspersed with a few tattered volumes of Scott, Dickens, and an occasional gem such as the Koran and Plutarch’s Lives. The only answer - and this one unsatisfactory - is the wealth of fine, carefully selected old private libraries, and those of Mercer and Wesleyan. A community which lacks the foresight to provide food for inner changes in its people is one and inseparable with nonentity, not to say oblivion. In our shame we point to one dawn of hope. In the latter part of 1916, Mrs. E. W. Bellamy gave $50,000 and a site (on the corner of Washington Avenue and College Street) for a library, as a memorial to her brother, the late Hugh V. Washington. A few months later, in 1917, the plans for the building were selected, and on April 26, 1919, the corner stone of Washington Memorial Library was laid. The ceremonies were in charge of the officers of the Masonic Grand Lodge of Georgia, and were attended by the students from the public schools and colleges of the city. In a box, which was placed in the corner stone, was a tribute to Mrs. Bellamy by a former classmate of hers at Wesleyan. The close of the year witnessed the completion of the building at a cost of nearly $60,000; of stately proportions, and with an atmosphere of seclusion, half-hidden behind its old magnolia trees. This was at least a beginning. The quest for books is a matter more properly considered under the activities of the Junior Chamber of Commerce. It is interesting to note that on July 1, 1919, national prohibition became effective. Although Georgia had passed local prohibition laws sometime before, this added a stimulus to their effective enforcement. The city now entered on a new era of moral rectitude. The days of public disorderly conduct, and the other vices that are attendant upon a promiscuous sale and use of intoxicating drinks soon became a thing of the past. In spite of the many complaints of secret and even semi-open violations of the Volstead act, the regime established by it has a pragmatic sanction that cannot be rebutted. The municipal primary, held in September, 1919, resulted in the reelection of Glen Toole as Mayor of Macon for his second consecutive term. On November 30th he and eleven aldermen

from his ticket went into office. The twelfth alderman was Luther Williams, elected from the opposition ticket of John T. Moore. Municipal government is an institution that runs along in a quiet way, seldom doing big things, and seldom coming into public notice except on election day. The regular routine of passing and enforcing a thousand petty city ordinances consumes most of its energy and time. Occasionally in the history of a community, a man of large capacities finds his way to the mayoralty, and big things are done. The institution is capable of exerting a big influence over city affairs, but the times when it does so are exceedingly rare. One reason why more capable men do not sit in the mayor’s chair is that the mere pittance of a salary which is offered deters prominent men from abandoning more lucrative positions in order to enter the list of nominees. The outstanding accomplishment of the Toole administration was the beautifying of the city parks, and Macon owes some gratitude to it for this excellent work. On the whole, city affairs moved rather smoothly during the ensuing two years, and the city officials made a graceful exit from office at the expiration of their term. Before entering upon the calendar year of 1920 it is well to consider the reorganization of the Chamber of Commerce in order to get a perspective of subsequent events. In September, 1918, an application for the position of General Secretary was received from F. Roger Miller, and he was invited to Macon for an interview. After due consideration, the Commissioners of the Chamber of Commerce elected Mr. Miller as General Secretary, and future events showed their selection to be most judicious. Mr. Miller came into office in the fall of 1918 and during the course of the year 1919 a complete reorganization of the Chamber was effected under his efficient direction. Hitherto the membership of this body had never exceeded two hundred, and the annual budget for operations was extremely inadequate. A campaign was immediately inaugurated to secure 1,000 members at twenty-five dollars each. This goal was not reached, but the membership was nearly tripled, five hundred and sixtyone active citizens being listed in the ranks. The activities of the Chamber were divided into seven departments: Commerce, Industry, Transportation, Agriculture, Civics, Membership and Finance, and Publicity and Conventions, and the work took on new vigor. The members of the Chamber were made active and invited to attend the meetings, and upon the formation of the civic clubs in the succeeding years, they were given representation and the work was thus greatly enlarged. A County Farm Bureau was organized and a Farm Department added shortly thereafter. Typical of the work done by the Chamber of Commerce during the year was the procuring of conventions to come to Macon. More people were brought to Macon by conventions in 1919 than to any other city in this part of the country. The registration books show 88,000 for Macon as compared to 63,000 for Atlanta and still fewer for New Orleans. All of this brought prosperity to Macon and proved a good means of advertisement. It is a point of some historical importance to recall that Macon is the oldest convention city in the South, the first one being held here before the founding of the city when 8,000 Indians, met in conference with representatives for the white colonies. 96

As we have seen, 1920 brought the Kiwanis Club to Macon, and the co-operation of this club and Rotary with the rejuvenated Chamber of Commerce began. But, with the exception of the big bond issue of the preceding year, and the carrying out of this building program the renaissance was still in embryo. The year, however, presents nothing outstanding, and the general march of events is rather drab and commonplace. March 10th brought a bereavement to the city in the death of George H. Long, who had been for eleven years managing editor of the Macon Daily Telegraph. Although not a native of Macon, Mr. Long was a great asset to the city, took an active part in city and affairs, and was on the faculty of the School of Journalism of both Mercer and Wesleyan. Some of his editorials though full of invective, won him and the Telegraph a national prominence through their virility, and embarked the Telegraph on a policy that has bought it continued recognition as a leader of thought and a moulder of opinion. The 1920 census was announced on March 13th, and the official population of Macon was shown to be 52,520. This represented a gain of 11,860 in a decade, or an increase of 29.2%. Moreover, the greatest growth of Macon was in its new suburbs. Sub-divisions had been opened up in Bellevue, Ingleside and Rivoli and others were being planned. The population of Greater Macon exclusive of the strictly rural districts was estimated at this time at approximately 73,000. Fixed in the memory of the inhabitants of Macon as lastingly as any other event in its history is the storm of this year. Surrounded on all sides by hills even higher than those on which it is built, Macon receives its full quota of rain fall but is seldom visited by a windstorm, much less a cyclone. But on March 29, 1920, a storm struck the city which approached a tornado in its severity and depredations. The property damage was heavy, being estimated about $500,000. Trees were uprooted by the thousands; plate glass windows crushed, and houses unroofed. Scarcely a home escaped some damage. The wind reached a velocity as high as fifty-eight miles per hour but the most violent part of it only lasted about a half hour. In this time, however, nearly an inch and a half of rain fell, practically putting the telephone and telegraph system out of commission. In the surrounding country, hail, which accompanied the rain, did considerable damage to the peach crop. The storm was the worst in the history of the local weather bureau, and it was some months before repair work restored things to their normal order. There are predictions that Macon is to become a city of flowers: the Rose City of the South. On July 11, 1920, the American Rose Society established its official testing and exhibition grounds for the southeast in Macon. Lands were provided in Baconsfield Park, and experts put in charge. This should be an asset to Macon and a valuable addition to the natural beauty of the city. The Summer Session of the State Legislature passed a bill bringing about an important change in the local government (Georgia Laws 1020. p. 1142). On August 16th, Governor Dorsey signed the bill abolishing the Civil Service Commission of Macon. The jurisdiction of the Fire and Police Department was restored to the City Council. The firemen were thereby

deunionized. They were forced to give up their cards and thenceforth forbidden to affiliate with any organization that has a strike clause. The change was decidedly a wise one and has proven to be an economical plan. In the September primaries of this year, 1920, forty women signed registration cards; making application to become bona fide registered voters, thus taking advantage of the constitutional amendment granting the suffrage to women. On the 26th of the same month new appointments to vacancies in the judicial field were made by Governor Dorsey, the honorable Malcolm D. Jones and the honorable Will Gunn becoming judges of the Superior and City Courts respectively. As a matter of national defense and as part of an elaborate system of citizen-militia, the formation of the National Guard inevitably followed the demobilization of the World War troops. Macon was the first city in the State to complete its quota, which consisted of three infantry companies and one machine gun company, and accordingly the Regimental Headquarters of the National Guard of Georgia were awarded to her on the 30th of October, 1920. Thus ended one of those years which despite the lack of sweeping changes and outstanding strides of progress, was nevertheless replete with growth, and each day fully occupied with the routine of normal existence. Civic organization began to show results in 1921. The late spring and early summer added the Lions and Civitians to the active fighting forces. The Chamber of Commerce realized its potentialities and the movement for a greater Macon was on in earnest. Important in its work was that of the Agricultural and Farm Departments. At their request a staff of specialists of the Bureau of Soils of the United States Geological Survey began a soil survey on March 8th of all the lands in Bibb County. The survey took about six weeks and then a complete chemical analysis of every type of soil found in the county, and where it is found, was made and recorded. Also the Bibb County Farm Bureau made application to the State College of Agriculture and United States Department of Agriculture in the interests of a diversified agricultural program. These efforts and others, such as the organization of clubs among the farm boys and girls and farm demonstration to negro employees have done much toward encouraging scientific farming. Bibb being essentially an agricultural county, this step came none too soon. Two large fires occurred in Macon this year. The first of these was the complete demolition of the Brown House, (the oldest hotel in Macon), and nearly one-half of the city block from Plum to Poplar Street on Broadway. Besides the financial loss there was a loss of a number of lives. This was truly deplorable. The second fire was free from the horror of human loss but more grievous than the other in the loss of property that money cannot replace, and the loss to Macon of one of its educational institutions. This second disaster was the burning of St. Stanislaus College to the ground. This venerable institution for the training of Catholic priests was located in Vineville on a large forty-acre campus on Pio Nono Avenue. One hundred students were left homeless, and two of the priests had narrow escapes. The loss was estimated at $200,000. A few priceless books were saved, but most of the library, consisting of six 97

thousand volumes and a number of rare manuscripts, was destroyed. In spite of the losses which these two calamities entailed, it is the part of optimistic and progressive citizenship to see in them the opportunity for new growth. Accordingly, a modern hostelry now replaces the antiquated Brown House and a beautiful new sub-division is being opened up on the old college site. The municipal primary in September, 1921, found two prominent and capable citizens in the race for mayor. On September 21st, the Honorable Luther Williams, a veteran banker and successful business man, was nominated to the mayoralty; an alien to local political partisanship of any kind - an achievement in itself. Mr. Williams received 3,350 votes while his opponent (Jesse Mitchell) received 2,515. He carried ten aldermen with him: James E. Yates (mayor pro tem), M. E. Elliott, Mrs. C. C. Harrold, Frank Branan, R. E. Finlay, John W. Ramsey, W. L. Collier, Ben J. Dasher, E. R. Layfield and C. S. Joyner. The two nominated from the opposition were J. P. Rankin and L. A. Thomas. It is interesting to note that Mrs. C. C. Harrold was the first women to offer herself for office in Macon and she was elected by a large vote. The automobiles advocating both candidates were placarded with appeals for straight tickets. Not an incident of disorder was reported during the day; no arrests were made, there was no evidence of drinking around the polls, and not even any bitter arguments – a precedent in the history of local elections. The visit of Rear Admiral William Sheppard Benson to his native city in October was the occasion of considerable social stir. The admiral was one of the outstanding figures in American Naval operations during the World War, and Macon showed its appreciation by an elaborate program of entertainment for him. He visited all of the schools, made a number of talks advocating compulsory military training, reviewed the local troops, and was the recipient of numerous social functions. He seemed highly pleased with the progress made since his last visit to the city. The idea that a community and all of its constituents should be developed together expressed itself in the organization of the Junior Chamber of Commerce of Macon at a meeting called on December 15, 1921. To avoid overlapping with similar organizations, the age limits for membership were made 18 to 30, to include men between the Boy Scout age and the age of active interest in the Senior Chamber. This latter body issued the call for the first meeting of the Jay-Ce, and about seventy charter members answered. The membership has since grown to nearly 300. Temporary officers were elected with J. T. Hogan as president and Harold Platt as secretary. The procedure of drawing up a constitution and by-laws was quickly effected, and on February 22, 1922, the first election of permanent officers was held: Mark Ethridge, president; Harry Williams, Palmer Roughton, and Leo Sheridan, vice presidents; Harold Platt, secretary; James Rigdon, treasurer; and a board of ten directors. These men served faithfully throughout the long and difficult organization year. At the end of their term a new election brought into office the men who guided the destinies of Jay-Ce through the year of Macon’s Centennial: Leo Sheridan, president; Grover Jones, Everett Flournoy, and Harold Platt,

vice-presidents; John J. McCreary, secretary; and Kenneth Bryant, treasurer. Not neglecting other civic problems that arose from time to time, the Jay-Ce men gave most of their time and effort towards the opening of the Washington Memorial Library, and it was chiefly through their work that the arduous task of raising the money needed in preparing the building for the public was at last completed. The task was entered upon at once, and the $12,500 necessary to complete the library was raised during 1922 by a campaign directed to various civic and literary clubs. In the first three months of 1923, a new drive was set in motion by Jay-Ce. The purpose this time was to raise funds for the purchase of books for the library. The appeal was made direct to the citizens, and the goal of $7,500, was exceeded. This was the first post-war drive in Macon to have its quota over-subscribed. Jay-Ce had raised its funds in various ways: by drives, amateur theatricals, a Water Sports Carnival, the sale of gasoline books, and two benefit performances of Sparks Circus, one in 1922 and one in 1923. While it has done much for the library, it has not been idle in other lines of endeavor. The question of the need for school bonds early engaged its attention. During the summer of 1922, the organization was actively at work soliciting support for the bonds at the September election. When the day of election arrived the members of the Jay-Ce were given the responsible duty of publishing and checking the list of voters, and the task was handled efficiently. This matter of school bonds will be discussed more fully later. Other activities undertaken by Jay-Ce include: the inauguration of a number of commercial study courses; the sending of the orphans of the city to Sparks Circus; active aid in the staging of the Centennial pageant in 1923; and the establishment of the Sidney Lanier Society of Macon, the first meeting of which was held February 22, 1923. This is but a skeleton tracing of the activities during two years, of this efficient organization of Macon’s young men which sprang into being so opportunely at the close of the eventful year of 1921. The report of the (Senior) Macon Chamber of Commerce on February 5, 1922, shows that the boom begun in that organization in 1919 continued with an ever-accelerating momentum. The membership reached a total of 688 in 1921 and went beyond the 750 mark for 1922. Many notable accomplishments are on the records of 1921. The transportation department, by opposing proposed increases in rates and recovering claims for shippers, saved them nearly $900,000. A Macon Development Corporation was organized which purchased 390 acres for a hotel site and began negotiations for the construction of the hotel. The Farm Markets Bureau was organized, with the object of disposing of the surplus crops of thirty Middle Georgia counties to the advantage of the farmers. The exploration of the Okefenokee Swamp by a scouting party was fostered. Jay-Ce was organized. The movement to celebrate Macon’s Centennial anniversary in 1923 was instituted, and brought about by the diligent perseverance of the Chamber of Commerce committee. The Chamber also co-operated with Mercer in securing the endorsement of the Georgia Baptist Convention to the Greater Mercer program. New factories and industries were secured for 98

Macon, and opportunities were referred to Macon merchants which increased their business some $24,000. Macon was advertised in more than a score of ways, in many instances obtaining national publicity. But forgetting the achievements of the past and facing the future with its manifold responsibilities, the Chamber of Commerce announced its Program for 1922 and began its work of realizing the new objectives, chief of which were (1) To conduct a Market Bureau with subsidiary agencies to promote production, standardization and distribution of agricultural products of Central Georgia. (2) To conduct a systematic campaign for the development of Macon’s retail and wholesale trade throughout Central Georgia and the Southeast. (3) To establish an Industrial Bureau to devote its attention exclusively to the development of Macon as a manufacturing center and the securing of new industries. (4) To adopt a definite plan for the development of Macon as tourist and convention center, and conduct a campaign of national advertising. (5) To complete the organization and program for the celebration of Macon’s Centennial and Home-Coming in 1923. (6) To continue and increase the current activities in all departments of the organization. To finance this elaborate program a membership budget of $32,000 was needed. A failure to fully realize the necessary budget compelled a substantial reduction of this program. Temporarily abandoning a chronological order of events, in order to trace the activities of the Chamber of Commerce on down to date, we find that much of the 1922 program was effectuated. Macon’s industrial payroll was increased by more than three million dollars. Macon was more fully developed as a cotton market. A campaign for school bonds was organized and successfully carried through in the early fall, which made possible the building of ward schools and the erection of Lanier High School for Boys. The promotion of farm and home demonstration work, and the employment of full-time county agents did much for the rural section of Central Georgia. To the activity of the Chamber of Commerce is attributed the orderly system of handling the auditorium project, of which a detailed description will be given later in a prospective of events from the Centennial to 1925. In addition to the usual projects undertaken by the Chamber of Commerce, the 1923 program included the development of the Greater Mercer and Greater Wesleyan programs, and the erection of a $100,000 municipal stadium on the Mercer campus. Plans were drawn up for the stadium, calling for a structure to seat 15,000 people, with provisions made for an expansion sufficient to provide for 55,000 spectators at a single game. A Stadium Commission headed by Dr. W. G. Lee was appointed to finance the project and it succeeded in having $100,000 of the bond issue of April, 1924, set aside for the Stadium. Building began early in 1925 and by the middle of the summer, Macon became the proud owner of one of the finest concrete sports arenas in the South. The structure is an amphitheater in the shape of a horseshoe, and embraces an arena of 350,000 square feet. Possibly the biggest undertaking of the Chamber of Commerce was the staging of the Centennial Celebration in the spring of 1923, and much merited praise will always redound to its credit for the large part played in this enormous undertaking. It remains for

future historians to recount the eventful career of the Chamber of Commerce after Macon’s One Hundredth Birthday (which officially closes this history), but it will not be amiss to look forward from this date far enough to see the organization really come into its own. Since the re-organization in 1919, large strides had been made, but Macon was still far behind other cities of its size. Each year the goal was set higher and higher but never reached. In 1923 and 1924, the membership pushed close to the one thousand mark, and the subscriptions fell just a little short of $25,000. But in 1925 it took a hurtling leap and outstripped every city in the South anywhere near its size, listing 2,100 members, and raising $52,000 in subscriptions. It is pleasant indeed to leave such a worthy organization with such a promising future. Let us now return to a chronological order of events, and watch the march of progress. Although $400,000 in bonds had been voted for a new court house in 1919 (three years before), it was not until June 13, 1922, that matters came to a head. It was on this date that the Bibb County Commissioners signed a contract with the Southern Ferro-Concrete Company of Atlanta for the construction of a new County court house on the site of the old building. Sub-contracts were let to Macon firms, and arrangements were made to employ Macon artisans so far as possible. Actual work began shortly thereafter. The original plan was to complete the building in eighteen months, but several delays added about eight months more and it was not until the fall of 1924 that the new quarters were occupied. Moreover, the cost was augmented during the progress of erection, and final estimates placed it at about $588,000. With such a large expenditure of money it is almost inevitable that we should have a handsome, and modernly equipped structure. But regrettable as it may be, there is no gainsaying the disappointment of many of our citizens in both appearance and utilitarian features of the new court house building. But despite these shortcomings, the building challenges a rival in the state. A jail is yet to be placed on top at a cost of approximately $286,000. On July 23, 1922, the new City Directory was published, giving the population of Macon as 65,257. Of course this was a rough estimate, but it showed considerable growth. Although this history contains a special chapter on Macon’s educational facilities, several very important events of 1922 call for a brief mention of these features in this chapter. About the middle of the summer, definite steps were taken by the Board of Education to wipe out illiteracy in the county, through the spread of specially prepared books. This work was carried on under the direction of Eugene Anderson, President of the Georgia-Alabama Business College, and Hoyt Adams, director of illiteracy work. Books were given to any adult who was unable to read or write, on condition that he study them. Students were enrolled at the rate of about 150 per month. Classes were organized, and volunteer teachers were secured, many Mercer students tendering their services. In this way, a simple introduction to letters was made possible for those who could not afford it even through the public school system. They learned enough to make simple business and social transactions in their own writing, and were given at least a key to the vast 99

sources of information and thought that are contained in books. The need of school bonds was now pressing. We have seen the part played by the Chamber of Commerce and the Jay-Ce in organizing and boosting the movement which resulted in the authorization of a bond election of $500,000 which took place on September 13, 1922. The election carried by a vote of 4,607 to 367. In May, 1923, the money was turned over to the Board of Education. At a meeting of the Board on September 15, 1923, bids were approved, and work was commenced in a few weeks. $100,000 of the money was expended in building a new Virgil Powers Grammar School, and a negro school at Crossville. The remaining $400,000 went into the two beautiful new creambrick structures on Holt Avenue that became the home of Lanier High School for Boys in the fall of 1924. These buildings are modern in every detail, and are adequately equipped. In addition to the main building is a separate one for the armory and gymnasium. At the present time Macon has one of the very best free school systems in the state. Organized in 1872 by a charter from the State Legislature, the Bibb County Board of Education has made great strides during its history of fifty years. Starting with a mere handful of 1,600 students, the public schools showed an enrollment of over 14,000 in 1923. According to statistics gathered at the time of the Centennial, there were at that time forty-five school buildings in the county, many of them handsome brick structures built according to the most modern methods. This property was valued at $2,000,000, and since the 1922 bond issue it has advanced over half a million more. There are nearly 350 teachers employed, receiving about $375,000 a year in salaries. The annual expenditures amount to nearly half a million dollars. Out of a scholastic population of about 20,000, the average attendance aggregates 15,000. With this wonderful free school system, two academies and two colleges which are carrying out extensive expansion projects, Macon is continuing to be recognized as an educational center. During the first year of Macon’s existence, the town fathers began planning for the education of their children. Ever since then Macon has maintained a cultural atmosphere that remains one of the chief charms of the city. In the September primaries of 1922, it is interesting to note that Mrs. Viola Ross Napier was elected to the State Legislature, having the distinction of being the first woman legislator in Georgia. There were seven candidates from Bibb County; three of them were elected, Mrs. Napier coming second. On Armistice Day, 1922, Macon honored some of her World War heroes by the erection of a monument to the 151st Machine Gun Battalion (which organization, as part of the Rainbow Division, saw active service in France.) A parade was staged including the military units, War veterans, school children, civic clubs and almost every organization in Bibb County: the largest since the World War. The memorial was unveiled on Coleman’s Hill, and dedicated by Captain Boyce Miller. The exercises were dignified throughout. So ended the eventful year of 1922, and Macon entered upon her 100th anniversary which was celebrated throughout the entire year but especially by a large birthday party in May. Before entering into Macon’s Centennial year, the trend of this narrative must be interrupted long enough to give a passing

account of Macon’s Municipal Auditorium project. This requires considerable retrospective and a little forward looking from 1923 to comprehend the whole of it. The question had been long agitated, and it is with a great deal of satisfaction that the community sees the completion of its brain-child in view. In 1916 and 1918 there were bond issues for an auditorium in the respective amounts of $100,000 and $55,000. To this was added $12,000 by the city. But due to poor management, and several unavoidable misfortunes, there was a great deal of confusion and disappointment in this original undertaking. The expenditure of this $167,000 resulted in the purchase of a site on the corner of Cherry and First Streets, the laying of foundations and the erection of a temporary structure of wood. 1920 found the old project at a standstill with seven incomplete sets of plans. However, during that year, the plan was revived and on a much larger scale. It was decided to place the matter in the hands of an Auditorium Commission, which came into existence January 1, 1921, and consisted of B. J. Dasher, Guy E. Paine, R. F. Burden, T. J. Carling, Alex Block, W. G. Lee, and the Mayor of Macon (ex-offico). By a special act of the State Legislature, August, 1920, (Georgia Laws of 1920, p. 1137), the charter of Macon was amended; authorizing the mayor and council to impose a direct tax of one-quarter of one per cent from January, 1, 1921, until January 1, 1927, or until $600,000 should be raised with which to build a Municipal Auditorium second to none in the South. Matters were tied up in this status until sufficient funds could be accumulated from the tax to begin letting contracts. Meanwhile the commission busied itself with the selection of an architect, and to the everlasting credit of their perseverance is due the thanks of Macon for the securing of Egerton Swartout of New York City as architect. The artist is the foremost authority in America on classical architecture, and entered into the spirit of the undertaking with sympathetic understanding. After a most deliberate study of auditorium data compiled from questionnaires sent to nearly two hundred leading cities of the United States, the final plans were drawn and the contract signed. Work began June 9, 1924, and will be finished according to contract on September 9, 1925. When completed the building will represent an investment of $800,000 (including the land) and will be entirely free from debt. Brick, tile, steel, and concrete are used in the structure, which is faced with limestone and has a large copper dome 152 feet in diameter. The design is of the Greek Renaissance, and is architecturally perfect. The main auditorium is circular in form, seating about 2,700, with accommodations for 1,300 in the horseshoe balcony above. The ceiling is a dome, the highest point of which is sixty-eight feet above the main floor. The stage opening is fifty-seven feet wide and thirty feet high, and across the top of it will be a mural painting by Don Carlos DuBois depicting the notable events in Macon’s history. Besides the main auditorium, there are two smaller convention halls, an art gallery, and all manner of storage and rest-rooms, offices and promenades. Among the features of the building will be an eighty-one stop pipe-organ, a very up-to-date heating and aircirculation system, and removable seats in the main auditorium. The building will be complete, and modernly equipped, and will serve the community for all manner of public entertainment


from grand opera to athletic contests, conventions and trade shows. However, from the standpoint of pure art, the unattractive location will always be a thrust of hot pain in the hearts of Macon’s aesthetes. During the first four months of 1923 all efforts were turned towards the completion of the plans and organizations of the Centennial Celebration which took place on the 9th, 10th, and 11th of May. Never before in the history of the community has such unanimity of spirit and co-operation been shown by its body of citizens. The idea, conceived and nurtured by the Chamber of Commerce in its infancy, was adopted by the public, and practically no call made upon their purses or services met with a rebuff. All of the work, which involved many details and special features, was handled by an efficient system of committees, General Walter A. Harris being general chairman. The expenses of the celebration were estimated at $150,000, and this amount was underwritten by Macon merchants, thus guaranteeing the finances necessary. As the time drew near, Macon was almost in a frenzy of excitement and stir. Everywhere gala colors were flown and committees and individuals were seen rushing here and there attending to the last details. The courts declared a vacation. Stores were closed. Council passed ordinances for the regulation of traffic, making the streets clear for parades, and adding to the facilities for handling crowds, for fully fifty thousand people were present besides the local inhabitants. Messages of congratulation began to pour in from all sides, from neighboring towns and cities, and from many places outside of the state. Telegrams from Governor Hardwick, and President Harding showed the nationwide interest that was taken in the birthday party of this little Southern city. Each of the local newspapers published Centennial editions of over a hundred pages each. On the front page of the Telegraph appeared an article by W. T. Anderson entitled, “Happy Birthday” from which it is fitting to quote: “Macon’s hundredth anniversary seems a youthful birthday beside the claim of geologists that Mother Earth is sixteen hundred million years old. But when measured from the standpoint of growth and achievement, it is a far reach from the original river and crossroads trading point that induced the first trader to unyoke his oxen here determined to wait for some fellowtraveler to come along and drive a bargain. Viewed in the latter way, it is quite fitting that Macon should give a birthday party and invite her friends and family to the frolic. Macon is distinctive from the fact that she has a type of people who are true to the traditions of a noble race, and for this reason has remained truly Southern and genteel in spite of all the onsets of modernity. Macon has not been overly ambitious, but has been content with what she was and had until natural growth and demands made her otherwise. Therefore, she stands on a foundation of rock in all her commercial and civic and domestic affairs. “Macon has long enjoyed a reputation for splendid educational facilities. This has, generation after generation, caused to gather hereabouts those people who appreciated education - and this in its own good way and turn has kept in the ascendancy the highest attributes of human-kind. It is no wonder so many people remark the peculiarly old-school Southern characteristics of Macon-folk. Macon blossoms forth

tomorrow as the host of a multitude of neighbors * * * * ” And Macon did blossom forth. It is impossible for anyone but an eye witness to really comprehend the magnitude and colorful completeness of the three days’ celebration, every hour of which was filled to capacity. The historians can only record the facts, figures, and a few descriptive phrases. The glory and splendor, not to mention the glamour, of it all must be handed down to posterity in the way of all tradition. It is to the lasting credit of the city that no spread-eagleism was in evidence, no vain boasting of economic superiority; Macon’s one legitimate boast is her cultural atmosphere and her chief asset lies in her good citizenry. The schedule of events, as shown by the Official Program, was as follows: MACON CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION SCHEDULE OF EVENTS

Wednesday Morning, May 9, 1923 11:00 o’clock: Festival of Flowers, Heart of Downtown Macon. Wednesday Afternoon 3:00 o’clock: Concert by Creatore’s Band, Central City Park. 4:30 o’clock: Opening of Historic Pageant, Central City Park. Wednesday Evening 8:30 o’clock: Concert by Creatore’s Band, Third Street Park. Thursday Morning, May 10, 1923 11:00 o’clock: Parade of Organizations and Institutions, through business district. 12:00 o’clock: Parade of Negro Industries, Organizations and Institutions, through business district. Thursday Afternoon 3:00 o’clock: Concert by Creatore’s Band, Central City Park.


4:30 o’clock: Pageant, Central City Park, continuing in chronological order from point reached on preceding day.

historical tableaux, given in a setting both dramatic and artistic. A concise and graphic description of Macon’s Historical Pageant is found in the Official Program of the Centennial:

Thursday Evening 8:30 o’clock: Concert by Creatore’s Band, Third Street Park. 9:00 o’clock: Procession of the Fantastiques on Cherry Street. Friday Morning, May 11, 1923 11:00 o’clock: Review of Commerce and Industry, Business district.

MACON CENTENNIAL PAGEANT Directing Staff Miss Olive Jackson, New York City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Directress Mr. William Steene, New York City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Associate

Friday Afternoon 3:00 o’clock: Concert by Creatore’s Band, Central City Park. 4:30 o’clock: Pageant, continuing in chronological order from point reached preceding day and going through final episodes.

Assistants Mrs. John T. Larkin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Macon, Ga. Miss Jane McBrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Macon, Ga. Mr. Henry Carlisle Brooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Macon, Ga. WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON, MAY NINTH, 1923

Friday Evening 8:30 o’clock: Concert by Creatore’s Band, Third Street. 9:00 o’clock: Street Carnival, Downtown Macon. Macon was indeed fortunate in securing Creatore’s Band for the occasion. The six concerts given furnished much genuine enjoyment for both those initiated and uninitiated into the fields of classical music. It is also interesting to record that the parades held were on the biggest scale ever undertaken in Macon. Undoubtedly the main feature of the entire celebration was the historical pageant held in chronological order of episodes during each of the three afternoons. There were 5,000 participants, under the capable direction of Miss Olive Jackson and Mr. William Steene, of New York City. The scenes, which depicted every important event in the history of Macon, were enacted on an open-air stage before crowds ranging from 15,000 to 30,000 people. Pageantry has many useful functions. In preserving the rich traditions of the past it has a high educative social value. It is, moreover, a means whereby the happy lesson may be learned that art brings pleasure into the life of any community in proportion as the people of that community are sharers in its creation. Pageantry thrives best as a community art when it stimulates civic pride and patriotism, as by presenting the important and picturesque events in the history of a community. It is the glory of this communal art that as many as possible assist in the creation and production of the pageant. The inexperience of the actors is compensated for by the beauty of coloring and grouping, and the delightful open-air settings. “When Drama went indoors it died.” Plays were originally presented out-of-doors and actor and audience were in a much closer and more sympathetic relation. Pageantry began with a conscious attempt to restore to the people a share in the creation of dramatic art. In America the historical pageant, the type presented in the Macon Centennial Celebration, has been by all odds the most popular. Local pride and patriotism could not but be quickened and vivified by a contemplation of the noble past out of which the present hour has come. He gains immeasurably who has vital knowledge of the past of the city in which he lives. There is no more effective way to learn the very spirit of such a past than to see it unrolled before him in

Prologue Spirit of Prayer and her hand maidens: Love, Faith, Hope, Charity, Meekness, Truth, Loyalty, Service, Gratitude, Harmony, Grace, Constancy, Reverence, Sacrifice, Sympathy, Tenderness, Mercy, Justice, Beneficence, Courage and Obedience. The audience is requested to stand and repeat the following prayer: “God of our fathers, our help and refuge in the past, we thank Thee for Thy guidance in making our city what it is today. Teach us to number our blessings. Help us to build the future of a Greater Macon upon the firm foundation of Truth and Honor, and a loyalty to Thee, our Father and our Friend.” Doxology - to be sung by everyone. Episode One Personnel: Macon Kiwanis Club The days when the Creek Indians inhabited the Old Ocmulgee Fields - The green Corn Festival dance. Ceremony of lighting the new fire for the coming year. Indian maidens present the fruits of the season. The feast is celebrated. Episode Two Coming of De Soto. Time, 1540 Personnel: De Soto’s Party - Macon Rotary Club. Indians - Macon Kiwanis Club. Scene I. Ferdinand de Soto and his train of Spanish and Portuguese Knights and Soldiers visit the Indian City in Old Ocmulgee Fields. Scene II. First Christian baptism on American Soil: A wounded Indian is baptized by priests of De Soto’s train. Scene III. Meeting of De Soto and Queen Xualla, of the lower Creek Indians. Father Time marks the passing of the Years.


Interlude Dance of the Seasons Spring.......................................Autumn Summer.......................................Winter

Episode Three Fort Hawkins. Time, 1806-1823 Personnel: Macon Lions, Civitans, Kiwanis Clubs. Scene I. Establishment of Fort Hawkins - land ceded by Creek Indians. Scene II. Indians aroused to reclaim the land from the whites. Scene III. Indian attack upon the Fort. Scene IV Militia, under Generals Jackson, and Blackshear, is recruited to fight the Seminoles. Departure for Florida. Scene V. News of Victory.

(b) Macon Volunteers and Floyd Rifles leave for defense of Virginia. (c) Macon Women’s Patriotic Societies: Represented by: 1. Ladies’ Relief Society. 2. Little Patriots of Confederacy. 3. Wayside Home. Episode Five Jefferson Davis visits Macon: Time, 1877 (Ed. Note. Flags used in this scene are the original flags which were displayed at the J. Marshall Johnston home on the visit to Macon of President Davis.)

Episode Four Founding of Macon: Time, 1823-’25 Personnel: Lions and Civitan Clubs Scene I. First public auction of lots: The first lot alleged to have been sold is at the corner of Wharf (Ocmulgee) and Second streets. Scene II. Survey and naming of streets by Oliver Hillhouse Prince, James Webb and six commissioners.

(End of Part Two)


Interlude Dance of the Streets, Mulberry, Pine, Poplar, Walnut, Plum, Oak, Cherry. Reception of the Streets, by William Bibb and Nathaniel Macon. Episode Five Marquis de Lafayette visits Macon: Time, 1825. Scene: Wayside Inn. Personnel: Junior Chamber of Commerce and Daughters of the American Revolution. Dance: The Minuet. (End of Part One)

Episode One Educational Period of 1871-1876 Scene I. Establishment of Mercer University in Macon, 1871. (Presented by Mercer faculty and students.) Scene II. Founding of Public Schools of Macon, 1873. (Personnel: Public schools.) Interlude Eneas Africanus, by Harry Stillwell Edwards Episode Two Establishment of Camp Harris: Time, 1916. Personnel: National Guard. Review of troops leaving for Mexican Border, by the Governor.

THURSDAY, MAY TENTH, 1923 Episode One Wesleyan College founded: Time, 1832. (Written and presented by the Wesleyan faculty and students.) Episode Two Visit of Henry Clay to Macon: Time, 1844. Personnel: Business and Professional Women’s Club and Parent-Teachers Association. Scene: Reception and Ball at Floyd House. Episode Three Sidney Lanier was born in Macon in 1842 and died in Asheville, 1879. Personnel: Sidney Lanier Society. Fantasy: Lanier as musician, poet and soldier. Dance of the Fairies and Flowers. (By Playgrounds.) Episode Four Confederate Period: Time, 1861. Personnel: Daughters of the Confederacy. Scene I. (a) Presentation of Flag to Floyd Rifles.

Episode Three World War. Personnel: American Legion. Scene I. Peace enthroned. Group on right - Soldiers of defense. Group on left - The home group. War advances on Peace, followed by Sorrow. Scene II. War further advances on Peace. Enter: Famine, Pestilence, Death, Sorrow. Soldiers rally for defense. Led by Spirit of ’76. War workers assemble. (Represented by: Red Cross, Motor Corps, Boy Scouts.) Peace departs, leaving War triumphant. Scene III. Victory advances, overcoming War God, Famine, Pestilence, Death, Sorrow depart. Enter Peace, followed by Thanksgiving, Plenty, Joy, Remembrance. Scene IV. Enter Victory Maidens, welcoming returning soldiers. Victory crowns soldiers, who represent the American Army. Confederate and Federal soldiers advance and clasp hands, as Remembrance unrolls the scroll. Victory Dance, by Macon Pilot Club. 103

Finale Spirit of Macon evokes the Past, Present and Future. Religion, Education, Art, Agriculture, Commerce, Industry, Labor, Transportation. Dance: Corn, Wheat, Cotton, Sweet Potato Dance: Peach Blossoms Macon of the Future Centennial Song: Sung by children of the Public Schools. So ended the three days’ celebration of Macon’s one hundredth anniversary. The benefits that have already accrued to the city and will continue to come in the future cannot be overestimated. An abiding sense of the stability of society and a desire for a larger and more stately future were aroused in the breasts of our citizens. A vivid picture of modern Macon is drawn in a statistical summary compiled at the time of the Centennial: Today Macon stands, not as a monument, but as a real active force in the lives of those who live and work and enjoy within her bounds. A comprehensive review of the Macon of 100 years shows that it has a population of 65,000 and is the head of supplies for a radius of 60 miles comprising a population of 800,000. The city covers an area of 10 square miles; has an altitude of from 328 to 515 feet and enjoys an average temperature of 62 degrees and a rainfall of 42 inches. Both are conducive to agricultural development in which several crops can be made yearly, and furnishes twelve months of grazing for cattle. Within a radius of 50 miles there are 20,000,000 bearing peach trees. As a market and mill center 260,000 bales of cotton are handled annually. There are eleven big cotton mills. Farm crops to the value of $200,000,000 are produced annually in a radius of 30 miles. From the one million dollar terminal station 84 passenger trains run daily and an average of 3,000,000 people pass through annually. Eleven lines of railroads go out to all sections of the state and connect with all points. Mammoth railroad shops and freight terminals furnish thousands with lucrative wage. Located on the Dixie, National and Transcontinental Highways, thousands of tourists pass through annually in automobiles. There is a free camp and information bureau for motorists. The annual volume of wholesale trade for Macon is over $40,000.000. The value of manufactured products is $60,000,000, having multiplied six times in the last decade. Individuals employed in gainful occupation in Macon number 26,356 and the annual pay roll is over $12,000,000. The diversified industries include cotton and textiles, hardwood and lumber, brick and tile, vegetables and oils, fertilizers, engines, boilers and machinery, agricultural implements, flour and feeds, clothing and overalls, harness and leather, cigars, candies, ice cream, books and printings, drug and pharmaceutical supplies, optical goods, furniture, plywood

and veneer, meat products, canned goods, cooperage and handles, crates and boxes, trucks and wagons, building materials and numerous others. The bank clearings are $360,907,762; bank resources over $50,000,000; savings deposits $6,000,000. The postoffice receipts for 1922 were $311,000. Macon is rapidly becoming a hospital center of the South, with four hospitals and sanitariums, easily accessible and in ten minutes’ ride of the Terminal Station. With an efficient sanitary system, and public health and welfare department, Macon has a remarkably low death rate. The municipal water plant has a capacity of 14,000,000 gallons daily and registers from 99 to 100 per cent. pure. Hydro-electric power for the city is generated by a 24,000 h.p. generator on the Ocmulgee river and two auxiliary steam plants. Equipped with the latest in motor fire equipment the per capita fire loss for the past year was the lowest in the state. Macon has long been acknowledged as a center of culture and education. Mercer University and Wesleyan College furnish the higher education while Mt. DeSales Academy, Lanier High School, Academy for the Blind and the grammar schools furnish improved systems for academic and public school work. The value of school property in the county is $2,000,000. Being a city of beautiful parks and playgrounds, Macon has 500 acres in municipal parks and playgrounds, Central City Park being included in the original layout of the city 100 years ago. There are 45 miles of paved streets over which 5,000 automobiles being owned in the city and county, run. The main streets are illuminated with white way lights and arc lights are on every corner. Street railways run to all parts of the city and are well equipped and maintain excellent service. With 11 denominations and 89 churches, Macon has the record of a church center. The first baptizing recorded in the New World was in the Ocmulgee River, and the first Georgia State Conference of the Methodist church was held here. Socially, Macon has 12 literary and music clubs, a country club and golf links, six theatres and two reception parks. Two newspapers, morning and afternoon, keep the district in touch with the world through all news syndicates. Looking forward from 1923 we see the completion of a $400,000 high school; a $100,000 Municipal Stadium; a $600,000 city bond issue in 1924 for paving, sewers, a fire department, and a new Fifth Street Bridge; a $600,000 County Court House; a $600,000 Municipal auditorium; and a subscription of $52,000 for the Chamber of Commerce. Just at the time of going to press, Macon has successfully completed a campaign raising sufficient stock to build a Tourist Hotel at the cost of one million dollars. Prophetic vision is not given to the historian. It is for the public spirited citizen to read this story of the accomplishments of the past, and study the activities and possibilities of the present in order that he may feel the full warmth of the glow that a promising future is holding out to Macon.


Appendix BENCH AND BAR OF MACON, 1823-1923 By the Act of December 9th, 1822, Bibb County was carved out of the territory lately assigned to the counties of Houston, Twiggs, Monroe and Jones. The Act of the 22nd of the same month provided for the organization of the new county, assigned it to the newly created Flint Judicial District, as it was then called, the term circuit not being used until 1859 or 60. The Act fixed the residence of John Keener as the place for holding the courts until a court house should be provided. Keener’s residence was a double log cabin on what was afterwards known as Beall’s Hill near where Mount de Sales Academy now stands. On February 15th, 1823, the first Inferior Court for the county convened at Keener’s, with Justices John Davis, Tarpley Holt, C. W. Raines, D. Lawson and L. K. Carle presiding. At that time the Inferior Court in addition to its common law and probate jurisdiction had charge of county affairs and the first work of the court was the division of the county into districts and the appointment of commissioners to superintend the construction and working of the roads. Judge Eli S. Shorter of the Flint District opened the first term of the Superior Court on March 20th, 1823, at Keener’s house. He was then a resident of Putnam County, and was one of the leading lawyers of his day. Charles J. McDonald was the Solicitor General. Both were serving their first terms and this was among the first of their courts. Macon had not as yet been laid out and there seems to have been only one lawyer resident in the county, Oliver H. Prince, who had recently located in the Holt and Myrick neighborhood, near the present village of Holton. The records do not show which lawyers attended this first term of Bibb Superior Court. Newtown, the straggling little settlement in the shadow of Fort Hawkins, furnished the business for the grand jury. The first indictment was for stabbing, the first presentment for gaming, and there were several charges of keeping disorderly houses in Newtown, one of them being against “Solomon, a free negro.” The only civil business transacted at this term was the passage of an order in some sixteen suits against the administrator of the estate of William W. Dawson, reserving decision until the question involved could be submitted to the next Convention of Judges at Milledgeville, when judgment should be entered in accordance with their opinion. The question was whether an administrator de bonis non was entitled to twelve months exemption from suit where the administrator first appointed died within a year after his qualification.

Two of the Commissioners appointed under the Act of the Legislature to lay off the town of Macon, Oliver H. Prince and James Smith, were lawyers. They, with Charles J. McDonald, the Solicitor General, cast in their fortunes with the new town and became the nucleus of the Macon Bar. They were soon joined by Edward D. Tracy, Christopher B. Strong, Isaac H. Smith, Washington Poe, Henry G. Lamar, David B. Butler, John W. Campbell, Isaac G. Seymour, A. G. Clopton, John W. Mandell and John P. Booth. These composed the bar of the town of Macon, a straggling, bustling, lawless frontier town controlling the trade of a large and rapidly developing territory. A remarkable body of men they were, men of character, ability and several of them, unusual attainments. For many years they or some of them were the leaders of the bar of Macon and active in all the life of the city - political, educational, industrial, literary and religious, while several were outstanding figures in the history of Georgia. Major Prince, before coming to Macon, had compiled a Digest of the Laws of Georgia (1822) called “Little Prince” to distinguish it from his larger and more important Digest of 1837. He filed the first suit in the Inferior Court, an action of debt sounding Joseph Kopman vs. Alex Meriwether. To his wisdom and foresight Macon owes her wide streets. He represented Bibb County repeatedly in the General Assembly, both in the House and Senate, was a United States Senator, and held other positions of trust and honor. In 1835 he moved to Athens intending to retire from active life. Two years later the whole state was deeply shocked by his tragic death in the wreck of the steamship “Home” on which he was returning from the East where he had arranged for the publication of his second “Digest of Georgia Laws.” His wife, a sister of Mrs. Washington Poe, perished with him. A monument to their memory stands in Rose Hill Cemetery. Solicitor McDonald had taken an active interest in the Georgia militia and, at the time of his coming to Macon, held the post of Brigadier General. Judge Shorter retired from the Superior Court bench in 1825 and McDonald succeeded him, holding the office three years. He was one of the early members of the Legislature from Bibb, and for many years as the leader of one political faction, while Dr. Ambrose Baber led the other. In 1939 he was elected Governor of Georgia and was re-elected in 1841. It was a time of great financial distress and the state’s credit was at the lowest ebb. The Governor vetoed a bill which would have reduced taxes and urged the immediate passage of more drastic tax measures. The Legislature refusing, he ordered the State Treasurer to cut off the per diem of the members until


the necessary legislation for the relief of the treasury should be enacted. In spite of bitter denunciation he stood firm and the Legislature soon came around and passed the Governor’s bills.. After his second term as Governor he moved to Marietta. In 1850 he was again a candidate for Governor but was defeated by Howell Cobb. From 1853 to 1859 he was a Justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia. Two of his grandsons have also achieved that distinction, Spencer R. Atkinson, recently deceased, and Samuel C. Atkinson now and for many years an Associate Justice. Albert G. Clopton was a partner of Judge McDonald and when the latter went on the bench practiced alone for a short time, after which his name disappears from the records. Judge Strong was an older man than the other members of the little group. He had been a lieutenant in the War of 1812. Joining General Floyd’s command at Fort Hawkins he participated in the campaign against the Creeks, allies of the British. At the battle of Autosse he had a horse shot under him, and after he came to Macon the old roan he had ridden in the war was his constant companion, carrying him from “Vineville” to his office in town and to the courts of the circuit. He was promoted to the rank of major and his name appears on the tablet which marks the site of Fort Hawkins. Before locating in Macon he had been Judge of the Ocmulgee Circuit, and had compelled Governor John Clark by mandamus to restore Secretary of State Hammond to the office from which the Governor had removed him. He built his home in the midst of the forest on the Forsyth road, about a mile from the town limits, and called the place “Vineville” from the vineyard which he planted about it, a name soon applied to the village which grew up in the neighborhood and which is still used to designate Macon’s chief residential district. He succeeded Judge McDonald on the bench of the Flint District in 1828. During the twenty years he lived in Macon he was a conspicuous and venerated figure. Tracy came from a prominent Connecticut family and as a young man was engaged in mercantile pursuits in his native state and in New York City. This business experience gave him an understanding and a grasp of commercial law that made him unrivaled in this particular field. He was the first Intendant of the new town, and gave a toast to LaFayette on his visit to Macon. He served a term as Judge of the Superior Court from 1841 to 1845 most acceptably, being noted not only for his fairness and impartiality but for his affability and his sparkling humor. Judge Clark styles him “the witty New Yorker” and says he was the peer of the famous Judge Dooly. On coming to Macon he became a partner of Major Prince, but the firm of Prince & Tracy was short lived. Major Prince and Washington Poe became associated and Tracy and David B. Butler united their fortunes. The name of Tracy & Butler appears on the early dockets possibly more frequently than any other. Judge Tracy’s home was on the corner of Fourth and Plum streets where the old Union Station was built in 1852. Mr. Butler lived across the street where the Southland Hotel is now located, a site long occupied by the famous old Brown House. For the first half century of the city’s life, Macon had no more prominent or useful citizen than Washington Poe -

“Mister Poe” as he was always called - who filled the full measure of the term “a perfect gentleman.” During the early frontier lawless days he was Solicitor General and to his personal efforts and vigorous action were due in large part the bringing about of a more orderly and law abiding community. He was Intendant of the town in 1827 and Mayor in 1840 and 41. While he took an active interest in politics and was a conspicuous figure at party conventions, the lure of public office had no attractions for him. Elected to Congress without personal effort and by a gratifying majority, he resigned without taking his seat, feeling the interest of his clients and the demands of his profession of greater weight than the claims of his constituents. In well nigh every important cause tried in Bibb Superior Court during his long and active career his name was marked as counsel for one party or the other and his practice was by no means confined to his own county or to the circuit. Henry G. Lamar, after an apprenticeship in the Georgia Legislature, was sent to Congress for two terms, was a formidable candidate for Governor, and was Judge of the Superior Court. He was appointed by Governor Troup Commissioner to the Indians and his name is signed to more than one important treaty. Isaac G. Seymour is better remembered as the Captain of the Macon Volunteers in the Seminole War and as the editor of The “Macon Messenger” than as a lawyer. He was first associated with John W. Campbell and afterwards was a partner of General Robert Augustus Beall. Both firms enjoyed an extensive practice. He was Mayor in 1833 and 34. After the Seminole War he removed to New Orleans. Isaac H. Smith, according to Dr. George G. Smith, was among the first lawyers to locate in the town, but seems to have left little record of his professional career. He was a local Methodist preacher and Dr. Smith says, was one of the early mayors but his name is not found in the official records of the city. Dr. George G. Smith, in an historical sketch of Mulberry Street Methodist Church, says: “The sisters of Duncan G. Campbell, a leading lawyer of the city, were among the elect ladies of the congregation.” Col. Campbell’s residence in Macon, if he really ever lived here, must have been of short duration. He was a resident of Wilkes in 1825 when he and James Meriwether as Commissioners for the United States negotiated the famous Treaty of Indian Spring. That year he represented the county of Wilkes in the Legislature and introduced what is believed to have been the first measure looking to a college for women ever proposed in a legislative body. From this germ thought sprang the Georgia Female College, now Wesleyan, “the oldest and the best.” He is therefore justly regarded as the father of female education in Georgia. In 1828 while still a citizen of Wilkes he was nominated for Governor and would probably have been elected but for his untimely death. David B. Butler was his son-in-law, and the distinguished Justice John A. Campbell, of the Supreme Court of the United States, was his son. Judge Campbell read law in Macon under his uncle, John W. Campbell. It is probable that Dr. Smith intended to refer to John W. Campbell the brother of Duncan G. Campbell, who was a leading member of the Macon Bar. Miller in his “Bench and Bar


of Georgia” refers to him as a prominent member of the bar living in Macon who caused the dismissal of the author’s first bill in equity by a timely demurrer. Among the earliest Macon firms was that of Mendall & Campbell but like the rest it continued for only a few years, being succeeded by Campbell & Seymour, one of the best known firms of the first decade. John P. Booth read the Declaration on the first celebration of Independence Day in Macon, and seems to have enjoyed a considerable practice. A temporary court house, an unceiled one-room shanty on Mulberry street between Second and Third, was built in 1825 but soon gave place to the, for the time, imposing structure on the old Court House Square at the foot of Mulberry Street, a substantial three-story frame building with porches and a cupola said to have been the handsomest public building in the State. In this building the courts sat and the lawyers presented the cases of their clients for forty years. By 1829, when the court house was completed, the first dozen lawyers (Butler says there were twelve) had flung their shingles to the breeze. Possibly some of those named may not have located in Macon by that time, but they came soon after. Joining them in the next decade were a number of able men, several of whom had already attained distinction in the profession. Among these were: General Robert Augustus Beall, Mayor of Macon in 1835 and Judge of the old city court, styled the Court of Common Pleas established in 1832. While Solicitor General of the Southern District, living in old Hartford, Pulaski county, he fought a bloodless duel with Col. T. D. Mitchell, who was killed by Dr. Ambrose Baber, Beall’s surgeon, in a similar affair of honor not long afterward. Thaddeus G. Holt, who had been Judge of the Southern District. John Rutherford, courteous Southern gentlemen and unconstructed rebel; whose mansion surrounded by tall pyramidal cedars still stands near the Houston Road in that part of the Southern section of the city known as the Rutherford Addition. The Nisbets, James A., Mayor of Macon in 1845 and 46, and the scholarly Eugenius A., Member of Congress, and Justice of the Supreme Court. Absolom H. Chappell, progenitor of the distinguished Georgia family of lawyers and educators, President of the State Senate, member of Congress, active in the promotion of the state’s railway system, the preceptor of L. Q. C. Lamar. Judge John J. Gresham, lawyer and banker, Mayor, and one of the builders of the County’s school system, for many years Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the University of Georgia. Lewis N. Whittle, who came as assistant engineer of the Monroe Railroad and was afterwards its president, the friend and counselor of the young lawyer. The rugged, self-made Thomas P. Stubbs, Judge Clark says, “Everybody loved Peter Stubbs.” B. C. Franklin, who became Judge McDonald’s partner after the Judge left the bench. The self-contained and deeply read Samuel T. Bailey, son-inlaw of Judge Strong.

The Hines brothers, Richard K. and John B. John Lamar, kinsman and for a time partner of Henry G. Lamar. Joseph G. Polhill, who soon moved to Milledgeville and became Judge of the Ocmulgee Circuit. Wm. S. C. Reid, who came from Jones County where he had won some distinction from his participation with Walter T. Colquitt and R. V. Hardeman in the prosecution and conviction of Elijah Barber for impersonating Jesse L. Bunkley, the heir to a large estate who had disappeared several years before. In this famous case, Judge Polhill presiding, 110 witnesses were examined including a large number of the foremost citizens of Macon. It was one of the most noted cases ever tried in the old court house at Clinton. In the early forties there came to the Macon bar two young men who in later life became national figures. L. Q. C. Lamar and Alfred H. Colquitt. Lamar read law in Macon and on his admission to the bar formed a partnership with his preceptor, Absolom H. Chappell. The firm of Chappell & Lamar was short lived. Col. Chappell moved to Columbus and Mr. Lamar to Covington where he continued to practice. He married the daughter of Judge A. B. Longstreet, then president of Emory College. When that worthy became president of the University of Mississippi his son-in-law followed him to that state. He returned to Georgia after a short residence and again located in Covington where he resumed the practice and represented Newton County in the Legislature. After a year of two he opened an office in Macon and became a candidate for Congress but failed of nomination. His second residence in Macon was as brief as had been the first, he again went to Mississippi and became her foremost citizen, Senator, Secretary of the Interior, Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. While on the Supreme Bench he married the sweetheart of his youth, Henrietta Dean, then the widow of General William S. Holt. On a visit to the daughters of Mrs. Lamar, Mrs. Robert E. Park and Mrs. Wm. H. Virgin, both of Macon, he died here and was buried in Rose Hill Cemetery. Subsequently his body was removed to his adopted State which had so often and so signally honored him and which he had served with such conspicuous fidelity. Colquitt, a rising young member of the Macon bar, wooed and won the daughter of General Hartwell H. Tarver, of Twiggs county, one of the largest planters and greatest landowners in Georgia. One of his splendid plantations in South Georgia passed to his daughter and her young lawyer husband turned planter and left Macon for Baker County. He, too, was laid to rest in Rose Hill. Few names hold higher place in Georgia’s annals than that of Alfred Holt Colquitt, member of Congress, Governor, United States Senator, Brigadier General. His distinguished father, the brilliant Walter T. Colquitt, one of Georgia’s great lawyers, died in Macon, but seems never to have been a resident of the City. Georgia was the only commonwealth having the English Common Law which had no court for the correction of errors. From the separation with the Mother Country to 1846 there was no court of review. An appeal to a special jury selected from the grand jurors was allowed in many cases but the decision of the


Judge of the Superior Court on questions of law was final. This made each circuit a law unto itself. To ameliorate this condition the judges held Conventions, generally annually, at the capital to discuss difficult and doubtful questions arising in cases pending before them and to reconcile differencies of opinion. But these Conventions were purely voluntary and the conclusions reached were not binding. Comparatively few of the decisions were published. With the increase in the number of circuits, the rapid development of the State and the consequent growth of business in the courts, the situation became more and more unsatisfactory. The Bar all over the State urged the establishment of a court of errors. The amendent to the Constitution adopted in 1836 authorized the General Assembly to create an Appellate Court, but even with this authority the Legislature did nothing until 1845 when by the Act of December 10th the Supreme Court was established. In the efforts to secure a Supreme Court, the members of the Macon Bar had been very much interested. One of the foremost advocates of the Court was Eugenius A. Nisbet, and on its establishment he with Joseph Henry Lumpkin and Hiram Warner, were selected as the first Judges, as they were then called, the title Justice not being used until some years later. No more fitting selections for the first members of the Court could have been made. From the beginning the Court had the confidence of the bar and the people, and its able decisions soon convinced the most skeptical of the wisdom of its creation. The State was divided into districts composed of two or more circuits and the Supreme Court held two terms a year in each district. The Coweta and Flint Circuits composed the Third District and the Court sat alternately in Macon and Decatur. On the second Monday in February, 1846, the Court met for its first term in Macon. No cases were tried at this term, the Court devoting itself to the preparation and adoption of rules of practice and to the admission of attorneys to its bar. The following members of the Macon Bar were admitted: Edward D. Tracy, Richard K. Hines, Thomas P. Stubbs, Samuel T. Bailey, John Rutherford, James A. Nisbet, John J. Gresham, Samuel R. Blake, John B. Hines, John H. Goodrich, Henry G. Lamar, T. G. Holt, Winfred L. Shockley, Abner P. Powers, Oliver H. Prince. (This was the son of Senator Prince, whose death occurred in 1837.) When the oath was administered to the venerable Christopher B. Strong, the Nestor of the bar, then living in Perry, he addressed the court, congratulating the bar and people on its establishment and felicitating it on the auspicious beginning, concluding by paraphrasing the words of Simeon, the prophet, “Now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace for mine eyes have beheld the salvation of the judiciary of Georgia.” At the next term at Macon and at sessions held elsewhere within the year there was admitted: Carleton B. Cole, A. H. Chappell, Washington Poe, Lewis N. Whittle, Georgia W. Fish and Gibson Clark. This is doubtless a practically complete list of the members of the Macon Bar in 1846-7 and seems to be the only list up to that time. In 1849 W. H. F. Hall and W. H. Anderson, the brother of Judge Clifford Anderson, were admitted, and the next year John Askew and Robt. P. Hall, nicknamed “Boliver”

or “Bolly” for short. The first case from Bibb Superior Court decided by the Supreme Court was Merchants Bank of Macon vs. Central Bank of Georgia. It involved a $5,000.00 bill of exchange drawn by Jerry Cowles in favor of Scott Gray, Agent of the Bank of Hawkinsville, of which the Merchants Bank was successor, which it was claimed had been used contrary to instructions. John Rutherford and R. V. Hardeman, of Clinton, appeared for the plaintiff in error and Chas. J. McDonald for the defendant. As this term, February, 1847, there were heard several cases involving the bills of the Monroe R. R. & Bkg. Co., which had become insolvent, and whose road had been sold under mortgage foreclosure. The plaintiffs were represented by S. T. Bailey, William Law and John Rutherford, the defendant, the Central Bank of Georgia, by A. H. Chappell and Washington Poe. Other cases decided were: John P. Evans vs. Berry Rogers, Chas. J. McDonald for plaintiff, T. P. Stubbs for defendant; Elam Alexander vs. H. B. Troutman, T. P. Stubbs for plaintiff, Poe and Nisbet by Chas. J. McDonald, contra. It will be seen that though Governor McDonald had removed to Marietta he continued to look after the interests of his Macon clients. In 1851 the Macon District was formed with the genial Abner P. Powers, universally called “Ab,” whose wit rivaled that of Judge Tracy, as Judge, and the able and popular W. K. deGaffenried as Solicitor General. Judge Powers, according to Judge Clark, “could get more fun out of the dockets of his court than any judge he had ever known, and get it with propriety.” Shortly after the creation of the Macon Circuit, or District as it was then called, there was a rearrangement of the Supreme Court Districts. The Macon, Southwestern, Pataula and Chattahoochee Circuits were assigned to the Second Supreme Court District, and Macon was designated as the place for holding the court for the District. This arrangement continued until after the War when by the Act of 1866 the Court ceased to be peripatetic, its sessions being held at Milledgeville the then capital. At the time Bibb County was organized the Inferior Courts not only had charge of county affairs but exercised an important common law jurisdiction concurrently with the Superior Courts, and were also the Courts of Probate. By an amendment to the Constitution in 1851 probate jurisdiction was transferred to the Courts of Ordinary presided over by an Ordinary, elected in each county. Phil Tracy was the first Ordinary of Bibb County, assuming the office January 1, 1852. He was succeeded in 1856 by W. G. Massey. The Criminal Court of the City of Macon was established in 1856 with Clifford Anderson as Judge. It was short lived, however, having been abolished the next year. The decade from 1850 to 1860 was one of great prosperity, possibly the most prosperous Georgia has ever known. Macon shared largely in this general prosperity. Her planters, among the largest in the state, her merchants, her banks and other enterprises reaped a golden harvest. Her railroads were now on a firm footing, Macon being the center of the system, occupied a position of commanding influence. The period was also one of great political excitement. The successful war with Mexico had just been fought, adding a vast


domain to the territory of the Union to be contended for by the free soil and the slave holding states. The “Compromise of 1850” postponing for a little while the inevitable conflict; the advent of the American or “Know Nothing” party; the constant growth of the abolitionists and the increasing menace to the South and her peculiar institutions, strong antagonism between the Unionists and the extreme States Rights parties in the state, all these contributed to make this period one of the greatest excitement. Macon’s central position made the city the natural meeting place for party gatherings and political conventions of all sorts, in which the Macon Bar took an important and conspicuous part. Contrary to the general belief, when the community prospers so do the lawyers. The Bar by reason of their training and the character of their services are by nature the leaders of thought, the moulders of public opinion. It is not surprising, therefore, that this decade of prosperity and political excitement was the heyday of the Macon Bar. Among its members were some of the foremost public men of the state, and its entire personnel was of a very high order. A number of other strong men joined the ranks at this time; the sturdy Samuel Hunter, Robert S. Lanier and Clifford Anderson, brothers-in-law and partners for more than forty years; Barnard Hill, the Massachusetts school teacher, who, General Thomas R. R. Cobb said, was the greatest equity lawyer Georgia ever produced; Samuel Hall, brother and partner of Robert P. and the father of Joe Hill Hall; Judge James T. Nisbet, son of Eugenius A., who was licensed to practice by special act of the Legislature when only seventeen; the brilliant Phil Tracy, son of Judge Tracy, and nephew of Duncan G. and John W. Campbell, editor of the “Telegraph”,” as well as lawyer; the pious and conscientious Robert A. Smith; Joel R. Branham, Solicitor General, 1860-61, who moved to Rome and became Judge of the Circuit and one of the leading members of the North Georgia Bar; Charles J. Harris, Solicitor General and Judge of the City Court: Osborn A. Lochrane, the eloquent and witty young Irishman; John B. Lamar, the wealthy bachelor, planter and literary man; Richard H. Clark, afterwards Judge of the Southwestern Circuit, of the City Court of Atlanta and of the Stone Mountain Circuit whose first judicial experience was on the bench of the Macon Circuit to which he was appointed in 1857, filling out the unexpired term of Judge Powers. Though long a resident of Atlanta he maintained his affection for Macon and sleeps in Rose Hill Cemetery. His thumb nail sketches and anecdotes of Macon people, quoted frequently in this chapter, are, next to Butler’s History, the most valuable sources of historical material. A distinguished citizen and lawyer who located in Atlanta during this period on his retirement from public life was General Alfred Iverson, Judge of the Superior Court and United States Senator, whose son, General Alfred Iverson, Jr., (who read law but seems never to have practiced), captured Stoneman and stopped the raid on Macon when Sherman was laying waste to the State. Another was George W. Towns, who after two terms in Congress, was Governor of Georgia from 1848 to 1854. At the end of his term he came to live in Macon but shortly thereafter suffered a stroke of paralysis and was never able to

take an active place at the bar of his new home. The decade of prosperity was followed by the decade of “destruction and reconstruction,” the latter being more destructive, so far as material resources were concerned, than the former. The election of Lincoln and the Secession of South Carolina was quickly followed by the Georgia Convention of January, 1861. In the Convention Bibb County was represented by three of her strongest lawyers and ablest citizens, Eugenius A. Nisbet, Washington Poe and John B. Lamar. Judge Nisbet drafted the Ordinance of Secession which severed Georgia from the Union, and was sent as a Delegate to the Provisional Congress of the Confederacy. In the Second Congress of the Confederate States Judge Clifford Anderson was a distinguished member. On the call to arms most of the members of the Macon Bar abandoned the forum for the tented field. Charles J. Harris was Lieutenant Colonel of the 59th Georgia Infantry and later commanded the Third Regiment of Reserves. Robert A. Smith, for whom the Camp of Confederate Veterans is named, entered the service as Captain of the Macon Volunteers. On the organization of the 44th Infantry he became its Colonel and made the supreme sacrifice at the battle of Ellison’s Mill fought near Richmond. Phil Tracy, Major of the Sixth Georgia, was killed at Sharpsburg. His body, left in the hands of the enemy, was secretly recovered by his Yankee uncle and buried with his kindred at Batavia, N. Y. Judge Tracy’s other son, Brigadier General Edward D. Tracy, Jr., who was a Circuit Judge in Alabama before the war, also met a soldier’s death at Port Gibson, Miss. Colonel John B. Lamar, when the Macon Volunteers were mustered into service, presented the company with colors made by his niece, Mrs. Alex S. Erwin, of Athens, and each man with a uniform purchased at his own expense. He served on General Cobb’s staff and was mortally wounded at Crampton’s Gap. T. G. Holt, Jr., led a troop of cavalry raised in Bibb County, Samuel Hunter enlisted as a private in the Macon Volunteers and came out of the War a Captain. Joel Branham resigned as Solicitor General and enlisted in the Volunteers. These are only a few of the Macon lawyers who in the great emergency turned soldier. But with most of the Bar in Confederate gray and at the front the courts continued to function though little business was transacted. The veteran, Henry G. Lamar, who had succeeded Judge Clark in 1858, continued to preside in the Superior Court until his death in 1863. His son-in-law, Judge Lochrane, was his successor, serving until the close of the War when he went to Atlanta, was elected Judge of the Atlanta Circuit and then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during the Reconstruction regime. He afterwards became General Counsel of the Pullman Company. Wm. H. Riley became Ordinary in 1859 and served until 1868, when Chas. T. Ward was elected by the Carpet Bag Government then in control of the state, but so satisfactory was his administration of the office that he was continued in it until 1877, long after Georgia was again in the hands of her own people. During the War the Supreme Court continued to hold its regular annual sessions in Macon, sitting in the old County Court House, but very few cases came up for decision. At the February term, 1864, memorial exercises were held for the


members of the bar of the Third District who had died on the field of honor. The long melancholy roll called by the Chief Justice bears eloquent testimony to the courage, the fidelity and the patriotism of these devoted men. With the collapse of the Confederacy many and varied were the problems which confronted the people of Macon and of the South, problems of readjustment to new conditions, the loss of most of the wealth of the people, the destruction of the old economic system, the worthlessness of the currency, the returning soldiers war-worn and penniless, the newly emancipated slaves drunk with the wine of unexpected freedom, the difficult situation rendered infinitely more difficult by the ill advised and oppressive Reconstruction measures of Congress. To the solution of these problems the lawyers turned with the same devotion they had exhibited in the midst of war’s wild alarms. The courts were called on to decide questions growing out of Confederate debts, and obligations payable in Confederate money or given for the purchase of slaves, the constitutionality, force and effect of stay laws, scaling ordinances and other relief measures. Fortunately in Judge Carlton B. Cole, who succeeded Judge Lochrane on the Superior Court bench, the Macon Circuit had an able and experienced Judge. He had served for two terms as Judge of the Southern Circuit and for forty years had been an active and a successful lawyer. “Cool, calm, modest, retiring, yet learned, wise and sagacious judge” is Judge Clark’s estimate of him. During this time there were a number of important additions to the Macon Bar. Some of these had already attained high place in state and nation and others were afterwards to become famous. There was General Howell Cobb who had commanded the State Reserves and during the last year of the War had his headquarters in Macon. On the death of her brother, Col. John B. Lamar, Mrs. Cobb inherited his elegant home on Walnut Street and the family lived there after the war. General Cobb’s death came suddenly in 1868 while he was on a visit to New York. Georgia has had no more distinguished son than Howell Cobb, Speaker of the National House of Representatives, Secretary of the Treasury, Governor of Georgia, President of the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States, Major General and withal a profound lawyer. His argument on the constitutionality of the stay laws was said by Chief Justice Lumpkin to have been the strongest to which he had ever listened. Judge Andrew J. Cobb, of Athens, one of the ablest and most learned jurists Georgia has ever produced, the youngest son of General Cobb, spent a good portion of his boyhood in Macon. James Jackson, who had been Judge of the Western Circuit, a member of Congress and Judge of the Military Court of Stonewall Jackson’s Corps, a cousin of General Cobb, came over from Walton county at the close of the war and formed a partnership with him. He was afterwards associated with Mr. Poe and the Nisbets, and was a member of the Supreme Court from 1875 to 1887, first as Associate and then as Chief Justice. Other additions to the bar during this period were: Col. Thomas J. Simmons, Solicitor General, member of the Constitutional Convention of 1877, Judge of the Superior Court, Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

Major Augustus O. Bacon, five times successively elected Speaker of the Georgia House of Representatives, defeated for Governor by General Gordon, United States Senator for three terms, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations and known as the great Constitutional lawyer of the Senate. Richard F. Lyon, who had been a Justice of the Supreme Court during the War, and was remarkable, among other things, for the number of his partnerships. The list looks as though it were a roster of the bar. They were W. K. deGaffenried, E. S. Shorter, Samuel Irvin, James Jackson, James T. Nisbet, T. B. Gresham, Claud Estes, Lucian Lamar Knight, and John Randalph Cooper. There were also Colonels John B. Weems of the Tenth Georgia Infantry, and Emory F. Best, of the Twenty-Third, both afterwards Judges of the old County Court. The Constitution of 1868 abolished the Inferior Courts and transferred their jurisdiction over county affairs to the Ordinaries. It also authorized the establishment of County Courts to take over the common law jurisdiction of the Inferior Courts. It made provision for a District Court in each senatorial district. Henry W. Cowles, of Bibb, was appointed District Judge and Joseph B. Hunt, of Pike District Attorney for the 22nd district, composed of the counties of Bibb, Monroe, and Pike. These courts seem never to have functioned to any extent and were abolished in December, 1871. In 1870 a new court house on the corner of Mulberry and Second streets was built, considering the impoverished condition of the County a remarkably handsome and costly structure. The corner stone was laid with imposing ceremonies. Washington Poe, then the Nestor of the bar, making the principal address. Sealed within the corner stone was the following list of the bar; Carlton B. Cole, Judge Superior Court, Washington Poe, Sr., B. Hill, E. A Nisbet, John Rutherford, John J. Gresham, R. F. Lyon, James Jackson, R. S. Lanier, W. K. deGraffenried, R. W. Jemison, James T. Nisbet, Samuel Hunter, H. W. Coles, A. W. Persons, E. F. Best, G. W. Gustin, R. W. Stubbs, R. A. Nisbet, Sidney Lanier, M. B. Guerry, H. M. Green, L. N. Whittle, S. D. Irvin, John B. Weems, Clifford Anderson, T. J. Simmons, A. O. Bacon, John P. Fort, T. B. Gresham, J. E. Schofield, Washington Poe, Jr. The name of Samuel Hall does not appear on this list as he had removed from Macon to the new town of Oglethorpe in 1853. He returned to the City in 1870 and became a partner of Mr. Poe. In 1882 he was elected an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. This was near the fiftieth mile stone, half way the City’s history. The original dozen who composed the first bar of the town of Macon had all passed away except Washington Poe and this was to be his last public appearance. Many others who had been leaders in the days before the war had also passed from the scene of action, though a number still remained lending dignity and prestige to the bar, and guiding with their mature wisdom the younger men who were soon to take their places. It was largely a new bar facing new conditions that assembled in the new court house. All are now dead save Thos. B. Gresham, now and for many years a resident of Baltimore.


Two or three of these young men should have passing mention. Sidney Lanier could not long be content as a junior in the office of Lanier & Anderson. He heard the call of his genius and quitting his law books and his briefs became American’s greatest poet and musician. M. G. Guerry, going to the Western mountains for his health, became a Justice of the Supreme Court of Colorado, but returned in later life and again took his place at the Macon Bar. John P. Fort sunk the first artesian well in Georgia and thereby became one of the greatest benefactors of the lower half of the state. Later he moved to Mt. Airy and did much to develop apple and peach culture in North Georgia. Pursuant to the General Act of 1872 a County Court was established in Bibb in 1874 with Thad. G. Holt, the younger, as Judge. This court was continued until 1884 when the present City Court of Macon was created. On the fiftieth year of the founding of the city, Judge Cole, of the Superior Court, was succeeded by Judge Barnard Hill, who continued as Judge until 1879 when he was stricken by death as he sat on the bench in the court house in Knoxville while holding a term of Crawford Superior Court. J. A. McManus followed Judge Ward as Ordinary in 1877 and discharged the duties of the office for twelve years. The additions to the bar during this period include three Confederate Colonels, James H. Blount, who represented the District in Congress for twenty years and was sent by President Cleveland on a special and delicate mission to the Republic of Hawaii, then applying for annexation to the United States; Isaac Hardeman, standing for the best at the bar and in the community, and W. A. Lofton, who had been the vigorous Solicitor General of the Ocmulgee circuit. When the number of real colonels who were members of the Macon Bar is recalled it is easy to understand how the apparently senseless custom of dubbing every lawyer “Colonel” had its origin. There were also admitted to the bar about this time a number of young men of unusual brilliance who soon attained high rank in the profession. Walter B. Hill, “The scholar of the Georgia bar,” one of the pioneers in the prohibition movement, who abandoned a lucrative practice to become the Chancellor of the University of Georgia; Capt. Nathaniel E. Harris, Judge of the Superior Court, Governor of Georgia, and Father of the Georgia “Tech,” John C. Rutherford for years the partner of Major Bacon, whose brilliant defense Nat Harris, former Governor of of Tom Woolfolk is one of the Georgia, while a member of the Georgia Legislature for Bibb classics in criminal trials; County, introduced the bill Charles L. Bartlett, “the game which made possible the Georgia cock of Bibb;” the eloquent School of Technology. Weston Patterson, who met a

tragic death in Oklahoma to which newly created State he had recently removed; Washington Dessau, the courtly and polished Jew. While arguing an important case in the Supreme Court of Georgia one of the Justices asked Mr. Dessau a question which indicated that he did not agree with his position, Mr. Dessau replied, “I thank your Honor. The clash of two minds causes the spark of truth to scintillate.” These were his last words. He sank to the floor dead. Col. W. L. Grice, now of Hawkinsville, who still lives at the advanced age of ninety-two, the father of Warren Grice, was appointed to fill the unexpired term of Judge Hill, and was followed by Judge Simmons who occupied the bench for nine years when he was elected Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Until 1848 all Georgia was embraced in one Federal Judicial district, but by the Act of August 11th of that year, the state was divided into two districts, the Northern and the Southern. By the Act of January 29, 1880, the Southern District was divided into the Eastern Division with Savannah as headquarters and the Western Division with Macon, as the seat of the court. Still Georgia had only one United States Judge, John Erskine, who served in both Districts until 1882 when Judge H. K. McKay, then on the Georgia Supreme Bench, was appointed Judge for the Northern District and held the courts at Macon in the newly created Western Division. Though a Republican appointee his symptahy for the people of Georgia in the terrible ordeal of Reconstruction and his wise and administration of the law endeared him to the people over whom his jurisdiction extended. Until a court house could be provided the courts were held in rented quarters on the second floor of the building on Cherry street now occupied by the Y. W. C. A. A wholesale liquor house was the tenant of the lower floor. This early association of the Court and the liquor traffic, though in a modified form, has recently been revived, the Court at present devoting a large part of its time to suppressing the business of its quondam close neighbor. But by the Act of August 9, 1885, the General Assembly ceded to the United States the lot on the corner of Third and Mulberry Streets on which to erect a government building, and before a great while work began on a handsome three-story brick building which was the home of the Federal Courts until the present beautiful marble structure was erected in 1907-8. Judge Erskine retired in 1885 and Emory Speer, then serving as United States Attorney for the Northern District of Georgia, was appointed Judge of the Southern District. Shortly after his appointment Judge Speer transferred the headquarters of the Court from Savannah to Macon and took up his residence in the city. He was one of Georgia’s most eloquent and graceful speakers. His finished orations, many of which have been published, are of the highest order. As a stump speaker he was unsurpassed and before a jury well night invincible. He had been Solicitor General of the Western Circuit and had served three terms in Congress. Many important cases were tried in the United States Court at Macon during Judge Speer’s incumbency of thirty-three years. One of the most noted was Norman W. Dodge vs. L. L. Williams and others, involving many thousands of acres of land in South Georgia, out of which grew the conspiracy case


against Hall, Lancaster and others for the murder of Forsyth; another was Rowena M. Clarke vs. Central R. R. and Bkg. Co. under which receivers for the Central and its allied properties were appointed, followed by the foreclosure of the mortgage and sale of the road. While the original bill in the Central Railroad case was filed in the Eastern Division, a large part of the litigation was conducted in Macon. Mr. Justice Howell E. Jackson, of the United States Supreme Court, presided with Judge Speer when some of the more important issues in this case were under consideration. The Law School of Mercer University was established in 1878 with Judge Clifford Anderson, Judge Carlton B. Cole and Walter B. Hill as its first faculty. John C. Rutherford was added soon afterward. After a few years it was suspended but it was revived in 1892 with Judge Speer as Dean and Clem P. Steed, Olin J. Wimberly and Hope Polhill, who was quickly succeeded by John P. Ross, as members of the faculty. Other members of the Macon Bar who have given years of unselfish service as professors in this school, named in the order of their election, are William H. Felton, Orville A. Park, Andrew W. Lane, Eugene P. Mallary, Harry S. Strozier, John R. L. Smith, Warren Grice and Malcolm D. Jones. In 1923 J. N. Talley and Chas. Baxter Jones were added to the faculty. From this school many of the younger members of the bar of Macon and of Georgia have come. Among the early graduates were Harry Stillwell Edwards, creator of “Eneas Africanus,” Walter F. George, Judge of the Superior Court, and of the Court of Appeals, Justice of Supreme Court and United States Senator, and George S. Jones, one of the present leaders of the Macon Bar. On the death of Judge Speer, Judge Wm. H. Felton, who had been a member of the faculty for twenty years, became Dean. The school was reorganized and the course increased to three years in 1922, and Judge Wm. H. Fish, who after several years apprenticeship as Judge of the Southwestern Circuit had been on the Supreme Bench as Associate and then Chief Justice for twenty-six years, was made Dean. Judge Fish was born in Macon, his father, George W. Fish, having been a prominent member of the Macon Bar. Besides Judge Fish, two other professors devoting all their time to the school have been added to the faculty. The Mercer Law School is now a member of the Association of American Law Schools, having met every requirement of the high standard set by the Association. In the eighties, among others who joined the ranks of the bar was the modest but profound Buford M. Davis, from Houston County, who became associated with Col. Isaac Hardeman. Later C. A. Turner came from Monroe County and joined them, forming the firm of Hardeman, Davis & Turner. The firm with many changes in its name and personnel still continues, it present style being Jones, Park & Johnston. President Cleveland, during his first term, appointed Dupont Guerry, of Americus, United States Attorney for the Southern District of Georgia. He moved to Macon and with the picturesque and powerful Joe Hill Hall formed the firm of Guerry & Hall. Later they associated Judge George W. Gustin, who had just left the bench, under the firm name of Gustin, Guerry & Hall. At one time this firm enjoyed possibly the largest, and certainly one of the most lucrative practices in Middle Georgia.

Mr. Guerry was among the leaders of the prohibition movement and was a candidate for Governor on a prohibition platform. His canvass did much to educate the people and to crystalize sentiment which resulted in the passage of the Statewide prohibition law. For six years Mr. Guerry left the bar to act as President of Wesleyan College. Among the younger firms of this period were: Patterson & Hodges, composed of Western Patterson and Robert Hodges, “Bob” as he was universally called: Steed & Wimberly of which Clem P. Steed and Olin J. Wimberly were members; Ross & Anderson, composed of John P. Ross and James L. (“Jimma”) Anderson. There were, also, John L. Hardeman called “Preach,” who became Solicitor General and Judge of the Superior Court; the literary Hugh Vernon Washington; John Walter Robinson; Alex Proudfit afterwards Referee in Bankruptcy; Minter Wimberly the humorist; the genial Claude Estes; Marmaduke G. Bayne, Judge Lyon and some of his numerous partners. These, with the older firms of Lamar & Anderson, Bacon & Rutherford, Hill & Harris and Dessau & Bartlett upheld the honor and extended the fame of the Macon bar. Judge Simmons became Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in 1887 and George W. Gustin was appointed to fill the unexpired term. He retired in 1890 and A. L. Miller, then of Houston, succeeded him, moving to Macon soon afterwards. Judge Miller’s short service as judge was eminently satisfactory and it was greatly regretted when he tendered his resignation in 1892 to become associated with Major Bacon, John C. Rutherford having died as the result of the long strain and his tremendous effort in the Wolfolk trial. Judge Bartlett, “Charlie,” who had made an excellent record as Solicitor General was selected as Miller’s successor, but after only two years he resigned to become Congressman, a post which he held continuously for twenty years. John L. Hardeman was chosen as the next Judge. He, too, resigned in 1893 to become the partner of Judge John I. Hall, who had recently come to Macon as the General Counsel of the reorganized Georgia, Southern & Florida Railway. Judge Hall had been the recognized leader of the Bar of the Flint Circuit and for a time its Judge. He came to Macon from Washington where he had been Assistant Attorney General for the Department of the Interior. The firm of Hall & Hardeman was short lived. On its dissolution Olin J. Wimberly became associated with Judge Hall, the firm of Hall and Wimberly continuing until the sudden death of Mr. Wimberly which occurred one Sunday morning as he sat at his desk in the office. On severing his connection with Mr. Wimberly, Clem P. Steed joined the firm of Ryals & Stone, and when Mr. Stone removed from Macon, the firm of Steed & Ryals continued until 1907 when it was dissolved by the death of Mr. Steed. Solicitor General William H. Felton, Jr., took his seat on the Superior Court bench in 1896 and kept it for nearly twenty years, a dominating personality, big in brain as well as in body, noted for his dispatch of business. For thirty-three years Col. Charles M. Wiley, one of the last Confederate office holders, has been the popular ordinary of Bibb County, having succeeded Judge McManus in 1889. May his faithful service be long continued.


John P. Ross was appointed Judge of the City Court in 1891 following Judge Charles J. Harris. In 1895 he was reappointed for a second four-year term. At the expiration of which he was succeeded by Judge Warren D. Nottingham. Macon suffered most severely from the great panic of the early nineties. The famous creditors bill of J. S. McTighe & Co., et al. vs. Macon Construction Co., No. 100, April Term 1891, Bibb Superior Court, was filed by Hardeman, Davis & Turner. The Construction Company, whose stock had been sold at ten for one, owned the Georgia, Southern & Florida Railroad, the partially completed Macon & Birmingham, and was then constructing the Macon & Atlantic. All these properties were taken charge of by the receiver appointed by Judge Miller and were administered under the McTighe bill. Gustin, Guerry & Hall represented the defendant corporations and the receiver. Judge Charles C. Kibbee, formerly of the Oconee Circuit, who had recently come to Macon from Hawkinsville, was appointed Master in the case, and the well nigh innumerable interventions were referred to him. Almost every firm practicing at the Macon Bar and many noted lawyers from other cities represented some interest in this great case which continued for years to occupy the chief place on the docket of the Superior Court. While the Superior Court was thus engaged, the Federal Court was operating through its receiver the Central R.R. and Bkg. Co. and its subsidiary and leased lines, most of its time being devoted to different phases of this litigation. The East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railway system was also in the hands of receivers. So that every railway running in and out of Macon except the Georgia was operated by a receiver. Many old and well established business houses went down under the storm during this period. The principal business of the lawyers was the drawing of assignments and mortgages, the filing of insolvent traders bills and interventions in receivership cases. The call of the Receiver’s Docket for the taking of orders in these cases was a regular and most important part of the week’s work. Coming to the bar shortly before and during these troublous times were many of the present leaders. Some of those who have passed on and who were active during this period were the Solicitor General Hope Polhill and William Brunson, whose tragic deaths shocked the community; Walter J. Grace, who also died in office, and the lovable Andrew W. Lane, known as “Major.” There were also James H. Blount, Jr., who became a Judge in the Philippines, and while acting as Major Judge Advocate at the port of embarkation during the World War was thrown from his horse and killed; Arthur Dasher, Marmaduke G. Bayne, S. A. Reid, called “Lon,” Tracy Baxter, Col. J. W. Preston, from Jasper, R. V. Hardeman, of Jones, Matt R. Freeman, Ed. A. Cohen, R. E. Starrs, Hubert Estes, Thos. B. West, young Nat Harris, Pope S. Hill, W. D. McNeil and a number of others. Many of the older men already mentioned crossed the divide during this period and nearly all of them have now joined the great silent majority. The Spanish-American War interrupted to some extent the orderly course of events “Inter arma leges silent.” Macon became a great military camp and many of her sons joined the colors. The Bar was well represented. Robert L. Berner, then

of Forsyth, a leading member of the Bar of the Flint Circuit, at one time a prominent candidate for Governor, commanded the Third Georgia Regiment in Cuba. He afterwards became a member of the Macon Bar, and died here. Marion W. Harris was a Major in Ray’s Regiment of Immunes, (the Third U. S. Volunteer Infantry) which was recruited in Macon, Sam B. Hunter was captain of the Macon Volunteers, Walter A. Harris was a Captain in the Third Georgia. Blanton Winship was also a Captain. He became so attached to the service that he accepted a commission in the regular army and has since risen to the rank of Colonel, and was Judge Advocate of the American Expeditionary Forces in France. “Jim” Blount and “Bob” Hodges enlisted as privates. One became a Captain of Philippine Scouts, the other in the Third Georgia. The passage of the National Bankruptcy Act of 1898 revolutionized commercial practice and opened a new field for professional endeavor. Alexander Proudfit was the first Macon Referee, continuing until his death in 1918 when J. N. Talley, the present incumbent, was appointed. The most important bankruptcy proceeding in the Western Division of the Southern District of Georgia was that of R. H. Plant, involving a number of large and important enterprises including the private bank of I. C. Plant’s Son and the First National Bank. Assets of more than a million dollars were administered in this proceeding. We have now passed from the domain of history to the realm of the present. Most of the older generation of lawyers have gone to their reward. The young bar of the beginning of the century are now in middle life and are the leaders of the present day. A large number of young men have taken their places and are rapidly forging ahead, while others, still younger, are year by year stepping into the ranks. With the steady growth of the city the bar has also grown until today it numbers more than a hundred and fifty. The lawyers’s relations to his clients and his practice have changed as the city and its business have grown and become more complex. More and more he is becoming a business adviser. Office practice as distinguished from the practice of the court room has developed. More and more are lawyers specializing in different branches. In the early days the members of the Macon Bar accepted employment in all manner of cases and every variety of professional work. Now every established lawyer has his peculiar field of endeavor. Reference to living members of the bar except in connection with some official position has purposely been omitted. It would be manifestly improper for one member of the bar to dscuss his fellows. It remains only to chronicle the more important events of the last quarter century. Judge Nottingham of the City Court was succeeded by Robert Hodges who had made an excellent record as Solicitor. When in his second term he was given a seat on the Court of Appeals Judge Dupont Guerry was appointed, serving until his untimely death. He was struck and killed by a passing automobile as he was attempting to board a street car in front of his Vineville home. Judge Will Gunn succeeded Judge Guerry. During his second term, April, 1924, he resigned and R. C. Jordan was appointed to the vacancy. In 1907 the Exchange Bank failed and was liquidated through a receivership in the Superior Court. There followed 113

a vast amount of important litigation, both civil and criminal, several assistants. Mr. Erwin, who afterwards removed to New which has only recently been finally terminated. York, where he died recently, is best known from his successful Two of the present members of the Macon Bar have served prosecution of Greene and Gaynor, the Savannah harbor the State as Attorneys General, an office which Judge Clifford contractors, and his recovery of a considerable portion of the Anderson dignified and adorned from 1880 to 1890, Thomas S. millions out of which they had defrauded the Government. Mr. Felder and Warren Grice, the last named moving to Macon Akerman, a son of Amos T. Akerman, Attorney General in recently on the expiration of his term, to become associated President Grant’s cabinet and brother of Charles Akerman of with J. Ellsworth Hall. Mr. Felder narrowly missed an election the Macon Bar, is now a prominent member of the Florida Bar. to the United States Senate being defeated by Thos. W. The abolition of the Justice Courts, those time honored Hardwick in a memorable convention held in Macon after a schools of the young lawyer, and the establishment of the deadlock of long duration. Municipal Court under the Act of 1913 with Augustin Daly as On the death of Solicitor General Walter J. Grace, a vigorous Judge, has been quite an advance in Macon’s judicial situation, and effective officer, H. A. Mathews was appointed to the relieving the City and Superior Courts of small cases and vacancy. He was succeeded by John P. Ross, and by Chas. H. affording speedy justice by a competent tribunal to a large Garrett, the present incumbent. class of litigants. Judge Daly was followed by Judge Hugh After nearly twenty years’ service Judge Felton resigned the Chambers who is now serving his second term. But who of Judgeship of the Superior Court to accept the presidency of the older members of the bar can ever forget Justices W. P. the Central Georgia Power Co. and its allied corporations. N. Carlos and J. H. L. Gerdine and many another justice and their E. Harris filled out the unexpired term but declined to offer for monthly court days? election and was succeeded by Henry A. Mathews, of Fort The embarrassment and taking over of the Commercial Valley, who is now serving his second term. National and Commercial & Savings Banks in the summer of Charges against the official conduct of Judge Emory Speer 1914 resulted in a great mass of litigation in the State and being made in Congress, an investigation was ordered in 1915. Federal Courts in which a large part of the Bar was engaged. Protracted hearings were held by a Committee of the House at More than one issue found its way to the Supreme Court of Macon and Savannah, but on the coming in the committee’s the United States. report the charges were abandoned. The great World War of 1917-18 again interrupted the arts Judge Speer’s health having and avocations of peace. Most of the become impaired and he being near young members of the Bar promptly the age of retirement an Act was entered the training camps and were passed creating an additional Judge given commissions. Many saw active for the Southern District of Georgia. service at home and overseas. Walter W. W. Lambdin, of Waycross, A. Harris, who had been Brigadier received the appointment. He lived General of the Georgia National but a short time. On his death Guard and led the Brigade on the Presiding Justice Beverly D. Evans Mexican Border, was given a like resigned from the Supreme Court to rank in the National Army and went accept the appointment to the to France with the Dixie Division, vacancy. Judge Speer ended his trained at Camp Wheeler, but long judicial career in 1918 and reached there shortly before the Judge Evans continued as the sole Armistice, too late for active service. Judge of the Southern District. The older men and those not While on a week-end visit to his fitted for military service were home in Savannah during the May, almost without exception engaged 1922, term of the court in Macon he in some kind of war work. They Harry Stillwell Edwards, noted author and historian of was suddenly stricken and died in a rendered most valuable assistance the Old South, was admitted to the Bar in 1876. few hours. Judge William H. to the registered men as members Barrett, of Augusta, the present of the Legal Advisory Boards, giving incumbent, was appointed to succeed him. days and even weeks to this irksome task. Orville. A. Park was The most important case tried at Macon during Judge Chairman of the State Central Committee of these boards and Evans’ term of service was the indictment against sixty-four Chas. H. Hall had charge of the work in Bibb County. The defendants charged with conspiracy to rob the American lawyers were active in the Red Cross and Soldiers welfare Railway Express Company then being operated by the organizations. The four minute speakers in the Liberty Government, resulting in the conviction of or pleas of guilty Loans, Red Cross and other drives were largely recruited from by forty-three men. the ranks of the bar. Only two of the United States attorneys for the Southern The dockets of the Superior Court having become District of Georgia have been appointed from the Macon bar, congested and the business of the circuit having increased Marion Erwin and Alexander Akerman though there have been until it was too much for one judge to handle satisfactorily, an 114

Act was passed in 1920 creating an additional judgeship for the Macon Circuit. Malcolm D. Jones was given the appointment and was elected for the full term at the next regular election. The Centennial year of Macon’s history sees a new half million dollar court house and jail in course of erection on the site of the old one of 1870, the foundations and much of the walls of the old being incorporated in the new. The new building will afford ample court rooms for the two divisions of the Superior Court, the City, Municipal and Ordinary’s Courts, and the Juvenile Court, of which Judge Bridges Smith has been judge since its establishment, with offices for all the county officials. A modern jail will take the place of the overcrowded, out-of-date structure on the old court house square, and prisoners will no longer be paraded back and forth to the court house through the public streets. In this new court house backed by the traditions of the first hundred years and encouraged by the memories of the great ones of the past the Macon Bar will soon face the future ready to do its full share in the growth and development of a greater Macon. This sketch of the bench and bar of Macon would be incomplete without some mention of the contribution made by them to professional literature. Oliver H. Prince published two Digests of the Laws of Georgia, in 1822 and 1837, “Little Prince” and “Prince” as they were called. Richard H. Clark was one of the Commissioners who prepared the great Code of 1863 the first attempt to codify the principles of the common law of equity. Judge Clark wrote and largely created the Political Code. Walter B. Hill was one of the Compilers of the Codes of 1873 and 1882, preparing the annotations in both. The Code of 1873 was the first annotated code to be published in America. Mr. Hill was also a frequent contributor to “The Green Bag” and other legal periodicals. In the early volumes of The Federal Reporter the cases tried in the United States Court at Macon were reported by Mr. Hill. Clifford Anderson was one of the three Commissioners appointed under the Act of the Legislature to prepare the Code of 1895. In this Code he continued and enlarged the annotations begun by Mr. Hill. He was assisted in this work by his sons, James L. and Robert L. anderson and Mr. James H. Blount, Jr. Orville A. Park was Editor-in-Chief of “Park’s Annotated Code of 1914,” said to be the most thoroughly annotated code ever published. Most of the work on this Code was done by Harry S. Strozier, Bascom S. Deaver and Charles H. Garrett. Mr. Park also prepared The Georgia Bankers Code, Opinions as General Counsel of the Georgia Bankers Association and “Park’s Annotated Banking Laws of Georgia.” John H. Hines published a Georgia Form Book which was very generally used throughout the state. A revised and enlarged edition was issued by Richard K. Hines, his brother. In 1898 Jas. H. Blount, Jr., prepared another Form Book which was supplied by the state to all the public officers. A. O. Bacon compiled a Digest of the first forty volumes of the Georgia Reports which was published in two volumes. N. E. Harris wrote an Analytical Index and Digest of

Volumes 41 to 61 of the Georgia Reports and a Supplement to the Code of 1873. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1877 he prepared a second Supplement showing the changes made in the Code by the new Constitution. Emory Speer prepared a brief treatise on the “Removal of Causes from State to Federal Court.” His lectures on the Constitution of the Untied States delivered before the Mercer Law School, have also been published. Warren Grice recently published a work on Executors, Administrators and Guardians. Codes of the City of Macon have been prepared by A. O. Bacon, N. E. Harris, R. W. Patterson, Minter Wimberly and Wallace Miller. J. W. Burke & Company were the State Printers during the seventies and for some ten years published the Georgia Reports, Acts and public documents. They also published the Codes and Digests printed during this period. In the domain of general literature the Macon bar has also taken high rank, led by the immortal Sidney Lanier, and Harry Stillwell Edwards, the inimitable story writer. Among Georgia historians Lucian Lamar Knight LL D., F. R. S., the head of the State Department of History and Archives, holds high rank. His “Reminiscences of Famous Georgians” and “Georgia Landmarks, Legends and Memorials” are especially noteworthy. His poems and miscellaneous writings are also of a high order. Oliver H. Prince’s story “The Militia Drill,” published by Judge Longstreet as one of the Georgia Scenes, was stolen by the English novelist, Thomas Hardy, and incorporated almost bodily in his “Trumpet Major.” Major Prince’s son, Oliver H., Jr., wrote a number of humorous sketches published under the title “Woodpile Stories.” Two short stories by Col. John B. Lamar, “Polly Peablossoms’ Wedding: and “The Blacksmith of the Mountain Pass,” Judge Clark said should be published by the newspapers of Georgia at least every ten years, so each rising generation might know and enjoy them. The Reminiscences and Sketches by Judge Richard H. Clark, collected and published in his Memoir by Lollie Belle Wylie, are among the best historical material of the Georgia of seventy-five years ago. Another most valuable historical work is Absolom H. Chappell’s “Miscellanies of Georgia,” especially in his account of the great “Yazoo Fraud” interesting to all Georgians. The recently published Autobiography of N. E. Harris is a distinct contribution to the history of Macon. Warren Grice has written a number of monographs on Georgia History and sketches of her public men. James H. Blount, Jr.’s “American Occupation of the Philippines” is a most important contribution to the subject. Walter B. Hill, LL. D., did some excellent literary work but it is scattered in magazines and periodicals and practically lost. His History of the Supreme Court of Georgia and his Sketches of Judge Bleckley and of L. Q. C. Lamar published in “The Green Bag” are particularly good. “Wit and Humor” published in Bledsoe’s “Review” and “Uncle Tom Without a Cabin” were widely read throughout the country, giving him a national reputation. The collection of addresses by Judge Emory Speer, published under the title “Lincoln, Lee, Grant, and Other Biographical Addresses,” is worthy a place in any library. Robert P. Hall when quite a youth had printed a little volume of sonnets


under the title “Poems of a South Carolinian.” A more ambitious poem “Wenonah, a Legend of the Dakotas” probably would have been published but for his untimely death at the early age of twenty-nine. In the excellent sketch of him by Stephen F. Miller in “The Bench and Bar of Georgia” some of Mr. Hall’s poems have been preserved. The Macon bar has played an important part in the Georgia Bar Association since its organization in 1883. Lewis N. Whittle, Vice-President for Georgia of the American Bar Association, issued the call for the first meeting and was elected the first President. Walter B. Hill was the first Secretary and Treasurer. He gave up the treasureship after one year but continued as Secretary four years until his election to the Presidency. Other presidents from the Macon Bar have been Clifford Anderson, Washington Dessau, A. L. Miller and Orville A. Park. James H. Blount, Jr., was elected Secretary in 1897 but resigned during the year to enter the army in the Spanish-American War. Orville A. Park was appointed to fill the unexpired term and was elected for nineteen consecutive terms until he became President in 1917. Harry S. Strozier was Assistant Secretary for four years and is now serving his fourth year as Secretary. Members of the Macon Bar have been frequent contributors to the programmes of the Association. The addresses delivered and papers read by them published in the annual reports of the Association constitute a large and valuable part of its excellent literature. In the life of Georgia as well as of Macon, and to a considerable degree of the nation as well, the Bar of Macon has occupied no unimportant place and right nobly has it played its part. Surveying the history of the last hundred years we may say with Caesar, and without too great egotism, “magna pars fui.”

INNS, TAVERNS AND HOTELS This subject embraces more than one distinct period; the first has to do with time before the establishment of the first newspaper and even after that time, until the coming of the railroads, with the telegraph, setting up rapid means of travel and communication. Before the newspapers the Town Cryer, with most of the male population of the village, would habitually meet the stage upon its arrival at the Tavern or “Stage House,” which was at that time the stage depot, “to see who come,” to gather the news from the outside world, and to swap happenings with the new comers. Just here the Cryer would take one or possibly a half dozen newspapers brought in by the stage, mount the steps or other point of vantage, and read aloud everything in the paper from the date line to and including the usual advertisements carrying a cut, offering reward for a runaway negro. The sound of the horn and the arrival of the stage was an event indeed. The establishment of “The Georgia Messenger” by Mathews Robinson and Simri Rose in Newtown, on the east side of the Ocmulgee, in 1824, marked the passing of the Town Cryer; but the stage and private conveyance remained the mode of travel until the advent of “railroad cars,” in the late 30’s, stopped the stages in these parts forever. Mr.

Perry Butts, uncle of Admiral Archie Butts, and Mr. Ira Jennings, late of the Warrior District of Bibb County, were the last of the stage drivers. It is proper for the use of a future historian to chronicle just here (1924) nearly one hundred years after the passing of the stages, that the Auto Bus now plies the country roads from centre to centre, equalling in speed and comfort travel by railroad, and that the “Honk of the Bus horn” is heard throughout the land, like the stage horn of old, while the Auto Bus depot at the beginning and end of the journey remains the Hotel, but the Town Cryer is gone, and the arrival of the Bus creates hardly passing notice. The furnishing and heating of the old taverns were simple, but adequate. Wood fireplaces were in all bed rooms; the office and dining room having large fireplaces, andirons for holding the great logs, shovel, tongs, poker and hearth broom hung in the rack to one side of the chimney convenient for ready use; the hearths and face of the fire places were polished daily with “white mud.” The rooms were equipped with a pull connected by wire with a spiral spring attached to a gong located in the office. Each spring numbered with the room number. One pull indicated the guest in a particular room wanted water from the northwest corner of the well (supposed to be cooler than from the several other corners); two pulls meant hot water; three pulls, something else, and so on. This contraption being the forerunner of the modern annunciator. Some hotels used a register in which was recorded the names of the guests, this being a large book as now, but others used individual cards on which the guest wrote his name, after which the card was dated and slipped into a receptacle under the room number of the guest on the gong rack or annunciator, where it remained until the bill was paid and the guest ready for departure. Near the office was a common wash room for the male guests; the long shelf with its bucket and gourd, several bowls (wash pans) a mirror, comb, brush, and on the wall hung roller towels. In the guest rooms were bed, dresser, washstand, a bowl and a tin set painted green or brown. This tin set consisted of a nest of articles without which no bed chamber was complete; a foot tub inverted, on which rested the water receiver, and on top of this was the water carrier full of pure well water for bathing purposes. The wood box was at the side of the open fireplace. Rooms were lighted by tallow dips near which conveniently hung the snuffer; and later they were displaced by lard oil or kerosene lamps. In the closet was a “stew pan” for heating water. No room was regarded as completely furnished that did not have a boot jack, for all men, the fashionable, as well as the hoi polloi wore boots, which at nights were left outside the room door, to be blacked while the owner slept. When the foot tub did not comport to the dignity of the person or when a real bath was wanted, in came the big tub, which would hold about eight well buckets of water, its bottom was round and some thirty inches in diameter, twelve inches deep with a flange around the top about twelve inches wide, the whole looking precisly like a huge inverted hat. In summer this was a joy forever; but in winter, with a roaring fire, the thither side sometimes got hot and an accidental movement to that side upset calculations.


How welcome was the deep toned, mellow dinner bell; yet just why so called is hard to say, for it rang just as sweetly for breakfast and supper as it did for dinner. In the old days all hotels, taverns and inns were run on the American plan. The dining rooms sometimes had long family tables groaning with victuals fit for the gods and meals were served in family style. Sometimes there were several small tables as now accommodating from four to eight guests for special parties, with meals served in individual dishes. After the Civil War revolving tables were popular. The dining table was round, a double decked affair; the lower deck stationary, the upper deck revolving, and on this was placed the victuals. To be served, one had only to revolve the upper deck and around would come the desired viand. Sometimes two diners would undertake to revolve the top at the same time, with frightful consequence. The tableware was good quality; China, sterling silver forks and spoons, and bone or ivory handled steel knives, always sharp, and kept bright by daily polish with brick dust. In summer one servant waved to and fro over the table a fly fan which was either a bough from a tree, preferably peach or a beautiful fan made of peacock feathers. Some dining rooms had a gay, vari-colored paper contraption hinged and suspended from the ceiling. It was manipulated usually by a small boy seated at one end of the long dining room, waving it to and fro by pulling and releasing a string. This later gave place to a mechanical device operating clock-wise, wound and set in the middle of the table whereupon the flies delighted to ride when the tension of its spring was nearly spent. All of the old hotels adjoined or included bar rooms, operated by the management or by an outsider under lease. Here, fancy drinks were concocted, and no Christmas was considered complete when the house did not furnish free egg-nogs, for which there were many recipes. It was at the hotels that young men gathered to sally forth in groups of two to six and make the round of New Year calls on friends and acquaintances. Cake and wine or a buffet luncheon or supper was served at every stop, and late in the day and way in the night, the callers would reach home by divers means and in various conditions. In addition to the bar room, each hotel of course had its barber shop, but usually manned by negro barbers, where one could get a haircut (shingle), shave, shampoo, boot and shoe shine and bath, but the art went no further in those days. And what social centers the old taverns and hotels became; what great occasions they were, when the crops were made and cotton was moving. The rich planters came to

town with their families and made the hotels their home. What culture and refinement! What elegant entertainment! What beauty and chivalry graced every scene! “Could nature’s bounty satisfy the breast, The sons of the old South were surely blest.� How could these be Halcyon days when new electric bells and telephones, connect every room with the office for intercommunication within the hotel as well as with the world outside? Steam heat, electric lights and fans, individual bath tubs, hot and cold water, screened windows throughout, but no boot to be seen, and the best carpenter would have to inquire before he could made a boot jack, and still the world cries for more. What is next, the future historian may chronicle. Verily there is no new thing under the sun; latter day politicians enacted laws, requiring clean sheets and towels in Hotels, Inns and Taverns, and regulating fares of one sort and another through commissions and regulatory bodies. The early digests of the laws of Georgia, dating from even before the Revolution, are full of regulatory acts requiring keepers of Hotels, Inns and Taverns to furnish not only clean sheets, bedding and clean towels, but also to provide comfortable quarters for horse and servant, all being covered by legal fees, the same acts covering charges for turn pike roads, toll bridges and ferries. Fort Hawkins was built by order of President Jeffferson in 1806 and garrisoned by troops from Fort Wilkinson. In 1807 with this protection to settlers against the Indians, a sprightly settlement arose, as if by magic, between the Fort and the


Ocmulgee and between what is now known as the Clinton road and the Milledgeville road, on the eastern side of the river, the village being called Fort Hawkins. The first house was erected by a Mr. Lyman, hailing from Milledgeville and was occupied as a store and trading post. The place grew rapidly, and in 1818 its name was changed to Newtown, and it was so known and called locally, but was still known abroad as Fort Hawkins. About this time Charles Bulloch and Nicholas Wells erected a double log cabin which they ran under the name of Newtown Tavern. This was the first hotel in these parts. Its location is fixed near the junction of Clinton and Main Streets, East Macon. The first celebration in the village of Newtown was on July 4th, 1823. The participants met at the Fort and marched to Newtown Tavern where a thirteen-yearold boy, Richard T. Marks, devil in “The Georgia Messenger” office, delivered the address; a sumptuous dinner served to the crowd by the proprietors. Another hotel was built in Newtown about 1821 at the corner of Main and Flanders Streets, nearly opposite the present office of the Bibb Manufacturing Company. The hotel was operated by Robert Coleman whose descendants are honored citizens of Macon to this date. On December 9th, 1822, the Legislature created the County of Bibb; and on the 22nd of the same month, thirteen days later, an act was approved to lay off the town of Macon on the west bank of the Ocmulgee. Before the survey in 1823, only one house was standing on the west side of the river, and that was occupied by E. C. Beard (the first Sheriff of Bibb County), who was the ferryman and lived close on the bluff above the ferry landing, the foot of First Street. Thomas Tatum, in 1823, built a four room log cabin with weather boarded sides, and operated it as an Inn. This building stood at the corner of what is now First and Ocmulgee (Wharf) Streets. In 1824 Macon was incorporated and commissioners took charge. That year a large wooden structure was erected on the west side of Mulberry Street below Fourth Street (now Broadway). This house was built by Joel Ruskin and leased by Mr. George Stovall. Mr. Stovall named the hostelry the “Macon Hotel,” and it was here, on March 30, 1825, that the Marquis De (General) LaFayette was welcomed and entertained during his brief stay. Mine host Stovall did himself and his house proud in an elaborate luncheon followed by the first grand ball given in these parts, the General departing early after the music began. After the visit of General LaFayette the name Macon Hotel was changed to “LaFayette Hotel; at the expiration of Mr. Stovall’s lease the hotel was run by Mr. Joel Ruskin, the builder, followed by Mr. Timothy Bruen and others, and continued to be one of Macon’s leading hotels for a third of a century. In the early days, before Washington Hall and Beasley’s Tavern were built, the Macon (or LaFayette) Hotel and the Mansion House were the depots of the stage lines. In the late ‘50s the name LaFayette Hotel was changed to “City Hotel.” In 1861 a company of ten patriotic citizens purchased the old building and turned it over to the Ladies’ Soldiers’ Relief Society, officered by Mrs. Washington Poe, President; Mrs. Thomas Hardeman, Vice-President; Mrs. M. E. Ross, Secretary; Miss Julia Wrigley, Treasurer; they converted it into a hospital and hotel for

disabled and wounded Confederate soldiers returning from the front and named it “The Wayside (Inn) Home.” Under the touch of these noble women, the yards and gardens thereabouts became a bower of roses and beautiful flowers. Up to and including 1865, no less than six thousand wounded and maimed soldiers were sheltered and nursed back to health and strength in these consecrated walls, and every State in the Confederacy from Maryland to Texas was first and last represented. The old Macon Hotel through its several changes in name finally made way for the county jail, which together with the Dinkler Hotel, now the Central City Hotel, occupied its site. In September, 1824, a new hotel was finished on the southeast corner of Mulberry and Fourth Streets (now Broadway). This building was erected by S. F. Slatter, of Clinton, Georgia, and was named “The Mansion House”. It was first operated by William Bivins and later by Bulloch and Wells, who built the first hotel in Newtown. (There are several references to this hotel as the “Manor House”, but no definite information can be procured about this hotel under such name, and the names of the proprietors are not mentioned). The first general celebration after Macon was laid off was held on July 4th, 1825. A grand parade was staged, headed by the military, public officials, and citizens generally, who marched to the martial strains of the fife and drum. The procession terminated at the Mansion House where the companies were dined, Judge Christopher B. Strong acting as toastmaster. The Central Hotel was built on the south corner of Mulberry and Third Streets and was completed in 1833. The site was made available by fire having destroyed the two blocks between Third and Fourth (Broadway) Streets on December 27th, 1831. Two years prior to this time a fishpond occupied the site.) The Central Hotel enjoyed the distinction of being the first hotel in Macon to be built of brick, and when completed, it was the largest hotel in the State. The first proprietor was Williams and Bond, afterwards William B. Parker, followed by H. A. Ward, Buford and Williams, and finally Sterling Lanier (grandfather of Sidney Lanier, the poet), famous throughout the land as a hotel proprietor. In its palmiest days the Central Hotel ranked with the finest hotels in the South, and naturally was the resort of the elite of this community. An old register used in this hotel in its initial year, 1833, was recently discovered (1924). It contains names of many of the forebears of some of the present residents of this county. Among other appear the names Henry G. Lamar and John B. Lamar. In the late ‘30s a fire totally destroyed this hotel, and on the site a new hotel was built which became the Floyd House. This building on the Third Street side extended to Wall Street Alley. After the destruction of the Central Hotel the land thereabout was filled in raising the level to its present grade, which is about twelve feet higher than the ground floor of the old Central Hotel. When the Floyd House was completed, it immediately became a fashionable family hotel and continued to enjoy the popularity of its predecessor. Butler says in his “History of Macon”, that in 1844 the Honorable Henry Clay (“He of Ashland” Kentucky) was entertained at the Central Hotel. This is probably an error as


the Central Hotel was destroyed in the late 30’s, and the Floyd House was reared on its ashes. Other authorities state that Mr. Clay was entertained in 1844 at the Floyd House. Mr. Clay at this time was making a tour of the South; Butler says that he arrived on a train from Forsyth and was carried to the hotel where he received many admirers, and after delivering a speech of an hour and half, was “introduced to many ladies, gents and loco foco, as well as Whigs”. On the 8th day of April, 1848, the first magnetic telegraph office in Macon was established in the Floyd House. It was located on the second floor, corner of Third Street and Wall Street Alley. On March 12th, 1849, Ex-President James K. Polk, Mrs. Rucker, Mrs. Hayes, Mrs. Walker, and others of his party, were royally entertained at the Floyd House. A spectacular ball was given in honor of the eminent guest and his party. On the following day, Mr. Polk addressed a large gathering of people from the hotel balcony, being introduced by the Honorable A. H. Chappell. In 1850, the Floyd House was partially destroyed by fire; the damage was repaired, and during the Civil War, it was used by the Confederate Government as a commissary storage place and hospital. The first floor, Mulberry Street corner, was used by officers in charge, the upstairs used for the wounded and sick. A terrific gale, in 1870, blew down the Mulberry Street end of the building, which was replaced by brick business buildings. The Wall Street alley end of the old Floyd House, facing on Third Street, remained standing and was used for various purposes until 1920 when it was razed to make room for the store buildings now standing on that ground. Washington Hall Hotel was completed in February, 1827, and was located on the south corner of Mulberry and Second Streets. It was a large wooden building. At that time this corner was the most prominent in the city, as it was the junction of the Forsyth Road (Mulberry Street) and the Federal Road (Cotton Avenue, College Street and the Columbus Road). This hotel and Beasley’s Tavern were the stage stations for the stage lines from New York to New Orleans. The first proprietors of this hotel were Moreland and Townsend followed by Mustian and Mott, Peter Williams, and Thomas Macon. It was during the proprietorship of Moreland and Townsend in 1831 that Mrs. Annie Royall, author of the “Black Book, or Southern Travels, in three or more volumes”, stopped during her brief stay in the city. She was very much pleased with “Mr. Tawnsen” as a landlord, and, while in Macon, did not over-exercise her eagle eye to keep the insolent in their places. Let it be said to the credit of the worthy host that he obtained praises from her pen and escaped the vitriolic abuse she was wont to heap upon any offending person. Messrs. Mustian and Mott were the owners of one of the stage lines, and Mrs. Royall says that the other belonged to “one Knox” for whom Knoxville, Georgia, was named (as she says) and for whom the amiably disposed lady had the highest regard. She pays her respect to Knox and his Knoxville by saying, that when she visited it, there were only two houses in the town, one of which was a hotel and the other a barn

(“which had been burned down”). She also paid her respects to Milledgeville, the capital of Georgia, and to every person therein, especially to the Governor (Wilson Lumpkin), for not meeting her with his staff, Georgia in particular for not having a Lieutenant-Governor to function during the absence of the Governor; and the State House officers who, she says, were all asleep with their feet upon the desks. She was loud in her praises of the State Penitentiary and Insane Asylum, and the inmates thereof, and advised that the convicts and State House officers change places. Upon leaving Macon, Mrs. Royall said, “We left Macon, the most flourishing, wealthy and polite town of its age in the United States.” Washington Hall was noted from one end of the stage line to the other, and was a popular resort with the sporting element. Large games of chance are frequently referred to and it was claimed with confidence that a fair and square game of faro or keno, could be had here by any one at any time with the stakes unlimited. On September 22nd, about 1855, the entire Mulberry Street front between Second and Third, including Washington Hall, was destroyed by fire. In 1856, was erected on its site a new brick building which is known to this day as Washington Block and used as an office building with stores on the ground floor. During April, 1827, a new hotel was finished on the north corner of Walnut and First Streets, and was named the Yellow House. This building was built and operated by Judge E. E. Brown, who later owned and operated the Brown House. The Yellow House was patronized by the elite, and was an up-todate hostelry in its every appointment. In the early days of Macon, a stage relay station was built on the north corner of what is now Orange and Forsyth Streets. It was here that the stage horses were changed and stabled, and materials and supplies, incident to the operation of the stage lines, were kept. The convenience of this situation called for a new hotel, known as Beasley’s Tavern, and sometimes called Pealicker Hotel, to be erected immediately across Forsyth Street on what was known in later years as the John Hartz corner. In fact part of Beasley’s Tavern was still standing in 1924 when it was razed to make room for a modern structure. The stage line from New York to New Orleans entered Macon following the Clinton Road, crossing the river at Fifth Street to Mulberry by way of the old Macon Hotel, the Mansion House, and Washington Hall, up Cotton Avenue and Forsyth Street to the relay station and Beasley’s Tavern, and thence out College and the Columbus Road. Beasley’s Tavern bore a sign reading,“Entertainment for Man and Beast”, and it was here that through travel in both directions stopped to `stretch and satisfy the inner man while fresh horses were being hitched preparatory to again taking the road. With the advent of railroads and the passing of the stage, Beasley’s Tavern ceased to entertain man and beast, and was used for a while in connection with the operation of the Macon and Western Railroad now the Atlanta Division of the Central of Georgia Railroad, and in later years as a dwelling and store. With the passing of this old building in 1924, the last vestige of the old Inn or Tavern was gone.


In 1841, the Georgia Legislature, chartered a Macon company, known as the Lanier House Company; the charter thus granted is one of the few perpetual charters now in existence. This charter was drawn by Robert Lanier, the father of Sidney Lanier, Macon’s poet; the company taking its name from Robert Lanier. When the sum paid in by the stockholders reached $170,000.00, the building was commenced, and opened for business on June 12, 1850. The first officers of the company were Charles Campbell, president; Henry L. Jewett, Sr., secretary and treasurer; J. W. Boardman, William B. Johnson and Thomas F. Wood, directors. On April 20, 1854, Ex-President Millard Fillmore and party were guests of Macon, and were royally entertained at the Lanier House. As usual on such occasions, there was much speech-making, followed by the President’s ball, given in honor of the distinguished visitor and his company. In the late fifties, Macon had reached such importance that need was felt for much larger hotel accommodations, and to the Lanier Hotel was added another story with sixty feet additional frontage, the city granting the closure of the alley, connecting Mulberry and the cross alley. These additions increased the number of rooms by forty-eight, thirty of which were large for accommodation of families, two ground floors being fitted out with barber shops, bath rooms; and two stores. These improvements were completed in 1859. In the following year, Hotel Lanier saw many stirring scenes. It was here that the Honorable Stephen A. Douglas, Democratic nominee for the presidency (Charleston Convention) and his wife, accompanied by the Honorable Alexander H. Stephens, were entertained. The popularity of the guests was such that continuous demands were made for introductions, and they were forced to present themselves on the hotel balcony where they addressed the throng. Later, both Mr. Douglas and Mr. Stephens addressed an immense audience from the balcony of the old Union Depot, situated on the east corner of Broadway and Plum Streets. In 1860, on account of excessive taxation, the value of stock in the Lanier Hotel Company was reduced to $30,000 par. In 1863, a new bond issue was floated, and, with the proceeds an addition was made. These bonds were retired in 1886 and a new bond issue authorized; and with these funds the house was remodeled. There was some litigation growing out of this last bond issue. The minority stockholders sought to forfeit the charter and vitiate the bonds, but the Supreme Court upheld the charter and declared the issue legal. In 1865, General Wilson, of the Federal Army, captured the city and made the Lanier House his headquarters. After establishing himself he utilized for office space the headquarters of General Howell Cobb on the opposite side of the street. While General Wilson had his headquarters at the Lanier, Captain S. Frank Warren was its proprietor, hence he became host to President Jefferson Davis, who spent the night within its walls as a prisoner of war. Mr. Davis occupied a rear corner room, third floor over-looking the alley. In this room a rope had been placed and conveniently located in the alley beneath a carriage was in waiting. When Mr. Davis was informed of the

plan for his rescue he promptly vetoed it. From the time it was first built the Lanier Hotel was the resort of the well-to-do; wealthy planters resided there for long periods after disposing of their cotton and many used the hotel as residence. This hotel has always been, and still is, one of the prominent hotels of the city. In 1892, General James B. Weaver, populist candidate for presidency, accompanied by Mrs. Mary Allen Lease, of the State of Kansas, a noted female political exhorter, easily ranking with the celebrated Sockless Jere Simpson of the Sunflower State, were guests of the Lanier. Upon appearing on the balcony, they received a shower of foodstuffs entirely out of keeping with such occasion, the memory of which still lingers with the older folks in Macon. The Brown House was built in 1854 by E. E. Brown and, from its completion, enjoyed a large patronage. It was situated on the north corner of then Fourth Street, now Broadway, and Plum Street, immediately across Broadway from the old Union Depot, which was also completed about the same time. On January 6, 1857, an entertainment of large proportion, followed by a ball, was given in honor of a delegation of Memphis railroad officials returning from Savannah and Charleston where the Memphis and Charleston railroad was set afoot. The occasion of this entertainment was the routing of the Memphis and Charleston railroad via Macon. The actual work on this road was begun at Memphis, building operations ceased at Chattanooga, Tenn. This hotel for years was operated by Captain E. E. Brown and his son, Billy (William F. Brown). It was enlarged after the Civil War. On Sunday morning, April 21, 1878, it was badly damaged by a fire but was rebuilt and reopened the same year. In 1880, Captain E. E. Brown sold the Brown House to George Lounberg of Connecticut, reserving for himself the portion facing on Broadway, now known as the “Edgerton Hotel,” which is still owned and operated by his daughters, Mrs. Helen Lane and Miss Josette Brown. For years in appointments, furnishings and service, it ranked at the top. Many pleasant memories cluster around this old hostelry and numerous anecdotes are related on proprietors and guests alike. On one occasion, a certain gentleman and his wife from Boston registered for a season. The wife undertook to revolutionize things in general and to ingraft Boston ideas and customs in the operation of the hotel in particular. To this end she had daily interviews with the proprietor, until her persistence began to wear on his nerves. This situation had attracted the general attention of guests and loungers, who amused themselves, discussing this phase from its several angles. One morning the proprietor started across the hotel lobby, and at that moment, the persistent Boston reformer, emerged from the dining room and started in pursuit. All eyes were turned upon the pair. She called, “Mr.——”, and was heard to say something with reference to “Boston cooking”. He turned with perfect suavity, gracefully bowed and said, “Madam, how on earth do you expect me to have my meals cooked in Boston and served in Macon?” It is said that he was never thereafter annoyed. On an occasion when a transfer from one proprietor to another was taking place, the outgoing proprietor, feeling a


special interest in all of the hotel help, undertook to have the new proprietor take over the entire force without change. He introduced the new proprietor to each and every employee, invariably telling what good help the individual was and adding, “I shall be pleased should you avail yourself of his or her services”. This continued throughout the run of employes, saving the clerk, who was the last to be introduced. With this individual the old proprietor was fulsome in his praise. Through all the ordeal the new proprietor had not committed himself in any way, but finding that at last it was his cue, he replied, “I think well of retaining all of your help; and shall be glad to do so provided you make my friend, John Williams, your cashier.” To which the old proprietor thoughtedly replied, “Why, I don’t know John Williams.” “No, and neither do I know any of these folks you are telling me about.” On August 22, 1921, at 1:30 A.M., an explosion occurred in the cellar of the Brunner Drug Company, occupying one of the storerooms on the ground floor of the Brown House property. This explosion wrecked the entire interior of the building. Fire quickly followed, and in a very few minutes the entire building was a seething mass of flames. So fast did the flames spread that some of the guests were unable to make escape by stairways or elevators. Many jumped from windows to nearby poles and others, by leaping to the sidewalks below, escaped the fire but suffered injuries. Six persons lost their lives in this fire. Among the dead were John Leon Collins, Rentz, Ga.; T. H. Popes, Pineview, Ga.; Henry Swansberg, Atlanta, Ga.; J. K. Hayes, South Carolina, and Henry Turnipseed. Ten persons were carried to the Macon Hospital with minor bruises and burns and quite a number were less seriously injured. In 1922, the old walls were razed by Murphy, Taylor and Ellis, and the new hotel was erected on the same site, the building being completed in 1923 and opened under the name of Hotel Southland, the proprietor being A. E. Weems. Mention is here made for the purpose of record, of a partial list of the smaller hotels, each of which in its day and generation contributed its share toward providing food and shelter for transient guests as well as for boarders. Granite Hall, operated by Major B. F. Dense, and a wide reputation it had, the place was situated on Mulberry Street immediately facing the Lanier House, and across the alley from the Casualty Company building. It was destroyed by fire about 1855 along with the Washington Hotel and the rest of the block facing on Mulberry Street from the corner of Second Street to the alley. The Flint House erected in 1857 by Thomas H. Flint and located on First Street just across from fire headquarters, “Agony Hall” was the appellation bestowed upon it by some of its friends, the printers and floaters who made it their home. The Stubblefield House on Mulberry Street just next to the Grand Theater building, erected by William Stubblefield in 1858 and operated by Mark Isaacs, Mrs. T. M. Butner, of Jackson, Ga., Mrs. S. L. Whitehurst, Mrs. A. J. Sparks and others. The Isaacs House on Cherry Street below where now stands the Union Dry Goods Company building. E. Isaacs was its proprietor and a popular place it was just following the Civil War. The Spottswood Hotel on Broadway near the corner of

Poplar Street. This place was named for a noted hotel of that time in Virginia. It was opened by the Byingtons (father and son) of Fort Valley, Ga. After the death of George W. Byington the name was changed to Byington Hotel. The Planters Hotel, built by W. A. Goodall, situated on Cherry Street just across the alley from the present Macon Telegraph building. In the year 1866 the Planters was under the management of Major B. F. Dense, who reputation as a hotel man extended far and wide. The National Hotel, located on the west side of Broadway between Poplar Street and the alley next to the John Ingalls corner. It was operated in 1878 by E. C. Corbett. In the year 1888, the Park Hotel was built by Thomas Guernsey. This building fronted on First Street and was situated on the corner of the alley where now stands the City Auditorium; from its completion to 1913 it was operated by a number of proprietors. When excavating preparatory to the erection of the new auditorium, the northerly wall of the hotel collapsed, due to the incessant rains and the insecure shoring. The damage to the hotel property was of such a nature the Auditorium Commission wisely purchased the whole hotel property, enlarged the plans and included the whole of the hotel site in the present auditorium building. The Plaza Hotel, built in 1905 by Frank Turpin and located on southwest side of Mulberry Street about half the distance from the alley and Third Street, a few doors below the Casualty building. The Elberta Hotel built by Ben L. Jones on the west corner of Plum and Third Streets. In 1920 the name was changed to Phoenix Hotel. The Capitol Hotel on southwest side of Plum Street, between Second and Third above the alley. In 1911, Leon S. Dure completed the building of a brick hotel on the eastern corner of Mulberry and Broadway and leased the building for a term of years to Kinney O. Williams, who operated the place under the name of the Williams House; something over one year after its opening the building was destroyed by fire. Mr. Dure rebuilt the hotel completing it in 1914, when it opened for business the sixth day of October under the name of Hotel Macon, Louis Rossignol, proprietor. This hotel stands on the site of the old Mansion House (Manor House). Another hotel was built in 1911 by Calder B. Willingham. It was located on the south corner of Broadway and Mulberry Street immediately across from the Hotel Macon and fronting on Broadway. This building was leased to Louis J. Dinkler, who opened it for business under the name of Hotel Dinkler. It was so operated until 1921 when it was taken over by W. J. and F. P. Powell. In 1923 T. W. Hooks took over the property, changed the name to Central Hotel, and it is now so known. During the year 1920, Bruno Bukofzer completed the erection of a building in the north corner of Cherry and Fifth Streets immediately across from the Terminal Station, and opened for business as the Terminal Hotel. This hotel is now under the direction of Ed G. Jacobs. Another hotel was built on the same side of Cherry Street as the Terminal Hotel and located between it and the alley, this place being known as the Reid Hotel. Later H. Gordon, the


owner, remodeled and changed the place, its name then became The Frances Hotel and is operated by A. E. Weems. The Hotel Dempsey is strictly a community enterprise. For several years the need of a large, well appointed, thoroughly modern hotel had been realized, but nothing definite was done to secure a hotel until 1911 when through the Chamber of Commerce a large committee of leading business men was organized to undertake the building of such a hotel,. While credit is due to a large number of citizens who gave unselfishly of their time and energy to the promotion of the enterprise, and to the citizens of Macon who subscribed for the stock in the company realizing at the time that their subscriptions were equivalent to donations from which they could never expect a return, the men to whom the principal credit for the hotel is due are: R. F. Burden, the chairman of the committee, who raised the funds and the president of the Hotel Company, R. J. Taylor, through whose efforts the enterprise was financed; Orville A. Park, whose untiring service was of inestimable value to the successful conclusion of the enterprise; and especially to N. M. Block, chairman of the building committee and president of the operating company who took over the bonds and furnished most of the capital. R. L. McKenney, through The Macon News, worked year in and year out, for a new hotel and was a member of the committee which raised the first $100,000.00. The committee appointed by the Chamber of Commerce secured an option on the property on the north corner of Third and Cherry Streets and set to work to secure subscriptions to the capital stock of the corporation which was to erect the hotel. Through their efforts subscriptions amounting to $200,000.00 were secured. Some of the subscribers, however, contended that there was a departure from the original plan under which the subscriptions were secured and repudiated the subscriptions. The amount collected from the subscribers was around $175,000.00. The Midland City Hotel Company was chartered and the following officers were elected: R. F. Burden, President; R. J. Taylor, Vice President; R. L. McKenney, Secretary, and Chas. B. Lewis, Treasurer. Mr. McKenney after a brief service as Secretary was succeeded by H. B. Herminger, Jr. The company leased the Dempsey property from Mrs. Lillian L. Dempsey, for fifty years agreeing to pay a rental of $10,000.00 per year. Afterwards some additional property was also leased and the original lease was extended to seventy-five years. The building was designed by W. L. Stoddard an architect of New York city who had wide experience in the planning and construction of hotels. It was built by the Gray Wimmer Construction Company of St. Louis, Mo. The cost of the property was approximately $500,000.00. When the hotel was nearing completion, the company undertook to secure a satisfactory lease. Failing in this, a company was organized among the stockholders of the Midland City Hotel Company, each stockholder being given the right to subscribe for his pro rata share of the stock in the new company. This company was called the Hotel Dempsey Company and N. M. Block was elected president. The Hotel Dempsey Company furnished and equipped the

hotel at a cost of some $150,000.00 and has operated it since its completion. For a city of Macon’s class it is regarded as one of the very best in the entire company.

LITERARY MACON Let none assume that the stars in her zodiac include all of Macon’s literati, for many there are, who, through the channels of oratory, the halls of her colleges, contributions to the press, enthusiastic support of literary clubs add brilliance to the sky and sustain that atmosphere of culture, which, from days of yore, has characterized the Central City of Georgia. Upon these pages are listed authors of published books, stories, poems, and magazine articles, with mention of a few well known writers, whose work has not been placed in book form. Wherever dates of nativity have been supplied they appear, but in some instances it has not been possible to obtain dates and names of publications in time for this compilation. If any authors have been omitted, information will be gladly received and used in any future edition. ANDREWS, ELIZA FRANCES b. Haywood, Washington, Wilkes County, Ga., 1840. Member faculty Wesleyan College thirteen years. Author of amazing versatility. At one time staff correspondent for Augusta Chronicle. Began writing under nom de plume Elzey Hay, 1865, letters to New York World, concerning affairs in the South. Was first to make known Mrs. Miller’s part in invention of cotton gin through communication to Scientific American in 1870. Her poem “A Memorial Day Ode” was read in court by order of a judge and resulted in favorable verdict for defendant, a Confederate veteran. Author books “A Family Secret,” “A Mere Adventurer,” Prince Hal,” J. P. Lippincott and Company, “The War Time Journal of a Georgia Girl,” D. Appleton and Company. “Botany All the Year Round,” A Practical Course in Botany,” American Book Company. Her serials, short stories, comic dialect stories, scientific articles, too many to mention, have been published by Detroit Free Press, The Aurora, Illustrated Youth and Age, Burlington Hawk-Eye, The Century, Cosmopolitan, St. Nicholas, The Nation, The Arena, Scientific Monthly, Scientific American, Annals of Hygiene, New England Journal of Education, Garden and Forest, American Botanist, Guide to Nature, American Forestry, The Historical Gazette, Science (organ of American Association for Advancement of Science), International Socialist Review, Torreya (Torrey Botanical Club, New York), and for six years regularly in the Chautauquan. Since 1901 her work has been mostly scientific. ANDERSON, JUDGE CLIFFORD, b. Nattaway County, Va., March 23, 1833, d. Macon, Ga., December 19, 1899. One of Macon’s notable men. Member of the commission which compiled the Georgia, Ga., 1848. BABER, DR. AMBROSE. b. 1783, d. 1864. Member State Senate 1826 to 1836. President first bank in Macon. Originator of plan for building Central of Georgia Railroad, and put the bill through Legislature. Made first movement toward a public library in Macon. Writer of verse and public speaker. BABER, MRS. MARY. Frequent writer for papers and


magazines, 1846 to 1894. A linguist, translated many stories, one serial “The Leper of Aoste,” published in Southern Literary Gazette, Athens, Ga. 1848. BACON, SENATOR A.O., b. Liberty county, Ga., 1839, d. Washington, D. C., 1914. United States Senator. Noted parliamentarian. Volume of his speeches in United States Senate is in Georgia State Library. Compiled 1867, “Digest of Georgia Reports,” volumes twenty-one to thirty, inclusive. BACON, JULIA A. Author several novels, “Broken Links,” “The Phantom Wife,” and numerous stories and poems. One publication called “Looking for the Fairies, and Other Poems.” BANKS, MARY ROSS, b. 1846, d. 1910. Author “Bright Days on the Old Plantation.” Writer for several newspapers in Washington City. BARDEN, AGNES. Author Text Books, a First Reader and a Problem Book. BASSETT, B. B., Member faculty of Wesleyan College. A. B., M, M., L. I. B., Ph. D. Author “Lyrics of Leisure,” 1915; “Jurisdiction of Teacher and School Board, A Case and Comment,” “The Civic Contact of the Course of Study,” Part I of Seventeenth Year Book of the Society for Study of Education.” “Education for Citizenship in the United States,” Monograph, State Historical Society, Iowa, “State Control of the Child,” Master’s Thesis, Archives State University, Iowa. “The Civic Instruction of the American Electorate,” Doctor’s Thesis, Archives Iowa State University School of Education. BATTLE, DR. ARCHIBALD, J., b. 1826, d. 1907. Noted educator. Professor and president of six colleges before becoming president of Mercer University, 1871. A master of Belle Lettres, an acute meta-physician. His book, “The Human Will,” is a standard. BAYNE, CHARLES J. Associate editor of The Macon News, who was born in Milledgeville, served on the staff of leading newspapers in Washington, Baltimore and New York. For several years he was on the lecture platform. His poems contributed to various magazines, were collected and published under the title of “Perdita and Other Poems.” BERND, AARON, b. 1894. Soldier in World War, and young writer with a live-wire future. Authored “A Makeup that Grew,” Motion Picture Magazine, “And She Was a Viking’s Daughter,” Photoplay. Sketches, “Flossie’s Fearful Fourth,” “Music Hath Qualms.” “Ici on Parle Francais.” Poems. “A Pastoral,” “To a Copy of La Vie Parisienne.” Stories, “Watchman, What of the Goat?”, “A Tip on the Market,” American Legion Weekly. Article, “Macon Urbs Futura,” The Georgia Cracker. BLAND, CLARA OPHELIA. Well known Macon writer. Author books of poems “Songs From the Capitol,” The Gorham Press, Boston, 1906, “The Hero of Johnstown and Other Stories.” The Keyohoro Press, Newport, N. Y., 1909, two poems, “To Janet” and “Mama Is It Tomorroy,” published in Excelsior Recitations, booklet of poems, “Songs From the Southland,” J. W. Burke Company, 1922. Author also songs, “The Choir Invisible,” F. B. Haviland Co., New York, 1911, “Love’s Cherished Harp,” St. Louis. Contributor to The Macon News. The Macon Telegraph, Chicago Chronicle, Our Country, The Taylor Trotwood Magazine, The Watchman of Boston, Southern Churchman, The Living Church.

BLACKSHEAR, MARY BABER. Writer under pen name for numerous papers and magazines, besides The Physical Culture magazine, The Southern Sunbeam, The Legionaire of Texas. BLACKSHEAR, CHARLES COTTON. Lecturer and distinguished writer of Scientific works. One book is entitled “Dravidian Art.” BLACKSHEAR, MRS. J. W. Student at Montpelier Springs eighteen years, writer short stories under nom de plume. BOIFEUILLET, JOHN THEODORE, b. Macon, Ga., 1859. A fixed star in our firmament of writers. A member of staff of The Macon News, Macon Telegraph, and now The Atlanta Journal, his sketches of men and events have for years formed an important and interesting part in the historical literature of the state. His public record forms part of Macon’s history. Representative from Bibb county in Georgia legislature eight years, part of time speaker pro tem. Clerk of the House twenty years. Colonel on staff of Gov. Atkinson, life trustee Georgia School for Deaf, appointed by Governor Northern: private secretary to Senator A. O. Bacon seven years; secretary U. S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; special attache at American Embassy, London, England, two years during World War; state fuel distributor in coal strike and famine 1922: member Railroad Commission of Georgia, now serving six year term. An A. B. graduate of Mercer University; received honorary degree of LL. D. from his alma mater in 1923. BLOUNT, JAMES H. JR. Author Georgia Form Book. BONNELL, REV. J. M., b. Bucks County, Pa., 1820, d. Macon 1871. President Wesleyan College fifteen years, not consecutively. A musician. Wrote and composed music for several hymns. Compiled a hymn book for Southern Methodist publishing house, in which he made transpositions from minor to major scales. Author, “Bonnell’s Manual,” grammar and rhetoric combined. BOYKIN, REV. SAMUEL, b. Columbus, Ga., 1829, d. 1899. Owner and editor The Christian Index, 1860-65. Owner and editor “The Child’s Delight,” editor “Kind Words” many years. Writer numerous serial stories, articles for magazines and papers. Author “Memoirs of Hon. Howell Cobb.” BOYKIN, LAURETTE NISBET. Author “Annals of An Invertebrate,” a strangely interesting book; pamphlet, “Recollections of Sidney Lanier,” Poem, “ A Dear Diablesse.” BURKE, REV. J. W. Author “Life of Robert Emmet,” and an Autobiography. A prominent Methodist minister. Established the J. W. Burke Printing Company, one of the landmarks of the city. BURKE, THOMAS A. Editor “Boys’ and Girls’ Weekly.” BUTLER, JOHN C. One of Macon’s early citizens. His “History of Macon,” published in 1879, made it possible for this one to be complete. John C. Butler CASSELS, REV. S. J. Second


pastor First Presbyterian church, an author but cannot find title of his works. CASTLEN, EPPIE BOWDRE, b. Macon, Ga., 1840, d. San Francisco, Cal., 1918. Author of book of poems entitled “Autumn Dreams.” CALLAWAY, JAMES, b. Washington, Wilkes county, Ga., 1847, d. Baltimore, Md., (John Hopkins) 1920. In the memory of our city he will always shine as a beacon, who, from his column in The Macon Telegraph, signaled the truth about the history of the South and its people. Through his indefatigable effort many facts were brought to light. By the sword of his pen many errors died. CALLAWAY, REV. T. W. Built up the Tabernacle Baptist church of Macon. Many years its pastor. Now pastor of First Baptist Tabernacle, Chattanooga, Tenn. Author “Romanism Versus Americanism,” published 1923. CHAPPELL, ABSALOM, H. b. Hancock county, 1801. d. Columbus, Ga., 1878. Lived in Macon till 1857. Member Twenty-eighth U. S. Congress 1845. Member of the Constitutional Convention. State Senator. Appointed by Gov. Gilmer on Committee to prepare digest on financial system and taxes for Georgia. Gifted and extensive, writer, Author “Miscellanies of Georgia, Historical, Biographical, Descriptive.” CLARK, GEORGE H. Author “Sidney Lanier” and a book of poems. CLARK, REV. J. O. A., b. 1826, Savannah, Ga., d. 1894, Macon, Ga. Graduated Boston Latin School, Brown University, Providence, R. I., student Yale. Representative to Ecumenical Conferences London., 1878-84. Author “Elijah Vindicated,” “What the Old Have Done,” “Esther,” “The Wesley Memorial Volume,” :The Future of the Races.” “The Life of Alfred T. Mam.” Writer of numerous pamphlets and articles for magazines, and papers. CLARK, LEILA A. Daughter of J.O.A. Clark. Missionary Superintendent Sunday Schools M. E. Church. Special work. Writer for Sunday School magazines. Contributor to seven in 1923. CODINGTON, KATE FORT. Under titles, “A Leisurely Home” and “The Candle Flame,” Mrs. Codington two years supplied a column in The Macon Telegraph with poems and stories. Author of poems published by The Churchman, The Christian Advocate, The Boston Transcript, The Mother’s Magazine, The Unpartisan Review, and one by Literary Digest with complimentary notice. A cantata “The Legend of Nacoochee,” just put to music by James Gillette and sold to Fischer and Bro., N.Y., was presented by Chautauqua of the South in Macon under Gillette’s direction and afterwards in large eastern cities. Her book of verse is now ready for publication. COMBS, W. F. Author of “Camp Creek Wreck.” DARGAN, REV. EDWIN C., b. Darlington S. C., 1852. Pastor First Baptist Church, Macon, ten years. Author “Notes on Colossians” (American Commentary), “Ecclesiology,” two editions. “The Doctrines of Our Faith,” two editions, “A History of Preaching,” two volumes, “An Exposition of the Epistle to Romans,” “Harmony Hall, Recollections of an Old Southern Home,”

“The Changeless Christ,” and Other Sermons, “The Hope of Glory and Other Sermons,” “The Art of Preaching in the Light of History.” DERRY, PROF. JOSEPH T. Former member faculty of Wesleyan College. List of writings too long to be included. Author “Catechetical History of the United States,” “Georgia Cities, Towns, Scenery, and Resources,” “History of the United States for Schools and Academies,” J. P. Lippincott and Co. Author “Story of the Confederate States,” the “Georgia Volume” of a twelve volume work called “Confederate Military History,” “The Strife of Brothers,” an historical epic, two editions. Editor and compiler of four books published by Georgia Department of Agriculture. Author many biographical sketches, and contributor to The Century, The Americana, Nelson’s Loose Leaf Encyclopedia, The South in the Building of the Nation, Georgia in the Confederacy, Men of Mark in Georgia. EDWARDS, JAMES CARSON. b. Philadelphia, Pa., 1802, d. Macon, 1861. Resident in Macon 1830 to 1861. Father of Harry Stillwell Edwards. Probably the most conspicuous figure of the Southeast in the “forties.” A distinguished poet and contributor to magazines and press. His “Ode to Music” (Southern Class Book) very fine. “The Valley of Nacoochee” is his most noted lyric. EDWARDS, HARRY STILLWELL, b. Macon, Ga., 1855. As the moon draws the tides, the power of his magnetic pen attracts us, his neighbors and his friends. How we love to follow where his stories lead and revel in the words that picture so vividly his intimate sketches of human life. Like a mirror they reflect the life of the Old South and harvest the heritage of our children. Author “His Defense” and other stories. “Two Runaways” and other stories, “Eneas Africanus” and other short stories. Nearly a half million copies of this story have been sold. His mystery story, “Sons and Fathers” won the $10,000.00 prize offered by The Chicago Record. His stories “The Answer” and “The Fifth Dimension” each won a $500 prize. His latest book, “The Strongest Power,” now being published is said to be his best, but none will ever be more beautiful or artistic than that short poem in prose “Things That Came Down My Creek.” His books and stories are too many to list. They have appeared in all the leading magazines and publishing houses. His name is international. He has been editor of three Macon papers, correspondent for many in the East, including Boston Herald, New York Sun, New York Times, now a member of the staff of The Atlanta Journal, member of the faculty of Wesleyan College, as instructor in short story writing. He is a graduate in law of Mercer University, and in 1923 his alma mater conferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Literature. EDWARDS, MARY ROXY, (Mrs. Harry Stillwell) b. Granite Hill plantation, Hancock county, Ga., 1857, d. Macon, 1922. Of high Virginia ancestry. Daughter of Andrew Jackson Lane, colonel of 49th Georgia Regiment, C. S. A. God-daughter of Alexander Stephens. Graduate of Wesleyan College. Born and raised in the old plantation life of the South, her soul was imbued with its beauty, her memory saturated with the folk-


lore of the old-time slaves. But for her, the long list of stories in which Harry Stillwell Edwards has helped preserve much of the life of that time, would never have been written. This is his testimony and that of her college mate, the writer. With the art of raconteur she has gathered from the gardens of dear memories, twenty-one clusters of violets, purple with the fragrance of the Old South, and places them, ever fresh, “In Daddy Jesse’s Kingdom,” her book of stories. ESTES, CLAUDE C. Member of the bar of Macon, compiler of the “Register of Georgia Troops.” Collector of the list of Georgia authors, which is the ground work of this list. FLASH, HARRY L. Editor Macon Telegraph, Col. C. S. A. staff of General Joseph Wheeler. A poet of rare power. Author of seven books of poems. FOLSOM, MONTGOMERY. b. Lowndes county, Ga., 1857. Member of staff Americus Daily Recorder, Atlanta Constitution, Atlanta Journal, edited Cedartown Standard, Atlanta Commonwealth, Cedartown Guardian. Special writer Macon Telegraph some years. Author and poet of note thirty years ago. Might be called the “wiregrass...” as he dealt with life in that section of the state. His poems “Witch Craps are Short,” “Old St. Augustins,” “The Land Beyond the Sea” are gems. Author (book, prose and poetry combined) “Scraps of Song and Southern Scenes,” 1889. FOUNTAIN, CLAUDE RUSSELL, A.B., Ph. D. Prof. Physics and Astronomy, Mercer University. Author “Laboratory Manual of Practical Physics.” Special articles on “Electromagnetic Waves,” “Light of the Firefly,” “Architectural Acoustics,” and “Science Service.” FOX, HENRY, B. S., M. A., Ph. D. Professor of Biology, Mercer University. Author of about twelve papers on “Vertebrate Embryology and Entomology.” Writer of general articles on “Bird Protection” and “Forest Conservation.” GARNER, MARY VIRGINIA, A. B., B. S., Ph. M. Instructor of Journalism Wesleyan College and Mercer University, Author “Poe’s Tales.” Introduction and Critical Notes. Articles for magazines in English and Japanese on various subjects. GEWINNER, HAZEL. Author many stories and poems published in juvenile magazines. Writer of the “Children’s Hour,” a page in The Macon Telegraph, where she performs the difficult feat of producing stories, poems, and historical sketches for “little folks,” that “grownups” like to read. Children, birds, flowers, fairies, all whisper to her their secrets. GOULDING, DR. FRANCIS R. Inventor of the sewing machine. He made one and had it in operation in 1842, three years before Elias Howe’s patent. Graduate State University at Athens, Ga., some time in the thirties. Presbyterian minister, chaplain C.S.A. Author “The Young Marooners,” “Marooners Island,” Woodrugg Stories - books for children, which have won their lasting fame. GREENE, W. K., A.B., A.M., Ph. D. Member faculty Wesleyan College. Author “The Martin,” “Marprelate Controversy.” GRICE, WARREN. Attorney General of Georgia 1914-15. Professor of law at Mercer University. Published 1923 “A Treatise of the Georgia Law on Administrators, Executors and Guardians.”

HARRIS, GOVERNOR N. E., b. Jonesboro, Tenn., 1846. Well known Georgian, former governor of Georgia. Author “A Digest of Georgia Reports,” volumes forty-one to fifty, inclusive. “An Index and Digest of Georgia Reports,” volumes forty-one to sixty-one, both inclusive, 1882. Also two supplements to the Georgia Code. HILL, WALTER BARNARD, A.M., LL. D., b. Talbotton, Ga., 1851, d. Athens, Ga., 1905. One of Macon’s intellectuals, a man of wide reading and literary attainments. Member Macon bar, chancellor University of Georgia. Co-editor of The Georgia Code 1873. He did all the annotation, using authorities from Georgia Supreme court, other courts, other states, and text writers. Revised this code and published again 1882. Author “Wit and Humor,” Methodist Review, copied in other periodicals, also “Uncle Tom Without a Cabin.” Both received widespread attention. HINES, RICHARD K., b. Midway near Milledgeville, Ga., 1836, d. Macon, Ga., 1894. Author “Hines’ Legal Forms.” HOLDER, FRANCIS J., B.S., B.B.S., M.A., Ph. D. Professor Mathematics and Dean of the School of Commerce, Mercer University. Author “Multiple Infinite Series in M-way Space.” KENDRICKS, LUCILE. Author many poems. Two books are now in hands of publishers. LAMAR, DOROTHY BLOUNT. (Mrs. W. D.) Daughter James H. Blount, United States Congressman, Macon district, twenty years. Graduate Wesleyan College. Gifted speaker and writer. Apostle of Sidney Lanier. Author “Sidney Lanier, the Musician.” LAMAR, L. Q. C., b. near Eatonton, Ga., 1825, d. Macon, Ga., 1893. The great Southern statesman. Lieutenant Colonel C.S.A. Commissioner to Russia two years, appointed by President Jefferson Davis. Professor of University of Mississippi. Representative from Mississippi to United State Congress 18571860 and 1873-1877. United States Senator 1877-1885. Member President Cleveland’s Cabinet 1885. Brilliant writer, orator and lecturer. He resided in Macon while studying law with his brother-in-law, Hon. A. H. Chappell. LAMAR, MIRABEAU, b. Louisville, Ga., 1798, d. Texas, 1859. Brother of “the great Judge Lamar,” of Milledgeville. Uncle of L.Q.C. Lamar. Lived in Macon with his brother, Dr. Thomas Lamar, till he moved to Columbus, Ga., where he established The Columbus Independent, 1828. Emigrated to Texas. Became president of the republic of Texas 1838-41. United States minister to Argentine Republic. Minister to Nicaraga and Costa Rica 1958-59. While there he dedicated his fervid poem, “The Daughter of Mendoza,” to the Indian princess. Author book of poems, “Verse Memorials,” 1857. LANIER, SIDNEY, b. Macon, Ga., 1842, d. Lynn, N. C., 1881. “The Sword of his soul is the flame of our glory,” the sun that warms our pride and lends us the light of his fame, even as Stratford on Avon is illuminated. From “The Hills of Habersham” to “The Marshes of Glynn” his luminous verse pours a stream of beauty through the Heart of Georgia. “Wherever birds sings, waters flow, children play, there the inimitable beauty of his rhythmic thought lived, and reached up to the Great Maker of Nature.” All the wonder of a glorious sunset shines through his “labyrinth of dreams” from the heart of love he bore to men. The exquisite melody of his music


found words in the universal language, for love is the birthright of the universe. No need to list his work for we share him with the world as one of its sweetest singers. LANIER, CLIFFORD, b. Macon. Brother of Sidney Lanier and collaborator with him in some of his poems. LE CONTE, PROF. JOSEPH, b. 1823, d. 1901. Practiced medicine in Macon in early life. Noted scientist. Author “Religion and Science.” “Evolution and Its Relation to Religious Thought,” “Sight” (Last two translated into German, French and Italian), “Comparative Physiology and Morphology of Animals.” Also a text book on geology for colleges and high schools. Writer of numerous articles, over 200, in Scientific and other magazines. His autobiography gives a stirring account of Civil War conditions and charming pictures of plantation life in the South. LOVETT, HOWARD MERIWETHER. Writer of many special articles for newspapers. Contributor to The Southern Magazine, The Southern Review, The Confederate Veteran and others. Author “Grandmother Stories From the Land of Used-To-Be,’ a treasure house of little known historic incidents of war, of discovery, of invention. Emerson Hough gave it high praise. LOWE, MARGERY GLOVER, b. Vineville, Macon, Ga., 1902. Descendant John Holman Lowe, of North Carolina, early settler Bibb county and planter on Old Ocmulgee Fields. Graduate Lanier High School 1919, of Agnes Scott, 1923. Elected to faculty of Lanier High School as teacher of English, 1923. Began to write verse at eight years. At ten was known to St. Nicholas Magazine. A prize winner in poetry at Agnes Scott. Awarded a prize by The Christian Index for “Harvest” poem, which appears in “Poets of the Future,” 1922, the largest collection of English college verse. Her work is very favorably criticized by Charles Wharton Stark, one of the foremost critics of poetry in America and editor of “Contemporary Verse.” MACHEN, MINNIE GRAHAM. Author “The Bible in Browning.” McLAREN, VALERIA LAMAR. Author “A Book of Travels.” MALLARY, MRS. M. J. DAGG. Daughter of Dr. J. L. Dagg, noted writer on moral science. Author of the book “Horace Wilde,” “Elsie Lee,” “Rosalie Wynnton,” “Jack,” “Piccola,” “Aunt Clara’s School,” “Won by a Boy,” and other fiction. MONTAGUE, ANDREW PHILIP, M.A., Ph. D., LL. D. Professor of Latin and Public Speaking, Mercer University. Editor “The Letters of Cicero,” and “The Letters of Pliny.” MILLER, HELEN TOPPING, b. Fenton, Mich., 1885. Educated at Michigan College for Women. A star of the first magnitude is Macon’s adopted daughter, whose modesty, quiet efficiency and ready comradeship have so endeared her to our city that it takes a personal interest in her wonderful success as a writer of short stories. With the “sympathetic imagination of the artist” and rare versatility she has produced over 300 stories and novelettes published in the best magazines. Is now writing a book. The following stories are noted, “Deuce High,” Saturday Evening Post, 1920: “Two Women at a Mill,” 1921: “Nobody Can Boss Mother,” 1923, Delineator; “The Far Side of Thunderbolt,” Pictorial Review, 1923. Instructor short story writing, Mercer University, instructor Writers’ Club.

NEWMAN, ALBERT HENRY, A.B., M.A., D.D., LL. D., b. Edgefield, S. C., 1852. Graduated Mercer University 1871. Professor of Church History, Mercer University Professor and lecturer at five leading Universities and Seminaries in United States and one in Canada. Author “Baptist Churches in the United States,” history of Antipedo Baptism to A.D., 1609; “Manual of Church History,” two volumes, “A Century of Baptist Achievement.” Translator and editor “Immer’s Hermeneutics of the New Testament,” “Anti-Manichean Words of Augustine, Nicence and Post Nicene Fathers.” Department editor for Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, and other translations and contributions to encyclopedias. NISBET, JUDGE EUGENIUS A., b. Greene County, Ga., 1803. One of Macon’s truly great men, graduate Franklin College, highest honors, class of 1821. Graduate law school, Litchfield, Conn. Admitted to bar of Georgia by special act of Legislature. Member Georgia Legislature seven terms. Representative in United States Congress 1838-1840. Progenitor of agitation for establishment of Supreme Court in Georgia. His speech urging this was ordered by Legislature published and distributed. Elected to Supreme Court judgeship 1845-47. A writer of verse and prose and orator of high degree. In the centennial reprint of Macon Telegraph, November 21, 1826, is published a poem of Judge Nisbet’s signed “Eugenio.” He was the author of “Georgia Ordinance of Secession.” NISBET, JUDGE JAMES T. Son of Eugenius Nisbet. Joint editor with Simri Rose of Journal and Messenger 1850-55. Editor Augusta Constitutionalist 1855-60. Writer and orator. His article published in Presbyterian Quarterly “Calvinism and Liberty,” 1889, very fine, as was an address to Atlanta Medical College on “State, Inspection of Drugs.” An address made in 1885, as president Macon Public Schools, entitled “What Constitutes a Gentleman,” when used in a Sophomore declamation contest at the University of Georgia won a gold metal. NISBET, COLONEL J. COOPER. Author “Four Years on the Firing Line,: a very interesting book, account of the companies he organized in 21st and 66th Georgia Regiments C.S.A. OWEN, WILLIAM RUSSELL, b. Portsmouth, Va., 1879. Pastor First Baptist church, Macon. Author “The Wise Men’s Camel,” J. W. Burke Co., “The Song at Sunrise,” Fleming H. Revell, 1923. “A Messenger in which kindness and charity of spirit shine through imagination with poetic fervor.” It seeks to “interpret the spirit and indicate something of the faith and fervor of the folk of the Southland, and to reflect the deep seated reverence of a people of poetry and power, of child-like faith and tremendous conviction, who constitute one of the most profound religious constituencies of Christendom.” PARK, ORVILLE A. Secretary Georgia Bar Association. General Counsel Georgia Bankers Association. Publications, “Opinions as General Counsel” three numbers (1911, 1913, and 1914), “Park’s Banking Laws of Georgia, Annotated,” 1920, “Georgia Bankers Code,” 1909. “An Index to Publications of Bar Association of America,” 1899, “Parks Annotated Code of Georgia.” seven volumes, 1914, “History of Georgia in the 18th Century as Recorded in Proceedings of Georgia Bar Association, compiler “Logan E. Bleckley Memorial Volume,” as secretary


Georgia Bar Association, and editor nineteen annual reports. Author of a number of essays and sketches principally historical and biographical, among them “The Military Record of the Georgia Bar” an address as President of the Georgia Bar Association, 1918. PARK, Capt. Robert Emory. Treasurer of the state of Georgia. Superintendent Public Schools, Macon, some years. His “Confederate War Diary” was published in the Southern Historical Society papers. Author of “A Sketch of the Twelfth Alabama Infantry.” PENDLETON, LOUIS, b. Tebeauville, Ware county, Ga., 1861. Syndicate editorial writer since 1915. Associate editor Macon Telegraph 1898 to 1914. Author “Life of Alexander H. Stephens,” George W. Jacobs & Co., Philadelphia, “The Wedding Garment,” translated into Swedish, German and Portuguese. Little-Brown and Co., Boston, “Kidnaping Clarence,” “Captain Ted,” “King Tom and the Runaways,” boys’ stories, D. Appleton & Co., “Corona of the Nantahalas,” a London company, “Lost Prince Almon,” “Cartia,” “The Sons of Ham,” Roberts Bros., Boston, “A Forest Drama” Henry T. Coates & Co., Philadelphia, author of other boys’ books and a number of serials and magazine short stories. PINSON, REV. W. W. Pastor Mulberry Street M. E. Church, Writer many pamphlets on church work and a number of poems, Author novel, “In Black and White.” PICKARD, FLORENCE WILLINGHAM, b. Smyrna, Barnwell District, S.C., (wife of William L. Pickard, former president Mercer University), student Wesleyan College, Women’s College, Richmond, Va., Mary Baldwin Seminary, Staunton, Va., Author “The Ides of March,” six editions, listed 1901 as one of the six best sellers, “Between Scarlet Thrones,” the Stratford Co., Boston 1919. This book is being used as collateral reading in forty-six universities and twenty theological seminaries in the United States. PRINCE, OLIVER HILLHOUSE, b. Conn., 1787, d. 1837 in wreck of the steamer “Home” off shore of North Carolina. Very prominent man. United States Senator. Early settler of Macon and commissioner to lay out the town. Compiler “Prince’s Digest of Georgia Laws,” two editions, 1822-1837. Author of many humorous sketches. Collaborator with Longstreet in his celebrated “Georgia Scenes.” In it appears Prince’s famous account of “A Georgia Militia Drill.” QUILLIAN, WILLIAM FLETCHER, b. Lithonia, Ga., 1880, A. B., D. D. President of Wesleyan College. Author “Education a Necessity,” El Ecuando, “The Need of Our Age,” “The Training School, Its Field and Purpose,” “The Red Horse of War,” (Christian Advocate), John Hopkins University. Other articles, “The Two Oaths,” “A Field of Service,” “An Open Door,” “Training for Efficiency,” “League Loyalty.” REID, OPHELIA NISBET. Daughter of Judge Eugenius Nisbet. Author novels, “Miss Muffett,” “My Mother’s Daughter,” and several others. REUTER, BERTHA ANN, A.M., Ph. D. Member faculty Wesleyan. Author “James Wilson, A Man of Vision,” Palimpsest, “The Transition Teacher,” Educational Issues, “Anglo-American Relations During the Spanish-American War,” now in hands of publishers.

SANFORD, PROF. SHELTON PALMER, A.B., A.M., LL. D., b. Greensboro, Ga., 1816, d. Macon, Ga. 1896. One of Macon’s first noted educators. Graduated University of Georgia, 1838. Elected to Chair of Mathematics, Mercer University at Penfield, 1838. Served continuously for fifty-three years, resigning 1892. Came to Macon with Mercer University. Author of well known text books on mathematical subjects in general use for many years in the schools and colleges. SARAUW, JULIE, B.S., A.M., Ph. D. Member faculty Wesleyan College. Author “Der Einfluss Plotius Auf Giordano Brunos Degli Eroice Furori.” SELLERS, PROF. J. F. Former member faculty of Mercer University. Author treatise on “Analytical Chemistry,” “Clays of Georgia.” ROSE, SIMRI, b. Conn., May 25, 1799, d. Macon, April 5, 1869. Came to Ft. Hawkins settlement, New Town, 1819. Edited a paper there before helping to settle Macon, 1823. Was literally Macon’s FIRST WRITER. Edited a little sheet, “The Macon Bull Dog.” written entirely with pen, in which Macon is often alluded to as “Nat Nocan’s Town,” copy of it, edition 1825, still extant. Was editor and proprietor of The Journal and Messenger till his death 1869. SMITH, JUDGE BRIDGES, b. Wilmington, N. C. 1848. Another star, fixed in the affection of his readers. Former mayor of Macon, now judge of the juvenile court which, under his beneficent care, tempers justice with mercy for wayward juveniles, for whom he originated a Detention Home where neglected children cease to be incorrigible under the rule of kindness, work and play. His volume “One Hundred Stories in Black” is a collection from his cozy column in The Macon Telegraph, where “Just Twixt Us,” with loving humor, he jots down the reminiscences that cheers our way. The heart of Georgia throbs in touch with the Bridges Smith thought of friendship between races that his kindly pen helps to nurture. He is the real founder of the S. B Price Free Library. Is now and for some years past has been the adjutant general of the Georgia Division of Confederate Veterans. SMITH, REV. GEORGE GILLMAN, b. Sheffield, Newton county, Ga., 1836, d. Macon, Ga., 1913. D.D. conferred by Emory College. Well known citizen of Macon, Methodist minister, Chaplain C. S. A., Phillips Legion, under Lee in


Virginia. Severely wounded at battle King’s Mountain and became semi-invalid after which devoted his life to writing. His records of the surroundings, lives, activities, and possessions of his people have made city, county and state history. His letters to the newspapers were sources of information for years. Author “The History of Georgia Methodism: “Story of Georgia and Georgia People,” “Life of Bishop George F. Pierce,: “Life Bishop James A. Andrew,” “Life Bishop Asbury,” “Childhood and Conversion,” books for young people, “Boy in Gray,” “Berry’s Triumph,” “Harry Thornton,” “Mr. Hall and His Family” and many booklets. SMITH, LEON, P., A.B., S.M. Member faculty Wesleyan College. Author “The Alterations of Diorite by Weathering,” American Journal Economic Geology, 1916, “Sciences in the High School,” 1914. Syndicated geological articles now being prepared are: “A Manual of Household Chemistry,” “A Study of the Problems of the Rate of Weathering the Rocks,” “A Study of the Age of Glacial Moraines,” “Detailed Studies on the Volcanic Dykes of Georgia.” SPARKS, WILLIAM H. Author “Memories of Fifty Years.” A delightful book. SPEER, JUDGE EMORY, b. Culloden, Ga., 1848, d. Macon, 1918. Member 5th Kentucky Mounted Infantry C. S. A.: University of Georgia, A.B., Mercer University, LL. D. Member United States Congress four years. United States District Judge Southern District of Georgia, 1893 till his death. Lecturer Stors Foundation, Yale, 1906. Prominent orator. Delivered Peace Jubilee Oration, Chicago, 1898. Many other addresses North and South. Author “Removal of Causes From States to United States Courts,” Lee, Lincoln, Grant and other biographical addresses, a man of fine presence, and eminent in Macon’s history. SPENCER, JOHN D., b. Jackson, Tenn., 1874. “Otherwise” known as “Johnny D.” The twinkling star of The Macon Telegraph, whose daily “colyum” radiates more smiles than all the rainbows of our sunny-land can span. Between tears one reads his booklet, “Another Miracle,” J. W. Burke Co. The recital of a pathetic incident revealing the healing power of love. A real prophecy of the force now beginning to be recognized as “Love Cure,” the psychological hope for incurables. WARREN, REV. E. W., b. Alabama, 1820, d. Macon, 1893. Well known and well beloved pastor First Baptist church, Macon, many years, editor The Christian Index. Author “Nellie Thorne,” novel depicting old slavery days. WASHINGTON, HUGH VERNON, b. Macon, April 2, 1861, d. Macon, October 5, 1911. Descendant Lawrence Washington, of Virginia. Member Macon bar. Graduate University of Georgia. Officer in many patriotic and literary societies. One of the first speakers in United States to urge patriotic education of aliens. As Georgia’s commissioner to the World’s Fair, St. Louis, Mo., his excellent management of the building and display received unstinted praise from governor of Georgia. Writer of many essays and articles for papers. Fine orator in great demand. His address in 1911 at the unveiling of memorial to General LaFayette at Annapolis, Md., was highly commended by President Taft, who followed him on the program. WATSON, ASA. R., b. Louden county, Va., 1838, d. Macon,

1877. For years city editor Macon Telegraph. A well known poet. The beauty of his verse entitled him to a place on the bookshelves of literature, but he is not there. WEAVER, RUFUS WASHINGTON, M.A., Ph. D., D.D., LL. D. President Mercer University, Chancellor Mercer University system, Professor Psychology of Religion. Author “The History of the Doctrine of the Inspiration in the Eighth Century,” 1899. “The Christian Conversationalist,” 1903, “The Reconstruction of Religion,” 1904, “The Religious Development of the Child,” 1913. WHARTON, REV. M. B., b. 1839. Author “War Songs and Poems of the Confederacy,” large and most interesting collection. WILLET, PROF. JOSEPH EDGARTON, b. Macon, 1826, d. Macon, 1897. Professor Natural Science, Mercer University, thirty years. Fellow of the American Association for Advancement of Science. Lectures on “Agricultural Science” and a series of lectures at Wesleyan College of “Science and Religion.” WILLIAMS, CHARLES BRAY, A.B., M.A., B.D., Ph. D., D.D. Professor New Testament Interpretation, Mercer University. Author “History of Baptists in North Carolina,” 1901. “The Participle in the Book of Acts,” 1910. “The Function of Teaching in Christianity.” 1913, “New Testament History and Literature,” 1916, “Citizen of Two Worlds,” 1919. Contributor to International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1912. WINN, CLAUDIA BRANNAN (Mrs. Cooper Winn, Jr.) b. Eufaula, Ala., 1886. Author novel “Marcelle” and short stories. WRIGHT, ELIZABETH M. (Mrs. James T.) b. Erie, Pa., 1872 Author short stories, “Lifted Shadows,” Northwest Veteran. “As Ever George,” Snappy Stories. Poems, “Ballad of Mary Ann,” A Discord in A Flat,” Life, “The Notion Counter,” Atlantic Monthly Press, “Calamity,” Breezy Stories. Articles, “Budgeting Time,” “Mistress of Ceremonies,” “Mending to Order,” “Saving Minutes and Spending Them,” “Discovering Talents,” “How I Sold My First Story,” published in various magazines. MACON WRITERS CLUB. Mrs. Helen Topping Miller, instructor. Present members: Mrs. B. S. Gostin, president; Mrs. Piercy Chestney, vice-president; Mrs. Arthur Williams, treasurer; Mrs. P. D. Karsten, recording secretary; Mrs. Horace Wright, corresponding secretary; Mrs. F. D. Haskins, parliamentarian; Mrs. D. R. Malone, Miss Hazel Gewinner, Miss Lamar Sparks, Mrs. August Burghard, Mrs. D. R. Sprague, Mrs. J. E. Walker, Mrs. Orin Massey, Mrs. Joseph Robinson, Miss Ann Wallace, Mrs. J. W. Wright. Associate members: Mrs. E. G. Jacobs, Mrs. W. E. Small, Mrs. Stewart Jones, Mrs. Andrew Lane, Mrs. D. C. Horgan, Mrs. Rufus W. Weaver, Miss Mary Davis, Miss Jane McBrier, Mrs. James A. Smith, Mrs. E. P. Mosely. Quite a number of members of this club have published stories, articles, or poems in magazines and papers.

WOMEN’S ACTIVITIES AND ORGANIZATIONS Women’s organizations and activities, which today play such an important part in the life of the city are of recent origin. But even in the early days we get an occasional glimpse of our subject. In 1827 the Methodist women of Macon obtained contributions of building materials out of which was


constructed the first church building erected in the town - the original Macon Methodist Church, which stood on the site of the present Mulberry Street Church. At the first Agricultural Fair held in 1830 Mrs. Penelope Bryan won the prize for the best cotton, eight bales, the prize being a silver tankard worth one hundred dollars. And at other fairs we read of prizes being awarded to several women for needle work, flowers, cakes and pastry. When the Macon Volunteers were sent into Florida against the Seminoles in 1836 Mrs. Caroline E. Seymour, wife of the Captain, wrote a poem of some length whose touching verses have been Mrs. Viola Ross Napier, first preserved for us in Butler’s woman to serve in Georgia History. She seems to have been Legislature. Macon’s pioneer woman writer. The original “Lone Star Flag,” now the emblem of the vast empire of Texas, was made by Miss Joanna Troutman and presented to the Georgia Volunteers as they passed through Knoxville on their way from Macon to the border at the beginning of the war for Texas independence. On March 4, 1861, the Confederate Congress adopted the “Stars and Bars” as the flag of the Confederacy. Its design was telegraphed throughout the South. That night Mrs. Thomas Hardeman with her own hands made the first Confederate flag to float in Georgia. On the morning of the fifth it was presented to the Floyd Rifles and gaily given to the breeze.

Florence Nightingale and the trained nurse was unknown. But the women of the Relief Society were tireless in their efforts and attentions. They supplied the cots, furnished the food, ministered to sick and wounded, comforted the distressed and pointed the dying to “the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world.” Never was there a more devoted, self sacrificing and heroic band of women than those who composed this first woman’s organization of Macon - and right nobly did they play their part in the great struggle in which their state and section was engaged.

LADIES SOLDIERS RELIEF SOCIETY But it was not until real war, grim and terrible, broke over the South that the women of Macon proved of what metal they were made. Early in the struggle, when the men were enlisting and company after company was leaving for Virginia, the women met and organized the “Ladies’ Soldiers’ Relief Society” with Mrs. Washington Poe as President. Mrs. Thomas Hardeman, Vice-President; Mrs. M. E. Bass, Secretary, and Miss Julia Wrigley, Treasurer. The first work undertaken was the supplying of “lint bandages and garments for the sick and wounded soldiers in the field.” The Society numbered two hundred and ten members. In the first seven months, it raised and expended over $7,000.00, besides collecting a great quantity of hospital supplies and clothing which were sent to the front. As the war came closer home the work of the Society was broadened. Ten public spirited citizens purchased the old Macon Hotel on Mulberry Street below Fourth and placed it in charge of the Society. It was converted into a sort of hospital and eating house for the sick and wounded soldiers arriving and departing on the trains. Called the “Wayside Home.” this rest house proved to be one of the most useful and important parts of the Society’s work. As the war wore on Macon became a hospital center. Almost every available building was converted into some kind of hospital. It was before the days of

CONFEDERATE MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION A Ladies Memorial Association was organized in Macon in 1866 with Mrs. Thomas Hardeman as President. On Memorial Day, 1867, occurred the “first baptism of flowers” over the heroes of the South sleeping in both the old cemetery, at the foot of Cherry Street, and in Rose Hill. This Association was reorganized and put on a firm footing in 1868, with Mrs. Isaac Winship, President and Miss Kate Fort, Secretary. The first work undertaken by the Association was the removal of the bodies of the soldiers buried in the old Cemetery to a suitable plot in Rose Hill and the placing of a neat marble head stone at each grave. With this accomplished the Association began gathering funds for a monument to be erected in the public streets of the city. By April 26, 1878, the money was in hand and on that day the corner stone was laid with impressive ceremonies. On October 29, 1879 the beautiful monument at the intersection of Mulberry and Second Streets was unveiled. The Memorial Association continued its loved task for many years, tending the graves of the Confederate dead, arranging the annual observance of Memorial Day and bearing their gifts of flowers and with loving hands placing them upon the green mounds under which lay the ashes of the heroes of the lost cause. But after a time the younger and more vigorous United Daughters of the Confederacy took up the work and the older Association passed into history. RELIGIOUS AND KINDRED SOCIETIES Almost from the beginning of the several religious bodies in Macon there have existed under various names organizations of women, ladies aid societies, guilds, Dorcas and benevolent societies, home and foreign missionary, parsonage aid and other societies. A recent development has been the organized Sunday School classes, of which the Philathea Classes, a national association are typical. These bands of women have been of the greatest value in the work of the churches with which they have been connected and are among the most important and far reaching of woman’s activities, but an account of them belongs more properly with the history of the several churches than in this chapter. Next to the church organizations in point of age and closely related to them in aim and purpose is the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union. The Macon Chapter was organized by Frances E. Willard herself on her memorable tour of the United States in 1883. Mrs. Walter B. Hill was the first President. Closely akin to the church societies in purpose and work but interdenominational in membership is the King’s Daughters,


organized in 1890 with Mrs. T. Skelton Jones as the first President. To the vision and efforts of the Daughters the city owes the Macon Hospital. They gathered together $4500.00 and purchased the original property. Under their auspices the Macon Hospital Association was then organized and for twenty years owned and operated the hospital, when it was taken over by the city and the splendid new buildings erected. The Daughters also founded and have maintained for many years the “Old Ladies Home” in Vineville. Among other religious and semi-religious organizations may be classed, also, the Woman’s Auxiliary of the Young Men’s Christian Association, which has existed for some thirty years, and the Young Women’s Christian Association of much later date. After several years existence as a local association providing a home for working girls under the name “Heimath Hall” opened in 1906, the Macon Y.W.C.A. joined the national association in 1917 and is now carrying on the usual and well recognized lines of endeavor common to these associations. Engaged in work of somewhat similar character is the Travelers’ Aid Society organized in 1909, its purpose being to furnish assistance to women and children traveling alone and to protect them from imposition and harm.

Machine Gun Battalion Auxiliaries. The last named raised the fund to erect the beautiful monument recently placed on Coleman Hill to the memory of the members of the Battalion who sleep in Flanders Field and on the hills of France. Following the suggestion of the American Forestry Association the “Road of Remembrance” was undertaken by a committee of the Woman’s Auxiliary of the Chamber of Commerce in connection with the Dixie Highway Auxiliary. Later it was decided to convert the principal highway intersecting the Dixie Highway also into a road of remembrance, the two forming a great memorial cross.

WOMEN’S ORGANIZATIONS OF THE PRESENT Women’s organizations as the term is commonly understood today may be said to be the product of the last third of a century. Since the early nineties they have grown and multiplied at an astonishing rate, have broadened the scope of their endeavor and are becoming more and more a factor in the city’s life. So numerous have these organizations become that we can do little more within the limits of this chapter than to mention the names of some of the more prominent of them. PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES Among the earliest of these later day organizations are the patriotic societies. The Mary Hammond Washington Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, was formed in 1891, being the first Georgia Chapter of the order. The chapter was named for the first regent who was a real daughter of the Revolution, her father having been a gallant officer of the Continental Army. This was followed in 1896 by the Sidney Lanier Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy, named in honor of Macon’s soldier poet. Mrs. Appleton Collins was the first President. This is one of the largest of all the women’s organizations boasting an enrollment of more than three hundred. Then came the Colonial Dames, the Macon Branch having been established in 1903 with Mrs. Henry McHatton, Chairman, succeeded by Mrs. S. R. Jaques. In 1906 a second chapter of the D.A.R. was organized by Mrs. Edgar A. Ross who became the first regent, and named Nathaniel Macon in honor of the great North Carolina statesman whose name the city bears. A later development has been several woman’s auxiliaries of the ex-soldier organizations formed since the World War, the American Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars and the 151st

CULTURAL CLUBS Originating about the same time as the patriotic societies were a number of cultural clubs, some of which still thrive. Perhaps the best known is the History Club organized in 1890, Mrs. John B. Cobb being the first President. This grew out of a Study Class of which Mrs. W. C. Turpin, Sr., was leader. Under the leadership of Mrs. Edwin S. Davis this club is sponsoring the Sidney Lanier Monument Association whose purpose is to fittingly commemorate Macon’s honored and beloved poet. Another was the Current Topibs Club, of which Mrs. Mallory H. Taylor was President. Then there are the musical clubs, the Hyechka Club organized in 1910, and the Saturday Morning Music Club, which began in 1912, and the Music Study Club. The Macon Writers’ Club had its beginning in 1914, its name at first being the Students Club. Mrs. S. C. Moore was the originator of the idea. Le Cercle Francais and La Salon Francais belong to this class, having been organized for the study of the French language and literature. In 1919 the Macon Art Association was formed, Miss Lutie Wescott being then and now President. CHILD IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION The first of this class was the Free Kindergarten Association founded by Mrs. Robert Emory Park about 1892 for work among the children of the cotton mill villages. Ten years ago the Parent-Teacher Association began its great work. Mrs. James T. Wright, the first permanent Chairman of the Macon Council, after a brief term was succeeded by Miss Florence Bernd. Fourteen Associations in the several schools of the Bibb County Public School System compose the Macon Council. Through the work of this strong and progressive organization much has been accomplished for the health and uplift of the children of the schools and for the infants and small children who will soon be in the schools, and closer cooperation between the home and the school, the parent and the teacher had been secured. The work has been extended from Macon throughout the Sixth congressional District. CIVIC CLUBS The Woman’s Club, organized in 1911 with Mrs. S. C. Moore as President, is probably the most nearly typical of the several civic clubs. It has quite a list of worth-while achievements to its credit.


The Macon section of the National Council of the Jewish Women and the Catholic Woman’s Club, while sectarian in their membership, are working along similar lines of civic improvement. The first named while established in 1903, was not active until its reorganization in 1919. The latter was founded in 1920. When the Dixie Highway from the Middle West to Florida was projected in 1915, the Bibb County Auxiliary was organized by Mrs. Bruce Carr Jones for the purpose of beautifying and properly marking that section of the highway running through the County. Mrs. Orville A. Park was the first President. PROFESSIONAL AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS The Pilot Club, composed of women selected from the professions and business after the manner of the Men’s civic clubs, which have proven so popular, and working on the same lines as those clubs, could be classed properly as a civic club on account of its work or as a business and professional club on account of its membership. The Club which originated in Macon has now grown into an international organization, the permanent headquarters being located in Macon. The Business and Professional Women’s Club, organized in 1921, with Miss Nellie Edwards as its first President, is more nearly a business organization intended to promote the interests of women engaged in business and the professions. Of the same class but restricted to particular callings are the Music Teachers Association, the Third District Association of Professional Nurses, and the Macon Nurses Register. THE CITY FEDERATION Some fifteen of the Clubs have united to form the City Federation of Women’s Clubs which has a constituency of between seven hundred and fifty and one thousand. It was organized in 1903 and is affiliated with the State and National Federations. Mrs. Mallory H. Taylor was the first President.

President of the League until her election as Alderman, when she resigned, a rule of the League forbidding any woman holding a political office to be an officer of the League. She was succeeded by Mrs. Viola Ross Napier, but in 1922 Mrs. Napier was elected to the General Assembly and it became necessary for her to resign also, Mrs. J. N. Talley succeeding. To Mrs. Harrold belongs the honor of having been the first woman Alderman elected in Georgia. And Mrs. Napier was the first woman to take the oath as a member of the Georgia Legislature. The Georgia Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage was organized on May 22, 1914. This was the only State organization with headquarters in Macon. The President was Miss Caroline Patterson, who devoted her intellect, time and energies to this patriotic State work, during the four years she served, as President. The first Vice-President was Mrs. Walter D. Lamar and the Secretary, Mrs. B. F. Sutton; these ably assisted in the fight for State’s Rights and the preservation of the South’s traditions. Many of Georgia’s most prominent women, as well as the majority of Macon women, were members of this Association. They were assisted by the brilliant editorials of Mr. James Callaway, who dedicated the last years of his life to fighting the Federal Woman Suffrage Amendment. Macon stood like a beacon light warning other parts of the State of “the dangers of Woman Suffrage.” Each year this Association saw the State Legislature defeat the Suffrage Amendment. They were always victorious in Georgia, but when the Federal Suffrage Amendment was passed they went out of existence automatically. This Association, in Macon, was the first in the South and others were modelled by it.

MISCELLANEOUS ORGANIZATIONS Besides the organizations already mentioned there have existed from time to time and still exist numerous neighborhood and community clubs, sewing and embroidery clubs, magazine and reading clubs, social clubs, societies THE SISTERHOODS There are flourishing chapters of many names and natures. Then of the Order of the Eastern Star, there is the Wesleyan Alumnae and of the Daughters of Rebekah, Association, the Lucy Cobb the woman’s division of the Association, and perhaps others. Mrs. Charles C. Harrold, first woman to serve on Macon City Masons and Odd Fellows Indeed the present day woman Council. First elected in 1921. respectively, as well as auxiliaries seems as prone to organize and as of the principal brotherhoods. fond of her club as her grandmother was opposed to everything which took her away from her own fireside. POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS In October, 1914, the Bibb County branch of the Equal MEN AND WOMEN’S ORGANIZATIONS Suffrage Party was organized, Mrs. Horace Chase being the first Besides the women’s clubs there have been and are a President. When the Nineteenth Amendment to the Federal number of organizations of both men and women such as the Constitution was ratified the Equal Suffrage Party Lyceum and Literary Society of the early days, the Athenean automatically ceased to exist and the League of Women Voters which flourished in the eighties and nineties, the Child Welfare came into being taking its place. Mrs. Chas. C. Harrold was Society and the recently organized Sidney Lanier Society and 131

the Philharmonic Society. But these organizations are beyond the scope of this chapter. THE WOMEN OF THE RED CROSS Brief mention must be made, however, of the great work done by Macon women as members of the Red Cross during the World War. Before America entered the war classes in “first aid” had been organized and were being taught. After war was declared these classes grew until in every neighborhood, in every church and in all the women’s clubs classes were organized. Dr. Chas. C. Harrold acted as instructor and the home of Mrs. McHatton on College Street was turned over to these classes and used as a place of instruction. Then there were numerous classes engaged in the preparation of surgical dressings. Almost every woman was knitting army sweaters and helmets. At the outbreak of the war the Red Cross had already enrolled a thousand members, Mrs. Fort E. Land was Chairman and active in directing the work. With the opening of Camp Wheeler the work became too great for one person’s direction and Mr. W. E. Dunwody was elected co-chairman. Other officers were added and several new departments created. The entire seventh floor of the Grand Building was secured as headquarters. With the large number of sick soldiers at Camp Wheeler and the incomplete, unequipped and inadequate base hospital the department of military relief had a tremendous task. With the heavy movement of troops through Macon the canteen workers also had their hands full. In December, 1917, a drive for new members was undertaken, resulting in the addition of some six thousand. Before the war was over almost every woman in the city was enrolled and a very large proportion of them actively enlisted in some branch of the work of the World War. Their energies never flagged until that day of joy and delirium when the news was flashed that the Armistice had been signed. Once more the women of Macon proved of what metal they were made.

HISTORY OF MACON CHURCHES All that is attempted in the History of Macon churches is a record of some of the notable external facts in the religious life of the city during its first century, and of the organization of the several congregations. From 1823 to 1887 the religious population of the city of Macon was composed of Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics and Jews. During the last third of the first century of our history Disciples of Christ, Christian Scientists, Greek Catholic, Adventists, Theosophists, Religious Psychologists, Free Methodist, Salvation Army Workers, Pentecostal People, Lutherans, Nazarines and Free Will Baptists have been added to our religious population and work. During this time, the Universalists and Unitarians have held a few services in the city, but have not organized societies. Macon has always been a very religious community in the popular orthodox sense. The original plan for the town of Macon provided space in the town square for the Episcopalians, Baptists, Presbyterians and Methodists to erect

houses of worship. While none of these located on the square, the Methodists, Episcopalians and Presbyterians located and have remained near the original square. In February, 1825, an Episcopal minister came to Macon to minister to resident Episcopalians, who in common, with Methodists and Baptists and Presbyterians, seem to have been here from the very beginning of the town. In June, 1826, the first Presbyterian congregation of Macon was organized. In the same year the Baptists also organized and the Methodist Society was formed. On December 26, 1826, Governor G. M. Troup approved an act, previously passed by the Senate and House of Representatives, incorporating “the Presbyterian, Episcopalian and Baptist churches of the town of Macon and county of Bibb.” A Roman Catholic priest came to Macon in 1835 to minister to Roman Catholics who resided there. The Jews had their own cemetery by 1845 and in 1856 organized Beth Israel Congregation. The Christian denomination organized here in 1887. The Christian Science teaching was brought here in 1891. Some Macon people became interested in Theosophy in 1893. In 1911 the street meetings of the Pentecostal people started and have been held for the greater part of the time from then until now. They have never organized as they understood the church to be the body of Christ, which one enters by being born and baptized of the Spirit. The Lutherans commenced their services in the city of Macon in 1914. The Nazarines organized here in 1922. The Free Will Baptists organized the same year. And it was also in 1922 that the Macon Business Men’s Evangelistic Club was organized. Macon has had many religious revivals throughout her history which have been conducted by resident pastors and by the leading evangelists of the State and Nation. Sam P. Jones held many meetings here. The spirit of toleration and friendly relationships among various religious groups have characterized our religious life. The history of the various religious bodies of Macon having church buildings has been prepared by representatives of these bodies. HISTORY OF THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH IN MACON, GEORGIA By Mrs. James T. Wright The Protestant Episcopal Society sent Rev. Lot Jones to Macon in February, 1825. There was no place of public worship in this section, but he found the people eager for the establishment of one. A month later the organization began with a meeting, largely composed of Masons, which included Mr. Jones, held in the Masonic Lodge rooms on Cotton Ave. Resolutions were drawn stating that the name of the church should be Christ Church, the rector, Rev. Lot Jones, and contained the names of the first vestry, the Secretary and Treasurer. This resolution was presented to the Diocesan convention in Augusta in April, 1825. A year later Macon held its first Diocesan convention in the wooden Court house at Third and Mulberry. The following year, December, 1826, an Act to Incorporate the Presbyterian, Episcopal and Baptist Churches in


Macon, was signed by the Governor of Georgia. At this time the Van Luigo and permanently by Rev. C. C. Williams. Mr. editor of the Savannah Georgian wrote, after a visit to Macon: Williams remained until 1878 to be succeeded by Rev. Otis A. “Nothing characterizes its refinement more conclusively Glazebrook. St. John’s Mission was organized and the chapel of than the fact that it maintains an Episcopal minister.” Christ Church built during Mr. Glazebrook’s term as rector. A A lot was given by the Legislature on Third and Poplar serious railroad accident in 1881 made his resignation streets, and $1,000.00 was quickly subscribed for the building of necessary, Rev. W. C. McConnell taking temporary charge of the a church but before it was realized, something dulled the edge church until the coming of Rev. J. R. Winchester in 1882. Rev. of their enthusiasm, the discouraged rector resigned, and except T. A. Griffith and D. Watson Winn assisted during this time for occasional summer visits by Rev. Edward Neufville, they with the mission work of the church. were without a leader. But the flickering spirit had not died and Many changes marked the rectorship of Mr. Winchester. in January, 1833, Rev. Seneca G. Bragg, came to revive it. New societies were formed; the Appleton Church Home Society Services were held in different places. The first communion one of them; the church was repaired and improved, beautiful was administered in the counting room of Mr. William Hunter’s windows and other memorials recorded the loss of loyal and bank at Third and Walnut. The grandmother of the Misses beloved members of the church. Bequests from friends aided Baber-Blackmans was one of the communicants at that service. the work of the Parish and Missions. Mrs. Julia Parkman The lot that had been given for a church Jones’s gift of money and of her residence, to was sold for approximately $3,400.00, a new be used as a home for elderly women of the lot having been bought for $700.00, where Parish, was a tribute of love to her church Christ Church now stands, and which was and her Master. the site of the Bibb County jail. Additional Mr. Winchester resigned as rector in 1890. funds for a church building came from over Rev. F. F. Reese followed him, remaining until the State and from South Carolina, and on 1903. Rev. Bohler Walker filled the place Sexagesima Sunday, 1834, the first Episcopal made vacant by Mr. Reese’s resignation, and church was opened in Macon. When the was succeeded by Rev. John S. Bunting in organ arrived, the first of its kind seen here, 1908. The Cherokee Heights’ Mission was Christ Episcopal Church it created a sensation. Ten years later, its day organized under Mr. Bunting, who accepted a of glory had passed and it was supplanted by call to St. Louis in 1915. Dr. Charles L. Wells a more modern one. was rector from 1915 to 1917, resigning to take the Chair of The church was consecrated by Bishop Kemper in 1838, the Church History at the University of the South. During the original papers preserved in the church archives. New pews, a rectorship of Rev. Robert F. Gibson, who followed Mr. Wells, the belfry and bell were added in 1843 and a baptismal font, the gift system of free pews was inaugurated. Mr. Gibson resigned in of some young men of the Parish. This font and the first 1920 to accept the Chairmanship of Publicity of the National chandelier is now in St. Luke’s church in Hawkinsville. Council, Rev. Oliver J. Hart succeeded him the following In 1850 the church was taken down and all the available October, being the present rector of the Parish. parts rebuilt into the new church; the bell was transferred to the The history of St. Paul’s Parish is more condensed but not present tower where it remained until 1863, when it was given less important. It is the outgrowth of St. Paul’s Mission, begun to the Confederate government. The present bell was the gift of under the Rev. Mr. Rees while he was rector of Christ Church. A. A. Roff in 1868. The Ladies’ Aid Society, that still functions Mr. Rees resigned the rectorship there in 1869 to become the with the same faithfulness and efficiency, was organized during first rector of St. Paul’s Parish. Mr. Bragg’s rectorship. In 1846 failing health necessitated the Through the efforts of Mr. Huff, at that time Mayor of the city retirement of the able and kindly man. Until his death in 1861 of Macon, the City Council gave the Parish the use of a brick he was connected with the Episcopal School at Montpelier. warehouse on the old Monroe Railroad, which, during the Civil Rev. Joseph A. Shanklin, of great intellectual and spiritual War, had been used as a powder magazine. This was on Forsyth ability, took up the work. In 1852 the church was consecrated Street a block behind the present St. Paul’s church. Mr. Rees by Bishop Elliott, and after a short period of service Mr. supervised the converting of it into a church building, and on an Shanklin was called to St. Peters in Charleston, where he died adjoining lot a Sunday School room was built, which a band of nine months later during the yellow fever epidemic. loyal workers soon made into a flourishing Parish school. For the next fifteen years Rev. Henry K. Rees presided over Ten years later the present church was built at the corner of the Parish. During that time the church received its first Forsyth and College Streets. Rev. Robert F. Jackson came to the legacy, and mourned the death of Bishop Elliott and Nathan C. Parish after the resignation of Mr. Rees, followed in order by Rev. Monroe. St. Barnabas Mission was started in which connection C. J. Wingate, Rev. Dudley W. Powers, Rev. H. O. Judd, Rev. J. M. are linked the names of Mrs. I. C. Plant, Mrs. George Payne and Northrop and the present rector, Rev. Charles H. Lee. Of those Mrs. Albert Mix. St. Paul’s Misson was also started, which who aided in the establishment of the church only Capt. W. W. developed into St. Paul’s Parish, as St. Barnabas Mission was Carnes and Mr. T. D. Tinsley remain, except in the archives of merged into the Parish of St. James. memory, where the names of the faithful are forever cherished. Rev. Benjamin J. Johnson succeeded Mr. Rees in 1869. The first meeting leading to the organization of a Mission Resigning in 1875 his place was filled temporarily by Rev. Jacob in Cherokee Heights was held in October, 1911. At later 133

meetings the plans were perfected and the Mission gotten under way, with the first Sunday School meetings held in the home of Mr. and Mrs. L. P. Hillyer. In 1912 a church building was erected at Courtland and Napier Aves. where services were conducted by the Rev. Mr. Bunting and his Assistant, Rev. Malcolm W. Lockhart, with the first service held Sunday evening, Nov. 15, 1912. Rev. H. L. Jewett Williams was given charge of the Sunday School until leaving for Oxford, England. Mr. Lockhart succeeding him. Application for the incorporation of the Mission as an independent Parish was made to the Superior court of Bibb County in February, 1915, after receiving the sanction of the Bishop. The first rector, Rev. Williams Curtis White, took charge the following October. Mr. White resigned in 1916 and was succeeded by the Rev. Israel H. Noe in 1917. Mr. Noe, after a few months accepted a call to Atlanta, and Chaplain Robb White of Camp Wheeler filled the time from then until Rev. J. Francis McCloud was called in 1918. Mr. McCloud resigned in the Spring of 1924 to accept a call to work in Nashville, Tennessee. During the incumbency of the Rev. Seneca C. Bragg as rector of Christ Church, that is in the fourteen years prior to 1846, the work of the Church was begun among the negroes, and this earnest and Godly clergyman baptized fourteen colored children. It is probable that from this beginning came the establishment of St. Mark’s mission chapel for colored people. It is located on Madison Street and is at present under the care of the colored archdeacon who reports 26 communicants connected with the mission. Along with St. Mark’s mission is a parochial school for negro children conducted by two colored women and under the oversight of the Bishop of the Diocese of Atlanta. The reports to the last Council of the Diocese show a total of 921 Episcopalians in Macon. HISTORY OF MACON PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES By Stanley M. Frazer FIRST PRESBYTERIAN Presbyterian history in the city of Macon dates from June 18, 1826, when twenty-five members organized the “Macon Presbyterian Church.” On December 26th of the same year the organization was incorporated by Act of the Georgia Legislature, and Angus McKinzie, Edward W. Wright, John Lamar, Samuel Gillespie, and A. L. Acree were named as the first trustees. The congregation, as did the congregations of sister churches, worshipped for a time in the first County Court House, located on Mulberry and Third Streets. In 1829 the Presbyterians built their first house of worship, a small wooden structure at Fourth (Broadway) and Walnut Streets. In 1837 the congregation moved to a much larger and handsomer building in the same locality. On September 19, 1858, the church edifice at Mulberry and First Streets was dedicated and from that time has been the stronghold of Presbyterianism in the city of Macon and Middle Georgia. While Macon was yet a small town, the faith and vision of that body of Presbyterians made possible the building of what was considered one of the handsomest church buildings in the entire state. From the time of organization of the church, the slaves were admitted to church membership and worshipped in the

same building. As the negro membership increased they were given the use of the church basement at Fourth and Walnut Streets. Later a separate building was erected for the use of the First Presbyterian Church negroes on the same lot. In 1886 the entire negro membership was dismissed in a body to their own separate organization, which is now known as the Washington Avenue Colored Presbyterian Church. The following have served as pastors of the First Presbyterian Church: Rev. Joseph C. Stiles, Rev. James C. Patterson, Rev. Edwin Holt, Rev. James Stratton, Rev. Samuel J. Cassels, Rev. Daniel Ingles, Rev. Richard Hooker, Rev. R. L. Breck, Rev. David Wills, Rev. A. W. Clisby, Rev. W. B. Jennings, Rev. R. R. White, Rev. R. E. Douglas. Rev. George Stanley Frazer, the present pastor, began his ministry as supply pastor in May, 1923. In July, 1923, he was extended a call to the regular pastorate. The official boards of the Church are composed of Elders and Deacons. Those now serving as Ruling Elders on the Session are: Robert L. Anderson, Claud S. Cason, W. E. Dunwody, John J. McKay, James B. Hall, and Clarence H. Andrew. The present Board of Deacons is composed of Charles Akerson, E. R. Stamps, G. A. Rankin, Hal C. King, W. E. Dunwody, Jr., James N. McCaw, Judge Richard C. Jordan, J. W. J. Taylor, Julius H. Otto, W. P. Fleming, C. A. McKay, A. W. McClure, Charles M. Powell, George M. Norwood and C. R. Wright. The following have served as superintendent of the Sunday School: Judge John J. Gresham, Clifford Anderson, Dr. H. P. Wright, George B. Dettre, Walter T. Johnson, R. W. Jemison, James B. Hall, A. G. Irons, W. E. Dunwody, Sr., G. A. Rankin, A. W. McClure, and John J. McKay. The First Presbyterian Church is regarded as one of the most substantial and progressive religious bodies in the city of Macon. Only recently funds have been pledged for the erection of a new Sunday School building to cost approximately $75,000. The building will be placed next to the present church structure, and will consist of three floors and a roof garden. The building will be ready for use by the middle of the summer of 1925 and when completed will be adequate for more than a thousand scholars organized along modern church school lines. Four churches have grown out of the old First Church: Tattnall Square Presbyterian, Vineville Presbyterian, East Macon Presbyterian, and Westminster Presbyterian. TATTNALL SQUARE PRESBYTERIAN Tattnall Square Presbyterian Church, corner College and Oglethorpe streets, was organized January 9, 1887, as the Second Presbyterian Church. Its charter membership was composed of thirty-nine names, thirty-two of whom came from the First Presbyterian Church. Rev. Robert Adams supplied the church from its date of organization to June 30th, 1889. Rev.


S. L. Morris was the first regular pastor. Other ministers who have served the Church are Rev. W. H. Frazer, Rev. D. N. McLaughlin, Rev. R. G. Newsome, Rev. P. C. Morgan, Rev. J. E. Wallace, Rev. M. E. Daniels, and Rev. Angus McNair. The first church building of this congregation was located on the corner of Ash and Calhoun Streets, it being the outgrowth of a mission Sunday School, which had been organized and fostered by Rev. A. W. Clisby, pastor of the First Church, and Mr. G. B. Dettre. The liberality and interest of the late John J. Gresham made possible the changing of the location to the present site, corner College and Oglethorpe Streets. The name Tattnall Square Presbyterian Church was adopted at the time of this change. The present pastor, Rev. Angus McNair, assumed charge August 20th, 1922.

pastorate of Rev. A. W. Clisby, the pastor of the First Church. It was conducted as a mission on Elm Street, but in 1907 it was moved to the present location, corner of Jeff Davis and Harrold Streets. It was formally organized as a church October 10, 1910, with a membership of nineteen. The first regular pastor was the Rev. S. Gordon Hutton, W. M. Howington, W. G. Connell, and Frank Reagan are the elders composing the Session. The deacons are: W. L. Thompson, F. B. Steger, W. W. Wilson and L. M. Howington.

VINEVILLE PRESBYTERIAN The Vineville Presbyterian Church had its origin on January 24, 1904, when thirty-seven members of the First Presbyterian Church formulated a request to the Macon Presbytery for a regular church organization. Rev. R. E. Douglas, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, presided over the meeting. The organization was perfected on April 29th of the same year. Pastors who have served the church are: Rev. J. H. Taylor, Rev. T. R. Best, Rev. C. F. Coble, Rev. J. H. Owens, and Rev. McK R. Long. The last named assumed charge March, 1924. The following are elders and compose the church Session: T. S. Lowry, Sr., G. T. Kinnett, J. D. Kinnett, J. J. Gaillard, C. O. Stone, R. C. Corbin, and Dr. I. H. Adams. The following are members of the Board of Deacons: H. Butterworth, W. W. Hackett, J. E. Wilson, E. Robson, S. D. Dodds, E. T. Bowen, and E. B. Codington. The first church building was occupied November, 1904. The present building was completed July, 1910. The church has a present membership of 185. EAST MACON PRESBYTERIAN The history of the East Macon Presbyterian Church dates back to a Sunday School conducted in an old warehouse. This work was encouraged by the First Church and some of its most faithful members gave of their time and substance to its development. Among the originators of the work were Mr. T. J. C. Park, Mr. J. B. Bell, Miss Daisy Clisby, and Mrs. Nelson. The application for organization was twenty-eight charter members. The Macon Presbytery appointed a commission to organize the work, and this commission consisted of Rev. J. L. Irvin, Rev. Wm. McKay, Rev. Luther Link, Mr. T. S. Lowry, and Mr. Thomas B. West. The first preaching services were generally conducted on Sunday afternoons by the pastor of the First Church, until the first regular pastor, Rev. G. T. Bourne, was called. Other pastors who have served the church are Rev. O. B. Currie, Rev. Eli Thomas, Rev. J. T. Wildman, and Rev. Carl Barth. The present pastorate, that of the Rev. Carl Barth, began early in 1921. The elders composing the Session of the church are: James T. Oliphant, G. O. Meaders, and Joel Smallwood. WESTMINSTER PRESBYTERIAN Westminster Presbyterian Church is the last church organized from the First Church. Work was begun during the

METHODISM IN MACON By Orville A. Park In the original plan of the town of Macon a square was set apart for the Episcopalians, Baptists, Presbyterian and Methodists on which to erect their churches to be surrounded by church yards as was customary in those days. The square was used as a cemetery but none of the churches were built there. The Methodists exchanged their corner of this square for another lot on the common just outside the original platted area. The State’s grant to this lot, the original home of the Methodists, bearing the signature of Governor George M.Troup, conveying the quarter block on the northeast corner of First and Mulberry Streets where Mulberry Street Church now stands, is still in the possession of that church. On this lot there was then a beautiful grove and near it flowed a crystal stream. The location was ideal for a village church. The Methodist Society was formed in 1825 in a warehouse on Mulberry Street near the present location of the Hotel Lanier, with twenty-six members. Its meetings were held in the rude, little temporary court house, until a church could be built. The next year Thomas Darley was sent to Clinton and Macon by the South Carolina Conference of which Georgia then formed a part. Darley was an Englishman and during the Revolution had been a trooper under Tarleton. Under his leadership the little congregation began to plan for a church building. Contributions of building material were collected by the women and the work was done in large part by three consecrated mechanics, Thomas Gardner and the Crews brothers, members of the church. It was completed in 1829. That same year the first Sunday School was organized by Dr. Ignatius A. Few, the then pastor, afterwards President of Emory College. In January, 1831, the Georgia Conference was organized and its first annual session was held in the Macon church. The town grew and prospered and the church shared its growth and prosperity, especially after the gracious revival in 1835. Shortly after this the establishing of the Georgia Female College (chartered in 1836) now Wesleyan, brought to Macon a number of strong preachers, among them George F. Pierce (afterwards the renowned Bishop Pierce) whose coming added greatly to the influence and prosperity of the church. The old College has always been one of the most potent factors in the religious as well as the intellectual life of the city. The Macon Church soon began missionary effort in the outlying and needy portions of the city and surrounding country. As early as 1842 a Sunday School was started in that section now known as South Macon, then on the border of the primeval forest, for the children of the hunters, Indian traders


and fishermen. This School and Mission Station grew into Jones Chapel, built in 1870, and named for Uncle Jimmie Jones, the indefatigable City Missionary, whose labors made the church building possible. Jones Chapel has since become Second Street Church, the present building having been erected in 1904. The scattered, but wealthy and aristocratic, village of Vineville built a church in 1846, but after a few years of independent existence it was merged with Mulberry Street and finally lost its identity altogether. It was organized in 1891 and the present church was built in 1897. In 1907 its Sunday School room was greatly enlarged and improved. This church, under the leadership of Rev. O. F. Cook, its pastor, is now planning for the erection of a splendid modern plant adequate to the needs of its congregation and the rapidly developing section which it serves. In 1849 and ‘50, during the pasotrate of Dr. W. R. Branham, the original Macon or Mulberry Street Church was rolled back on the same lot and used as Sunday School room. A new building was erected, a commodious structure with large columns in front and a spacious gallery for the colored membership, the slaves worshipping with their masters in those days. The congregation at this time was large and well organized, and principally through the Sunday School and with the assistance of the City Missionary undertook work in various sections of the City, the most important stations being in the vicinity of First Street and across the river in East Macon. In both these localities plans were made to build chapels or churches, but the War Between the States intervened before the plans were executed. During that great struggle the congregation melted away until there was only a handful of old men, women and children left. First Street Church was partially completed in 1860, but was destroyed by fire. The struggling congregation endeavored to rebuild and after a time were able to occupy their own home, but the building was not completed until 1871. This building, completely remodeled and modernized in 1903-’04, is still the home of this splendid church. It was not until after the war that hopes for a church in East Macon were realized. In 1868 Mrs. Sarah Cutter donated a lot and in 1871 the church was built. When nearly completed a great storm wrecked the building, but the congregation, with the assistance of the Methodists across the river, rebuilt at once. The Annual Conference held at Thomasville in 1872, authorized the establishment in Vineville, of the Orphans’ Home, another great Methodist institution whose noble work has blessed not only Macon but all South Georgia. In 1882, during the pastorate of Dr. Joseph S. Key, afterwards Bishop Key, Mulberry Street Church was torn down to its foundation and the present Gothic structure, the third on the site, erected thereon. In 1894, under the leadership of Dr. Alonzo Monk, the church was again remodeled and the Sunday School Annex added. At that time the Sunday School building was regarded as possibly the best in the South. Immediately following the Spanish-American war and the liberation of Cuba, Mulberry Street Sunday School, at the suggestion of the Pastor Dr. W. W. Pinson (now Missionary

Secretary of the Southern Methodist church) undertook the support of its own missionary in the Island. The School, begun by Rev. Thad E. Leland, has developed into Chandler College, the principal Mulberry Street United Methodist Church educational institution of the Methodists in Cuba. The Sunday School still continues the support of its Cuban representative. Centenary Church, as its name indicates, was founded in the centennial year of organized Methodism in America. It, too, began as a mission Sunday School organized and fostered by Mulberry Street. When the Mother Church celebrated her seventy-fifth anniversary in 1903, the first brick of new Centenary was laid, but the church was not completed and dedicated until 1913. In pursuance of that wise policy which has always characterized the church, Macon Methodism has planned to extend its borders so as to keep pace with the growth of the city. Its most recent outposts are Newberg, Cherokee Heights and Ingleside, all of which were established in 1915 and 1916. During the present year Cherokee Heights has broken ground and has in course of erection a handsome and commodious building in keeping with its large and rapidly growing congregation. The history of Mulberry Street Church for the last quarter of a century has been in large part the record of the labors of two of her devoted pastors, Dr. W. N. Ainsworth (now Bishop Ainsworth) and Dr. T. D. Ellis (recently elected Secretary of the Board of Church Extension.) Dr. Ainsworth served the church for two full quadreniums, Dr. Ellis nine and a half years. Under the splendid leadership of these two able and popular pastors the church has grown to a position of commanding influence in the city, its membership now being a little more than two thousand. Twice during this period considerable additions were made to the church rendered necessary by the constant growth of the congregation and especially of the Sunday School The present pastor, Dr. Walter Anthony, was appointed to the charge in December 1922. The zeal, earnestness and ability with which he has begun his ministry indicates that there will be no going backward under his leadership. The missionary spirit has always inspired the Macon churches. From their midst have gone many noble workers to spread the glorious light of the gospel in the dark places of the earth. The stronger churches maintain their own special representatives, in the foreign field, and the liberality of the Macon Methodists to all the missionary and benevolent enterprises of the church is known throughout the connection. To the great Missionary Centenary Campaign, Mulberry Street Church alone subscribed more than a hundred thousand dollars, leading the South Georgia Conference, and standing among the foremost churches of Southern Methodism. Since the first Methodist Society was organized in 1826,


Macon has grown from a straggling village to a large, wellbuilt and prosperous city of sixty thousand. The little society of twenty-six, sharing the fortunes and vicissitudes of the people of whom it formed an important part, has likewise grown to an influential communion of more than six thousand members. Mulberry Street, the old Mother Church, has eight strong, beautiful daughters and there is, besides, the City Mission with its three or four Chapels and Sunday Schools. These very briefly are some of the most important facts concerning the Methodist Church as they are writ in the history of the City. But the real history of a church is not recorded in a city’s annals. The souls that are saved, the lives that are reclaimed, the characters that are formed, the works of charity and of mercy that are wrought, the uplift that is brought to the people of a community, the silent forces that make for righteousness, these are only recorded “in the Lamb’s Book of Life.” When that book shall be opened on the last great day, and the roll shall be called of those “who have come up through great tribulation, and have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb,” no inconsiderable company of those whose feet were planted in paths of righteousness by the Methodist churches of Macon shall hear the plaudit, “Well done, thou good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of the Lord.”

Besides doing mission work in and near the city of Macon these eleven churches cooperate with other churches through the Georgia Baptist, and Southern Baptist conventions in doing mission work in all parts of Georgia, throughout the South, and in seventeen foreign countries; in maintaining secondary schools, colleges, and theological seminaries in Georgia and the South; in caring for orphans and for aged and infirm ministers and their First Baptist Church - New families, and in various other Street built 1895 helpful ministries. Few churches in either of the conventions have shown greater liberality than the churches of Macon. The First Church, Macon, the honored and loved mother, has led all the churches in Georgia in contributions to the Baptist 75 Million Campaign, 1919-1924. This noble church gave more than $200,000.00 to the campaign. To recount the part that Baptists have always had in the movements which made for moral betterment and civic righteousness would be impossible here. It is enough to know that in all that has made for that righteousness which “exalteth a nation” the BAPTISTS IN MACON Baptists have been found standing side by side with those who By H. M. Fugate The first white settlers to come to this community located have lived most worthily and have fought most valiantly. near Fort Hawkins about the year 1819. The First Baptist The present pastors of all these Macon churches, like most of Church was organized in 1826. There were nine charter those who were before them, are men with a passion for the lost. members. John M. Gray, Jonathan Neel, and C. A. Tharpe were The evangelistic note and the pleading tone are constantly heard the ministers composing the Presbytery which constituted the in our churches. The result is that many are being baptized into church. Pioneer conditions of life surrounded these early our fellowship, and our membership is growing rapidly. churchmen and we may be sure they were sturdy, hardIt is impossible within the limits set for this article, to write at working men and women, inured to hardships and ready to do length of all the eleven churches separately or even to write fully their part in laying the foundations for of any of them. The First Church, because the present-day civilization of our of its long history and many ministries, beautiful city. From the first they deserves the largest mention. This church recognized their obligations to missions, was one of ten, meeting in Crawford Christian education, temperance, and to County July 27, 1838, to organize the all that made for enlightenment and Rehoboth Association. The Echeeconnee progress. We who have entered upon our (then spelled Itchaconnah) Association, of rich heritage do not often stop to think of which most of the ten churches had been what we owe to the toil and sacrifice of members, passed a non-fellowship those who bore the burden and heat of resolution, which practically excluded all the early days. who stood for missions, the education of Under the pastoral leadership of ministers, and other things making for Reverend J. M. Gray the little church of progress. Being missionary in spirit and First Baptist Church - High Place nearly one hundred years ago met from finding that in their former connection place to place for worship as they had not, they had no opportunity to expand, they for a number of years, a house of worship they could call their came together in a new association and took the name of own. The Lord continued to add to their numbers until now Rehoboth - meaning room, space. All of the Macon churches are the little band of that far off day has grown to more than six members of the Rehoboth, and from their continuing growth it thousand white Baptists in Macon and her environs. These are seems that the name was well chosen. organized into eleven vigorous churches which, taken in the During its long and useful career many distinguished order of their organization are: First, Second, East Macon, ministers have served as pastors of the First Church. The Vineville, Tattnall Square, Mabel White, Bellevue, Tabernacle, roster is not complete but included in the list we find the Mikado Place, Cherokee Heights and Cross Keys. names of Drs. J. H. Campbell, Sylvanus Landrum, Adair J. 137

Holmes, E. W. Warren, W. H. McIntosh, T. E. Skinner, George Braxton Taylor, J. L. White, E. C. Dargan, G. L. Yates and William Russell Owen. Marked activity in organizing new churches, in growing parts of the city, is discovered during the period the loved and honored E. W. Warren was pastor. Three colonies seem to have gone out during his pastorate, or to express it differently, three daughters set up house keeping for the Lord within that time. These are East Macon, Vineville and Tattnall Square - all now grown to strong, useful churches. The mother church deserves honor for such a work and the permanent record should show the unselfish devotion to the cause at large on the part of the pastor who led in this work. While the entire history of the First church has been such as to keep it always in the front rank of the leading churches of the denomination it seems to have renewed its youth within the last few years. About seven years ago G. L. Yates came from Texas to become pastor. He was here just two years. It is safe to say that no man ever more completely won the heart of the city in so short a time than Gholson Yates did in these two years. A decided quickening of interest in both evangelism and missions was seen during this pastorate and this interest has continued unabated under the leadership of the able and aggressive, the capable and cultured present pastor, William Russell Owen. All honor to this great church! Located upon a commanding eminence at the head of one of the city’s most beautiful streets it is visible from many sections of the city. Like a city set on a hill its light has gone out into all the earth. May it shine in increasing brightness through all the years to come!

The one most distinguishing mark of the Vineville church seems to be its intense missionary spirit. This has been true throughout its history. It is most active in local mission work and then its light shines afar. For a period this church, though small in numbers, led all the churches of the Southern Baptist Convention in gifts to Foreign Mission. Five of its members are now at work in China and Japan: Mrs. Lillian Todd Gallaway, Rev. and Mrs. C. J. Lowe, Mrs. Janet Mallary Torrey, and Miss Frances Fulghum. The Vineville church has the worthy and enviable record of having always given more than twice as much for others as it has spent on local work. The pastors have been: R. D. Mallary, E. D. Carroll, S. C. Todd, W. L. Walker, W. H. Rich, J. L. White and Martin A. Wood. Dr. Wood, the present consecrated, efficient, and much loved pastor, came to the pastorate in 1915 and under his wise leadership the work has been signally blessed.

SECOND CHURCH The Second Church whose first building was on Wood Street, later moved to Third and Hawthorne, and now located on the corner of Second and Elm, was at the first known as South Macon Baptist Church. It has had a checkered history of which the available records are very fragmentary. The story would be most interesting and in some respects unique but there are none living who know it in a connected way. It is known that this organization was in existence in 1867 but it can not be learned definitely how old it was at that time. A challenging opportunity is now presented to this church as it is in the midst of a thickly populated area of the city.

TATTNALL SQUARE The Tattnall Square Baptist Church was constituted September 6, 1891. The meeting for organization was held in the chapel of Mercer University. The church used Mercer chapel as a place of worship for eight years. It then erected its present building on the corner of Mercer Campus, Adams and Ash streets. Because of its location Tattnall Square has been closely identified with Mercer for the past thirty-three years. Many members of the faculty and of the student body have held membership in it. Its ministries to the college have been many and varied and with the continuing growth of Mercer the opportunity to serve becomes more challenging. Wherever Mercer men are found the name of Tattnall Square is held in loving remembrance. The membership of this church is about nine hundred. Besides service rendered to the college and local community there is marked activity in mission work in the city and an increasing spirit of liberality in the support of the wider kingdom interests. The first pastor was Dr. E. W. Warren, for so long the loved pastor of the First Church, who, because of failing strength, laid down the heavier burdens of the larger church to take up the lighter work of the new organization. He served until his death in 1893. Other pastors have been A. B. Campbell, M. A. Jenkins, J. G. Harrison, W. H. Sledge, C. A. Turner, B. B. Bailey, R. C. Granberry, and the present incumbent, Henry M. Fugate, who became pastor in 1918.

VINEVILLE The Vineville Baptist Church was organized in the home of Judge John L. Hardeman, May 10, 1891. It worshiped for several months in the Lamar home on Lamar Street. Later a building was erected on the corner of Lamar Street and Vineville Avenue. This location will be abandoned in a very short while and the congregation will move into a splendid new building on the corner of Pierce and Vineville avenues. This building, of English Gothic design, with tower and roof garden, built of rough texture red brick and trimmed with Indiana limestone, is beautiful to look upon. It is modern in equipment throughout, providing for departmental Sunday School work and all other church activities, and also for the social life of the congregation. It is perhaps the best equipped church building in the city.

MABEL WHITE In the year 1895 Dr. K. P. Moore, R. J. Taylor and others organized a Sunday School on Hanson Street. Later Dr. Moore conducted a mission and was authorized by the First Church to receive members who, at the first, were enrolled as members of the First Church. Then, as the work grew, Reverend R. W. Eubanks was called to preach there and in a little while a church was constituted. The charter name given it was Waverly Hall Missionary Baptist Church. The work continued to prosper. Their building became inadequate. A new lot was secured, and the first building on the new site was erected by members of the First Church. The name of the organization was changed to Mabel White Memorial Baptist Church, in memory of the daughter of Dr. J. L. White, at that


time pastor of the First church. This is now a vigorous church, working to strengthen the kingdom of God in that thickly settled and growing section of Macon and coming more and more to recognize and to accept an obligation to minister beyond their own borders. Z. E. Barron, the present pastor, is earnest, aggressive, and faithful in leadership. The full list of pastors is not at hand, but a number of strong men have served this congregation.

ization and work of the Cross Keys and Mikado Place churches. These are both young churches, but show signs of real life and bid fair to grow into strong organizations in the near future. J. C. Mays is the loved pastor of Cross Keys, and J. M. Sullivan is the present honored and efficient leader at Mikado Place. A sketch of Baptist work in Macon would be most incomplete without a brief sketch of Mercer University and without some reference of the work being done by the Negro Baptists. These are omitted here because they are to appear elsewhere.

BELLEVUE The Bellevue Baptist Church was constituted in 1894 with thirteen charter members. The pastors, with the exception of two or three, have been Mercer students. Due to this fact, there have been short pastorates and inadequate pastoral visitation. For years the growth was slow. It was not until very recently that the church became selfsupporting. The work is now growing and the future is bright. H. H. Connell, the present pastor, is from North Georgia and has much of the ruggedness and strength so characteristic of the men of the hills. He is a good preacher and a sane and loved leader. TABERNACLE CHURCH The Tabernacle Baptist Church was organized in 1907 under the leadership of Reverent T. W. Callaway. There were eighteen charter members. For a time they worshiped in a tent on Walnut Street. The years that followed were years of difficulty and hardship, yet withal years of rapid growth and large accomplishment. The tent of meeting was moved from site to site and for a part of the time the congregations assembled in rented halls. During these years of struggle and weakness, eighteen young men and women, out of this fellowship heard and heeded God’s call to the far lands and are now doing ....... work in various foreign countries. Surely this is a worthy record. This church has also been known for its accent on evangelism. They have had many well-known ministers to lead in evangelistic meetings, among the number being the late Dr. Schofield, Editor of the Schofield Reference Bible. The present lot at the corner of Second and Arch streets was bought about six years ago. The pastors have been T. W. Callaway, T. F. Callaway, R. E. Neighbor and Grady D. Feagan. Mr. Feagan resigned in July of the present year and the church has not called his successor at the time this is written. The membership has gone from eighteen to more than eight hundred in seventeen years and the work goes on. CHEROKEE HEIGHTS Cherokee Heights Church was organized in 1917 with fifteen members. The growth was slow for the first three or four years but under the pastorate care of W. H. Sledge more than two hundred and fifty were added to the membership within three years. The present pastor, J. H. Barber, has only been on the field about four months at the time this is written. He seems to fit well into the situation in that beautiful and growing section, and the outlook for the work there is most encouraging. CROSS KEYS AND MIKADO PLACE The writer has not been furnished data relating to the organ-

OFFICERS OF THE CONGREGATION BETH-ISRAEL, 1924 President - Lawrence J. Bernd. Vice-President - Joseph Waxelbaum. Secretary - Isaac Flatau. Treasurer - Morris Harris. Trustees - Charles J. Bloch, David Fleischer, M. A. Newman, Robert Nussbaum, Joseph W. Popper, Miss Estelle Thorner. Honorary Trustees - Morris Michael, Gates J. Waxelbaum. Temple Beth Israel Board of Revenue Michael Bloch, Sam Guthman. Rabbi - Isaac E. Marcusson. HISTORY OF THE CONGREGATION BETH-ISRAEL By Aaron B. Bernd Modernization is a process that comes alike to machines and to men, to business methods and to institutions. The history of the Congregation Beth-Israel, as spread broadly across the pages of the leatherbound folio that has, since 1859, served it as minutes book, is the story of a group of men harmonizing their devout worship of God to the conditions in which they live, bringing their lives as well as their formalities to that condition which we are pleased to describe as a “twentieth century” mode. The change may be seen in the substitution of the typewriter ribbon for India ink as the agent of transcription; in the transformation of entries from the flowing style which described the President’s “well-chosen” remarks, to a mere mass of statistics; in the alteration of the abbreviation “Geo.” to “Ga.” It is a mutation from meetings enlivened with wordy altercation to sessions at which all business is transacted with that uniform harmony which seems to be the goal of American democracy; from a system of fining members for absence, to the current plan of providing a dinner to gain their attendance; from the complete isolation of a village religious body, to that fuller nationalization betokened by its present Rabbi’s position as secretary of the Central Conference of American Rabbis; from an annual budget written in three figures to a list of appropriations which mounts into five; from an organization which once demanded that, at religious services, women should occupy seats separate from those reserved for men, to a group which now has elected a woman to its Board of Trustees.


Not in exterior aspects alone has the Congregation BethIsrael brought itself to the modern conformation. Where, originally, services were given in Hebrew, with lectures delivered in either German or English, today all save a few passages of the ritual must be in English. An ancient custom which required that men remain covered during prayers, was discarded - not without a long fight - a quarter of a century ago. A constitutional provision of 1859 which stipulated to the employment of a man to supervise the slaughter of meat for the Congregation and to attend in the public market from 6 to 7 each morning to see that brethren of his faith should get only “kosher” flesh, has not for years been considered a necessity by the members of the same Congregation. The ancient ritual used by the original members of the body has been, during the years, superseded by forms of a more liberal trend, until today the Macon Congregation numbers itself among the leading “reform” Jewish groups in the country. All this, as has been intimated, did not come about without opposition. In the light of current practice, it is odd to read where, in 1850, an application for the position of Reader was rejected because it was feared that the applicant’s principles were inclined to “moderate reform,” a code, said the Committee on Investigation, “contrary to the express law of our constitution.” Pasted to the fly-leaf of the minutes book is a clipping from the Macon Telegraph and Messenger of July 23, 1875. It is the regulation notice of the county Ordinary that a certain member of the Congregation had applied to him “for exemption of personality.” Following it comes the man’s statements in justification of his petition. He alleges that he had promised a sum of money for the erection of a new synagogue, then just completed; that he had done so with the express understanding that the members of the Congregation would continue to follow the orthodox customs and traditions of the faith and that now the “innovations of the latter day Synagogue” had been introduced, “thereby destroying the ancient faith of our fathers,” and he felt it his duty to refrain from contributing to such an undertaking. “I seek to defraud no one,” concludes this interesting document, “and I wish it positively understood that neither exemption or bankrupt laws shall ever be applied to by me to cover one dime of my just indebtedness. I owe a few trifling debts and here take occasion to inform my creditors that I am fully able to pay them and all others that I may in the future contract.” To many people, as evidently to this man, the ceremonies of a faith are as important as its tenets. He failed to realize that, in discarding the outmoded formalities of ancient Semitic custom, his fellow worshipers could still, as they had done, retain all their deep faith in the God of their fathers. The movement toward the discarding of encumbering traditions seems to have been completed at about the beginning of the present century, when Gustav Bernd was entering on a long term as president of the Congregation, and Rabbi. I. E. Marcusson was serving his first period as its spiritual leader. It was shortly after this - in 1902 - that the organization moved into the Temple which it now occupies, at Cherry and Spring Streets. Entrance into the new home definitely closed the long period of struggle, change and

discouragement which began with “an informal meeting of several Israelites of the City of Macon at the home of E. Brown, Esq, on October 30, 1859.” At this gathering, attended by eleven men, the chairman, Emanuel Isaacs, explained “the object of this meeting to be to form, if possible, a Congregation. A committee was appointed to make investigation and recommendations. On November 6, they definitely reported the wisdom of following such a course. On December 4, the Congregation was officially formed, by the adoption of a Constitution, and the decision to advertise for a Reader to care for its spiritual welfare. Twenty-six names are enrolled as charter members of the new body. Besides the chairman, Emanuel Isaacs, and the secretary, A. Dassau, the list included, A. Abraham, S. Binswanger, E. Brown, L. Cohen, H. Crone, E. Einstein, R. Einstein, D. Goldsmith, H. Goodman, I. Hertzfield, S. Isaacs, Mayer Joseph, S. Landaur, M. Landaur, Morris Levy, H. Monheimer, Isaac Morris, W. Nordlinger, J. Pflaumlacher, S. Rosenberg, A. Sampson, H. Shiller, H. Waterman and Isaac Weil. At the first election of officers, Elias Einstein was named president. Since his time, his place has been filled by only fourteen other men, though some of them have served through two or more periods. The list of presidents of the Congregation includes: Elias Einstein, Dec. 11, 1859, to Jan. 11, 1863. H. Goodman, Jan. 11, 1863, to July 17, 1863. D. Abrahams, July 17, 1863, to April 2, 1871. J. H. Hertz, April 2, 1871, to March 29, 1874. Jacob Harris, March 29, 1874, to April 14, 1878. J. Dannenberg, April 14, 1878, to March 21, 1880. Myron Nussbaum, March 21, 1880, to April 10, 1881. A. Binswanger, April 10, 1881, to November 11, 1883. D. Abrahams, Nov. 11, 1883, to April 12, 1885. Jacob Harris, April 12, 1885, to April 18, 1889. D. Abrahams, April 18,1889, to April 24, 1890. J. Dannenberg, April 24, 1890, to April 10, 1891. L. Newman, April 10, 1891, to April 1, 1892. D. Whiteman, April 1, 1892, to April 2, 1893. L. Newman, April 2, 1893, to April 4, 1899. Gustav Bernd, April 4, 1899, to April 13, 1919. Morris Michael, April 13, 1919, to April 9, 1922. G. J. Waxelbaum, April 9, 1922, to April 27, 1924. L. J. Bernd, April 27, 1924 During the years while these men held office, there were several changes in the place of worship. At the formation of the Congregation, a hall on Cherry Street was rented for services, and this was retained until 1864, when a room in the Jewett Building on Second Street was procured. Back to Cherry Street, the Congregation went again in 1872, to take over the use of Isaacs Hall. Then, in 1874, the Congregation moved into its own Synagogue -a Temple it had built at Second and Poplar Streets, after years of patient dreaming and planning. The edifice, situated on the lot where the telephone exchange now stands,


served the needs of members until 1902, when the present Temple was dedicated. The Congregation had outgrown the old building, and had found it undesirable because of its proximity to the city market which, at that time, caused much stir and bustle in the neighborhood on Saturday mornings, while services were being held. Since 1902, no change of residence has occurred. The new home has been enlarged by the addition of the Gustav Bernd Memorial rooms for Sunday School and group meetings. It is natural that, from the beginning of the organization down to a few years ago, much of its effort should have been devoted to the necessity of raising funds for the building of its various homes. Money was also needed for the purchase of a cemetery, though a munificent gift to the Congregation in 1879, by William Wolff, provided the nucleus for the present beautiful burial grounds adjourning Riverside Cemetery. When the body went into debt, at the beginning of the century, to pay for its new home, a loan was made from the Mercer University Endowment Fund. The fact is interesting, particularly in view of the knowledge that the money which Jesse Mercer gave for the founding of the University which bears his name, had been bequeathed to him by his wife, who had inherited it from her first husband, who was a Jew. It is an index, too, of the long-standing good will which has existed between Jews and Baptists of Macon. In 1883, when the First Baptist Church was in process of construction, the Congregation Beth-Israel offered their home to their brothers of a different faith. The offer was similarly extended from Baptist to Jew in 1901, while the present Synagogue was being built. Of special interest to the Southerner running through the records of the old Congregation are the many references to the War Between the States which creep into even such pacificistic chronicles as congregational minutes. It is noteworthy, for example, that the original constitution of the Beth-Israelites, drawn up in 1859, contained the clause: “The members of this Congregation shall have power to pass all rules and regulations and by-laws necessary for their government, provided the same be not repugnant to the Constitution and laws of the United States, the Constitution and laws of the State of Georgia, the true spirit and meaning of this Constitution, or the established principles and practice of the Jewish religion.” In 1863, when it became necessary to adopt a new Constitution, this clause was repeated, save that the phrase “United States” was changed to “Confederate States.” Other evidences of the times were contained in the necessity for reducing dues; the absence of various members of the Congregation (“the Secretary being absent for the war, the President appointed Isaac Weil Secretary pro tem”) the exemption from dues of those men who were in the fighting forces, the abandoning of a project to find better quarters for meeting because of an inability to increase revenues, various donations made to war purposes and finally, indicating the debacle, the listing of congregational assets under the headings of “gold, silver and Confederate money,” with the provision, on September 24, 1865, that debts due to the Congregation in Confederate money would be payable at the rate of 20 to 1.

HISTORY OF MACON’S ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH By Thomas D. Madden The first mention of a Priest coming to Macon to care for the Catholics residing here was in the year 1835. From 1835 to 1841 Macon was visited regularly by Priests from neighboring parishes. In 1841 we find the first mention of a church for Catholics, situated on Fourth Street, just opposite the Brown House - Rev. Joseph Graham was Pastor. In 1846 we find Rev. Jeremiah O’Connell residing here, 1848 Rev. T. Birmingham, and 1849 Rev. T. F. O’Neill, Sr., and J. F. Kerby. In 1851 we find the Rev. Edward Quigley St. Joseph’s Catholic Church here with two assistants Rev. Thomas Shannahan, and the Rev J. F. O’Neill. Atlanta during this year was attended by the Priests from Macon, Ga. In 1853 Father J. O’Neill was pastor here, being succeeded in 1857 by Rev. James Hasson. At this period Milledgeville, Eatonton and Irwington were attended by the Macon Priests. In 1860 the Rev. Thos. O’Reilly was pastor here. He looked after the spiritual wants of the Catholics of Americus, and Albany, Ga. Rev. William Hamilton was pastor here just after the war, of ‘61. Rev. Father Bazin became pastor in 1869. About this time the Church opposite the old Brown House was sold to a Negro congregation and moved to the corner of Third and Hawthorne Streets, where it still stands, doing good service till this day. An old church, but quite large, and commodious, situated at the corner of Fourth and Walnut, and owned by the Presbyterians, was purchased by the Catholics, and used by them till the occupancy of the new church at the corner of New and Popular streets. Rev. Father Bazin remained in charge of the Church in Macon till 1883. About the year 1869, three Sisters of Mercy arrived in the city to take charge of the Parochial Schools. Rev. Mother Vincent was in charge. They had 60 scholars the first year. Father Bazin had as assistants during his pastorate, Rev. Chas. Tanquerey, Rev. Jean Beataug, Rev. P. H. McMahon, Rev. R. A. Brown. Father J. Colbert became pastor in 1883. His assistant was Rev. W. A. McCarty. We find Rev. G. Schadewell assistant in 1886. Father Colbert remained pastor here till 1887 in which year the care of the Parish was passed over to the Priests of the Society of Jesus. Rev. T. W. Butler, S. J., took possession and was the first Jesuit Pastor, succeeded as the years went by by Fathers Quinlan, Winklereid, Frankhauser, Wilkinson. The present Church of St. Joseph is the third Church owned by the Catholics of Macon. The New St. Joseph’s Church was opened for worship Sunday morning, November 15th, 1903. It cost $1,000,000 and was 14 years building. It is one of the most elegant Church buildings in the South, and some of the most noted divines of


the country were present the day of its dedication. Among them were Bishop Keiley of Savannah, Monaghan of Wilmington, Del., Kenny of St. Augustine, Fla., and others. Father Windelreid is responsible for the erection of this wonderful building. With slender resources, he accomplished this stupendous work, of giving to Macon, Ga., one of its most beautiful buildings. HISTORY OF MACON CHRISTIAN CHURCH By Benjamin F. Foster The First Christian Church was organized in 1887 in the Masonic Hall on Mulberry street, where the Georgia Casualty Building now stands. There were only fourteen charter members, L. M. Erwin, now clerk of the Federal Court was the prime mover in the organization, and is the only charter member who still survives. Dr. J. L. Erwin was called as the first pastor of the church. In 1888 a lot at 660 Walnut street was purchased and a small frame building erected. This building served the needs of the congregation until 1897 when the present building at the corner of Orange and High streets was erected and where the congregation has worshiped ever since. There have been about twenty-five ministers who have served the church during its history. The longest ministry was that of Howard J. Brazelton who ministered to the church for about ten years. The present pastor, Benjamin F. Foster, is entering his fourth year as pastor. During his pastorate there have been more than 175 additions to the membership. The church has become a living link, supporting its own missionary. The Sunday school has increased both in the efficiency of its organization and in the enrollment. W. H. Roper has served the church twenty-five years as Superintendent. W. H. Joyner succeeded him as Superintendent in October, 1924. The Church now has a membership of 465, and is recognized as one of the moral and religious factors in the city’s life. LUTHERAN CHURCH OF THE REDEEMER During a period of ten years, which covers the history of the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer, its congregation has worshiped in five different localities - its present permanent building on Holt Avenue between Napier and Montpelier Avenues being the fifth. It was in the auditorium of the City Y.M.C.A. on January 7, 1914, that there was gathered together what was to be the nucleus of the new congregation. This service was conducted by Rev. T. B. Epting, Missionary Pastor of the Georgia Synod, with twenty-four persons present. Then on March 1, 1914, the congregation was formally organized by Rev. Epting. A call was at once extended to Rev. Paul C. Weber, and he accepted. With his arrival in June the congregation began to hold its services in the Chamber of Commerce Auditorium. Regular worship was held there each Sunday until in August, 1915, when the congregation bought a building on Second Street known as the Baptist Tabernacle, and moved for the first time into a church home, even though this was intended to be only a temporary home.

After a successful pastorate of three years, Pastor Weber resigned in 1917. He was succeeded by Dr. Henderson N. Miller, who served the congregation until August, 1919. The next pastor was Rev. Charles A. Linn. When he accepted the call he did so with the understanding that the Mission Board and the Georgia Synod were ready to assist materially in the erection of a new church building to cost about $25,000.00 Hence as soon as he took charge in December, 1919, the plans for the new church building began to be made. The old building was sold in March, 1920, and, thanks to the kindness of Mercer University, the congregation then worshipped in the Mercer Y.M.C.A. until the new building was completed a year later. It was not until November, 1920, that the actual work on the new structure was begun. The lot on Hold Avenue had been donated by Mr. Chas. I. Feb, and on this lot was erected a modern, well-equipped church building, of which the congregation and the community have every reason to be proud. The dedication services were held on Easter Sunday, 1921. Rev. Linn resigned in February, 1922, and in the following June the present pastor, Rev. L. W. Strickler, began his work. During the latter’s pastorate of two years, the membership of the congregation has been more than doubled and the average attendance of all services has increased 150 per cent. The Sunday School, the Men’s Club and the Women’s organizations are in a flourishing state. The outlook for the continued growth of the Church of the Redeemer is much brighter than ever before. May God continue to bless her and make her a mighty power as a winner of souls for Jesus Christ. CHRISTIAN SCIENCE IN MACON The message of Christian Science was first brought to Macon in 1891-’92 and established permanently by one who located here in 1896 as a practitioner and teacher of spiritual healing. From this beginning First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Macon was organized April 6, 1896, as a branch of The Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass. On the 8th of July, 1896, a special term of the Bibb Superior Court, called by Judge William Felton, Jr., J.S.C.M.C., convened and granted the petitioners their charter enabling this church to conduct services in conformity with their interpretation of the teachings of the Bible and the Christian Science text book, Science and Health, with Key to the Scriptures, by Mary Baker Eddy, Discoverer and Founder of Christian Science. At the same time a Sunday School was opened for children under the age of twenty, which has grown in numbers and interest. A public reading room was also opened where the Bible, all Mrs. Eddy’s works and all authorized Christian Science literature could be read, borrowed or purchased. This Reading room is now located at 410 Grand Building and is opened for the public every day except Sunday from 10 A.M. until 5 P.M. The first services of this church were held in a small upper room at 152 Cotton Avenue, then at 364 Second Street and later at 362 College. From 1901 until 1920 services were held in the Macon Public Library on Mulberry Street. The construction of the church edifice was begun December, 1919, on the corner of Georgia Avenue and North


Arlington Place. This structure is of simple, classic lines, four column front, two stories in height with a seating capacity of nearly four hundred. It is similar in architecture to many other Christian Science churches. The first services in the new edifice was held December 4th, 1920. Regular services are held every Sunday morning at 11 o’clock and Wednesday evenings at 8 o’clock. The Wednesday evening services include testimonials of healing. This Church also gives each year one or two lectures by members of the Christian Science Board of Lectureship, of The Mother Church for the benefit of those who desire correct information on the subject of Christian Science. The Macon Church endeavors to echo the words of Mrs. Eddy in “Miscellaneous Writings,” page 141, “As the ages advance in spirituality, Christian Science will be seen to depart from the trend of other Christian denominations in no wise except by increase of spirituality.” Besides the Sunday School, Reading Rooms and lectures on Christian Science our activities include a Distribution Committee whose duty is to distribute Christian Science literature to those interested in Science. Under this Committee a free Rest Room and Reading Room was maintained on Third Street, at Mulberry when the Confederate Reunion was held in Macon, May, 1912. Here strangers could stop and rest and be refreshed. The Macon Christian Science Church participated in the work of the Christian Science Camp Welfare and Comforts Forwarding Committee during the World War. The local Committee was supervised by the Committee of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Boston, Mass. The Comforts Forwarding Committee made socks, sweaters and mufflers to be given to the soldiers. The Welfare Committee established a Welfare House at Camp Wheeler, conducted by a Welfare Worker, who not only helped and cheered the men, but healed their sicknesses. At these Welfare Houses the Bible and all Christian Science literature could be read and to those who really wanted them a Bible and Christian Science text book was given. The Macon Church has also an assistant on the State Publication Committee which is established to correct erroneous statements of Christian Science in the press. FREE WILL BAPTIST By J. R. Hunt Macedonia, Free Will Baptist Church was organized November 17, 1922, with nineteen charter members. J. R. Hunt was called as pastor and at that time ordained by a presbytery of the Free Will Baptist church specially called for that purpose. The church was given its name by Mr. J. F. Malone of Macon (a Methodist lay-preacher) upon the unanimous request of the new church and its pastor. The rules of the church are the Holy Scriptures, and its profession of faith is Jesus, whose example it proposes to follow as its practices. Christian communion, possibility of apostasy, foot washing and holiness are the tenets that identify the Free Will Baptist Church as a distinctive body of Christians. The Free Will Baptist Church was first called `Free Will in 1780 when Benjamin Randall organized a church in Durham, New Hampshire, as a result of a great revival eminating by

means of his entire consecration to the Lord Jesus Christ, and shaking off the load of form that had accumulated in the church with which he had been formerly identified. THE MACON BUSINESS MEN’S EVANGELISTIC CLUB By R. F. Burden On March 11, 1922, a delegation of the Billy Sunday Business Men’s Evangelistic Club of Atlanta, upon invitation of the Macon Ministerial Union and the General Secretary of the Y.M.C.A., visited Macon in the interest of their Club. A banquet was given them in the evening, by a number of leading business men of Macon, who had been invited to meet the delegation. The objects and methods of work of the Billy Sunday Club were set out in brief talks by members of the delegation. A resolution was adopted to organize a similar evangelistic club in Macon. Fifty men, representing practically all the evangelical denominations of Macon signed cards, expressing their willingness to become charter members. A committee was appointed to prepare and report a constitution and by-laws for the organization, which were adopted on the evening of March 21, 1922, and the following officers were elected: President, R. F. Burden; vice-presidents, John J. McKay and C. Randolph Wright; secretary-treasurer, Walter Lawton. The first regular meeting of the club was held on Friday, March 31, 1922. E. Y. Mallary, Sr., succeeded as president for the year 1924. The membership of the club is limited to sixty, which is divided into six teams of ten each, with captain and lieutenant. In pursuance of the object of the club - “to lead men to a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ, and to enlist them in Christian activity - the Club has been quite active, holding lay services wherever opportunity offered, in the city and adjacent territory, resulting in the organization of a number of similar clubs and in many accessions to the church.

MACON’S FIRE DEPARTMENT The extremely wide streets saved the little town of Macon from many disastrous conflagrations, and yet occasionally there was a call for firemen. The citizens lent a hand in extinguishing fires, forming into unorganized bands as bucket brigades, often arranging themselves in a line from the river and passing buckets to each other; but as the town grew and the needs of something better than this plan were self-evident, the town council in 1832 bought two double end-brake engines from Philadelphia, and in that year they were received from Savannah by an Ocmulgee River steamboat and put into immediate use. On April 15, 1854, two new hand engines of what was then known as side-brake, piano style, were received from New York, with twenty feet of suction hose, two 2-wheel reels and five hundred feet of hose, and these were turned over to companies known as Protection No. 1 and Ocmulgee No. 2. Later, in the same year, the hook and ladder company was formed, and thus was formed the Macon fire department, Young America No. 3 soon being added. It was in 1858 No. 3 received a light and handsome engine with long side brakes. This was used until the year 1872 when the hand engine was


Totally motorized Fire Department January 7, 1913

replaced by a Silsby rotary steam engine. In April, 1868, another company, Defiance No. 5, was organized, and in 1873 received a piston steam engine, and in the same year Mechanics No. 4 became a part of the department with a steamer. Thus was the famous Macon fire department changed from engines worked entirely by hand to steam pumps. The supply of water for fire purposes was quite limited. At this time there were thirteen cisterns located in the streets and fed by the town pumps, these cisterns holding from five to twenty-five thousand gallons of water. The only other sources of water were the wells in the residential parts of the city. In 1877 a report was made of the work of the department, and it was estimated that the department was called out by the alarm bell about twenty times a year, and at least half this number were false alarms. The average loss was estimated at $35,000 a year, mostly covered by insurance. The Macon fire department, though volunteers and serving the city without pay, rendered invaluable services during the Civil War. A large number of the firemen enlisted in the army, and through a conference between Chief Engineer Geo. S. Obear and the Confederate secretary of war a patrol force was organized to guard government and private property, and this was done on May 25th, 1863. In August of that year they were under arms for the purpose of resisting General Stoneman, the raider. In November, 1864, the company was ordered to the front to take part in the battles around Atlanta. On reaching Lovejoy Station Capt. Obear was called back to Macon and the command fell upon Lt. Andy Patterson. The company was assigned position in a battalion from Augusta, but as Gen. Sherman was changing maneuvers for his march to the sea, the firemen were ordered back to Macon to aid in protecting the city against other raids. On the return from the war of the surviving members of the department they resumed their duties as firemen in their respective companies. Macon’s first fire company was the Ax and Ladder Company, organized in 1833, the name being changed later to the Macon Hook & Ladder Company, with Frank S. Bloom as foreman; W. J. McElroy, assistant; Geo. C. Freeman, secretary, and Geo. S. Obear, treasurer. Protection No. 1 was organized in 1853, with Frank S. Bloom, foreman, and H. M. North, assistant. Ocmulgee No. 2 was organized in 1854, with Wm. T. Mix,

foreman; Henry N. Ellis, assistant; S. D. Clarke, secretary, and D. F. Dense, treasurer. Young America No. 3 was organized in 1855, J. B. Ayres, foreman, and Chas. K. Emmell, assistant. Mechanics No. 4 was organized 1868, with Albert B. Ross, foreman, and Uriah Williams, assistant. Defiance No. 5 was organized in 1868, with Geo. W. Burr foreman, and A. J. King assistant. Although as has been stated, the unorganized citizens battled with the flames with their crude facilities with more or less success, it was not until the year 1852 did it develop that fire companies must be organized, and that it was useless for a lot of men without facilities to fight the flames. This final decision was brought about by a fire that destroyed the store of Thos. Hardeman on the corner of Cherry and Second streets, where the Bibb National Bank now stands. The Fire raged throughout the square, reaching Third street where Hardeman & Sparks later had their cotton warehouse. As the city grew the firemen and the public generally begged and pleaded for a paid fire department and better equipment, but the city authorities could not see their way clear to make the change, because of the limited revenues until 1887, and on March 17 of that year the old volunteer department with its long list of glories, went out of existence. In the same year the method of calling out the department was also changed. Heretofore, the big bell sounded by strokes the number of the ward in which a fire occurred, and previous to that time by passing the alarm by word of mouth. Then came the installation of the Gamewell Fire Alarm System in 1887, which is now in use. In 1910 auto apparatus took the place of the horse-drawn, and by 1912 all the apparatus in the department was motorized. The Macon department was the first department in the South to be entirely equipped with auto apparatus. In 1887, at the time of conversion from a volunteer to a paid department there were seven companies on duty as follows: Hook and Ladder, Protection No. 1; Ocmulgee, No. 2; Young America, No. 3; Mechanics No. 4; Defiance No. 5, with a total of 300 men. The present (1924) department is made up of nine companies with a total force of eighty men, the equipment being a truck company, a chemical company and four engine companies, all apparatus being motor driven. On May 6, 1910, a most distressing accident occurred, in which figured the first piece of apparatus of the auto type. In the gray of the early morning of that day the firemen responded to an alarm sent in from the lower part of the city. The driver failed to see that the curbing extended far into the street at the corner of Fifth and Cherry, with the result that the heavy apparatus ran upon the curbing and struck a telephone pole. This resulted in the death of three and the wounding of seven firemen.


Prior to the year 1886 it was the custom of the firemen and the people of Macon to celebrate the 15th of each recurring April, as the anniversary of the organization of the department. These celebrations brought fire companies and people from cities throughout the State, and from Alabama, and exciting contests and festivities were engaged in. It was one of the gala days of the year. The last of these parades was in 1886. The present chief of the fire department, 1924, L. Monroe Jones, was elected chief of the volunteer departments in 1882, and with the exception of the years 1908, 1909 and 1914 has been chief of the paid department, making a total of 42 years, in command of the department thirty-six.

MACON’S THEATERS Macon’s first theater was on the corner of the alley on Third street, between Mulberry and Walnut, and in the rear of what is now the filling station of Stewart & Co. In 1838 the Baptist church was on the corner of Sixth and Cherry streets. The congregation outgrew the capacity of the building, and a site was purchased on the corner of First and Plum streets, and a new house of worship there erected. At that time A. D. and Israel F. Brown had a carpenter shop, and were also contractors. They contracted to build the new church and take the old building, valued at two thousand dollars, in payment. The two brothers dying soon after, the old building fell to the other brother, E. E. Brown, the founder of Brown’s Hotel. As Macon had no theater at the time, entertainments being given in the courthouse, or the town hall over the market, Col. Brown had the building rolled through the streets to the location on Third street, deciding to run the theater himself. Leaving a force of carpenters at work to do the remodeling, he went north after scenery, etc. On his return he had the house painted, the pews were utilized as seats, and in his own words, he “had the prettiest little theater in the state.” When he assumed the management the good people of Macon of all denominations, were very bitter against him, first because the church has been converted into a theater, and secondly that he was to conduct such a house in Macon. The venture was profitable, however, the first performance netting Manager Brown some five hundred dollars, the seating capacity of the house being only six hundred. The first minstrel performance in Macon, and given in this theater, was the New Orleans Serenaders. In this little wooden theater appeared the elder Booth, Macready, McCullough and all the great stars of that time. Associated with Col. Brown in this theater was John L. Jones and other prominent citizens. It was later moved to the corner of the alley below and used as a carriage shop. The second place of entertainment was the dining room of the Floyd House, corner Mulberry and Third streets, converted for the purpose by removal of the tables after supper and the addition of chairs. This was a temporary

arrangement, however, for in 1850 George Payne, the druggist on the corner of Mulberry street and Cotton avenue, Mix & Kirkland, shoe dealers, and J. A. & S. S. Virgin, music dealers, erected a three-story building, the third story of which was known as Academy of Music - today known as the Concert Hall. This Grand Opera House. building, with a remodeled front, and known now as the Hardeman building, is still standing. It was in Concert Hall that Joe Jefferson was playing at the time his oldest son was born in a boarding house, corner Walnut and Fourth streets; and where Jenny Lind sang in 1858, where Max Strakosh brought Adalina and Carlotta Patti and other noted artists, and where William Makepeace Thackery gave a reading, “The English Humorists.” It was also here that great audiences greeted Robert Toombs, Alexander Stephens, Ben Hill, Howell Cobb and others who made history for the South. It was also here that Blind Tom, the greatest musical prodigy in this country, gave his first public concerts. At that time he was an idiotic black slave boy belonging to Gen. J. M. Bethune, of Columbus, on whose plantation he was born. Later he created a furore all over the world by his remarkable performance on the piano. In 1852 James A. Ralston, a large property owner, built what was known as Ralston’s Hall, the first first-class theater, on the corner of Cherry and Third streets. This theater, with a number of buildings belonging to Mr. Ralston and reaching to the alleys on Cherry and Third streets, was destroyed by fire in 1856. The theater was rebuilt in 1857, but again destroyed by fire in 1886, the coldest night ever known to Macon up to that time, the river being frozen over for the first time. For two years Concert Hall served the purpose of a theater and music hall, and in 1888 the late Henry Horne, at one time mayor, with others built the Academy of Music on the lot adjoining the courthouse. Later, Mr. Horne, with the DeGives, of Atlanta, decided that Macon should have a modern opera house, and built the present Grand building on the site of the former Academy of Music, and this now stands. It was opened in February, 1905. Before Col. Brown opened his little theater on Third street, entertainments were given in the courthouse at the foot of Mulberry street, and in the council chamber and Inferior court room over the market house that stood in the middle of the intersection of Mulberry and Fourth streets. Prior to 1864 this building was torn down and the city hall removed to its present site, the building thereon having been originally erected for the Monroe Railroad and Banking Company, and later used as a


cotton warehouse. The market occupied the rear lot and the center of First street.

NEGROES SLAVERY - The first settlers in Macon brought with them several negro slaves, and as other settlers came and brought their slaves, the negroes increased in numbers. Many of the offspring of these first negroes are yet living in and around Macon; they are among the most worthy and prosperous of the negro citizens. After the emancipation many of the slaves remained in the service of their former masters, and there spent the rest of their days. A few of the first slaves, now in their nineties, are yet living here. It is said that among these slaves were some very unusual negroes, many of whom, by their obedience and faithfulness, merited the kindly feeling of their masters. During the War Between the States, many masters took some of the trustworthy slaves with them as body servants, where they proved their loyalty and trust under most trying ordeals. No greater praise can be given a slave than to say he was obedient and trustworthy. FREE NEGROES - There were a few free negroes in Macon during the days of slavery: the most outstanding among them was Solomon Humphries, generally known as “Free Sol.” He was born a slave on the plantation of Major John Humphries in Jones county. He was brought up at the home of his master. For his superior intelligence and faithful services, his master gave Sol his freedom and a little something by which he could make a start in life. He soon accumulated money and considerable property. His first act after his success as a free man was to purchase his father and mother and give them their freedom. He engaged in the mercantile business and operated the largest store in Macon at that time. His store was located at the place recently occupied by A. T. Small & Sons on Main street, East Macon. He employed all white clerks. For many years he was a prosperous merchant and cotton dealer. He was well known in Savannah, Charleston and New York, as a merchant of reliability and honor. Some of the best and most successful white business men of Macon acquired their knowledge of business methods while clerks in his store. “Free Sol” acquired considerable property in different parts of the city, living first in East Macon. Afterwards he bought a home opposite the Taylor Iron Works. From there he moved to North Macon where he remained to his end. He frequently entertained the leading white citizens of this city at his home, and on these occasions, his wife, Patsy, would prepare the most sumptuous repasts for the guests, and with Sol served at the table. After the death of his wife, Patsy, he married a young woman and from thence he began to fail in business. He died at the age of fifty-four, and was buried near his home with unusual honors. His funeral was preached by Rev. Robert L. Breck of the Presbyterian Church (white) of which he was a member. All business of the city suspended during the hours of his funeral. His remains were unearthed a few months ago by workmen making excavation for a building on Shirley Hill, Macon’s new residential suburb. They were reburied in Fort Hill Cemetery.

Edward Woodliff, another free negro, born in Virginia, in 1814, came to Macon in 1832, and opened a first-class barber shop. He did a successful business and soon accumulated a considerable amount of money. In 1843 he married Mahala Spicer, a slave woman, for whom he paid $800.00 and gave her freedom. With his earnings he invested, through a white friend in conformity to the laws of that time, in real estate in the several parts of the city. He soon possessed twelve houses and lots, which yielded him splendid income. In order to educate his daughter he moved to Philadelphia in 1856, where he entered his wife in a private school and his daughter in a public school. He purchased a three-story brick building in Philadelphia; there he conducted a general store In 1860, he moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he placed his daughter in college. He purchased a farm of eighty acres in Mercer County, near Cincinnati, with money saved while in Macon. At the close of the war he came back to Macon and began business again. His daughter, Ariadine, in 1865, opened the first school for negro children in Macon, in the basement of her father’s home, on the corner of Spring and Ocmulgee streets. The next year he erected a school building on an adjoining lot, the first negro school house built in Macon. This building still stands as the beginning of negro education in Macon. In 1871, he became a promoter of the Macon Branch of the Freedman’s Bank. Reverend T. G. Stewart, founder of Stewart Chapel A.M.E. Church, on Cotton Avenue, was first cashier of this branch and Thomas N. M. Sellers, afterwards the son-in-law of Edward Woodliff, was second and last cashier. During the existence of the Macon Branch the negroes deposited more than $20,000 to their credit. Edward Woodliff had on deposit $5,000 when the bank failed. In spite of his loss, he continued to prosper and retain the respect and confidence of all white citizens. His property is yet in the possession of his daughter. He was the first negro alderman to serve the city of Macon. He died May 24, 1888. Annie Betton, a free negro woman, after whom Bettonville was named, was a very conspicuous member of the race because of her intelligence and business-line methods in transactions. She owned much valuable property in the city, some of which is still in the possession of her family descendants. EMANCIPATION - Immediately after the emancipation, many of the negroes became quite active in politics and business matters. That their energies were greatly exaggerated and misdirected is quite natural and pardonable. Some of them strayed into mistakes. But they made less mistakes than the “bummers” who came among them for plunder during reconstruction times with the false promise of “forty acres of land and a mule,” to incite vain hopes and riots. Politics appealed to many of the negroes very forcibly and some of the more energetic took active parts in the elections and other political affairs. POLITICS - They nominated negro candidates for official positions in the city administration, and succeeded in electing Edward Woodliff and Henderson Dumas members of the aldermanic board of the city of Macon. They filled their positions creditably. During the latter sixties and early seventies, they succeeded in electing Henry M. Turner, Frank


Disroom, Pulaski Holt and Moses Pollock members of the Georgia Legislature as representatives from this district. Jefferson Long, born a slave, a tailor by trade, was the most influential political leader among the negroes at this time. He was elected to the forty-first United States Congress and served a term of two years. There were many others who took prominent parts in political matters, most conspicuous among them were Frank Disroom, Pulaski Holt, Martin Logan, George Wallace, Joe Tripp, Tilman Lowe, Armstead Bryant, Allen Allington, Jerry Bennet, Willis Epps, Spencer Mosely and Summerfield Martin. George Wallace, a slave and body-servant for his master during the Civil War, was, prior to his coming to Macon elected to the Senate in 1867, to represent his district, embracing Baldwin, Washington and Hancock counties. In 1870 he moved to Macon and became actively connected with the political affairs here. He became a railway mail clerk for a while and afterwards served on the city police force. He was very prosperous, acquired some valuable property, and at his death he left his widow comfortably located in a home, where she now resides. Beginning 1867 M. D. Sneed, a freed man of unusual intelligence held a position as magistrate for a term of two years. For his rare executive ability, he was regarded as a competent justice. Ed. Sutton was his chief bailiff and was very tactful in the performance of his duty. During the first years of their political activities, Henry M. Turner was appointed postmaster of the city of Macon, and following the expiration of his term in office, Edward Belcher was appointed postmaster for the next term. Thus Macon had two negro postmasters in the early period of their freedom. Bishop Henry M. Turner was the first negro chaplain in the United States army. In 1880 he was elected bishop in the African Methodist Episcopal church. During his time he was regarded as the leading churchman of the race. Through their political influence in those unsettled years they succeeded in having some of the more energetic negroes appointed on the police force. Bill Bishop, Tom Collins, Summerfield Martin, Hicklin Branon, Arthur Gordon, Gene Thomas, Andrew Barnes, C. H. Hutchings, L. H. Burdell and William Lawson were members of the police force and made creditable records in the discharge of their duties. Negroes also served as jurors and filled other important public positions of trust and honor. There were many exceptional negroes in those early days of emancipation who had the confidence and respect of all the whites for their uprightness and general demeanor. Among them were Primus Moore, Willis Braswell, Ben Jackson, Nero Smith and a number of others. BUSINESS - Instantly after their freedom, some of the negroes entered into the mercantile business; a few of them succeeded surprisingly well. H. G. Johnson, commonly called “Bill Johnson,” and Pulaski Holt conducted some of the larger businesses in the city during their days. They accumulated considerable wealth and acquired much valuable property in the most desirable sections of the city. They were prosperous to the end. Johnson’s family possesses much valuable city property now. Frank Disroom and Martin Logan successfully conducted large stores during the same time. Disroom died a few years ago,

leaving much valuable property. Logan is still conducting his business prosperously. By untiring perseverance the negroes have continued to keep their business activities abreast with the growth and demands of the city. The Liberty Loan and Investment Company was organized in 1919, with a capital stock of $25,000. It has done a general banking business exceedingly successful. In three years its deposits amounted to $740,000. The Middle Georgia Saving and Investment Company was organized in 1921, with a capital stock of $25,000. It has prospered as a banking institution and is also doing much real estate business. As the stockholders’ meeting August 8, 1923, the records disclosed the amount of business transacted within the last twelve months to be $227,728.87; real estate, $60,000; deposits $28,254.59. Both institutions were organized, financed and controlled by Macon negroes. There are more than a score of stores, two real estate companies, one coal company, three undertaking establishments, one weekly newspaper, one printing concern, two furniture dealers and numerous shops of various kinds numbered in the list of their business activities. INSURANCE - Insurance is the largest field of business among negroes. The Peoples Health and Life Insurance Company, with headquarters in Macon, and branch offices throughout the state, was organized and financed by Macon negroes. There are also located here eight branch offices of the leading insurance companies. These companies furnish employment for more than two hundred people. They do an enormous weekly business among the negroes of the city and suburbs. SOCIETIES - The fraternal societies - Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Order of Good Samaritans and several others of less importance have strong memberships in Macon. The Pythian Temple, on Cotton Avenue, valued at one hundred thousand dollars, is headquarters for the order in Georgia. Macon negroes rank high in the official circles of the fraternities. B. S. Ingram is Grand Master of the Odd Fellow order in Georgia, and president of the endowment bureau, the The Douglass Theater insurance department of the order; Walter T. Reid is Grand Chancellor of the Pythian Order in Georgia; T. K. Persley is Grand Chief of the Samaritan Order in Georgia; J. H. Walker is Deputy Grand Master of the Mason Order in Georgia; T. A. Lumpkin is Supreme Grand Chief of the Wise Men of the East. There are many local societies doing great good in relieving the sick and burying the dead among their people. These societies have made it possible for the poorest among the race to obtain medicine and funeral expenses.


AMUSEMENTS - Along with the significant development of their business enterprises, negroes have prepared for their amusements with equal propriety. The new Douglass Theater, a modern motion picture play house, is unsurpassed in conviencce and equipment by any theater owned and operated by negroes in the south. The old Douglass theater, not quite so elaborate as the other, is an up-to-date play house and furnishes the same high class program. The city provides one wellequipped playground for the colored children, which is in charge of a capable instructor. PROFESSIONS - The negroes have made great progress in the professions. There are eight practicing physicians, three dentists, one specialist, and two lawyers in the city at present. Many members of these professions have gone to other cities and have become prominent for their ability and skillful practice. Recent years have marked the rise of hospitals and nurse training schools for negroes. There are two private hospitals in the city, owned by negro physicians and operated exclusively for colored people. The City Hospital also affords accommodations for colored people, and operates a nurse training school for negroes. Quite a number of trained nurses are rendering excellent services in the sick rooms of Macon. There are also three embalmers connected with the undertaking establishments here. EDUCATION - Directly after their emancipation the negroes manifested surprising interest in the education of their children. Many private schools were opened by white and colored teachers, and large numbers of negro children enrolled at once. During the first few years, prior to the establishment of the public system, the schools were taught in private homes and churches. The first negro teachers were Ariadine Woodliff, Lewis Williams, Sr., John Brooks, Richard Mitchell, Thomas Sellers and Thomas Screen. These last four negroes received their instruction mainly from Lewis Williams, who prior to his becoming a slave of Mr. L. N. Whittle, of Macon, was a slave in South Carolina, where a slave could be taught to read and write and Lewis, while a boy, was taught along with his master’s children. In 1872, the beginning of the public school system in Macon, there were two schools opened for negroes. Cotton Avenue School opened in the basement of the A.M.E. church on Cotton Avenue, under Lewis Williams and two assistants; Lewis High school, located on New street and supported by the American Missionary Association, was received under the control of the Board as a school for colored children. This school was under Mrs. M. E. Sands as principal and seven assistant teachers, four of whom were appointed by the President of the Board and the others, together with the principal, by the American Missionary Association. The report for the first year, ending June 30, 1873, showed 710 pupils and ten teachers employed. In the fall of 1873, the third public school was opened at Stinsonville, under B. A. Carwin, as teacher. It is interesting to know that B. A. Carwin has continued in the service of the Board of Education to the present time. He is now principal of Antioch Public School. During the same term, several other public schools for negroes were opened in the suburbs. In 1875 the Board of

Education obtained a building on the site where the Hudson Industrial School now stands. In order to better facilitate the conditions the several schools were consolidated under H. J. T. Hudson as principal and several assistants. At present there are nine elementary schools, one high and industrial and one academy for the blind included in the public school system for negroes. The Fifty-first Annual Report of the Public Schools of the City of Macon, for the term ending June 8, 1923, shows that there were ninety-two teachers, four thousand six hundred and eighty-eight pupils in the negro schools. The public school system here is unsurpassed by any system in the state, and the pupils make rapid progress in their educational attainments. It is interesting to know that the Hudson Industrial School, erected in 1922, the first high school for negroes, included in the public school system, occupies the same lot on which the first permanently located public school for negroes was taught. In 1883, the Academy for the Blind for negroes was established. Lewis Williams, former teacher in the public schools, was elected principal of the academy. The academy opened with only two pupils. Year by year the attendance has steadily increased. At present there are four teachers and forty-five students at the institution. In the forty years of existence there have been only four principals, Lewis Williams, Sr., Nancy Williams, wife of the first principal, Sarah McKinley and Lewis H. Williams, Jr., present principal. The academy is not a home or an asylum. It is a school where children between the ages of six and eighteen are given instruction similar to that given in the public schools. The boys are taught chair-caning and broom-making; the girls are taught sewing and household arts. All are taught music, and many of them have become quite accomplished teachers of music in other schools. In addition to the public school system, there are several private schools and colleges located in the city for the instruction of the negro youth. All these schools are worthy institutions and afford unusual opportunities in the acquisition of an education.

Ballard School building on Forest Avenue built in 1916, demolished in 1950.


Saint Peter Claver, a private elementary school, under the auspices of the Catholic church, had 3 white teachers, 2 negro teachers, with an enrollment of 160 students in report of 19221923. Ballard Normal School, under the auspices of the American Missionary Association, was organized in 1868, under the name of Lewis High School. This school has been the most outstanding institution in the educational progress of the negroes of Macon. The school was located at the corner of New and Pine streets. In 1916 the property was purchased by the city and converted into an annex to the City Hospital. New school buildings were erected on Forest Avenue near the city limits, in 1917. The majority of the teachers in the public school system are graduates from this school. There are seven white teachers and five negro teachers and an enrollment of 258 students given in 1922-1923 report. Hudson Industrial School - This school is the direct outgrowth of manual training inaugurated at Pleasant Hill School seven years ago. At the County Superintendent’s Annual Convention held in Macon in 1904, B. S. Ingram, then principal of the negro high school at Sparta, Ga., made an excellent industrial display of the work done in that school. The Board of Education of Bibb county was so favorably impressed with the exhibit that they employed him as principal of Pleasant Hill School. Manual training was immediately introduced into the course of that school, and very soon placed in every negro school of the system. The course at first embraced paper cutting, weaving, cardboard construction, clay modeling, drawing, raffia work and basketry, knitting and wood work. This work was taught by the literary teachers, under the guidance of B. S. Ingram, in their class rooms. Many of them soon became proficient and the work made rapid progress. During the third year, the students, under the direction of the principal, built a large work shop on the school lot. In 1918, the industrial department became a distinct feature in the school course, with special teachers for the boys and girls in their various vocational pursuits. Two work shops - one for boys and one for girls - were built on the school lot. In 1919, the students under the direction of R. A. Finney, the teacher of carpentry, built a four-room annex to the main school building. In 1920, they erected a two-story, eight-room building for the accommodation of the industrial and high school departments. It then became a distinct industrial school. Additional teachers were employed, and the cooking and sewing departments were equipped with the necessary appliances for a first-class industrial school. In 1922, the school was removed to a newly erected modern brick building on Monroe street, and then named Hudson Industrial School. During the first term, the students erected a large brick veneered work shop in which the boys are taught the several trades. This school is a model industrial school, well equipped with the neccessary conveniences for each department. The curriculum embraces literary and industrial instruction. The boys are taught carpentry, cabinet making, wagon building, masonry and painting. The girls are taught plain or domestic sewing,

cutting and fitting, finish dressmaking and embroidery. In 1923, the students built the Cressville Public School building for the Board of Education. Many of the students are numbered among the leading mechanics of the city. The report for the term ending June 8, 1923, gives an enrollment of 346 pupils and ten teachers. Central City College under the auspices of the Missionary Baptist denomination in Georgia, was organized in 1899, on a tract of land containing 235 acres, adjacent to the city limits. This school provides also for elementary and high school instruction along with its college accommodations. Many of the teachers in the public schools and some of the leading teachers and ministers in this city and state, are graduates from this college. The original buildings were destroyed by fire in 1921. The college was rebuilt in 1922. The last report gives eleven teachers and 248 students. The property is estimated to be worth one hundred twenty-five thousand dollars. Beda-Etta College was founded by Minnie L. Smith in 1921. In 1922, after a year of unrivaled success, she erected with her personal funds and efforts, a magnificent three-story brick structure on Pleasant Hill, at a cost of $20,000. This building stands as a monument to her sacrifice and an unparalleled contribution to the educational advancement of her race. This is a noble deed. Verily, she is striving to obey the Master’s command, “If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven, and come follow me.” This institution is rendering valuable services in the preparation of the colored youth for future usefulness. The course includes instructions in the grammar, normal, college and commercial departments. The report for 1922-1923 shows there were seven teachers and two hundred students. In the educational system for negroes in Macon, there are sixteen schools, 127 teachers, and 5,554 students given in the reports for the year ending June, 1923. Illiteracy among negroes in Macon is being rapidly eradicated, and ere long under this efficient system of education, the city will be free from illiteracy. Many Macon negroes have attained unusual prominence in educational circles in many sections of this country. Prof. W. S. Scarborough, ex-president of Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio, was born a slave and reared to young manhood in Macon. He is the author of a series of Greek textbooks adopted at Yale. He has taught in many of the leading universities and colleges. At present he is a specialist in the agricultural department at Washington, D.C. Lucy C. Laney, organizer and principal of Paines Institute, Augusta, Georgia, was born in Macon. She is regarded as the leading woman educator of the race, filling the place among women educators that Booker T. Washington occupied among men. Mention could be made of a score of others who have attained prominence in the learned professions throughout this country. RELIGION - Before the war, the negroes worshipped mainly in white churches or in separate churches ministered to by white pastors. But the colored people, naturally inclined to religion, soon developed preachers of their own and built their


own churches. They have many magnificent edifices, representing various religious denominations: Baptists, African Methodist, Colored Methodist, Presbyterian, Congregational, Catholic and Church of God. The Baptist exercises religious and educational influences over more people than any other denomination in Macon. The African Methodist ranks next in number of churches, membership and influence. The Colored Methodist ranks third in order. The Presbyterian, Congregational and Church of God have not spread so rapidly as the other forms of belief, and yet they are substantial factors in the religious life and progress among the negroes. Each church maintains its Sunday School and Young People’s Societies for the furtherance of religious influence and the spread of denominational interests. Many of the most prominent clergymen of the several denominations throughout this country have been connected with the churches of this city. POPULATION - It will be gratifying to know that the whites and negroes have practically maintained the same ratio in population from the beginning of Macon to the present time. In 1830, seven years after its settlement, there were 1,452 whites and 1,183 colored, giving 58 per cent, white and 42 per cent, colored. the last census gives 39,904 whites; 23,091 colored; showing 57 per cent white and 43 per cent, colored. PROPERTY - Perhaps the most striking example of the negroes’ progress is evidenced in the acquisition of property, both city and rural. The tax receiver’s records show their property returns for 1923 as follows: 10,505 acres of land, valued at $338,055; city property valued at $2,074,910; bank items, notes, mortgages, etc., valued at $61,170; merchandise valued at $30,935; household furnishings, $238,675, vehicles valued at $52,360; live stock valued at $81,390; poll taxes $4,368; professional taxes $195. The total amount of taxable property returned by negroes for 1923 is $3,032,475. This is a splendid showing for them when all things are considered with respect to their intellectual status and existing conditions under which they must advance. CITIZENS - Up to the present time the negroes of Macon have been very successful in every avenue of life. As citizens they generally have been law-abiding, industrious and loyal to every forward movement put forth for the development of the city and for the uplift of its people. As soldiers, they have always been faithful to their country’s flag; they have contributed their quota of support to the Liberty Loan Bonds, to the sale of War Savings Stamps, and to the Red Cross work during the World War. The negro here is a good citizen. He has been policeman, alderman, legislator, senator, congressman, postmaster, lawyer, juror, magistrate, a shrewd business man, and has won respect and confidence in every such position, and at the same time merited the good will and friendly feelings of his white neighbor. Time is yet to bring forth better things for the negroes of Macon. If there be patience and an honest, persistent endeavor to do the very best in every thing, they shall continue to prosper. They fully realize that they must rise, not by dragging others down, but by encouraging those who are up to extend down to them the helping hand, which they must quickly grasp, and by its help lift themselves up.

MARRIAGE RECORDS FOR FIRST TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF BIBB COUNTY, GEORGIA Compiled by Mrs. Reeves Brown, Regent, and Mrs. James Sharpe, Secretary and Contributed by the Mary Hammond Washington Chapter D. A. R. Ezekiel Perry to Rebecca May, March 3, 1825 Isham Oliver to Margaret Purkins, June 7, 1825. Jacob D. Huff to Elizabeth Harris, August 4, 1825. Samuel Berry to Mary Smith, April 24, 1825. Rubin Williams to Mary Ann Green, June 18, 1826. Ranson Campbell to Belleyant Smith, August 27, 1826. Moses Rawles to Marina Rhodes, April 1, 1826. Edward W. Wright to Elizabeth Morgan, November 12, 1826. Joseph Shaw to Lucy Rodgers, October 3, 1826. William Jones to Elizabeth Rowell, August 14, 1826. Mortimer R. Wallis to Sarah Ann Norman, November 2, 1826. John Stamps to Nanez Bulman, August 7, 1826. Bryan Sledge to Delia Whatley, February 1, 1826. Thomas Hamill to Barsheba Carson, May 25, 1826. Jesse Land to Tobitha Darby, September 28, 1826. Gabriel Jones to Martha Jones, December 29, 1826. Peter B. Brockwell to Cynthia Young Simmons, May 30, 1827. Thomas M. Calhoun to Catherine Dorrington, August 27, 1827. William Cain to Elizabeth McPowell, September 27, 1827. Henry Busey to Axey Turner, August 26, 1827. Absolum Collum to Lucinda Reed, June 21, 1827. Isaac Alver to Jane Lestley, December 6, 1827. Samuel B. Hunter to Susanna Jamison, January 4, 1827. Leroy Watson to Mary Brumet, February 14, 1827. Daniel Tucker to Sarah Rockmore, June 13, 1827. Lemuel Newcomb to Martha Now, December 20, 1827. Parton Bullock to Luck Smith, October 2, 1827. Charles S. Lewis to Mahala White, May 1, 1827. John Fry to Maria Stephen, August 30, 1827. A. C. McIntyre to Margaret Mozeman, June 24, 1827. John Brady to Marion Coliore, May 13, 1827. William B. Gamble to Mary M. Watkins, November 3, 1827. Willis Boone to Mary Tharp, March 6, 1827. Edward Swearingin to Mary Douglass, June 11, 1827. William Richardson to Susan Chatfield, November 15,1827. William Boon to Harriet Henson, March 6, 1827. Daniel Wadsworth to Elizabeth Johnston, May 19, 1827. William S. Norman to Martha Adaline Watts, March 6, 1827. William I. Head to Lucy L. Lundy, June 26, 1827. Nathan Parrish to Jane Bazemore, September 9, 1827. Charles Crawford to Louisa Boren, June 5, 1827. Rial Griffin to Martha Langford, October 14, 1827. Quillah Scott to Lucy Inglett, September 9, 1827. Thomas Watson to Lenora Lapel, May 20, 1827. Elezar McCall to Sarah Patton, July 1, 1827. Albert F. Wallis to Ann Moore, July 12, 1827. Michael Wingat to Rachel Lomciom, May 6, 1827.


Henry Cousey to Nancy Wade, November 8, 1827. William Tompkins to Eleader Couch, October 2, 1827 Thomas M. Ellis to Catherine Wilson, May 7, 1827. Thomas M. Ellis to Catherine Wilson, December 31, 1827. Robert Coleman to Polly Benton Taylor, October 9, 1827. James McGinty to Mary Radford, August 11, 1827. Ishmael Grayham to Sally Thunderbird, September 27, 1827. Cornelius Townsend to Elizabeth Beal, December 27, 1827. Davis Monchriel to Sarah Pollard, September 5, 1827. Peter Gent to Apersonat Mooney, December 30, 1827. James Hammock to Mary Pollard, August 2, 1827. Duke Jackson to Daty Hood, December 2, 1827 Hamilton Cook to Kiziah McKardle, October 1, 1827. Abner Cherry to Sarah Trent, February 25, 1827. Slaughter Hill to Elizabeth Maulden, January 31, 1828. Clement Eckless to Mary Ann Warner, January 13, 1828. Gabriel Jones to Maria Ann Barton, March 2, 1828. William Humphrey to Elizabeth Bell, January 23, 1828. Jeremiah Smith to Milley Bailey, November 2, 1828. Gideon Powledge to Susan M. Grodfrey, January 29, 1828. _____ Allen to Rhoda Johnson, January 16, 1828. William I. Dannelly to Ann Eliza Slade, January 24, 1828. John Adolf to Mary M. Brown, March 6, 1828. Stephen C. Hickey to Betsey Raburn, March 16, 1828. Joseph S. Willis to Susan Birdsong, March 23, 1828. George Lewis to Agrippa Gent, November 23, 1828. John Crew to Caroline Livingston, March 26, 1828. William Blanchett to Nicy Simms, July 6, 1828. Aaron Owing to Sarah Philips, May 8, 1828. William Willis to Betsy Willshier, August 14, 1828. Moses Leslie to Nancy Mosley, September 2, 1828. Davis B. Brasswell to Mary Ann E. Bryant, March 25, 1828. Thomas Grubbs to Mary Jackson, July 24, 1828. Edward D. Tracy to Susan C. Campbell, November 25, 1828. Willis Pitts to Bashaby Hammond, November 26, 1828. Cade McDonald to Elizabeth Harris, September 11, 1828. Robert Radford to Darian Wilsy, April 5, 1828. David Patton to Pernitten I. Pace, July 17, 1828. Gabriel Clements to Charlott Richardson, March 27, 1828. Nathan C. Munroe to Tabitha E. Napier, June 5, 1828. Joshua Jordan to Elizabeth Hoz, March 25, 1828. Elijah Barber to Sarah Jones, July 9, 1828. Jefferson J. Lamar to Rebecca Lamar, August 21, 1828. Isaac Winship to Martha A. P. Cook, May 1, 1828. Augus Gillis to Margaret M. Olston, September 19, 1828. Adam Bird to Ellender Folk, December 27, 1828. Thomas R. Lamar to Ann I. Fullwood, September 25, 1828. Jeremiah Anglaw to Lena Rea, November 16, 1828. Edward Brown to Narcisey M. Talbot, May 13, 1828. George Whitehead to Henrietta Finch, January 4, 1828. John Corbett to Mary H. Watts, September 23, 1828. James White to Claricia Dickson, December 18, 1828. O. S. Coats to Rachel Miller, November 11, 1829. Timothy Brazell to Sophia Killingsworth, January 13, 1829. John Pitts to Louisianna Troutman, February 9, 1829. Littleburg Blanks to Elizabeth Perrdue, January 29, 1829. Joel Harrold to Nancy Adams, August 14, 1829.

John Green to Elizabeth Killingsworth, June 29, 1829. Albert L. John to Sally G. Patton, December 17, 1829. Williamson Glover to Florinda Monroe, August 10, 1829. William Tarpley to Winefred King, March 5, 1829. Lemuel Watson to Endy Pearson, January 20, 1829. Benjamin Grubbs to Claricia Span, January 22, 1829. Isaac Ives to Rachel Williams, October 2, 1829. Jesse Simmons to Lucinda Watson, May 24, 1829. James W. Howard to Martha Rockmore, February 5, 1829. James Gates to Christian Scott, September 14, 1829. Josiah H. Carter to Violater Dyess, February 5, 1829. James P. H. Campbell to Martha Good, July 21, 1829. Thomas Davis to Martha Wright, April 22, 1829. Samuel T. Baley to Martha D. Strong, April 29, 1829. Matthew E. Rilander to Nancy Gambell, April 22, 1829. Josiah Johnson to Catherine Carter, March 12, 1829. Wiley B. Garner to Frances Finch, May 7, 1829. Richard Barefield to Epsey Barnett, January 11, 1829. Drury M. Cox to Zemily E. Hill, February 5, 1829. Middleton Joyner to Betsey Montgomery, March 24, 1829. William Finch to Sarah Audolf, July 19, 1829. Calib McKinney to Betsy Smith, August 23, 1829. Ezekiel Smith to Jane Wardlow, September 17, 1829. James Morris to Elizabeth Barnes, September 6, 1829. William E. Borin to Maria Danelly, September 24, 1829. James H. Berry to Mary Noles, October 4, 1829. Theophilus Bateman to Jemima McDonald, October 15, 1829. Jesse Folk to Lucinda Trawick, November 4, 1829. Thomas Low to Eliza A. Lundy, November 12, 1829. James Sharp to Catherine Simmons, November 29, 1829. William F. Clark to Susan D. Johnston, December 10, 1829. Micajah Bateman to Martha McDonald, December 16, 1829. Washington Poe to Salina S. Norman, December 24, 1829. Thomas W. W. Bagley to Elizabeth Patton, December 31, 1829. John Parks to Hannah W. W. Allen, December 31, 1829. Charles Peck to Jane Ellis, March 18, 1830. Anthony Ivey to Martha Wood, April 4, 1830. John Worthy to Mary Killingsworth, January 7, 1830. Edward Peel to Martha Wheeler, January 14, 1830. Marshall M. Reynolds to Sarah Allen, January 10, 1830. Whitmell Williams to Mahala Wiicher, February 7, 1830. Joseph A. Langford to Eliza Herring, September 7, 1830. Poldus Hotsmos to Hannah Young, February 18, 1830. George W. Ellis to Eliza H. Capers, February 22, 1830. Humphrey Baker to Emily Davis, February 3, 1830. Allen Johnston to Olive L. Calhoun, February 17, 1830. Jeremiah Hammock to Martha Dees, March 27, 1830. John C. Hamilton to Nancey Good, March 31, 1830. Murdock Chisholm to Amelia G. Bernard, April 29, 1830. John Griffin to Catherine Hammock, May 2, 1830. Robert S. Patton to Rebecca I. Pace, June 3, 1830. William Morrell to Martha Pollard, June 17, 1830. Alfred Brady to Susan Johnson, June 13, 1830. Wiley Ratchals to Sarah Summerlin, June 16, 1830. David B. Butler to Rebecca A. Campbell, June 24, 1830. Isaac Jones to Martha Dailey, June 29, 1830. Gabriel Jones to Elvia Rowland, July 1, 1830. 151

Larkin Vincent to Lucretia Miles, July 19, 1830. Amos Opry to Nancy Robertson, November 31, 1830. Edward Folds to Lucretia Holmes, November 3, 1830. Edward Bryan to Elizabeth Williams, July 21, 1830. Henry Carter to Martha Caine, July 25, 1830. William L. Lewis to Charlotte Peal, August 17, 1830. Jamerson A. Bayne to Mary M. Frederick, August 20, 1830. Archin Craft to Ellin Bride, October 17, 1830. William B. Shaw to Lecia H. Morris, August 18, 1830. Lewis Griffin to Delia Melton, June 24, 1830. Henry L. Densley to Mary Elliott, September 14, 1830. William Griffin to Rachel Robertson, December 13, 1830. Abner J. Wetherby to Mary Etheridge, March 21, 1830. Gilford Merritt to Mary Sherry, February 25, 1830. Wade Harris to Elizabeth Shivers, October 13, 1830. John D. Collins to Martha Bruce, December 12, 1830. William Lesker to Drucilla Lesker, August 14, 1830. Benjamin H. Barker to Martha Oliver, December 2, 1830. Caleb Smith to Malinda McKinny, September 20, 1830. Thomas Blanchett to Nancy Page, December 20, 1830. William Tucker to Elizabeth Bagby, November 23, 1830. John Newson to Catherin McCardle, November 25, 1830. Beverly B. Roberson to Caroline T. Hoswell, December 16, 1830. Guy Champlin to Mary Ann B. Ellis, December 16, 1830. Rubin Kent to Julian Debow, April 13, 1830. William M. Griffith to Moran Parker, November 25, 1831. John Wimberly to Levinia McDonald, January 27, 1831. James Riley to Elizabeth ––––––, January 30, 1831. Henry S. Ray to Mary Jane Smith, January 6, 1831. George W. Moore to Mary Stephens, January 23, 1831. William H. Calhoun to Martha Ann Smith, January 27, 1831. Isaac James to Lucinda Parker, February 9, 1831. Joseph Mobley to Polly Carter, November 24, 1831 James A. Hall to Elizabeth Cotton, June 9, 1831. Samuel Kellar to Elizabeth Jones, January 17, 1831. George P. Wagnin to Louisa B. Danelly, August 11, 1831. William Spears to Milley Smith, February 14, 1831. Joseph McKinnee to Malinda Baker, October 18, 1831. James D. Eubanks to Permelia K. McCook, March 10, 1831. Thomas M. Ellis to Eliza Cunningham, June 2, 1831. William L. Southall to Maria Bailey, June 10, 1831. George W. Jackson to Wilmouth Hatcher, May 23, 1831. Hircy Barber to Martha Ann Pitts, May 6, 1831. Jordan T. Council to Sophia T. Frierson, August 25, 1831. John Loving to Spicy Ann Johnson, October 8, 1831. John Whorton to Cynthia Rayfield, November 29, 1831. Thomas Victory to Elizabeth Patterson, August 18, 1831. William Mobley to Levina Clark, July 28, 1831. Nathan Bush to Elizabeth Butler, October 27, 1831. John Briggs to Pricilla Jackson, February 20, 1831. Henry Steward to Sophia McKinney, May 12, 1831. Dempsey Baker to Martha Narthworthy, October 11, 1831. William Grice to Sarah Doles, October 11, 1831. James Langford to Pherriba Price, March 10, 1831. Hamilton Reib to Anna Johnson, August 31, 1831. Jeremiah E. Tharp to Narcissa Holmes, September 6, 1831.

James W. Green to Ann Bassett, November 29, 1831. James Williams to Catherine Arnett, November 20, 1831. James Jones to Thurza Ann Fitzpatrick, November 20, 1831. Amos Luben to Julia A. Crawford, March 17, 1831. Jeremiah Barnett to Lusianna Lipsey, October 27, 1831. Anderson McNeal to Rebecca Rowland, October 18, 1831. John H. Lowe to Mary F. Harden, November 3, 1831. William Bateman to Mary Sikes, December 18, 1831. Myran Bartlett to Tabitha N. Harvey, July 20, 1831. Henry Flanders to Susannah Landiford, May 5, 1831. John Hoskins to Polly Vines, April 3, 1831. John P. Smith to Eliza R. Benning, January 5, 1832. William Hightower to Phoeba Dillard, January 15, 1832. Julius Holmes to Hetty Hatcher, September 23, 1832. Dustin Erwin to Charlotte Allen, January 19, 1832. John P. Harvey to Charlotta R. Gardner, April 29, 1832. Richard Smith to Mary Smith, March 5, 1832. Frederick F. Lewis to Julia A. Thomas, April 9, 1832. Henry Johnston to Ann Jones, August 25, 1832. John Pitman to Nancy Jones, February 15, 1832. James Burnes to Sarah McDonald, April 20, 1832. Edward Albert Gilbert to Elizabeth A. Douglass, May 5, 1832. Edward Swearingin to Catherin Pitts, February 16, 1832. Alfred M. Holby to Ann Eliza Dannelly, September 20, 1832. Eli Jenkins to Martha Ross, June 10, 1832. Charles Plumm to Martha Reynolds, July 8, 1832 Philip Thomas to Mary Ross, August 2, 1832. Robert C. Redding to Parisad Watts, June 28, 1832. Edward W. Wright to Martha W. Crowell, May 2, 1832. Benjamin McKinney to Cynthia Baker, September 13, 1832. Archibald M. Campbell to Mary W. Willis, April 19, 1832. Edward C. Buckley to Hariet J. Hill, September 1, 1832. William Freney to Martha Ann C. Colley, June 17, 1832. Green B. Williams to Easter A. Perdue, February 14, 1832. Benjamin James to Mary Pitman, July 1, 1832. Mitchell Harkins to Mary Radford, October 21, 1832. William B. Cone to Nancy P. Cooke, December 20, 1832. Thomas Simmons to Sarah A. M. Lanier, October 22, 1832. Richard Smith to Mary Smith, March 5, 1832. John Roland to Mary Altman, December 22, 1832. Eli Wardsworth to Betsy McClendon, November 25, 1832. Mitchel Haskins to Mary Radford, October 21, 1832. Philip Thomas to Mary Roff, August 2, 1832. Archibald M. Campbell to Mary W. Willis, April 18, 1832. Charles Plumb to Martha Reynolds, July 7, 1832. Jefferson M. Graybill to Martha Benton, July 12, 1832. John Pitman to Nancy James, February 16, 1832. Robert Darnell to Nancy Frederick, July 1, 1832. Edward W. Wright to Martha W. Crowell, May 2, 1832. Benjamin McKinney to Cynthia Baker, September 13, 1832. Edward C. Balkley to Harriet I. Hill, September 1, 1832. Henry Johnson to Ann Jones, August 25, 1832. Alfred M. Hobby to Ann Eliza Danelly, September 20, 1832. Benjamin James to Mary Pitman, July 1, 1832. Julius Holmes to Kitty or Hetti Hatcher, September 23, 1832. Turner Smith to Mary Allen, November 29, 1832. Benjamin Allen to Fanny Burden, November 20, 1832. 152

John W. Winn to Sarah Clem, December 11, 1832. William Langford to Mary P. Purdue, December 30, 1832. James Clack to Narcissa Britenham, January 17, 1833. William Altman to Mary Rowland, January 6, 1833. Pleasant Warner to Amanda Voice, December 20, 1833. John L. Merstain to Julia Frances Jeter, January 24, 1833. Franklin Owens to Jane Barker, January 24, 1833. Micajah Williams to Nancy Vickers, February 17, 1833. Benjamin Gardner to Catherine Collins, February 14, 1833. Samuel M. Jackson to Caroline A. Williamson, March 6, 1833. Thomas Wood to Matilda E. Graver, March 28, 1833. William May to Martha Smith, April 4, 1833. William J. Rylander to Harriet Daves, April 23, 1833. William Rountree to Amelia M. Robinson, April 17, 1833. John Foard to Elizabeth Thomas, February 17, 1833. Thomas M. Self to Mary Bridges, April 24, 1833. William M. Oliver to Sarah M. Bullock, April 25, 1833. James Reeves to Lavinia Lovett, April 28, 1833. Francis Powers to Lavinia Brumbslow, May 9, 1833. Shadrack Pearson to Elizabeth Nichol, March 31, 1833. Asa E. Ernest to Julia Kent, May 16, 1833. Charles Day to Mary J. Crocker, May 23, 1833. Henry Wimberly to Amy Hogan, May 8, 1833. George Jones to Eliza B. Rowland, May 29, 1833. Thomas J. Salsbury to Elizabeth Grant, May 30, 1833. Philip Jacobs to Mary Ann McGee, July 18, 1833. Ransom Tarlton to Mary Elizabeth Vosser, July 30, 1833. John McKinney to Araminta Hamlin, July 7, 1833. James Bridges to Irena Powell, September 5, 1833. Thomas Hunt to An Eliza Frierson, September 10, 1833. John Lesly to Martha McNeal, August 27, 1833. Isaac Ives to Sarah Chance, October 2, 1833. James J. Rich to Caroline C. Holden, October 31, 1833. John G. Fendren to Nancy Thompson, November 6, 1833. Benjamin R. Montgomery to Matilda Harden, October 31, 1833. John M. Hollingsworth to Euphemia Cunningham, October 3, 1833. William B. Johnson to Caroline B. Baily, October 10, 1833. John Holmes to Caroline E. Bivins, October 17, 1833. Garland Hightower to Martha Cumby, November 17, 1833. George J. Pitts to Louisa M. Howard, December 18, 1833. John Rodgers to Elizabeth A. Tharp, April 9, 1833. Frederick B. McNell to Henrietta J. Pope, December 12, 1833. Adolphus Maupert to Nelia Andorn, December 26, 1833. Albert Morrell to Mitty Tarks, April 4, 1833. Nathaniel Reynolds to Caroline Tharp, December 10, 1833. Edward B. Jenkins to Lodieska Turner, November 19, 1833. Matthew Berry to Linda Nobles January 19, 1833. W. C. Lawske to Mary Newsom, December 18, 1833. Daniel B. Brooks to Georgia C. Paul, December 26, 1833. Dennis N. Owens to Elizabeth S. Norman, February 19, 1833. Edmund Wheeless to Martha Allen, November 18,1833. Thomas J. Draughan to Julia A. F. Shell, January 10, 1834. Jonathan James to Mary Miles, February 10, 1834. James Martin to Elmira Robertson, January 21, 1834. Charles Plumb to Martha English, January 30, 1834. Alfred E. Renfroe to Rhoda G. Calhoun, February 6, 1834.

Charles W. Moore to Ann E. Mullally, March 13, 1834. John McKinney to Laurena Crane, January 2, 1834. John H. Damour to Ann Toben, February 10, 1834. William Lloyd to Sarah Killingsworth, March 23, 1834. Berry Humphries to Jane Carter, March 4, 1834. David J. Davis to Mary Hoge, February 20, 1834. Willis Hughes to Marian Bagley, February 20, 1834. Jacob G. Braswell to Mary Raley, January 30, 1834. George W. Scarborough to Susannah McClendon, February 16, 1834. William Skaggs to Martha Perdue, April 17, 1834. William J. Howard to Ann Billingslea, April 24, 1834. Zachariah Lamar to Martha A. Rick, June 26, 1834. Richard Smith to Mahala Willoughby, August 5, 1834. Risdon Jarman to Elizabeth Grimes, June 26, 1834. Jonathan Craft to Martha Burnet, May 14, 1834. James Hamilton Covat to Rebecca Durden, July 10, 1834. Thomas Pace to Elizabeth Everett, May 28, 1834. Simeon Millison to Matilda Faircloth, June 25, 1834. John M. Kibbee to Martha M. Graves, July 11, 1834. Gilford Lifsey to Lavinia Burnet, February 26, 1834. William Brinkley to Elizabeth Harper, April 3, 1834. Stephen Smith to Harriett E. Bosworth, July 18, 1834. Amariah Daniel to Elizabeth Caroline Pearson, July 31, 1834. George W. Alden to Piety Pritchard, July 27, 1834. Alexander Sullivan to Mary McDonald, August 31, 1834. Vincent Hill to Maria Davis, January 30, 1834. L. G. Chambliss to Martha E. Russsel, September 15, 1834. William Alexander to Mary James, October 30, 1834. William G. Brown to Frances S. Jones, September 16, 1834. Calvin L. Howland to Mary Ann Bradley, September 28, 1834. Robert P. Robertson to Mary Ann Morgan, September 14, 1834. George F. Martin to Mary Ann Smith, September 4, 1834. Berry Jones to Malinda Shinholster, July 9, 1834. Samuel F. Dickinson to Susan W. Cook, October 9, 1834. Albert Tucker to Rebecca Wyche, October 12, 1834. Thomas L. Ross to Martha Hoge, October 26, 1834. William Harrington to Eliza Johnson, September 25, 1834. Joseph J. Holleman to Martha Johnson, October 2, 1834. David Adams to Mary Cannon, September 24, 1834. William Holmes to Caroline S. Powell, November 13, 1834. Joseph Clements to Patsy Perkins, December 14, 1834. William W. Perdue to Sarah Ann Lyles, December 9, 1834. Midas L. Graybill to Mary Baily, November 18, 1834. Francis S. Johnson to Lucia Griswold, November 20, 1834. Seth Parker to Eveline Ball, December 11, 1834. Thomas M. Beall to Antoinette C. Scott, May 22, 1834. Starling S. Snelgrove to Susan Wilder, December 18, 1834. Wiley Harris to Maris Shaw, February 8, 1835. John Cowfield to Tabitha Brumbelow, February 7, 1835. Rowland Pierce to Mary C. Chapman, March 1, 1835. James Bassett to Eliza Thompson, February 5, 1835. William J. Perkins to Nancy Dillard, April 5, 1835. James Doyle to Mary Brown, March 23, 1835. Richard McGoldrick to Martha L. Morrison, July 16, 1835. Charles Collins to Sophie F. Rosseter, January 1, 1835. Jacob Skipper to Hester B. Baker, September 17, 1835.


Abel C. Parmeleee to Catharine McCallum, November 27, 1835. Alford Long to Sarah Dickson, December 20, 1835. John Hampton to Mary Dickson, December 20, 1835. Jesse Ammond To Eliza Cannon, August 5, 1835. William Daniel to Elizabeth Bone, August 27, 1835. Mitchell Pierce to Elizabeth Hammock, June 18, 1835. Giles S. Arnold to Della Fowlers, June 14, 1835. Alexander Jones to Ruth McCardell, April 30, 1835. William M. Jones to Jane Chambliss, February 15, 1835. Melcher Wardsworth to Eveline Strozier, May 6, 1835. Berry Clark to Sarah Ammons, May 7, 1835. Frederick Holmes to Elizabeth Bagsby, May 22, 1835. John Bassett to Martha A. Corley, May 21, 1835. Joshua Hammock to Rebecca Smith, April 2, 1835. Isaac F. Heard to Frances Wilder, April 9, 1835. Absolom. G. James to Martha Youngblood, October 23, 1835. William L. Nancy to Emily Williams, October 20, 1835. Thomas P. Stubbs to Rebecca B. Lundy, November 12, 1835. George W. Price to Elizabeth C. Granniss, October 22, 1835. John S. Travis to Eldecio Parker, December 6, 1835. Jonathan A. Barret to Sarah Pitts, December 10, 1835. Isaac Jones to Nancy Oliver, December 24, 1835. John W. B. Snow to Jane Patton, December 31, 1835. Nathan M. Tawn to Winney Green, December 19, 1835. Charles Griffin to Emeline Smith, November 2, 1835. David C. Carter to Lucinda M. Hogan, December 1, 1835. James Hightower to Elizabeth Dillard, October 18, 1835. Campbell Renfro to Elizabeth Victory, July 19, 1835. Richard M. Pitts to Mariah Calhoun, January 13, 1836. William R. Jacobs to Abby Dennis, December 24, 1836. James R. Rickers to Emeline Davies, January 17, 1836. Peter J. Carnes to Emily S. Campbell, January 21, 1836. John E. Clark to Nancy Ammonds, January 7, 1836. Ascada Rodgers to Amanda Bassett, January 3, 1836. James Skinner to Margaret Hicks, March 10, 1836. Thomas Tabb to Helen Johnson, January 21, 1836. James Newsom to Emily Bickly, January 17, 1836. John B. Wiley to Ann G. Clopton, February 18, 1836. Jerry O’Conner to Mary Bond, May 3, 1836. Eli Smith to Frances Hand, May 21, 1836. Richard I. Barnes to Emily Parker, May 8, 1836. I. D. G. Powell to Mary D. Smith, May 31, 1836. Henry Hightower to Roda Dillard, May 24, 1836. Thomas R. Lamar to Eliza M. M. Lamar, April 14, 1836. Allenson Nelms to Frances Melvina Williams, May 31, 1836. William Ford to Dilly Dye, April 18, 1836. William Draughn to Martha Shell, October 19, 1836. Philip Herrin to Lucinda Burnett, November 10, 1836. Robert Kelton to Lucinda Bird, April 12, 1836. Branch Fulkes to Elizabeth Keller, November 6, 1836. Leighton Sowell to Lucy Ann Hughes, July 7, 1836. Richard G. Earle to Sarah Kelton, July 5, 1836. Leroy Gunter to Mary Ann Courtney, July 14, 1836. William H. Ellison to Sarah Ann Johnson, September 1, 1836. Daniel F. Clarke to Eliza Clark, June 22, 1836. Thomas Harrold to Mary A. Bullock, December 8, 1836. Robert Carver to Ann Eliza Hardeway, November 10, 1836.

Eliphalet C. Brown to Margaret Jane Hollingsworth, November 1, 1836. John R. Wilson to Elizabeth Melton, December 29, 1836. Niscon Handcock to Sarah Perdue, June 30, 1836. E. M. Pool to Teresa Ann Taply, November 10, 1836. Stephen W. Thompkins to Serena Williams, September 15, 1837. I. S. Rowls to Sarah W. Anderson, January 20, 1837. Isaac Holmes to Louisa I. Mott, January 10, 1837. Theophilus Pearce to Martha Pearson, January 19, 1837. George Stoker to Frances Miller, January 19, 1837. Burwell Parker to Nancy Jordan, January 10, 1837. Elbert Miller to Harriett S. Hamilton, January 22, 1837. James Raley to Elizabeth Reddick, March 15, 1837. John Bartley to Ann Moore, May 3, 1837. William B. Hancock to Rachel Whittington, March 15, 1837. Charles L. Bass to Rebecca Mary Fluker, May 9, 1837. Baldwin Jones to Polly Woodson, January 21, 1837. Isham C. Brown to Frances Smith, May 4, 1837. Alexander H. Foster to Ann M. C. Dewitt, February 21, 1837. Andrew Beaton to Eliza Jane Mackey, March 7, 1837. John C. F. Clarke to Adeline Stevens, May 1, 1837. Jesse Madden to Martha C. Jones, May 4, 1837. John Chapman to Charlotte Flowers, June 11, 1837. Jamus G. Hall to Margaret Ann Mosely, December 17, 1837. James Maxwell to Letha Ann Trant, March 30, 1837. William H. Peyton to Martha Jones, April 20, 1837. Robert Collins to Eliza C. Smith, April 27, 1837. John Wilson to Ailsey Rockmore, June 12, 1837. John Ford to Susan Permenter, July 5, 1837. George P. Cooper to Ellen C. Wilson, July 20, 1837. David H. Jones to Frances C. Lamar, July 18, 1837. John Adam Bazard to Catherine Horse, August 13, 1837. Thomas H. Blunt to Sarah Clark, August 9, 1837. John Hunt to Mary V. Rogers, August 31, 1837. James Wilbanks to Frances Arnold, September 28, 1837. John Sperry to Mary McCallum, September 26, 1837. James L. Salusbury to Mary N. Curb, September 7, 1837. Joel T. Chirry to Susan McCallum, September 4, 1837. Harman Davis to Elizabeth McGraw, September 3, 1837. Josiah Rutherford to Sarah Honeycut, September 26, 1837. George M. Thompson to Amelia B. Wilkinson, October 1, 1837. William L. Hughes to Lucindy P. Calhoun, November 15, 1837. William M. Pope to Caroline Coleman, November 7, 1837. Abraham Liddon to Claudia Perry, October 9, 1837. William Corless to Faith Grace, October 29, 1837. Hiram Lipsey to Caroline Bowden, December 18, 1837. Milton Baker to Cornelia B. Gates, December 4, 1837. Edwin Fort to Mary B. Munson, December 6, 1837. Israel F. Brown to Ann Smith, December 26, 1837. Willoughby Jones to Hariet McManus, December 24, 1837. George Brown to Sarah Parker, December 18, 1837. Benjamin F. Smith to Sarah L. Breithaupt, January 3, 1838. Richard C. Baldwin to Anna Catharine Holt, July 10, 1837. John Edwards to Sarah Sheffield, July 29, 1837. Hanry Lessell to Lucinda Martin, September 12, 1837. Joel Clark to Elizabeth Skipper, November 30, 1837. 154

Henry Clark to Mary Riley, December 29, 1838. Filford Lipsey to Pheraby Parker, December 17, 1837. Lott Molsby to Mary Turner, December 4, 1837. Samuel W. Jones to Nancy Riley, January 5, 1837. Benjamine White to Elizabeth Minter, November 12, 1838. Ezekiel Stokes to Charlott Honeycutt, January 5, 1838. John Rozar to Mary M. Powell, January 2, 1838. Alford M. Cliatt to Ann Allen, February 18, 1838. Thomas M. Gatlin to Martha W. Gatlin, March 12, 1838. John M. Burdine to Mary Anne Jones, March 20, 1838. Smith W. Burnett to Martha G. Newcomb, March 25, 1838. John M. Brantly to Rhoda Dillard, April 29, 1838. John G. Creagh to Lucretia Pratt, May 29, 1838. Thomas Norris to Frances E. A. Myrick, May 29, 1838. Perry Dillard to Susan Hambly, May 6, 1838. Duke M. Braswell to Caroline S. Beall, May 6, 1838. Jim Pope to Patsy Stuckey, May 19, 1838. William Collins to Letty McLemurray, January 14, 1838. William I. Johnson to Mariah M. Smith, June 14, 1838. G. L. Davis to Mary Chambliss, June 17, 1838. William H. Walker to Mary A. Smith, June 3, 1838. Turner Carrol to Saleta Pinckney Glover, July 12, 1838. Alexander Johnson to Charlott McDonald, August 2, 1838. Joseph N. Dickson to Mitchell Hamblin, July 12, 1838. James Perdue to Sarah Hall, July 3, 1838. Jacob Shotwell to Sarah L. Newhall, July 11, 1838. John Bowman to Martha H. Jones, August 2, 1838. Caleb W. Key to Elizabeth Wimberly, September 2, 1838. Albert L. Story to Sarah B. Morgan, September 19, 1838. Archibald McDonald to Lucy Kinsey, October 4, 1838. Thomas Pratt to Mary E. Gurganns, October 28, 1838. Elam Alexander to Ann G. Stone, October 8, 1838. Asa A. Johnson to Ann Mariah Sledge, October 28, 1838. Colin Dilard to Margaret Fish, October 4, 1838. David Altman to Nancy Bartlett, October 31, 1838. John P. Lard to Mary Ann Flanders, October 2, 1838. George W. Gingainus to Nancy Barran, October 24, 1838. William Hopkins to Martha Lacy, November 8, 1838. William B. Johnson to Eleanor Bullock, November 15, 1838. Edmund Blake to Eleanor Harris, November 15, 1838. Albert Allen to Mary Ann Perry, December 24, 1838. John Collier to Patience Lacy, November 8, 1838. James Patton to Almira E. Curry, December 6, 1838. Thomas A. Brown to Eliza Ann Harden, December 6, 1838. James Gamble to Bathesheba Beard, December 25, 1838. Colin Hulholland to Adeline Sidney Hunt, December 24, 1838. Robert Phillips to Isabella Curbow, January 1, 1839. Seaborn Papmore to Louisa Tharp, December 27, 1839. Thomas Perry to Flora Ann Dozier, January 3, 1839. Samuel J. Casells To Sarah Ann Wallis, January 15, 1839. Samuel M. Strong to Mary Ella Nixon, January 15, 1839. Murdock McKaskell to Eliza A. Nixon, January 15, 1839. James L. Hall to Kitty Williams, February 28, 1839. David Bates to Dora Gandy, February 22, 1839. John Carroll to Mary Glover, February 14, 1839. Edward L. Stroaker to Sarah Ann Williams, February 27, 1839. William Cogswell to Clarissa Hydrick, March 14, 1839.

Young Jessup to Lydia Leather Dunn, February 10, 1839. Henry Smith to Sarah Worseley, March 4, 1839. John Hafer to Artemetia Parker, March 17, 1839. Pinckney Sims to Marinda L. Williams, April 3, 1839. James I. Moulton to Julia Ann Smith, April 25, 1839. George W. Jones to Malvinia Hollingsworth, April 28, 1839 Rufus Cook to Matilda Harris, May 19, 1839. James G. Lisles to Nancy Edmonson, May 25, 1839. John H. Oglesby to Eveline Hill, June 6, 1839. George Damon to Sarah Craig, May 21, 1839. Joseph S. Johnson to Marthama Campbell, May 12, 1839. Daniel S. Rea to Louisa G. Craige, May 5, 1839. William Willoughby to Sarah Durden, July 30. 1839. William Sanders to Abey Lucas, July 4, 1839. Theodore Harbaum to Martha Terry, July 25, 1839. Jacob Heard to Elizabeth Bushbee, July 7. 1839. James Johnson to Amanda Ivey, July 4, 1839. Robert S. Winn to Catherine Sharp, September 10, 1839. John L. Hodges to Mary D. Hamilton, August 12, 1839. George L. Lunsford to Maria Mathews, August 25, 1839. Larkin Griffin to Elizabeth Repiter, August 20, 1839. William B. Gillam to Nancy Ann Barker, August 6, 1839. Solomon R. Johnson to Vashti Johnson, August 30, 1839 Jacob Hatreg to Mary Fellendon, August 3, 1839. Augustus P. Burr to Catherine Beasley, September 18, 1839. Edmund Matthews to Ann Sims, September 1, 1839. Burton Paul and Mary A. Myrick, October 17, 1839. Middleton McDonald to Mary Busby, November 21, 1839. Martin L. Harden to Sarah E. Macon, November 19, 1839. Claborn Wall to America Grace, November 3, 1839. Duke H. Hayes to Sarah Ann Munsor, October 31, 1839. Thomas R. Mills to Eleanor Woodworth, November 12, 1839. Timothy M. Furlow to Margaret E. Holt, November 3, 1839. Elihu Price to Julia S. Ford, December 1, 1839. Joseph A. White to Martha Ann Baldwin, November 21, 1839. Erasmus B. Williams to Emily Menard, December 19, 1839. George Jewett to Unice F. Freeman, November 24, 1839. Henry Tripp to Tobitha Brummett, November 10, 1839. Hypoldus L. King to Rachel R. King, December 4, 1839. Ira Jennings to Elizabeth Newsom, December 5, 1839. Butes A. Webb to Mary Dickson, December 1, 1839. George S. King to Fanny R.Graves, December 25, 1839. Seth Hart to Matilda J. Mills, December 15, 1839. Richard I. H. Porter to Frances Amanda Rogers, December 27, 1839. Stephen S. McKinney to Malinda Brummett, December 8, 1839. John Welego to Susannah Hightower, November 9, 1840. Eleazor A. Fretwell to Elizabeth T. Mann, January 23, 1840. William Wright to Elizabeth Sullivan, January 7, 1840. Abraham P. Watt to Jane E. Lanier, January 7, 1840. George W. Craft to Sarah Beard, March 3, 1840. Alexander Scott to Margaret Williams, February 4, 1840. A. F. Sherwood to Martha Ernest, April 9, 1840. Hatton P. Redding to Precilla Hawfield, January 16, 1840. John S. M. Baldwin to Eliza H. McLaren, January 6, 1840. Willis Boon to Henrietta Tharp, February 2, 1840. 155

Zachariah P. Snead to Catherine A. G. Gilbert, February 26, 1840. William Pinkham to Hester Ann Fisk, February 16, 1840. James Smith to Martha Woods, February 16, 1840. Benjamin F. Ross to Martha A. Childers, January 14, 1840. George D. Combs to Sarah E. N. Bullock, April 2, 1840. Terrence Cody to Ann Toben, March 1, 1840. William Cady to Martha J. Brown, April 11, 1840. James L. Flanders to Mary B. Harrison, April 21, 1840. Manuel Domingoes to Elizabeth Flowers, July 21, 1840. Henry Pike to Ann Bradley, July 1, 1840. William L. Wilder to Nancy M. McCardle, April 9, 1840. Peter E. Brown to Rebecca Cook, April 9, 1940. James Vance to Sally Ruth, April 8, 1840. William S. Cheek to Malinda Dorton, March 11, 1840. Washington Wade to Leah Jane Duncan, January 21, 1840. Thadius W. Brantley to Nancy Hall, April 7, 1840. James Wilson to Frances Arnold, March 18, 1840. Samuel G. Nixon to Rose Ann Rye, December 24, 1840. David L. Grimes to Mary S. Ross, January 14, 1841. William R. Jones to Sarah Braddock, January 13, 1841. William Taylor to Matilda Dillard, January 14, 1841. John Dedrick to Susan Adeline Mount, January 28, 1841. Gotlib Timmerman to Winefred Hamilton Mount, January 28, 1841. Isaac T. Newberry to Amrietta S. Bullock, January 28, 1841. John P. Parker to Eliza Chambliss, February 2, 1841. Samuel S. Duke to Clarke Flowers, February 3, 1841. Absalom Powell to Catherine Lidden, March 1, 1841. Asa Simmerlin to Sarah Amerson, March 14, 1841. James R. Clark to Ann M. Brown, March 28, 1841. John Barkner to Margaret Cloes, April 8, 1841. George Walker to Mary Brady, May 23, 1841. Allen Flewelen to Hester Brown, June 13, 1841. William W. Dee to Nancy R. Frierson, July 8, 1841. Thos. Mallett to Sarah Banks, July 13, 1841. Archibald McDonald to Hannah C. Avery, August 18, 1841. Charles B. Douglas to Eliza B. Hogan, August 25, 1841. Richardson Sanderson to Emily Dorakin, September 7, 1841. John B. Stow to Catherine M. Sims, July 14, 1841. William D. Rainey to Rebecca T. Wiche, September 22, 1841. Richard Stokes to Margaret Lenard, August 30, 1841. Wilton Clarke to Louisa Raymond, September 9, 1841. Moses Mitchell to Winefred Sewell, September 23, 1841. Joseph Lamming to Martha Pucket, September 30, 1841. John Sowen to Mary Mitchell, September 9, 1841. Perry Neil to Jane Chambliss, October 12, 1841. Isaac Sowell to Hannah Henegar, October 12, 1841. Samuel Rogers to Elizabeth Smith, October 21, 1841. David Morgan to Caroline Brown, March 30, 1841. Samuel Payne to Mary Campbell, October 24, 1841. Enoch Bodell to Sarah Jane Young, October 31, 1841. Drinsorn J. Saunders to Eliz. E. Cason, October 27, 1841. Henry H. Green to Theodosia Parker, August 10, 1841. James R. Haynes to Margaret M. Wadsworth, November 25, 1841. Henry L. Jewett to Martha Howard, March 2, 1841.

James L. Pierce to Sarah Clopton, September 28, 1841. Edwin Woodruff to Emily Ives, October 14, 1841. Timothy N. Mason to Julia A. Tooke, October 20, 1841. James A. Knight to Tobitha Williams, November 18, 1841. Septimus Wadsworth to Sarah Strozier, November 23, 1841. John Experience to Harriet Holman, December 12, 1841. James C. Burnett to Caroline E. Wilder, October 26, 1841. Thomas O. Atha to Susanna Curley, December 9, 1841. James A. Goodwin to Deborah D. Lehmon, November 21, 1841. Thomas Pickard to Hannah Mosburn, November 23, 1841. Isadore A. Z. Wagner to Lucy M. Currey, January 8, 1842. Littleton Burnett to Ann Garner, January 5, 1842. Warren A. Summerlin to Elizabeth Jordan, January 16, 1842. James Adderson to Hannah Irwin, November 26, 1842. –––––– McCarthy to Rebecca Barnet, January 24, 1842. Godfrey Nelson Knight to Catherine Jane Leister, January 29, 1842. Miles Braddock to Elizabeth Combs, January 19, 1842. Alexander McGregor to Mary Augusta Heath, February 23, 1842. A. R. White to Euphirmia D. Newberry, February 15, 1842. John Green to Sarah Morris, March 7, 1842. E. B. Cook to Nancy J. Harris, January 18, 1842. Bertrand Tissereau to Martha McNeal, February 6, 1842. John F. McLeod to Harriet J. Smith, February 15, 1842 W. B. Farrel to Ann Robinson, February 13, 1842. Charles Julian to Mariah Sims, March 21, 1842. Joseph C. Hunt to Adelade Y. Bowyer, April 14, 1842. George M. Murry to Charity Commander, February 26, 1842. Doctor Calvin Brown to Mary Sims, May 1, 1842. John Conner to Rebecca Ann Kinbrough, May 10, 1842. Joseph H. Mount to Eliza E. Barnard, May 23, 1842. John Rape to Charity Busby, May 5, 1842. N. B. Beard to Susan L. Lanier, May 23, 1842. William Williams to Mary Smith, May 29, 1842. Leroy H. Thurmon to Elizabeth A. McFarland, February 19, 1842. Abner Powers to Frances L. Beale, May 3, 1842. Samuel R. Blake to Mary Adeline Beale, May 3, 1842. Edward Richardson to Eliza Jane Bradley, June 2, 1842. George F. Cowart to Mary Ann Ross, July 5, 1842. Vinchin John L. Little to Lucinda Flint, July 4, 1842. Hartwell W. Campbell to Judith McClindon, July 5, 1842. John Ramaggi to Jane S. Derr, July 24, 1842. William B. Newsom to Louise Petty, July 19, 1842. Joseph Ford to Ann Eliza Smith, July 28, 1842. Grenville Mood to Antoinette V. Evans, October 4, 1842. Timothy B. Folger to Mily E. Cox, August 11, 1842. John M. Strozier to Gelary Lang, October 13, 1842. Rowan H. Man to Martha S. Holt, March 15, 1842. Isaac H. Monlam to Elizabeth I. Dickson, April 16, 1842. F. Crockey to Mary A. Price, August 17, 1842. Samuel McArthur to Matilda Neal, October 11, 1842. David Clopton to Martha E. Lizon, September 29, 1842. Martin Dunn to Mary McInvale, July 3, 1842. Jacob Ludwig to Philipina Kah, December 27, 1842. Isam H. Sledge to Mariah A. Heath, May 2, 1842. 156

Benjamin Griffin to Mary Wiggins, December 24, 1842. John S. Hoge to Adeline L. Frierson, December 27, 1842. Woodford Mabry, Esq., to Laura M. Wing, October 1, 1842. Sylvana L. Bryan to Eliza Ann Woodward, November 3, 1842. Eli Frazier to Permelia Deveaux, December 6, 1842. John B. Sedon to Conday A. S. Miller, December 29, 1842. William Kitchens to Mary Castelow, December 15, 1842. George A. Minchen to Louisa E. Mann, May 21, 1843. Morrison S. Wadsworth to Calla Parker, November 6, 1842. Richard A. Bursan to Catherine E. Brown, November 24, 1842. Charles S. Thomas to Martha N. Roberts, September 12, 1842. James M. Bailey to Amanda M. Stites, October 18, 1842. James Snow to Elizabeth Sims, January 6, 1842. William Bishop to Mary Hardy, January 15, 1842. Zachariah P. Wade to Frances P. A. Sacral, November 2, 1842. Robert Nisbet to Marian S. Abbott, November 15, 1842. Alexander S. Ragmur to Martha S. Macon, May 4, 1842. William E. Harrell to Charity Parker, November 23, 1842. John McElmurray to Susanna E. H. Sanders, December 1, 1842. William H. Morris to Nancy Peerkins, October 7, 1842. Enoch Folendon to Mary Grice, October 13, 1842. George M. Adams to Mary Brantley, November 3, 1842. Zachariah Williamson to Mary C. House, November 30, 1842. William Cherry to Edney P. Heard, October 25, 1842. James T. Durden to Sarah M. Ricks, November 13, 1842 Benjamin F. Hubbard to Martha A. Foster, December 13, 1842. Thomas S. Cater to Amelia E. Wimberly, December 21, 1842. Alexander Causey to Angeline Boon, October 12, 1842. Joel R. Simonton to Narcissa A. Cotton, November 30, 1842. Turner Smith to Elizabeth Ann Rebecca Odom, December 21, 1842. Rubin C. Wilson to Harriet Benton, April 16, 1843. Samuel Harrold to Nancy Gunn, May 17, 1843. Sabin Odom to Mary Crumley, January 18, 1843. Ashur Ayes to Mary Ann Cutter, January 4, 1843. James A. Gavin to O. A. Tharp, April 8, 1843. William Bickley to Elizabeth E. Moffiet, December 6, 1843. Andrew E. McKenzis to Martha Ann Wiggins, February 16, 1843. A. C. Monhouse to Rebecca I. Morgan, April 11, 1843. Newell Bird to Jane Kimbro, January 4, 1843. William A. Thompson to Martha Ann Foster, January 5, 1843. Milton Rape to Adaline Heath, April 23, 1843. Miles M. Young to Elizabeth A. S. Tapley, April 8, 1843. William Smith to Lucy Kent, April 15, 1843. Jaboz Lankston to Susan Hightower, February 16, 1843. Nazn Allen to Mary Honeycutt, February 14, 1843. Rubin C. Wilder to Harriet Benton, April 16, 1843. John J. Gresham, Esq., to Mary E. Baxter, May 25, 1843. Charles Thompson to Elizabeth S. Ventress, May 30, 1843. Adam Schafer to Caroline Zindel, June 5, 1843. Edward R. Pear to Martha E. Curd, June 8, 1843. Carmen Mason to Elizabeth Brown, June 28, 1843. Andrew J. Ward to Charity Stokes, June 29, 1843. John Theodore Harbaum to Gertrude Fleschman, July 11, 1843.

Thomas C. Richards to Caroline Barr, August 3, 1843. Jonathan Griffin to Sabra Hardy, August 8, 1843. Samuel P. Jones to Elizabeth C. Nixon, August 10, 1843. Thomas J. Shinholser to Amanda R. Evans, August 24, 1843. Rhode L. Lee to Mary Radford, July 26, 1843. Genl. Elias Beall to Ann G. Sanders, September 28, 1843. John Hollingsworth, Jr., to Mildred H. Johnson, October 3, 1843. James R. Kinwick to Arabella Randle, October 11, 1843. Thomas R. Newton to Parazade Johnson, November 8, 1843. William A. Maddux to Rebecca Henderson, November 10, 1843. R. L. Hunter to Sarah J. Flint, November 15, 1843. Samuel G. Strozier to Louisa Woodson, November 30, 1843. Elijah P. Allen to Sarah E. Meadows, December 4, 1843. Green Tucker to Mary Rockmore, December 10, 1843. Alfred Todd to Elizabeth Johnson, December 14, 1843. James Hogg to Elizabeth Parker, December 17, 1843. Roger McCall to Cynthia Young Rockwell, December 16, 1843. William G. Harris to Elizabeth Freeny, December 21, 1843. Washington J. Wade to Mary Rye, December 21, 1843 George B. Roberson to Mary Beddingfield, December 27, 1843. Britain A. Rogers to Sarah Jamison, December 19, 1843. Lovet J. Jeter to Martha Beddingfield, December 27, 1844. John McDonald to Martha Edwards, January 2, 1844. Jesse Land to Fanny Gertz, February 21, 1844. John P. Nicholson to Tobitha McCardle, April 25, 1844. Joseph Wilson to Piety Alden, May 26, 1844. Charles D. Cocknill to Eleanor Beanson, June 21, 1844. James Norman to Martha Daley, June 11, 1844. John P. Henegar to Scynthia Ann Browning, June 16, 1844. James Jones to Lucy Ann Jordan, June 8, 1844. John H. McMillen to Susan Wiss, May 14, 1844. Joseph B. Andrews to America Wall, May 23, 1844. David Brown to Rachel Irvin, April 21, 1844. James M. Janerett to C. Dalton Bird, March 21, 1844. Eli Frazier to Jane Hickman, March 31, 1844. Edwin Ives to Mary A. Eanes, March 31, 1844. John Heifer to Amanda Houghton, January 14, 1844. John F. Heath to Mrs. M. Phelps, January 18, 1844. William P. Barefield to Sarah Woodson, February 1, 1844. Edward Bryan Lewis to Caroline M. Hardy, February 1, 1844. Isaiah James to Matilda Shaw, February 6, 1844. John Rebun to Mason Perry, February 11, 1844. M. T. Gilbert to Amanda L. Burton, February 15, 1844. James T. Kilgore to Mary A. Jordan, February 22, 1844. James B. Alexander to Christianna Freany, February 22, 1844. James M. Malsby to Nancy Grimes, February 25, 1844. Benjamin Davis to Caroline Griffin, March 29, 1844. Jackariah O. Whitehead to Cassander M. Flint, April 18, 1844. William W. Richards to Caroline Barnard, February 28, 1844. George Payne to Elmy H. Sims, August 7, 1844. John Langston to Ann Dyer, July 20, 1844. Jacob Miller to Georgia Harris, November 3, 1844. Andrew James to Maria Ruth, October 31, 1844. Hiram Gibbons to Ann Herrington, October 29, 1844. Cicero Perkins to Sidney Harvey, September 27, 1844. James Irvin to Leathy Davis, November 13, 1844. 157

Thomas M. Griffin to Sarah P. Colbert, November 13, 1844. Albert G. Foster to Caroline Colbert, November 13, 1844. Samuel F. Gove to Sarah L. Lester, November 17, 1844. George R. Frazer to Merniva C. Jackson, April 8, 1844. Luther R. Johnson to Eliza S. Hillingsworth, June 18, 1844. Nathaniel R. Mitchell to Lucy Hill, November 7, 1844. William Brantley to Jeanna Tobin, November 26, 1844. Jeremiah Beal to Catherine N. Sanders, December 11, 1844. Abram Liddon to Arathusa C. Carbow, December 12, 1844. Hansford Griffin to Emily Smith, December 15, 1844. A. G. Killingsworth to Elizabeth McCook, December 11, 1844. John McGraw to Mary Ann Bartlett, December 31, 1844. John Johnson to Selita Ann McNeill, December 24, 1844. William G. Purdue to Sarah Arnett, December 24, 1844. Henry W. Wright to Nancy (or Mary) Powell, July 4, 1844. James Knight to Elizabeth Ann Laney, January 7, 1845. Edward Stubbs to Mary Ann Bronson, January 7, 1845. Stephen B. Pearce to Caroline I. Blance, May 22, 1845. William G. Kilpatrick to Frances J. Whitsett, November 12, 1845. Clark Brown to Sarah Ann Jordan, January 3, 1845. Hartwell P. Smith to Elizabeth Collins, January 26, 1845. Jacob W. T. Bickley to Nancy L. Mosely, January 16, 1845. Levy A. Carver to Mary Nelly, February 3, 1845. William A. Jarratt to Miss Elizabeth M. Martin, February 18, 1845. Andrew T. Anderson to Loretta Jane Parmele, February 25, 1845. Henry J. Dickson to Sarah Bern, March 13, 1845. William Brown to Elizabeth Shipash, March 7, 1845. William Lundy to Julia A. D. Tharp, March 27, 1845. Coveton Miller to Nancy Ann Mitchell, February 15, 1845. William McKinley to Elizabeth Bowers, March 13, 1845. Alexander Hammonsby to Mahala Jones, April 18, 1845. William M. Gibson to Martha Ann Williams, April 13, 1845. Ephriam R. Haynes to Mary England, April 21, 1845. Thomas T. Wimberly to Jane Yearty, April 29, 1845. Thomas B. Rutherford to Missouri J. Hill, February 25, 1845. John A. Williams to Dorothy Norvel, March 27, 1845. John Shultz to Elizabeth Sindle, May 14, 1845. William Dupree to Sarah Moon, May 16, 1845. James A. Ralston to A. L. Lamar, March 5, 1845. James Cole to Rebecca Ann Simpson, May 15, 1845. John K. Harmon to Elizabeth W. Heath, July 1, 1845. Jesse Morris to Elizabeth McNeil, July 3, 1845. Samuel W. Jones to Betsy Ann Jones, May 27, 1845. Henry P. Westcott to Ann Gordon, July 9, 1845. Henry Smith to Martha Scaggs, July 17, 1845. Thomas B. Little to Mary McArthur, July 31, 1845. Collin Dillard to Susan Crowell, August 7, 1845. Wiley Harris to Sarah McNeil, August 10, 1845. Jacob Kay to Mary O’Connor, August 10, 1845. Francis J. Ogden to Anna T. R. Shotwell, May 31, 1845. Elijah L. Shelton to Malinda Cummings, May 14, 1845. Benjamin C. H. Evans to Sarah A. Abbott, April 3, 1845. Henry Bailey to Thousa Burnett, April 23, 1845. Ferdinand Horne to Sarah P. Hicks, June 3, 1845.

Samuel P. Bailey to Mary Chambliss, August 17, 1845. John Cooke to Mary Ann Burnett, August 21, 1845. Wiley Tyson to Mary Hightower, August 17, 1845. Benjamin Brantley to Mary Ann Edwards, August 28, 1845. Thomas A. Harris to Martha L. Hines, August 28, 1845. Tolbert Combs to Levice Ross, September 2, 1845. R. B. Haughton to S. T. Strong, September 10, 1845. Henry S. Ray to Neisiah Hogan, February 18, 1845. John Watts to Lucinda Raburn, April 2, 1845. Abel C. Parmele to Mrs. Hester C. Fickling, October 19, 1845. Charles P. Evans to Judith A. Bassett, October 15, 1845. John Harrington to Mary Smith, August 3, 1845. Charles Bone to Jane Clinton, November 7, 1845. Samuel Dickson to Elizabeth A. McClindon, November 13, 1845. Abner P. Stubbs to Martha Ann Woodward, July 3, 1845. William C. Richards to Eliza J. Wright, November 13, 1845. William Ryder to Sarah McArthur, November 18, 1845. Gabriel Parker to Mary R. Wright, December 23, 1845. James M. Parker to Lucy Dickson, December 16, 1845. Paul Philbrick to Martha Caroline Page, August 27, 1845. John Knight to Sarah E. Weight, December 15, 1845. Washington B. Tiperaw to Nancy Rye, December 11, 1845. James J. Carson to Sarah F. Odom, June 3, 1845. William C. Hardy to Ann Eliza Stubbs, December 17, 1845. M. M. Hughes to Mary Jane Foster, December 29, 1845. George A. Smith to Adelphia Ann S. Cook, December 9, 1845. Artemus A. Brown to Martha Ann E. Jordan, December 15, 1845. John H. Street to Edv Crosby, December 27, 1845. John G. Walton to Virginia E. Bullock, December 16, 1845. Thomas Birdsong to Michel Wall, November 18, 1845. T. Goodyear to Mrs. Elizabeth Willingham, January 31, 1845. Jacob E. Hydrick to Catherine Rape, November 20, 1845. Simon Sykes to Elizabeth Bone, December 11, 1845. Richard B. Lynn to Eliza Salisbury, October 23, 1845. Benjamin Shavin to Godfrey Virginia Godfrey, May 1, 1845. John B. Ross to Martha L. Redding, March 1, 1845. James Campbell to Martha E. Evans, April 24, 1845. Ethelbert Langford to Elizabeth Ray, January 5, 1846. James Matthews to Susan Anna Pound, January 1, 1846. David Smith to Rebecca T. Fuller, January 22, 1846. Clark S. Putnam to Frances A. Warner, February 24, 1846. Jackson Chambliss to Mary Tapley, February 3, 1846. Thomas Barlett to Rachel Renfroe, February 4, 1846. William G. Beasley to Mary Jane Corsey, January 7, 1846. John Kitchens to Lucy Ann Cornwall, January 4, 1846. Mathew Sikes to Trunett Bone, January 1, 1846. T. M. Crosby to Nancy Delouch, February 18, 1846. Henry Butler to Lucinda Clants, February 8. 1846. Charles F. Hudson to Mary J. Scott, February 4, 1846. Henry B. Horton to Elizabeth Morley, February 1, 1845. Emanuel Isaacs to Helen Jane Brasly, March 4, 1846. Richard A. Perdue to Margaret E. Payur, March 29, 1846. William S. Ellis to Martha J. Gray, April 16, 1846. Michael I. Loper to Elizabeth C. Butler, March 24, 1846 John I. Woolton to Sarah Ann Allen, July 23, 1846. 158

William B. Russ to Maria Elizabeth Buckner, July 19, 1846. Ainsley H. Wyche to Harriett Sullivan, September 28, 1846. James O. Hooges to Ellinora H. Watts, September 28, 1846. Henry W. Shaw to Augusta M. Cummings, January 28, 1846. George J. Blake to Eliza Morell, April 8, 1846. James S. Green to Sarah Virginia Prince, May 5, 1846. Absolom Johnson to Louisianna A. Vigal, May 28, 1846. Robert Burkert to Elizabeth G. Huckleby, September 17, 1846. Benjamin R. N. Dickson to Frances Jane Petty, August 27, 1846. Seth R. Munsell to Mrs. Susan Kril, October 9, 1846. John Mitchell to Mary Shipper, November 1, 1846. John Edmonson to Sarah Ann Vance, October 7, 1846. B. R. McGinty to Theodoria Glesson, November 4, 1846. George Lewis to Mary Berry, October 18, 1846. John Barnes to Nancy Parks, October 5, 1846. James W. Druton to Martha M. Grew, November 29, 1846. Daniel Stokes to Eveline Oglesby, March 20, 1846. Isaac Burton to Martha Heath, June 8, 1846. John Baird to Mary Louisa Bozeman, November 24, 1846. Allen Fleming to Elizabeth C. Martin, November 25, 1846. M. R. Rogers to Miss M. E. Leddon, December 8, 1846. Thomas K. Jones to Frances Saxon, November 4, 1846. Robert Gibson to Elizabeth Sparrow Gerr, December 3, 1846. James Lewis to Nancy Wiggins, October 22, 1846. Francis E. M. Johnson to Elizabeth M. Mitchell, March 3, 1846. Robert Johnston to Caroline Davis, November 26, 1846. David Garey to Martha Amanda Hardy, December 21, 1846. William L. Mann to Jane R. Benson, August 3, 1846. Henry W. Jourdan to Sarah Ann Eliza Harrington, December 29, 1846. Robert L. Mims to Sarah A. F. Bilbert, December 9, 1846. Elijah A. Bradley to Catherine Cutton, December 22, 1846. William Nowell to Elizabeth Rainey, September 10, 1846. John Woodson to Sarah Edwards, November 19, 1846. William Patter to Susan Jones, December 31, 1846. Henry Daniels to Josephine Tesreau, December 8, 1846. James T. Giddins to Lucy Hobbs, August 28, 1846. James D. Carhart to Sarah N. Curd, January 5, 1846. Hugh Mackswell to Elizabeth Carroll, November 22, 1846. Willis D. Wood to Harriet E. Smith, April 12 1846. William Taylor to Sarah Brantley, February 16, 1847. Jeremiah A. Tharp to Margaret Hughes, February 9, 1847. John B. Thomas to Julia E. Foster, February 23, 1847. John s. McGraham to Eliza Ann Lewis, March 23, 1847. Giddeon Milton to Sarah Ann Blanford, January 30, 1847. William R. Brown to Cynthia Caroline Stewart, March 10, 1847. Allen S. Elkins to Maria Huckelby, March 30, 1847. William Booth to Temperance Collins, April 25, 1847. Thomas R. Gates to Louisa P. Lowe, March 2, 1847. James Alfeid to Susan Ann Snelgrove, May 4, 1847. William Crawford to Amelia Helton, January 19, 1847. William A. Stokes to Elizabeth F. Shipper, May 16, 1847. D. Chester Russal to Eda B. Trapp, May 13, 1847. Jackson Deloache to Eliza L. Wright, April 29, 1847. J. E. Nobles to Catherine Lewis, June 28, 1847. James Davis to Martha Cain, July 12, 1847.

Salathel N. Crossman to Sarah E. Crumby, May 12, 1847. J.S.P. Fuller to Mrs. Ann Carleton, August 19, 1847. Benjamin Davis to Miss Elizabeth J. McCall, September 7, 1847. Lemuel P. Barnes to Epsey Morgan Barfield, October 3, 1847. Hugh H. Davenport to Martha A. E. Stone, October 5, 1847. Thomas P. Stubbs to Sarah A. Washington, October 20, 1847. Alpheus Colvard to Ann Lamar, April 9, 1847. William Hyde to Mary Ann Roberson, April 15, 1847. John Lyon to Elizabeth Evans, April 20, 1847. William S. Breazeal to Mitilda J. Moon, June 10, 1847. William S. Wallis to Martha Ann Gamble, May 13, 1847. Sampson M. Lanier to Georgiana Nigal, October 5, 1847. James McFarline to Lucinda F. Yates, October 2, 1847. Samuel R. Black to Frances P. Wyatt, October 30, 1847. Timothy Miller to Sarah Ann Elizabeth Hester, November 6, 1847. Thaddeus Sherman to Pamela A. Higgins, November 17, 1847. James L. Land to Palleton Johnston, September 12, 1847. Washington Jackson to Amanda Jackson, December 2, 1847. Luke Pettey to Sarah McYoung, December 9, 1847. George D. Boutwell to Mary Ann Moree, December 26, 1847. Jacob A. Burbank to Margaret Mitchell, December 27, 1847. William Carter to Betsy Jane Newton, December 27, 1847 Jesse Harden to Lucinda Johnston, December 26, 1847. Richard E. Storey to Mary Murdock, December 3, 1847. Gary A. King to Mary C.Getsinger, December 16, 1847. James T. Redding to Sarah A. E. Dickson, October 6, 1847. A. F. Adams to Julia A. Flanders, December 7, 1847. Joseph McAlpin to Amelia M. G. Bowdre, December 22, 1847. H. M. Lindsey to Mary A. Flint, May 6, 1847. James Martin to Mary Scott, April 18, 1847. George Horne to Madeline Shiver, December 17, 1847. Thos. P. Cooper to Florida I. Beall, January 19, 1847. John Chancely to Elizabeth Arnold, December 7, 1847. Allen McGraw to Martha Oliver, May 17, 1848. Irwin J. Trawick to Lucy M. W. Freeny, December 21, 1848. James Palmer to A. C. Thompson, January 1, 1848. Jeremiah Kaough to Eliza Statere Simpson, January 12, 1848. Austin Coglehon to Elizabeth Foster, January 19, 1848. Syrus Attleton to Eliza J. Kitchen, January 9, 1848. Daniel Watsworth to Jane Frances Hodges, February 10, 1848. Hilliard J. Cherry to Martha W. Wright, March 2, 1848. John Thomas Hardeman to Jane S. Lunsden, February 23, 1848. John Dickson to Hannah Bryant, March 15, 1848. Edmund J. Johnston to Flora A. Campbell, March 15, 1848. Forney G. Parkins to Harriet A. G. Hardy, March 19, 1848. Spencer Riley to Nancy Ann Eliza Coxwell, March 30, 1848. R. A. Manley to Eliza J. Panes, April 13, 1848. James H. Gillins to Martha Elizabeth Hobbs, March 18, 1848. John G. Woodson to Caroline E. Hoge, April 25, 1848. George Raymon to Elizabeth Summerlin, May 9, 1848. B. G. Smith to Ellen McBride, March 26, 1848. John T. Napier to F. C. Jamerson, May 17, 1848. Nathaniel Green to Sarah Ann Miles, Aapril 23, 1848. Wilson Aderhold to Jane Waggnon, June 4, 1848. Edwin B. Weed to Mrs. Sarah A. Leconte, June 6, 1848.


Robert C. Smith to Nancy Ann Porter, June 8, 1848. J. T. Welsman to Caroline Napier, May 24, 1848. Seth Cayson to Mrs. Susan Calhoun, June 15, 1848. Clark W. Upson to Jane C. Price, June 29, 1848. Wilson H. Brag to Sarah A. Sims, June 28, 1848. Sterling Tucker to Margaret Wise, June 20, 1848. James V. Grier to Mrs. Phoebe Hightower, July 16, 1848. Sidney W. Babcock to Sarah A. Curry, June 6, 1848. Rubin C. Shorter to Caroline Billingslea, July 18, 1848. James Barnes to Sarah Ann Lavice McKinney, July 13, 1848. William Womack to Mary Sacre, July 25, 1848. Thomas G. Hatfield to Sarah Wilder, September 4, 1848. James Gamble to Mrs. Margaret Johnston, August 9, 1848. William W. Wooten to Elizabeth Foster, September 14, 1848. Thomas McNeely to Mary Ann Barrass, September 17, 1848. James L. Joiner to Mary Rogers, September 24, 1848. Benjamine Grace to Mary Catherine Avant, September 21, 1848. Dimon V. Johnston to Rebecca Brooks, September 28, 1848. Samuel Hodges to Mary W. Newell, October 28, 1848. John Bowman to Eliza A. Gilbert, August 10, 1848. Daniel Griffin to Mary Elizabeth Powell, November 21,1848. Uriah Williams to Elizabeth Shaw, November 13, 1848. Major Henry Wood to Mrs. Cassandra Pollock, November 28, 1848. J. F. M. Davis to Mrs. Nancy M. Wilder, November 17, 1848. Jake V. Rumph to Mary Church, December 21, 1848. Rigdon S. Thomas to Heziah Hunnicutt, December 10, 1848. Henry A. Scott to Elizabeth M. Rembert, December 21, 1848. James A. Knight to Mary Richards, December 25, 1848. John E. Jones to Arrabella O. Dean, November 8, 1848. Matthew S. Thompson to Mary Ann E. Freeman, December 17, 1848. James G. Rodgers to Lucretia A. Willet, July 18, 1848. Peter McGraft to Mrs. Eliza Mount, December 31, 1848. Henry Thomas to Nancy Matthews, February 4, 1849. Wilson C. Hardy to Martha F. Stubbs, January 21, 1849. William Allen to Mrs. Nancy Blanchett, January 4, 1849. William Jones to Harriet Bell, January 10, 1849. James M. Dean to Jane Allen, January 2, 1849. Martin Mason to Martha Tilley, January 23, 1849. Charles H. J. McCardle to Mary Ann Nicholson, January 21, 1849. James Berrien Arnold to Sarah Holt, January 29, 1849. William L. Johnston to Sabia Johnston, February 11, 1849. Robert Crawford to Emily Martin, February 8, 1849. George T. Patton to Frances Parmer, February 13, 1849. Amos Lassetter to Elizabeth R. Harmon, February 14, 1849. Rudolf Brockhoff to Johanes Carolina Studsgard, February 13, 1849. Abslom M. Stokes to Elizabeth Anderson, February 8, 1849. Thomas M. Eden to Malina H. Heath, January 24, 1849. Joseph Stiles to Carmilla C. Barrington, January 30, 1849. James Tool to Nancy Green, March 4, 1849. John H. Stone to Frances Evans, March 6, 1849. John T. Smith to Laura Virginia Ralston, February 14, 1849. Richard H. Purdue to Caroline Purdue, March 11, 1849.

John T. Purdue to Mary Arnott, March 18, 1849. William R. Busee to Georgia Ann Barfield, February 8, 1849. D. Murry to Eliza Collins, February 4, 1849. Benjamin Allen Jones to Catherine Runnels, April 8, 1849. Moses D. Barnes to Rebecca Justiss, March 15, 1849. Nathaniel Gibson to Elizabeth Fitzgerald April 22, 1849. James Morsey to Lucy Ann Barnett, June 8, 1849. William R. Avant to Ann Bone, May 24, 1849 William B. B. Wiggins to Mary E. Strozier, June 28, 1849. Samuel Harrison to Nancy Jones, June 9, 1849. Henry M. Wilkes to Sarah Ann Holland, June 28, 1849. George J. Blake to Marthy M. Howard, June 12, 1849. Patrick Ward to Jane B. Vincent, July 10, 1849. Thos. J. Townsend to Mrs. Mary Ann Bryant, July 17, 1849. William M. Crumby to Julia A. Choat, July 15, 1849. John W. Jones to Mary Ann Tidwell, August 13, 1849. William Williamson to Thompson Mary Jane Morris, Sept. 4, 1849. John Fox to Mary Ann Abney, September 8, 1849. Henry Martyn North to Martha Ann Flanders Scott, July 19, 1849. Matthew W. Johnson to Sarah Ann A. Jordan, August 16, 1849. Orval Calhoun to Eliza Underwood, September 30, 1849. Alexander Pearl to Mary J. Foster, October 21, 1849. Robert B. Lester to Mary Augusta Hill, October 16, 1849. J. W. Hodges to Flora A. Perry, October 30, 1849. William Mooney to Sarah Puckett, October 2, 1849. Lenard Bradey to Mrs. Mary Apson, November 10, 1849. James F. Winter to C. Victoria Comer, November 14, 1849. Thos. B. Asberry to Martha Tinley, November 14, 1849. Daniel Smith to Kisiann Elizabeth Bartlett, December 1, 1849. William G. Hester to Mary M. Bird, December 13, 1849. George Wood to Rachel Ann Nowell, December 13, 1849. Samuel D. Fuller to Sarah J. Bowman, December 25, 1849. William S. McElroy to Easter Freeney, December 27, 1849. William W. Wagnon to Mary Crawford, December 13, 1849. Edmund Clifton Blake to Mrs. Agnes Isabelle Simonton, June 14, 1849. Robert M. Patterson to Julia E. Marsh, November 19, 1849. Alfred C. Riddle to Mrs. Christian Alexander, December 27, 1849. Rev. John M. Marshall to Margaret Amanda Wade, December 27, 1849. William Bishop to Sarah Jane Hardy, September 30, 1849. William K. Holly to Sarah Ann Rutherford, December 30, 1849. William S. Williford to Mrs. Caroline E. Holmes, December 2, 1849.

WILLS PROBATED IN BIBB COUNTY, GEORGIA, FROM 1823 TO 1851, INCLUSIVE Compiled by Mrs. Reeves Brown, Regent, and Mrs. James S. Sharp, Secretary, and Contributed by the Mary Hammond Washington Chapter, D. A. R. Askew, Josiah, W., December 4, 1848. Burnett, John, September 1, 1828. 160

Burton, Robert, January 5, 1829. Beall, Robert A., July 21, 1836. Bush, Isaac, October 27, 1843. Barefield, Sampson, July 6, 1846. Blake, Mary A., March 19, 1849. Burnett, Jeremiah, November 5, 1849. Blackwell, Randolph, February 24, 1851. Crockett, David, November 3, 1834. Chambliss, Henry, November 3, 1834. Church, Rodman, E., May 21, 1840. Calhoun, Elbert, March 7, 1842. Cutter, Henry S., October 15, 1847. Clarke, Mark D., November 25, 1850. Causey, Leaving, January 13, 1851. Dickson, Thomas, August 9, 1831. Darragh, Archibald, November 21, 1836. Daniel, William, January 6, 1840. Drake, Francis, February 23, 1841. Davis, Rebecca, September 11, 1844. Durrett, Louise B., March 6, 1848. England, Charles T., June 28, 1847. Fluker, Baldwin, November 3, 1829. Fort, Robert W., January 6, 1840. Flewellen, Ann, December 28, 1836. Godfrey, Francis H., November 2, 1835. Grace, Ann, October 1, 1848. Huff, Edward, February 15, 1833. Harrell, Hardy, October 30, 1837. Howard, John, October 10, 1836. Holt, Tarply, September 7, 1840. Hardy, Whitmill, April 1, 1841. Hardin, Martin L., January Term, 1843. Hall, Salina P., December 29, 1845. Hudson, James, July 2, 1849. Hunt, Elizabeth, May 5, 1851. Jemison, Henry, March 10, 1823. Jeter, Andrew, July 7, 1828. Johnston, William, November Term, 1838. King, John, March 10, 1825. Liquenx, Peter, November 5, 1827. Lanier, John I., July 26, 1837. Lamar, Benjamin B., February 1, 1836. Long, Louisa, July 3, 1843. Lunsford, Enoch, November 22, 1850. Minchew, Phillip, January 5, 1842. Martin, John, April 14, 1842. Moore, George W., January 15, 1846. McArthur, John, November 2, 1846. Matthews, Timothy, November 2, 1846. McGee, Perry, July 24, 1847. McCarthy, William H., November 6, 1848. Napier, Thomas, October 29, 1838. Nixon, William, July 6, 1838. Owens, Benjamin F., June 14, 1833. Odom, Sabud, October 23, 1847. Pitt, Louisiana, July 5, 1841. Perry, James R., July 10, 1845.

Patrick, Abram P., November 2, 1846. Pepper, Daniel P., November 6, 1847. Rogers, William B., May 3, 1833. Rutland, Redden, September 9, 1833. Rutland, Reddick, November 18, 1840. Rylander, John E., January Term, 1843. Ross, Luke, September 11, 1844. Ross, Mary G., January 12, 1846. Randolph, Richard H., October 23, 1847. Randolph, Eliza M., January 21, 1850. Smith, Henry, June 5, 1823. Scott, John, May 1, 1826. Sapp, Henry, November 3, 1829. Summerlin, Sarah, November 3, 1829. Smith, James, June 24, 1830. Smith, George A., December 3, 1835. Shotwell, Harvey, January 25, 1848. Solomon, Henry, January 25, 1847. Scott, William, March 3, 1851. Tharp, John A., November 2, 1835. Thurmond, Phillip, April 15, 1840. Tracy, Edward D., March 5, 1849. Victory, Thomas, November 4, 1833. Vigal, George, March 3, 1851. Williams, John D., July 7, 1823. Wells, Nicholas W., November 30, 1829. Wood, Joseph D., November 10, 1838. Williams, John, August 6, 1839. Wimberly, Rebecca C., March 1, 1841. Wilder, William L., July 7, 1848.

COUNTY OFFICERS OF BIBB COUNTY, FROM THE ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY TO DATE WITH DATES COMMISSIONED Nicholas W. Wells, Clerk Superior Court, Feb. 12, 1823. James Flewellen, Clerk Inferior Court, Feb. 12, 1823. John B. Grace, Surveyor, February 12, 1823. Isaac Philips, Surveyor, July 23, 1823. Vice John B. Grace resigned) Jonathan H. Hudson, Sheriff, January 9, 1824. Nicholas W. Wells, Clerk Superior Court, January 9, 1824. Charles Ingram, Clerk Inferior Court, January 9, 1824. Charles L. Holmes, Coroner, January 9, 1824. Isaac Phillips, Surveyor, January 9, 1824. Edmund C. Beard, Sheriff, January 25, 1826. Nicholas W. Wells, Clerk Superior Court, January 9, 1826. Martin Simmons, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 18, 1830-Jan. 4, 1832. Abner Cherry, Coroner, January 9, 1826. Philip Alston, Surveyor, January 9, 1826. Spencer, Riley, Sheriff, January 21, 1828. Nicholas W. Wells, Clerk Superior Court, January 16, 1828. Martin Simmons, Clerk Inferior Court, January 16, 1828. Wm. S. Norman, Surveyor, January 16, 1828.


Van Swaringan, Coroner, January 16, 1828. William R. Cone, Sheriff, January 8, 1830-January 4, 1832. Henry G. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Jan. 8, 1830-Jan. 4, 1832. Martin Simmons, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 9, 1830-Jan. 4, 1832. Richard W. Ellis, Surveyor, January 8, 1830-January 4, 1832. Henry Carter, Coroner, January 8, 1830-January 4, 1832. Harmon H. Howard, Sheriff, Jan.5, 1832- Jan. 9, 1834. Henry G. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Jan. 5, 1832-Jan. 9, 1834. Martin Simmons, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 5, 1832-Jan. 9, 1834. Jesse Smith, Coroner, Jan. 5, 1832-Jan. 9, 1834. Henry G. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Jan. 9, 1834- Jan. 6, 1836. Martin Simmons, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 9, 1834-March 20, 1835. John L. Mustian, Sheriff, January 9, 1834-January 23, 1836. Thos. J. Saulsberry, Coroner, Jan. 9, 1834-Jan. 6, 1836. William B. Cone, Surveyor, Jan. 9, 1834-Jan. 6, 1836. Edward C. Buckley, Clerk Inferior Court, Mar. 20, 1835-Jan. 6, 1836. Henry G. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, January 6, 1836. Joseph J. Holloman, Clerk Inferior Court, January 6, 1836. Richard M. Ellis, Surveyor, January 6, 1836. Joel Bond, Coroner, January 6, 1838. H. H. Howard, Sheriff, January 28, 1836. John Springer, Sheriff, January 9, 1838. Henry G. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, January 9, 1838. Joseph J. Holloman, Clerk Inferior Court, January 9, 1838. Daniel Wadsworth, Coroner, January 9, 1838. Richard W. Ellis, Surveyor, January 9, 1838. James Gates, Sheriff, January 10, 1840-January 10, 1842. Henry G.Ross, Clerk Superior Court, January 10, 1840. Thos. J. Saulsbury, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 10, 1840-Aug. 25, 1841 Robert Cummingham, Surveyor, January 10, 1840. Caleb Cowdom, Coroner, January 10, 1840-June 17, 1841. Joseph H. Mount, Coroner, June 17, 1841. John E. Jeffers, Clerk Inferior Court, August 25, 1841. Benjamin Trapp, Sheriff, January 10. 1842. Henry G. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, January 5, 1844. John E. Jeffers, Clerk Inferior Court, January 10, 1842. Robert Cunningham, Surveyor, January 10, 1842. William Robinson, Coroner, January 10, 1842. Henry S. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, January 5, 1844. John E. Jeffers, Clerk Inferior Court, January 5, 1844. James Gates, Sheriff, January 5, 1844. Robert Cunningham, Surveyor, January 5, 1844. Joseph H. Mount, Coroner, January 5, 1844. James Hollingsworth, Treasurer, November 26, 1844. Wm. D. Rainey, Treasurer, November 26, 1844. Wm. H. Macarthy, Sheriff, Jan. 8, 1846-Jan. 22, 1848. Henry G. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Jan. 8. 1846-Jan. 22, 1848. Jno. E. Jeffers, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 8, 1846-Jan. 22, 1848. William Wood, Surveyor, January 8, 1846-January 22, 1848. Joseph H. Mount, Coroner, Jan.8, 1846-Jan. 25, 1847.

Fielding S. Owen, Coroner, Jan. 25, 1847-Jan.22, 1848. David J. Davis, Sheriff, January 22, 1848. Henry G. Ross, Clerk, Superior Court, January 22,1848. John E. Jeffers, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 22, 1848-July 27, 1848. William Wood, Surveyor, January 22, 1848. Jesse Morris, Coroner, January 22, 1848. Edward G. Jeffers, Clerk Inferior Court, July 27, 1848. Thomas Bagby, Sheriff, January 10, 1850-January 7, 1852. Henry G. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Jan. 10, 1850-Jan. 7, 1852. Edward G. Jeffers, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 10, 1850-Jan. 7, 1850. Benjamin Russell, Tax Receiver, Jan.10, 1850-Jan.16, 1851. Richard Cain, Tax Collector, Jan. 10, 1850-Feb. 15, 1851. William Wood, Surveyor, Commission returned. Jesse Morris, Coroner, January 10, 1850-January 7, 1852. William Wood, Surveyor, January 16, 1851-January 7, 1852. William Shivers, Jr., Clerk Ct. Ordinary, Jan. 20,1851-Jan. 27, 1852 Benjamin Russell, Tax Receiver, Jan. 10, 1850-Jan.16, 1851. Richard A. Cain, Tax Collector, Feb. 15, 1851-Jan. 27, 1852. Henry G. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Jan. 7, 1852-Jan. 10, 1854. David J. Davis, Sheriff, Jan. 7, 1852-Jan. 10, 1854. Edward G. Jeffers, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 7, 1852-Jan. 10, 1854. Philemon Tracy, Ordinary, Jan. 27, 1852-Jan. 11, 1856. Benjamin Russell, Tax Receiver, Jan. 7, 1852-Jan. 10, 1853. J. Sloan, Coroner, January 7, 1852-January 10, 1854. Richard A. Cain, Tax Collector, Jan. 7, 1852-Jan. 10, 1853. William Wood, Surveyor, January 7, 1852-January 10, 1854. Richard A. Cain, Tax Collector, Jan. 10, 1853-Jan.10, 1854. Benjamin Russell, Tax Receiver, Jan. 10, 1853-Jan. 10, 1854. Cicero A. Tharp, Sheriff, January 10, 1854-January 11, 1856. Henry G. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Jan.10, 1854-Jan. 11, 1856. Edward G. Jeffers, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 10, 1854- Jan.11, 1856. John C. Johnson, Tax Receiver, Jan. 10, 1854-Jan. 9, 1855. Richard A. Cain, Tax Collector, Jan. 10, 1854-Jan. 9, 1855. Jesse Morris, Coroner, Jan. 10, 1854-Jan. 9, 1855. William Wood, Surveyor, Jan. 10, 1854-Jan. 11, 1856. Middleton McDonald, Tax Collector, Jan. 9, 1855-Jan. 11, 1856. S. D. Clarke, Tax Receiver, Jan. 9, 1855-Jan. 11, 1856. D. Defore, Coroner, Jan. 9, 1855-Jan 11, 1856. William Holmes, Sheriff, Jan 11, 1856-Jan. 9, 1858. Albert B. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Jan. 11, 1856-Jan. 9, 1858. Edward G. Jeffers, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 11, 1856-Jan. 9, 1858. Solomon R. Johnson, Tax Receiver, Jan. 11, 1856-Jan. 12, 1857. Reuben C. Wilder, Tax Collector, Jan. 11, 1856-Jan. 12, 1857. Talbot Combs, Coroner, Jan. 11, 1856-Jan. 9, 1858. William Wood, Surveyor, Jan. 11, 1856-Jan. 9, 1858. William T. Massey, Ordinary, Jan. 11, 1856. Peter M. Curry, Tax Receiver, Jan. 12, 1857-Jan. 9, 1858. 162

William Bone, Tax Collector, Jan. 12, 1857-Jan. 9, 1858. Thadeus W. Brantley, Sheriff, Jan. 9, 1858-Jan. 6, 1860. Albert B. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Jan. 9, 1858-Jan. 6, 1860. John A. McManus, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 9, 1858-Jan. 6, 1860. Peter M. Curry, Tax Receiver, Jan. 9, 1858-Jan. 6. 1859. William Bone, Tax Collector, Jan. 9, 1858-Jan. 6, 1859. Lorenzo Dow Wright, Coroner, Jan. 9, 1858-Jan. 6, 1860. William Wood, Surveyor, Jan. 9, 1858-Jan. 6, 1860. Charles H. Kitchens, Tax Receiver, Jan. 6, 1859-Jan. 6, 1860. John P. Cooper, Tax Collector, Jan. 6, 1859-Jan. 6, 1860. William M. Riley, Ordinary, Jan. 6, 1860. A. B. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Jan. 6, 1860. J. A. McManus, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 6. 1860. J. F. Barfield, Sheriff, Jan. 6. 1860. L. D. Wright, Tax Receiver, Jan. 6, 1860-Jan. 10, 1861. John P. Cooper, Tax Collector, Jan. 6, 1860-Jan. 10, 1861. William Wood, Surveyor, Jan. 6, 1860. James Railey, Coroner, Jan. 6, 1860. H. G. Boss, Tax Receiver, Jan. 10, 1861. J. P. Cooper, Tax Collector, Jan. 10, 1861. A. B. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Jan. 22, 1862-Feb. 6, 1864. J. A. McManus, Clerk Inferior, Jan. 22, 1862-Feb. 15, 1864. J. J. Hodges, Sheriff, Jan. 22, 1862-Feb. 16, 1864. Tolbert Combs, Coroner, Jan. 22, 1862-Feb. 16, 1864. J. P. Simms, Tax Receiver and Collector, Jan 22,1862-Feb 16, 1864. William Wood, Surveyor, Jan. 22, 1862-Feb. 16, 1864. Wm. M. Riley, Ordinary, Feb. 16, 1864. Lem Cherry, Sheriff, Feb. 16, 1864-Jan. 22, 1866. A. B. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Feb. 16, 1864-Jan. 22, 1866. J. A. McManus, Clerk Inferior Court, Feb. 16, 1864-Jan. 22, 1866. F. M. Barfield, Tax Receiver, Feb. 16, 1864-March 8, 1866. J. P. Sims, Tax Collector, Feb. 16, 1864-March 8, 1866. A. Dewberry, Coroner, Feb. 16, 1864-Jan. 22, 1866. W. Wood, Surveyor, Feb. 16, 1864-Jan. 22, 1866. J. Joseph Hodges, Sheriff, Jan. 22, 1866. Albert B. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, Jan. 22, 1866. John A. McManus, Clerk Inferior Court, Jan. 22, 1866. Aaron Dewberry, Coroner, Jan. 22, 1866. Wm. Wood, Surveyor, Jan. 22, 1866. John Jeffers, Tax Receiver, March 6, 1866. Francis M. Heath, Tax Collector, March 8, 1866. John A. McManus, Treasurer, April 9, 1866. Charles T. Ward, Ordinary, July 23, 1868. W. S. Ballard, Clerk Superior Court, August, 14, 1868. A. P. Sanders, Tax Receiver, August 14, 1686. F. M. Heath, Tax Collector, August 14, 1868. H. Garfield, Treasurer, August 14, 1868. Wm. Woods, Surveyor, August 8, 1868. A. Dewberry, Coroner, August, 1868. James Martin, Sheriff, August, 1868. Chas. T. Ward, Ordinary, 1871 (?) P. W. Dowle, Sheriff, April 15, 1871. J. H. King, Clerk Superior Court, April 8, 1871. R. A. Benson, Tax Receiver, April 6, 1871.

J. Jennings, Tax Collector, Failed to qualify. Peter M. Perkins, Treasurer, March 24, 1871. Thos. Pullen, Surveyor, March 18, 1871. F. M. Heath, Tax Collector, August 28, 1871. C. T. Ward, Ordinary, January 23, 1873. A. B. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, February 18, 1873. Geo. T. Cherry, Sheriff, January 18, 1873. R. A. Benson, Tax Receiver, January 11, 1873. W. T. Nelson, Tax Collector, February 18, 1873. A. F. Gibson, Treasurer, January 18, 1873. Thos. Butler, Surveyor, February 6, 1873. A. Dewberry, Coroner, January 25, 1873. C. T. Ward, Ordinary, January 23, 1873. A. B. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, February 13, 1875. Geo. F. Cherry, Sheriff, May 19, 1875. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, March 6, 1875. H. J. Peter, Tax Collector, February 13, 1875. A. F. Gibson, Treasurer, February 13, 1875. Thomas Butler, Surveyor, April 6, 1875 (died) John Sessions, Coroner, February 2, 1875. Wm. B. Bonnell, Surveyor, Appointed by Ordinary July 26, 1875. John A. McManus, Ordinary, February 26, 1877. Albert B. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, February 3, 1877. Geo. F. Cherry, Sheriff, June 5, 1877. Robt. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, February 3, 1877. Henry J. Peter, Tax Collector, February 3, 1877. Chas. M. Wood, Surveyor, February 3, 1877. James P. Chapman, Coroner, February 3, 1877. Albert B. Ross, Clerk, February 4, 1879. Geo. T. Cherry, Sheriff, January 7, 1879. Henry J. Peter, Tax Collector, January 7, 1879. Robt. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, February 4, 1879. J. C. Wheeler, Surveyor, February 25, 1879. Jas. P. Chapman, Coroner, February 4, 1879. A. B. Ross, Clerk Superior Court, March 3, 1881. G. S. Westcott, Sheriff, March 3, 1881. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, March 3, 1881. H. J. Peters, Tax Collector, July 22, 1881. J. C. Wheeler, Surveyor, January 12, 1881. P. St. P. Guerrardie, Coroner, March 3, 1881. John A. McManus, Ordinary, February 14, 1881. A. B. Ross, Clerk, February 1, 1883. G. S. Westcott, Sheriff, February 1, 1883. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, January 27, 1883. J. C. Wheeler, Surveyor, February 1, 1883. Wm. Hodnell, Coroner, February 1, 1883. C. B. Massenburg, Tax Collector, March 23, 1883. John A. McManus, Ordinary, January 26, 1885. A. B. Ross, Clerk, February 6, 1885. G. S. Wescott, Sheriff, February 6, 1885. C. B. Massenburg, Tax Collector, February 6, 1885. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, February 6, 1885. J. C. Wheeler, Surveyor, February 6, 1885. W. H. Hodnett, Coroner, February 6, 1885. D. H. Adams, Clerk Superior Court, February 3, 1887. G. S. Westcott, Sheriff, February 3, 1887. 163

R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, February 3, 1887. C. B. Massenburg, Tax Collector, February 4, 1887. J. C. Wheeler, Surveyor, February 15, 1887. W. H. Hodnett, Coroner, February, 3, 1887. C. M. Wiley, Ordinary, January 4, 1889. D. H. Adams, Clerk Superior Court, January 15, 1889. G. S. Wescott, Sheriff, January 15, 1889. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, January 15, 1889. C. B. Messenburg, Tax Collector, January 15, 1889. J. C. Wheeler, Surveyor, January 22, 1889. W. W. Henderson, Coroner, January 15, 1889. R. A. Nisbet, Clerk, January 15, 1891. G. S. Westcott, Sheriff, February 6, 1891. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, February 6, 1891. J. C. Wheeler, Surveyor, February 10, 1891. Frank Knight, Coroner, February 15, 1891. D. B. Jones, Tax Collector, April 14, 1891. Geo. W. Burch, Surveyor, Appointed by Ordinary August 17, 1891. Chas. M. Wiley, Ordinary, January 17, 1893. Robert A. Nisbet, Clerk Superior Court, January 17, 1893. G. S. Wescott, Sheriff, January 17, 1893. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, January 31, 1893. Albert Jones, Tax Collector, February 13, 1893. George S. Birch, Surveyor, January 31, 1893. W. H. Hodnett, Coroner, January 17, 1893 (died). Frank Knight, Coroner, Appointed by Ordinary August 11, 1894. Robt. A. Nisbet, Clerk, January 16, 1895. G. S. Wescott, Sheriff, January 16, 1895. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, February 5, 1895. Albert Jones, Tax Collector, January 26, 1895. C. B. Massenburg, Treasurer, May 23, 1895. Geo. L. Birch, Surveyor, January 10, 1895. Frank K. Knight, Coroner, January 16, 1895. Jerre Hollis, Coroner, January 7, 1896. C. M. Wiley, Ordinary, November 2, 1896. R. A. Nisbet, Clerk Superior Court, November 4, 1896. G. S. Wescott, Sheriff, November 4, 1896. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, November 4, 1896. Albert Jones, Tax Collector, November 5, 1896. C. B. Massenburg, Treasurer, November 5, 1896. C. C. Anderson, Surveyor, November 5, 1896. Robt. A. Nisbet, Clerk, October 22, 1898. G. S. Wescott, Sheriff, October 22, 1898. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, October 24, 1898. Albert Jones, Tax Collector, October 22, 1898. C. B. Massenberg, Treasurer, October 29, 1898. C. C. Anderson, Surveyor, November 17, 1898. Jerie Hollis, Coroner, November 4, 1898. C. M. Wiley, Ordinary, November 12, 1900. Robt. A. Nisbet, Clerk Superior Court, December 21, 1900. G. S. Wescott, Sheriff, December 21, 1900. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, December 21, 1900. Albert Jones, Tax Collector, December 21, 1900. C. B. Massenberg, Treasurer, December 22, 1900. C. C. Anderson, Surveyor, December 22, 1900.

A. J. Davis, Coroner, December 21, 1900. R. A. Nisbet, Clerk Superior Court, November 22, 1902 G. S. Wescott, Sheriff, November 22, 1902. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, November 22, 1902. Albert Jones, Tax Collector, November 22, 1902. C. B. Messenberg, Treasurer, November 22, 1902 (died). C. C. Anderson, Surveyor, Nov. 26, 1902-March 19, 1903, resigned. T. E. Young, Coroner, December 11, 1902. S. A. Crump, Treasurer, April 30, 1902. C. C. Anderson, Surveyor, Appointed by Ordinary April 18, 1903. C. M. Wiley, Ordinary, December 12, 1904. R. A. Nisbet, Clerk Superior Court, November 22, 1904. Geo. B. Robertson, Sheriff, December 14, 1904. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, November 22, 1904. Albert Jones, Tax Collector, December 14, 1904. S. A. Crump, Treasurer, December 21, 1904. C. C. Anderson, Surveyor, December 12, 1904. T. E. Young, Coroner, December 6, 1904. R. A. Nisbet, Clerk Superior Court, December 12, 1906. Geo. B. Robertson, Sheriff, December 12, 1906. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, December 12, 1906. Albert Jones, Tax Collector, December 12, 1906. S. A. Crump, Treasurer, December 7, 1906. C. C. Anderson, Surveyor, December 30, 1906. T. E. Young, Coroner, December 19, 1906. C. M. Wiley, Ordinary, November 23, 1908 G. B. Robertson, Sheriff, December 5, 1908. Robert A. Nisbet, Clerk Superior Court, December 5, 1908. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, December 5, 1908. Albert Jones, Tax Collector, December 5, 1908. M. Lettice, Treasurer, December 22, 1908. C. C. Anderson, Surveyor, December 5, 1908. T. E. Young, Coroner, December 24, 1908. J. D. Crump, Tax Collector, June 30, 1910. R. A. Nisbet, Clerk, December 13, 1910. J. R. Hicks, Jr., Sheriff, December 15, 1910. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, December 14, 1910. J. D. Crump, Tax Collector, December 21, 1910. M. Lettice, Treasurer, December 14, 1910. H. P. Cowan, Surveyor, December 24, 1910. T. E. Young, Coroner, December 21, 1910. C. M. Wiley, Ordinary, November 19, 1912. R. A. Nisbet, Clerk Superior Court, December 6, 1912. J. R. Hicks, Jr., Sheriff, December 6, 1912. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, December 6, 1912. J. D. Crump, Tax Collector, December 6, 1912. M. Lettice, Treasurer, December 6, 1912. H. P. Cowan, Surveyor, December 6, 1912. T. E. Young, Coroner, December 1912. R. A. Nisbet, Clerk Superior Court, December 30, 1914. J. R. Hicks, Jr., Sheriff, December 30, 1914. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, December 4, 1914. J. D. Crump, Tax Collector, December 4, 1914. M. Lettice, Treasurer, December 30, 1914. H. P. Cowan, Surveyor, December 30, 1914. 164

T. E. Young, Coroner, December 30, 1914 (died). P. W. Stubbs, Jr., Coroner, June 22, 1915. C. M. Wiley, Ordinary, December 6, 1916. Robt. A. Nisbet, Clerk Superior Court, December 7, 1916. J. R. Hicks, Jr., Sheriff, December 28, 1916. R. J. Anderson, Tax Receiver, December 7, 1916 (resigned). J. D. Crump, Tax Collector, December 7, 1916. M. Lettice, Treasurer, December 6, 1916. H. P. Cowan, Surveyor, December 28, 1916. P. W. Stubbs, Jr., Coroner, January 3, 1917. Lee Wages, Coroner, May 28, 1919. McD. Nisbet, Clerk Superior Court, June 18, 1919. W. K. King, Tax Receiver, May 6, 1920. C. C. Anderson, Surveyor, May 6, 1920. C. M. Wiley, Ordinary, December 20, 1921. McD. Nisbet, Clerk Superior Court, December 21, 1921. J. R. Hicks, Jr., Sheriff, December 23, 1921. L. L. Williams, Tax Receiver, December 21, 1921. J. D. Crump, Tax Collector, December 24, 1921. M. Lettice, Treasurer, December 23, 1921. C. C. Anderson, Surveyor, December 23, 1921. Lee Wages, Coroner, December 23, 1921. Dan D. Dunwody, Tax Receiver, January 10, 1922. U. T. Winslett, Tax Collector, October 3, 1923.

COMMISSIONERS OF ROADS AND REVENUES *Lewis N. Whittle, Feb. 21, 1873 David E. Blount, Feb. 21,1873 Cicero A. Tharp, Feb. 21,1873 Thos. C. Dempsey, Feb. 21, 1873 Stephen Collins, Feb. 21, 1873 John P. Fort, Jan. 15, 1874 J. B. Giles, Feb. 17, 1877 Wm. Hazlehurst, Feb.17,1877 H. R. Tinsley, Feb. 17, 1877 C. Burke, Feb. 17, 1877 James Holmes, Feb. 17, 1877 John Ingalls, Jan. 18, 1881 **J. C. Wilder, Jan. 18, 1881 **John W. Stubbs, Jan. 18, 1881 John B. Giles, Jan. 18, 1881 Geo. S. Obear, Jan. 18, 1881 J. J. Amason, May 22, 1882 W. R. Phillips, June 22, 1883 * (Vice J. C. Wiley) Jno. Ingalls, Jan. 26, 1885 J. J. Amason, Jan. 28, 1885 W. E. Jenkins, Jan. 29, 1885 W. R. Phillips, Jan. 30, 1885 J. B. Giles, Jan. 30, 1885 R. L. Henry, Jan. 15, 1889

W. R. Phillips, Jan. 15, 1889 G. M. Davis, Jan. 15, 1889 W. S. Jenkins, Jan. 15, 1889 J. J. Amason, Jan. 15, 1889 G. M. Davis, Jan. 11, 1893 R. L. Henry, Jan. 11, 1893 W. E. Jenkins, Jan. 11, 1893 J. J. Amason, Jan. 11, 1893 J. G. McGabrick, Jan. 11, 1893 W. E. Jenkins, Jan. 13, 1893 G. M. Davis, Jan. 14, 1893 R. L. Henry, Jan. 17, 1893 J. J. Amason, Jan. 14, 1893 J. G. McGabrick, Jan. 16,1893 Walter Nelson, May 3, 1895 G. M. Davis, Nov. 2, 1896 J. J. Amason, Nov. 4, 1896 W. E. Jenkins, Nov. 2, 1896 R. L. Henry, Nov. 6, 1896 J. S. McGee, Nov. 2, 1896 G. M. Davis, Dec. 18, 1900 R. L. Henry, Dec. 18, 1900 **W. E. Jenkins, Dec. 20, 1900 *J. E. Bailey, Dec. 18, 1900 **W. T. Shinholser, Dec 14, 1900 T. E. Artope, Aug. 26, 1901 (Vice Shinholser)

Mallory H. Taylor, April 21, 1903 R. L. Henry, Oct. 27, 1904 W. E. Jenkins, Oct. 27, 1904 DeWitt McCrary, Oct. 27, 1904 J. T. Moore, Oct. 27, 1904 M. H. Taylor, October 27,1904 T. E. Artope, July 3, 1906 J. H. Heard, Dec. 21, 1908 A. J. Long, Dec. 5, 1908 *J. T. Moore, Dec. 17, 1908 DeWitt McCrary, Dec. 16, 1908 M. H. Taylor, Dec. 17, 1908 *Ike Winship, Vice Moore J. H. Heard, March 4, 1913

DeWitt McCrary, Dec. 16, 1908 Chas. F. Stroberg, Jan. 7, 1913 Mallory H. Taylor, Jan. 7, 1913 Isaac Winship, Jan. 7, 1913 J. H. Heard, Jan. 2, 1917 F. J. Bishop, Jan. 2, 1917 J. T. Moore, Jan. 2, 1917 Ike Winship, Jan. 2, 1917 J. A. Young, Jan. 2, 1917 J. H. Heard, Jan. 4, 1921 John T. Moore, Jan. 4, 1921 F. Joe Bishop, Jan. 4, 1921 Kenmore Burns, Jan. 14, 1921 C. W. Stroberg, Jan. 4, 1921 *Resigned. **Deceased.

THE MACON NEWS THROUGHOUT the narrative history of Macon is interwoven the story of The Macon Telegraph, which was established in 1826 and therefore has had its part in the growth and development of Macon. It has, therefore, seemed proper to reproduce here a summary of the history of The Macon News which appeared in the Centennial edition of this newspaper in 1923. The Macon News was established on January 1, 1884, by J. B. Pound who subsequently became the owner of large newspaper interests in Tennessee. A stock company was later organized with a paid in capital of $20,000. The property was purchased from Mr. Pound and Col. Albert R. Lamar, one of the most brilliant editorial The Macon Evening News was established January 1, 1884. writers the South has ever This building located on produced was made editor, with Cherry Street was built that Mr. Harry Stilwell Edwards as year for a cost of $20,000. associate editor. At the death of Col. Lamar The News passed into the control of E. C. Machen, still remembered as a railroad builder and John T. Boifeuillet was made editor. A few years later The News was sold to Messrs. Cobb and Orr, from whom it was acquired by Hal. P. Moore, who became its editor. In September, 1894, Mr. Moore sold the paper to R. L. McKenney and Thomas W. Loyless, who completely reorganized it under the name of The Macon News Printing Company. The News then entered upon the most vigorous period of its history. The daily edition of The Macon News had already reached a large circulation and for a long time it was felt that there was a popular demand for it to enter the Sunday morning field. It


was at last decided to take this step and after adding materially to its equipment and general resources, the first Sunday morning edition was printed on November 17, 1917. For many years The News had been a member of the old Associated Press, chartered under the laws of Illinois. When the Associated Press was reorganized under the laws of New York in 1900, The News enjoyed the distinction of being a charter member and of course has remained so for the succeeding years. In 1918 The News issued a special edition to mark the seventy-fifth anniversary of the founding of Macon and in this connection a roster of the newspaper staff at that time may be recalled with interest now. It consisted of the following: R. L. McKenney, business manager; Thomas W. Loyless, editor; J. Russell Kennedy, managing editor; T. J. Simmons, city editor; Miss Mary Patterson, society editor; C. R. Wright, cashier; Walter P. Jones, advertising solicitor; G. W. Tidwell, manager of city circulation; Nathan D. May, manager of the job printing department; L. J. Kilburn, foreman of the composing room; J. H. Brown, foreman of the press room. It was the proud boast of The News at that time that it “employed more than a score” of persons, exclusive of the carrier boys. The little army of men and women constituting The News force of today “exclusive of carrier boys,” makes the earlier boast seem tame indeed. Memory drops a tear for many of those previously mentioned who have passed away. Others have sought different fields of activity. When Mr. Loyless left The News in 1899 to engage in newspaper work elsewhere, The Macon News Printing Company was in a measure reorganized, several members of The News staff acquiring a greater or less number of shares of stock, with Mr. McKenney, then as now, holding a controlling interest. At this time he became president and editor and in fact has always been the dominating influence on the paper since its purchase in September 1894. Under Mr. McKenney’s management The Macon News has taken the initiative in many enterprises and civic improvements in which it feels a justifiable pride, and has played an important part in bringing to a successful culmination the great Centennial celebration, of which this edition is a feature. A single enterprise will serve as an illustration of the vigor and public spirit with which The Macon News has served the public. It took the initiative in urging the construction of a new hotel in Macon. This agitation resulted in the appointment of a committee to raise the necessary funds and on the committee which raised the frist $100,000, Mr. McKenney was a member. He was elected secretary of the Midland Hotel Company, which owns the Dempsey Hotel, and the latter, in a large measure, stands as a result of The Macon News enterprise under Mr. McKenney’s direction. As a charter member of the Associated Press, Mr. McKenney has been brought in close touch with the newspaper history and leading newspaper men of the country. In 1922 the daily papers in Georgia subscribing to the Associated Press service were organized into the Georgia Division of that association for the more complete exchange of

state news and Mr. McKenney was elected the first president, a position he still holds. In 1921 he was elected vice-president for Georgia of the National Editorial Association. He has been a leading factor in civic movements too numerous to mention and during the war was chairman for this territory of the organization of speakers known as the Four Minute Men. Upon the retirement of Mr. Loyless in 1899, Mr. McKenney became president and editor of The Macon News and Hon. John T. Boifeuillet, who as we have seen, had previously served on the editorial staff, became editorial writer. In 1907 Mr. Boifeuillet was succeeded by Mr. John R. Burke. The position was next filled by Mr. James H. Moore, who later became editorial writer of the Knoxville Sentinel. The editorial work was carried on by Mr. T. J. Simmons in connection with his work as managing editor, with the assistance of Mr. Franc Mangum, now deceased, until March 1917, when Mr. Charles J. Bayne, who is associate editor of The News, came here from the editorial staff of the Washington Post. Mr. J. Russell Kennedy was succeeded as managing editor by Mr. Paul E. Wilkes; he in turn was followed by Mr. T. J. Simmons, who had won his spurs on The New York World. Under him as city editor was Mr. William Cole Jones, brother of Judge Malcolm Jones and one of the most polished writers in Georgia, who is now with The Atlanta Journal. When Mr. Simmons left The News in October 1921 he was succeeded as managing editor by Mr. W. H. Griffin, who in turn was succeeded by Mr. E. W. Wallis. Mr. R. R. Wallis, a brother of the former, began his newspaper career in his native city of Bristol, Tennessee. He began at the bottom when he came to The Macon News in 1905. In 1914 he became a stockholder in The Macon News Printing Company and in 1919, on the death of Mr. W. P. Fleming, who had been connected with the paper since 1900, succeeded him as assistant business manager and later rose to the position of vice-president and business manager. Mr. R. L. Clifton became city editor January 1, 1922. He was educated in the public schools and at Mercer University. Immediately upon leaving the University he came to The News in February, 1908. In 1898 Miss Mary Patterson was the head of the woman’s page and the society department. She was succeeded by Mrs. Myrtle Bayne Paisley. She was succeeded by Miss Rosaline Davis, who became the wife of Mr. Sanford Birdsey. The position was then occupied by Miss Kate Calloway, who was succeeded by Miss Ruth Hardeman, now Mrs. Roland Mahone. On the marriage of Miss Hardeman her place was taken by Miss Hattie Winchester, how Mrs. Griffith Darson of Norfolk. She was succeeded by Miss Kathleen Harper, who remained with The News until her marriage to Mr. Randolph Jaques. The work was then taken up by Miss Marguerite Kerr, who continued in this position until a short time before her marriage to Mr. Malcolm Logan, of Savannah, where she now lives. The position was then filled by Miss Margaret McKenney, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. R. L. McKenney, who joined the staff in 1921. She brought to her task a special aptitude and equipment. Following her graduation from High School and Wesleyan college she was graduated from the select Deverell French school, in New York. Previously to taking up her work


with The News and at intervals since she has traveled extensively, including a tour of Europe with her sister, Miss Louise McKenney, in the summer of 1922. Miss Louise McKenney, who is secretary to her father, the president and editor, following her graduation from High school, took a finishing course at the celebrated Mary Baldwin Seminary in Staunton, Virginia, where she supplemented her academic studies with a course in stenography and carried off special honors. Mr. Milton K. Wallace was at the head of the sports department in the centennial year and at the head of the telegraphic news desk was Harry A. Boggs. Under the city editor in the local news department were Mr. Lane L. Bonner, Mr. Emory C. Pharr, and Mr. Malcolm Page. The treasurer of The Macon News Printing Company in the centennial year was Mr. Julian R. Maddux, who also held the position of Manager of city circulation. As treasurer he was succeeded by Mr. R. P. Hatcher, Mrs. R. W. Earnest being head of the circulation department. Mr. H. P. Smith was manager of the mailing room. Mr. Albert Talbird, Mr. Sidney Nowell, and Mr. C. Wiggins assisting him as mail clerk and Mr. Joe Talbird and Mr. Wesley Teague as assistant in the city circulation department. Mr. E. O. Wilson was bookkeeper and Mr. R. R. Duggar cashier. Mr. L. A. Morgan was collector in the display advertising department and Mr. John Y. Rudler in the classified department. Miss Talullah Stroheker was secretary to the general manager and Miss Margaret Driggers secretary to the circulation manager. The manager of the advertising department was Mr. Frank N. Challen. Mr. J. C. Haire, a veteran of the World War, where he was in the thickest of the fighting, was assistant advertising manager with Mr. J. B. Allen and Mr. B. H. Loflin as his aids. Mr. W. H. Clifton was manager of the classified department, Curtis Delamar had charge of the foreign advertising. Mrs. Cora Chapman Boterweg was in charge of the service and merchandising department. The foreman of the composing room in 1923 was Mr. T. E. Billings. He had succeeded Mr. L. E. McGehee who had in turn succeeded Mr. L. J. Kilburn. Mr. N. D. May was assistant foreman and Arthur Daniel make up man. The foreman of the ad room was Mr. L. G. Irwin with Mr. R. N. Fuller as assistant. The proof reader was Mr. G. P. Vautrot. The dean of the linotype operators was Mr. W. R. Kilburn. Others were Mr. George Norris, Mr. R. S. Cheatham, Mr. W. A. Lanham, Mr. C. C. Hudson, Mr. B. R. Klinefelter, and Mr. K. E. Rodgers. The foreman of the sterotyping department was Mr. Gordon Hinman, with Mr. J. G. Ryle and Mr. Mack Starr assistant. S. G. Ryle was foreman of the press room, in which he had “grown up.” Julius Sharp was pressman and Robert Brown assistant.

EDUCATION By Miss Sallie Boone (The following valuable article on the educational institutions of Bibb county had not been turned over to the printer by the History Committee of the Chamber of Commerce when the project was abandoned. Since the manuscript was

Macon Schools (Clockwise): Alexander Free School 1883 - demolished 1950, Gresham High School 1888, Mercer University 1872-74, St. Stanislaus College 1874.

still available, however, The Macon News is glad to include it as an extra chapter of the Centennial History of Macon.) In the very year of the founding of Macon, the subject of education received the attention of the citizens, for in 1823 Commissioners were appointed by an act of the Legislature over three academies and in January, 1824 the Commissioners were installed into office. During this year the Macon Academy was established under the Rectorship of Rev. Oliver Danforth who was the first school teacher in Macon. The board of trustees for the Academy was composed of the following gentlemen: Charles J. McDonald, James S. Frierson, Matthew Robinson, Rice Durrett and Oliver H. Prince. At the first meeting of the Trustees of the Academy, November 9, 1825, “arrangements were made for the building of an Academy on Academy Square, to be thirty six feet long by twenty four feet wide and to contain one desk, four writing tables and nine benches.” The school was opened for pupils in January 1826, with Rev. Lot Jones at Rector of the Academy. In the minutes of the meeting of January 11, 1828, it was ordered “that the building be raised two feet higher and set on pillars made from bricks forming the chimney; and that window panes be placed in the house.” The Academy was destroyed by fire in 1829 and in 1834 a new building of brick, two stories high, with porticos and cupola was erected and opened in December with Mr. John Darby as Principal and Mrs. Darby, assistant. During the war of 1861-65 the buildings and grounds were occupied as a Confederate hospital. When the Federal Army came into Macon in April


1865, the Academy was used as a camp by a part of General Wilson’s army. In 1825 the second of the academies authorized by the act of the Legislature of 1823 was established as the Lake Academy and was located about three miles from the center of the city on the Forsyth road. In the same year Washington Academy was opened. This school was established in the part of Bibb County now known as Holton and served the country district. In 1827 two small schools were opened. In 1834 there was an unusual development in Macon and central Georgia and the cause of education felt the impetus. Increased facilities were provided by the Trustees of the Bibb County Academy for the boys and girls, but there was a growing sentiment that a more liberal system of education for women should be established. The citizens of Macon were discussing plans for building a seminary for girls with grades of college courses when the Georgia Methodist Conference met in Macon, and it was found that the Conference was considering the establishment of a college for women. The Methodist ministers, Rev. John Howard, Rev. John W. Talley and Rev. Elijah Sinclair were pioneers in this movement to allow women equal educational advantages with men. When in 1832 the lots on the Common were offered for sale, five acres on what was known as Encampment Hill, the place that had been used as the muster ground for the militia, were reserved for a college or some public building. The citizens of Macon in 1834 made application to the City Council for a grant to this property for the Macon Female College. Council agreed to sell it for $2,500.00. At a meeting of the citizens $9,000.00 was subscribed. When the Methodist Conference met in Macon in January 1836 the City of Macon offered this property to the Conference as a site for a female college. The offer was accepted and the proposed Macon Female College became the Georgia Female College and was later changed to Wesleyan Female College. PRIVATE SCHOOLS The history of private schools in Macon is a history of striking personalities. Standing out as one of the most original characters was Mr. Jacob Danforth whose school was on Pine Street near First. He was among the first teachers in Macon. Mr. Benjamin Polhill’s school was on Orange Street near Washington Avenue. Mr. Sylvanus Bates taught on College Street, and on High Street near Spring Street was the school taught by Mr. E. H. Link, Mr. Dimmroch, Mr. Littlepage and Mr. John Hicks Bass were among the number conducting private schools. The school taught by Mrs. E. B. Baber was on the corner of First and Pine Streets, and on Second Street near Plum was Mrs. Julien’s school. Mrs. John Birch’s school was on Magnolia Street, Mrs. Sophie Hall’s school on New Street and Mrs. Parsons taught in the house on the corner of Second and Oak Streets. Mrs. Nagel’s school was on Second Street near Oglethorpe. Miss Darragh’s school was on Walnut Street. The school taught by Miss Clifford Cotton and her sister, Mrs. Marian E. Blackshear was at one time a preparatory department

for Wesleyan College. Afterwards the school became a private school and occupied a house on Washington Avenue near College Street. 1878-89 Benj. T. Hunter had a large school on College St, at which he prepared boys to enter college. BIBB COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS For some years prior to 1872 the schools of Bibb County had been under the jurisdiction of the County Board of Education. Following the passage of an act by the General Assembly of Georgia approved August 23, 1872, creating the Board of Public Education and Orphanage of Bibb County, the following gentlemen named as members of the board met September 19, 1872 for organization:. W. D. Williams, L. N. C. Whittle, Joseph Clisby, R. W. Cubbedge, Emory Winship, T. C. Dempsey, Samuel Chambliss, S. C. Cabiness, J. W. Stubbs, John W. Burke, Judge C. B. Cole. The other members of the board named in the act were J. J. Gresham, Virgil Powers and J. T. Nisbet. By provision of the act the Mayor of the city of Macon, the Ordinary of Bibb County and the Judge of the Superior Court, when he is a resident of Bibb County, were named ex-officio members. The first act of the Board of Education and Orphanage was to ratify and continue the acts and contracts of the County Board of Education until further orders. W. D. Williams was county school commissioner. On October 11, 1872 definite organization of the board was agreed upon, and the following officers were elected W. D. Williams, President; Joseph Clisby, Vice-president; James T. Nisbet, Secretary; R. W. Cubbedge, Treasurer. The first superintendent was B. M. Zettler, elected January 1873. At this time there were in operation the First Ward School in the basement of the Catholic Church on Fourth Street, now Broadway, under J. H. Roberts and three assistant teachers; the Second Ward School on Second Street, under S. H. Everett and one assistant; the Fourth Ward School in Saint Paul’s Parish School House on Forsyth Street under H. T. Conner and two assistants; and the East Macon School in the Central Railroad building in East Macon, under W. G. Smith and two assistants. There were two colored schools, the Cotton Avenue School in the basement of the A.M.E. Church on Cotton Avenue under Louis Williams and two assistants; and the Lewis High School on New Street, supported by the American Missionary Association and conducted by Mrs. M. E. Sands, principal, with seven assistants. Several schools for both white and colored were in operation in the suburbs and country districts. The statistics for the first year of the system were Teachers, 43; pupils, 1516. Total expenditures, $21,702.15. In 1873 the City Council purchased the Polhill property on Orange Street and placed it in the hands of the Board of Education. In this same year the Central High School was opened in a building on the corner of College and Bond Streets, and the Third Ward School was also opened at this time. Later these two schools were moved to the Orange Street School. In 1874 the City Council ordered the erection of the Second Street School. This was built out of material from the Confederate States Armory building. The school was built by the City of Macon at a cost of $25,000.


In February, 1873, the original act under which the Board was organized was amended so as to take from the Grand Jury and confer upon the county commissioners the veto power as to the tax assessment of the Board of Education for school purposes. The opposition of a majority of the Board of County Commissioners as then constituted to the public school system as operated by the Board of Education seriously handicapped the work for a year, but in January 1877 a new Board of County Commissioners favorable to the schools was elected and since that time the growth of the system has been steady and uninterrupted. The High School had completely outgrown its quarters and in 1877 the Trustees of the Macon Free School erected a building on their lot at the corner of Spring and Pine Streets, the lumber being taken from the old Beasley Tavern on Cotton Avenue and the labor paid for by voluntary contribution from the patrons of the High School. As a tribute to the men who had devoted many years to the planning and the maintenance of the public schools in the City of Macon the grammar schools bear the names of the charter member of the Board of Education. In the summer of 1880 the Trustees of the Macon Free School purchased the Medical College building on Mulberry Street, remodeled it to adapt it to school purposes and turned it over to the Board of Education to accommodate the public schools occupying the small buildings on the old Academy Square. The school was named in honor of L. N. Whittle. In 1892 the Trustees of the Macon Free School erected a building on the lot at Mulberry and Spring Streets, and moved the Whittle School to its present location. In 1882 the Trustees of the Macon Free School Board purchased the city’s interest in the Polhill property on Orange Street and built a new school house. This was known as the Nisbet School, after James T. Nisbet. The people of Vineville in 1884 erected by voluntary contributions a school building, and in the same year the residents of East Macon by voluntary subscription built a school house in that section. Again the High School had outgrown its quarters and in 1888 the trustees of the Macon Free School decided to erect a brick building for the use of the school to be named Gresham High School, in honor of Judge John J. Gresham. In 1892 the Alexander Free School Board which had charge of the legacy of Elam Alexander tendered to the Board of Education the use of the school on Second Street now known as Alexander No. 1. The offer was accepted and the school supplied with teachers. During this year the Winship School on Huguenin Heights was built and named in honor of Emory Winship. Superintendent B. M. Zettler resigned in 1894 and assistant superintendent D. Q. Abbott was elected Superintendent of Schools. In 1897 the Normal School was established to give professional training to those who were to become teachers in the system. Mrs. G. A. Alexander was elected principal. Upon the resignation of Mrs. Alexander, Miss Pearl Stephens was made principal and continued in that position until her death in 1923. The work at the Normal School has been discontinued for the present.

At the meeting of the Board in July 1899 the office of general principal of country schools was abolished and the entire work placed in the hands of the superintendent. In 1901 the Alexander Free School Board built on a lot facing Tattnall Square the school building, Alexander No.2, from the Elam Alexander fund. Superintendent Abbot resigned in 1901 and J. M. Pound was elected to the position, serving until 1904 when Professor C. B. Chapman was elected Superintendent. In 1909 the separate High School for boys was established. The Cave property on the corner of Forsyth and Orange Streets was purchased, and the house was converted into a school building and named Lanier High School in honor of Sidney Lanier. The third school to be built by the Alexander Free School Board was the North Highlands School built in 1910 and named Alexander No. 3. In 1911 the school building was erected on Cherokee Heights and named Clisby School after Joseph Clisby. The name of Second Street School was changed in 1912 to Virgil Powers. At the end of the fiscal year 1911-12 the Board of Education was operating schools in fifty seven buildings, three of which were owned by the Alexander Free School Board, two by the City of Macon, three by Macon Free School Board and thirty seven by the county. In 1912 C. H. Bruce was elected Superintendent of Schools. By the special tax levy for the years 1912, 1913, 1914, $100,000 was raised for the erection of a new High School which was occupied September 1914. In 1914 the consolidated rural High School in the Rutland District was completed, and the success of the consolidation idea brought to pass the building of the Union High School on the Columbus road in the Hazzard District in 1916, and the Howard High School on the Forsyth road in the Howard District in 1917. Pupils living more than two miles from the school are carried in school trucks furnished by the Board of Education. At the October 1914 meeting of the Board, a Teachers’ Retirement Association was organized which makes it possible for teachers who have become incapacitated or passed the age of usefulness to retire with a monthly income. In 1922 the expansion of the building program was noteworthy. With the funds from the bond issue of 1921 three large buildings were erected, the South Macon School named in honor of John W. Burke, the Fort Hawkins School built on the site of the original Fort, and the Winship School at Beach and Pio Nono Avenues, which formed the new district combining the old Winship and Cherokee Heights section. The Vineville School is now known as the Joseph W. Clisby School. The Bellevue School occupied the present commodious Lanier High School - 1921, burned 1967. building in 1919


and the modern school building of Lizella High School was also erected in 1919. April first, 1922, an open air school for the benefit of tubercular children was established, a building at Central City Park being used for the school. With the bond issue of 1921 the splendid new High School for boys is being erected on Holt Avenue at a cost of approximately $400,000 and will be ready for occupancy September 1924. The present Lanier High School will be for girls. Out of this bond issue the new Virgil Powers School also was built. Among the negro schools, the Monroe Street High and Industrial School now occupies a new building that is located on the site where the first negro school (to be) established in Macon was constructed. There are four other large schools, the Green Street School, Hazel Street School, Pleasant Hill School and East Macon School and a number of smaller schools in the suburbs and country districts. A lot has been purchased in East Macon on which an open air school for the tubercular negro children will be built. This is to be modeled on the lines of the open air school for white children at Central City park and will probably be incorporated in the public school system. The statistics for the Bibb County Schools for the year 1924 are: Teachers - 348. Pupils, white, 8,781. Negro, 6,008. Total, 14,789. Total expenditures $468,816.40 running expenses. Cost per pupil per month, $3.52. Number of schools, white, 22. Number of schools, negro, 24. Total, 46. Value of buildings, $2,681,191.69. Total County appropriation, $357,840.49. WESLEYAN COLLEGE In the summer of 1835 the plan of advancing the cause of education in the South by the establishment of a female college was originated by a few bold spirits. A public meeting was called in the city of Macon and a resolution passed to raise twenty thousand dollars. It was resolved, also, to submit the whole plan to the patronage and guardianship of the Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. At the session of the legislature in 1836 the charter was granted to the Georgia Female College and in January, 1839, the College building was completed at a cost of eighty five thousand dollars. The College was opened on the seventh of January, 1839, with ninety young ladies registering, that number being increased to one hundred and sixty eight by the end of the first term. Dr. George F. Pierce was the first president. He was also professor of English Literature. Reverend W. H. Ellison, who later became president, was professor of Mathematics; Reverend Thomas B. Slade, Professor of Natural Science and Botany; and Adolph Maussinet, instructor in modern languages. Reverend S. Mattison was Principal of the Preparatory department.

In 1840 twelve young women were graduated having completed a standard course equal to that offered in the men’s colleges of that time. Miss Catherine E. Brewer, who afterwards became the mother of Rear Admiral W. S. Benson, was the first woman to receive a diploma. To prove that Wesleyan has the right to claim the honor of being the first chartered college in the United States, if not in the world, to give a diploma to a woman, authentic data has been compiled. Soon after the opening of the college the great financial crash came, and the school became heavily involved. As there was still a deficit on account of the building, the college was finally forced to be sold for its debt. It was turned over to the Methodist Episcopal Church South in Georgia. In December, 1842, a new charter was granted and the name was changed to Wesleyan Female College in honor of John Wesley, the founder of Methodism. During all the struggle, however, the college did not close its doors. The crisis came during the years 1861-1865 when all the South’s institutions were in danger of being swept away. But the college emerged from that stormy time with doors still open. The citizens of Macon gave proof of their love and devotion to the institution in those troubled days, when Confederate authorities, in desperate need of suitable buildings, wished to take possession of the college for a hospital, but were enjoined by the civil courts of the state. Then came the more trying days of reconstruction when it seemed that the doors would have to be closed. In Dr. W. C. Bass, who served as teacher and later as president for thirtyfive years, being President from 1874 to 1894, the college had the leader who could bring it safely through those depressing years. The gift in 1881 of one hundred and twenty five thousand dollars by George I. Seney, of Brooklyn, N. Y., came at a critical time and helped make the position of the college go forward, and the policy of expansion was further continued when in 1896 Dr. John D. Hammond raised the scholastic standards. With the great increase in applications for admittance, it became necessary to have more dormitory space and in 1900 under the presidency of Dr. William J. Roberts the large building, Roberts Hall, was erected. In 1903, during Judge Dupont Guerry’s administration the preparatory department was abolished , thus bringing the college into conformity with advanced standards. The Susannah Wesley Memorial Chapel was remodeled at this time. Through the efforts of President W. N. Ainsworth, the endowment was substantially increased by the gift of $300,000 from the General Education Board of New York, and another dormitory, Georgia Building, was erected to provide for the increase of students. When Dr. C. R. Jenkins became president he further raised the educational standards, placing the college in rank with the higher standard of requirements of colleges for women. At this time, Mr. E. T. Comer, of Millhaven, Georgia, gave to Wesleyan fifty thousand dollars, the interest of which is to be loaned to worthy young women. In 1920 Dr. William F. Quillian was elected president and continues in that position. He has placed the emphasis on


higher standards in all courses, with the quality credit system adopted as the basis. He has matured plans that will mean greatly needed enlargement and material advancement. The College is to be moved to Rivoli, five miles from Macon. One hundred and thirty-two acres have been purchased and on this site will be built the Greater Wesleyan, combining all the fine qualities of tradition and inheritance and supplemented by all that a great college for young women should be in environment, beauty and practical efficiency. About the old bell of Wesleyan there lingers a bit of tradition to be preserved. During the Civil War the original old bell was melted to furnish munitions for the Confederate army, and later the people of Charleston sent one of the famous chimes belonging to St. Michael’s Church to Wesleyan. During its entire history Wesleyan has had thirteen presidents: Bishop George F. Pierce, 1838-1842. Dr. William H. Ellison, 1842-1851. Dr. Edward H. Myers, 1851-1854. Dr. Osborne L. Smith, 1854-1859. Dr. John M. Bennell, 1859-1871. Dr. Edward H. Myers, 1871-1874. Dr. William C. Bass, 1874-1894. Rev. Edgar H. Rowe, 1894-1896. Dr. John D. Hammond, 1896-1898. Dr. William J. Roberts, 1898-1903. Hon. Dupont Guerry, 1903-1909. Bishop William N. Ainsworth, 1909-1912. Dr. Charles R. Jenkins, 1912-1920. Dr. William F. Quillian, 1920The Conservatory of Music is ranked among the great influences in the Southern world of music, and plans for the expansion of this department will increase its standing. When the college is moved to the new site, the present location will be retained as permanent quarters for the Conservatory. MERCER UNIVERSITY The origin of Mercer University was in the demand for an educated ministry. In 1831 the Georgia Baptist Convention passed the resolution introduced by Rev. Adiel Sherwood “to establish a classical and theological school that should unite agricultural labor and study,” and be open for those preparing for the ministry, later admitting others besides students in divinity. Thus Mercer had its beginning as a manual labor school for the training of young ministers. The school was named Mercer Institution after Jesse Mercer and was located in the village that was called Penfield after Josiah Penfield. It was opened January 14, 1833, and the enrollment for the year was thirty nine students. Rev. Billington M. Sanders was chosen as Principal and Steward, and he was assisted by Ira O. McDaniel. Among the teachers were J. F. Hillyer, J. M. Hattaway, A. Williams and Shelton P. Sanford. In 1837 it was decided to develop the institute into a college and theological seminary, and at the meeting of the legislature, December 1837, the charter was granted. Under this charter

the Georgia Baptist Convention at its session in 1838 elected the first board of trustees and Mercer Institute was enlarged to become Mercer University. On this first board of trustees were Jesse Mercer, C. D. Mallary, V. R. Thornton, Jonathan Davis, John E. Dawson, Absalom Jones, Malcolm Johnson, W. D. Cowdry, J. H. T. Kilpatrick, J. T. Campbell, S. G. Hillyer, R. Q. Dickinson, William Richards, Thomas Stocks, T. Y. Jones, J. M. Porter, Lemuel Greene, James Davant, F. W. Cheney, E. H. Macon, William Lumpkin, J. G. Polhill, Lott Warren, A. Cooper, J. B. Walker, I. T. Irwin, W. H. Pope. Mercer is the oldest theological institution in the South, and the third oldest in the nation. The first graduating class to receive diplomas in 1841 was composed of R. A. Wellborn, B. F. Tharp, A. Whitman and Richard Malcolm Johnston. When the Georgia Institute developed into a college, Dr. Adiel Sherwood was placed at the head of the theological department. The records prove that his was the directing and organizing mind that led to the forming of the state convention and the establishment of Mercer Institute. Until the Civil War prosperity steadily attended the growth of the university, but from 1861 to 1865 a mere skeleton of college organization was preserved, and with the close of the war came temporary confusion and demoralization. In 1865 the trustees met to decide upon plans for reconstruction. The matter of changing the site of Mercer was the burning question, and after long discussion the question was answered by the vote of the convention, in 1870 to move the university. At a conference later held by the trustees and a committee from the convention, Macon was adopted as the seat of the college. The city of Macon gave the college one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars and several acres on Tattnall Square. The college was formally opened in 1871 with the following as members of the faculty: Dr. H. H. Tucker, president; Dr. J. J. Brantley, S. P. Sanford, J. E. Wilett and W. G. Woodfin. In 1872 Rev. E. A. Steed was added to the faculty. At the end of this year there were 81 students. The School of Law was established in 1873 with a faculty consisting of Carlton B. Cole, chairman; Clifford Anderson and Walter B. Hill. Judge Emory Speer was dean of the law school from 1887 to 1918, and for the four years following Judge William H. Felton served as dean. In 1922 Judge William H. Fish was made dean. For many years the law department was loosely connected with the college, but it has now become an organic part of the university. The Institution has had thirteen presidents. The first Rev. Billington M. Sanders, was called upon to discharge the duties of “landlord, farmer, teacher, preacher, and financial agent.” Rev. Otis Smith was chosen President in 1840, remaining at the head for three years. Rev. J. L. Dagg served as president for ten years and was succeeded by Rev. N. M. Crawford, son of William H. Crawford. Rev. Henry Holcombe Tucker was elected president in 1866, serving until 1871. During this time the University was moved from Penfield to Macon, making a new era in its history. In 1872 Dr. A. J. Battle became president and filled the office for seventeen years, longer than any other president.


Rev. G. A. Nunnally was elected in 1889 remaining until the close of 1892. The chapel building was completed in 1890. Dr. J. B. Gambrell was president and Professor of Theology from 1893-1896. In 1897 Dr. P. D. Pollock came to the presidency after serving as chairman of the faculty for one year. During his administration the faculty was increased, Science Hall and the Y.M.C.A. building were constructed, and Mercer University was brought into harmony with accepted standards of the modern college. At the resignation of Dr. Pollock in 1904 Professor W. H. Kilpatrick served as chairman of the faculty. Dr. Charles Lee Smith was elected president in 1905 and in 1906 Dr. S. Y. Jameson accepted the office. Under his administration the library and a dormitory were built, and two hundred and twenty five thousand dollars was added to the resources of the university. At this time there was a marked increase in the number of students. Dr. Jameson served from 1906-1913 and for the year following Professor J. F. Sellers was acting president. Substantial improvements were made on the campus and building during this year. In 1914 Dr. W. L. Pickard was elected president and served until 1918. During his term of office there came to the college the Barbara C. Dodd bequest of $50,000 and the Caroline O. Sanders fund of $35,000. In 1918 Dr. Rufus W. Weaver was elected president and continues in the office. Under his administration the university has entered upon a greatly increased policy of expansion. New buildings have been constructed and much valuable property purchased to take care of the constantly increasing demands. The Daniel Marshall Dining Hall, the faculty apartment house and the president’s house have been built. Four new dormitories have been added and a large number of cottages have been set apart for the married students. A new athletic field is among the acquisitions and on this is to be built, with the proceeds of a bond issue recently carried in the city, a municipal stadium which makes possible the carrying out of a great athletic program for Mercer and Macon. The scope of the University has been greatly enlarged by the addition of a number of schools, thereby meeting the growing demand for technical, vocational and professional education combined with cultural values. In 1919 the school of Commerce was established to meet the need of more thorough preparation than that given in the typical business college. To supply the demand for trained college men in the profession of teaching the School of Education was opened in 1920. The School of Journalism, established in 1920, has for its object the training and instruction needed to prepare students to become newspaper men. The School of Christianity was established in 1920, and this school is to be further enlarged and will be known as the Theological Seminary of Mercer University. The establishment of this school restores to Mercer its early mission of training young men for the ministry. In the nearly ninety years since Mercer was chartered as a university there have been changes in the idea of a university. In the old days the founders builded on what was the ideal then, and wisely did they build. The Mercer of today measures

up to the widely different present ideal and is in name and in fact a university. GEORGIA ACADEMY FOR THE BLIND On the fifth of April, 1851, the first meeting for the purpose of sustaining an effort to establish an institution for the education of the blind children of the state was held in the Methodist Church of Macon. This meeting was addressed by Mr. W. S. Fortescue of Philadelphia, blind himself, who had come with letters of introduction from the Pennsylvania Institution for the Blind and had interested a number of public spirited men in Macon. At this meeting a committee of five, Dr. J. M. Green, Robert Smith, W. S. Fortescue, Dr. W. S. Lightfoot, E. Graves, was appointed to solicit subscriptions from the citizens of Georgia to enable Mr. Fortescue to educate four blind children until the next meeting of the legislature. At the meeting of the subscribers held July 4, 1851 the report of the committee on organization was adopted; that it shall be known as the Georgia Academy for the Education of the Blind, that it shall be supported by donations, legacies, such aid as the Legislature may give, by payments for the education and support of children by parents or others and by annual or life subscriptions of the members, and that the Academy shall be for the present under the management of a Board of Trustees, consisting of seven members. The seven trustees elected were: E. B. Weed, J. B. Lamar, J. M. Green, A. H. Chappell, E. Graves, N. C. Munroe, R. A. Smith. W. S. Fortescue was elected Principal. In July, 1851, the school was opened with four pupils. The school being dependent upon the charitable contributions of Macon and the surrounding country, the Board concluded to apply to the state for assistance. At the November meeting a resolution was passed to apply to the Georgia Legislature for a charter to incorporate and endow the Academy. The bill granting the charter was enacted at the 1851-52 session of the Legislature and signed by the Governor, Howell Cobb, January 19, 1852. The board was reorganized under the charter granted and the following officers elected: James M. Green, President; Nathan C. Monroe, Treasurer; Robert A. Smith, Secretary; W. S. Fortescue was made Principal; M. B. Clark, Musical Instructor; Miss Hannah Guillan, Teacher; Mrs. J. Griswold, Matron. Until October, 1852, the Academy occupied a dwelling on the corner of Third and Mulberry Streets, but there came the necessity for better acommodations and a removal was made to the building erected by the city for a hospital beyond the southwestern portion of the city. In 1854 the Board purchased the lot of Mr. Charles Cotton on Washington Avenue and for several years the Academy occupied the residence on this lot until a new building could be erected. In 1858 the corner stone was laid for a building to cost $49,745. This was on the lot facing on College and Orange Streets and between Washington Avenue and Academy Lane. The Academy occupied the building January 7, 1860. The greatest trial of the institution was during the war and the reconstruction period. So crowded were all the buildings


in Macon with hospitals, army stores and refugees that it was found necessary to covert the Academy building into a hospital for our wounded soldiers. In December, 1863, the Academy was removed to Fort Valley where the school was maintained until July, 1865, when it was brought back to Macon. Dr. W. D. Williams was the principal at this time. When the Federal army came into Macon they occupied the building as a hospital until the latter part of July, 1865, when it came back into the possession of the Academy. A period of great financial strain followed, and it seemed as if the school would be compelled to close, but it was brought through the crisis and by 1869 the debt which had been incurred was entirely cleared. In 1866 the industrial department of the Institution was organized, to teach the students trades that would make them self-supporting. Making brooms, mattresses, repairing cane chairs for the boys, and sewing, crocheting and fancy bead work for the girls are mentioned as being in the department of handicraft. In 1881 the Legislature appropriated $10,000 for the establishment of an institution for the blind colored children in connection with the Georgia Academy for the Blind. A lot on Madison street was purchased consisting of three and a half acres and a substantial brick building was erected. The school was occupied in 1882. The First Principal of the Academy, W. S. Fortescue 18511853, was followed by Henry Dutton 1853 to 1855 and W. D. Chaudoin was in charge 1856. For the school year 1857-78 the Academy was under the management of Miss Hannah Guillan and in 1858 W. D. Williams was elected principal. Mr. W. D. Williams continued in this position for many years being followed by his son, Mr. Dudley Williams. At his resignation Mr. T. U. Conner was elected to the office of Superintendent. In 1904 it was decided to change the location of the Academy. The property was sold and the new site on the Forsyth road was acquired. During 1905 the school was suspended while the new building was being erected. The building cost $100,000 and with the beautiful grounds surrounding makes a place of which the state can be proud. In 1906 the school resumed operations, with Mr. G. F. Oliphant taking charge as Superintendent August first, 1906, and continuing in that position until the present time. The following gentlemen now form the Board of Trustees: A. L. Miller, President; T. D. Tinsley, Secretary and Treasurer; J. R. Van Buren, W. P. Coleman, George B. Jewett, George S. Jones. ALEXANDER FREE SCHOOL The Alexander Free School was founded soon after the war between the states, the money for establishing the school being left by Elam Alexander, one of the pioneer citizens of Macon. Mr. Alexander was born in Meckleburg County, North Carolina, in 1796 and was a descendant of the two Alexanders who signed the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence of 1775. He came to Macon in 1826, three years after its settlement. A carpenter by trade, he aftrwards became a contractor and builder, in which business he made his fortune. He was one of the community builders, showing enterprise and

ability in furthering the interests of the city. He died in Macon in 1863. A clause of his will made in 1862 shows something of his benevolence and patriotism. After mentioning legacies to certain relatives and friends and leaving directions for the humane disposal of his slaves, the residue of his fortune was to be placed at interest and “annually appropriated to furthering the independence of the Confederate States of America in any way my executors may deem proper . . .after the war is closed the money to be expended for the establishment of a free school within the limits of the city of Macon, the principal forever to remain as a fund for the purpose above specified.” The fund has been handled in a remarkably jdicious manner. The principal has been kept intact, and through wise investment has realized income sufficient to erect three school buildings. For some years after the opening of the Alexander Free School the house on the corner of Second and Pine Streets, which had been Mr. Alexander’s home, was used as the school building. Later the house was moved to the back of the lot on Pine Street and a brick building was erected for the school. This is known as Alexander No. 1. On the first board of trustees were John J. Gresham, John W. Burke, Henry L. Jewett, George S. Obear, L. N. Whittle, Charles J. Harris and the Mayor of Macon, ex-officio. Mr. Sylvanus Bates was the principal of the school and Miss Flora Smith afterwards Mrs. C. B. Chapman, was assistant. The school was maintained as an independent unit for a number of years but in 1892 a partial merger was effected with the public school system of Bibb County by which the building was turned over to the Board of Education, the teachers to be supplied by the Board. Since that time two brick school buildings have been added from the Alexander fund. The Alexander Free School Board still retains all the titles to the property and assumes all responsibility for repairs and upkeep. The board now administering the fund is composed of the following: R. J. Taylor, President; Bridges Smith, Secretary; W. D. Lamar, S. R. Jaques, J. E. Hall, R. Holmes Mason. MONTPELIER INSTITUTE A summer resort in the early forties, a flourishing girls’ college in the sixties, one building in partial ruins today is the history of Montpelier Institute at Montpelier Springs, sixteen miles from Macon on the Thomaston road. When Bishop Stephen Elliott, the first bishop of Georgia, decided to establish a church school for girls, Montpelier Springs was selected as the site and what had formerly been a gay summer play ground was changed to an educational institution. From his consecration to the bishopric in 1841, the Bishop devoted his efforts to establishing “an eminent school for the education of females at Montpelier.” Large sums of money were expended on the buildings, the grounds were developed until it was a place of beauty, and splendid equipment was provided. The Episcopal Church under whose auspices the school was established, contributed largely, but the great amount of money needed proved a drain too exhausting, and Bishop Elliott’s private property was lost in the undertaking. There followed years of fluctuating fortunes, but the high tide of success came at the beginning of the Civil War. Rev.


John T. Pryse, a native of Wales, was Rector and Principal. Dr. Joseph Ridley was assistant rector and teacher. Professor Collins taught mathematics, Miss Emma Naughton was in the English department, and Professor Hatzchek and Miss Simmons were the music teachers. There were pupils from every state in the Confederacy, three hundred girls being in attendance. There was hope that this place would be remote from battlefields and invading armies, but in November, 1864, the alarm of war reached even Montpelier, and there was wild haste to escape the coming of the enemy. The girls, panic stricken, came into Macon to seek protection. All kinds of vehicles were pressed into service. There was no time to pack trunks, the girls filled pillow cases with treasured possessions. Some of the frightened refugees remained in Macon, others reached home and several had to return to the school where they stayed with members of the faculty for weeks before they could find a way to get home. After the war there was little opportunity to start the work of the school again. Money was lacking and there was added one more to the long list of the South’s lost institutions Montpelier Institute passed into a tradition.

temporarily, a small Academy in the Convent and a free school in the basement of the old St. Joseph Church on the next lot. In the latter school were taught ten young orphan girls of whom the Sisters had charge. In 1876 the imposing colonial residence of George W. Towns, Governor of Georgia (1847-1851) was purchased from Mr. E. E. Brown. The Governor Towns mansion was built on land that had been the property of Simri Rose, a man famous in the pioneer days of Macon. On the spot where Mount de Sales now stands in a small wooden building, Macon’s first court was convened. Various additions to the Governor’s mansion from 1876 to 1910 did not make of it a convenient and up-to-date school building. Finally in 1910 was begun a structure designed to meet all requirements. On March 19, 1910, the work of demolishing the buildings of the old Mount de Sales was begun. The new Academy in its present incomplete form was finished March 7, 1911. Two wings remain to be built. In its present condition the Academy accommodates thirty-five Sisters, sixty boarding pupils and one hundred day pupils.

MOUNT DE SALES ACADEMY Mount de Sales Academy, a Catholic school for the secondary and higher education of girls, was established in 1876, and chartered under the laws of the State of Georgia to confer degrees. Situated at the corner of Orange and Columbus Streets on one of Macon’s highest hills, it commands a widespread view of the beautiful country around. The institution is owned and conducted by the Sisters of Mercy. The curriculum of former years was what was then called the academic course. The course of study now pursued at Mount de Sales is the equivalent of the high school classical. Having been chartered as a college, Mount de Sales has not, up to the present, carried a collegiate course, a condition due mainly to the small number of Catholics in Georgia, and the large number of good colleges for students of other denominations. The early history of this institution holds many elements of interest. In 1871 five Sisters of Mercy came to Macon from Columbus, Georgia, to which city they had fled from Saint Augustine, Florida, in 1862 to escape a threatened bombardment and destruction of that town by the Army of the North during the War Between the States. In Macon they took up their abode in the Rogers’ home, corner of Fourth (Broadway) and Walnut Streets, and opened,

GEORGIA-ALABAMA BUSINESS COLLEGE The Georgia-Alabama Business College was established at Macon in 1889 by Wyatt and Martin, of Mississippi. It was named for the two states because it was intended to serve the needs of the entire South. Professor E. L. Martin was in charge of the school for a number of years. In 1907 Eugene Anderson, then secretary of the Macon Chamber of Commerce, purchased the college. He has since steadily raised the standards and strengthened the courses of study to meet the demands of the employing public. It has graduated twenty one thousand stenographers, private secretaries, bookkeepers, auditors and accountants. In 1919 the Southern Newspaper Publishers Association entered into a contract with the Georgia-Alabama Business College to establish the association’s Linotype and Intertype School for the training of operators. In 1920 the National association of Accredited Business Colleges agreed to confer a degree on any complete graduate. In the same year the American Newspaper Publishers’ Association officially adopted the school and appropriated a portion of the annual dues of the association for the furtherance of the undertaking. From two hundred to four hundred students are in daily attendance.

Mt. De Sales Academy - 1876, replaced 1911.

APPLETON CHURCH HOME The Appleton Church Home for Girls was founded by the Episcopal church, State of Georgia, 1868 and named in honor of William H. Appleton, of New York, who donated $12,500 to the institution. Mr. Appleton was a warm personal friend of Bishop John W. Beckwith, and had expressed his desire to form some plan to care for the destitute orphans of Confederate soldiers and others, with the provision that the Bishop have the supervision of the work. The home was located in Macon and the city gave the grounds and building held by Saint Paul’s Church consisting 174

of three acres. The lot adjacent, four acres, was purchased from the Macon and Western railroad, and on this property a substantial brick building capable of accommodating thirty children was built. Bishop John. W. Beckwith was placed in general control of the institution and serving on the board with him were W. B. Johnston, John S. Baxter, L. N. Whittle and Edward Padelford. The object was to educate and train orphan girls with the purpose of making them self-supporting and to develop by organized training woman’s work, to utilize Christian women in works of mercy. The home was opened June 27, 1870 with Sister Margaret in charge. Four girls were the first pupils. The income was arised by subscriptions payable annually for five years. In 1882 the Diaconal Sisterhood of Saint Catherine was organized and three sisters were set apart as deaconesses. The order was named after the daughter of Mr. Appleton who was a missionary in foreign fields. The charter of incorporation places the home directly under the supervision of the Bishop of Georgia, or his successor in this part of the state who is now the Bishop of Atlanta. He has, however, a Board of Trustees who act as advisers. This board consists of three ministers, three laymen and three women annually elected by the Diocesan Council. At a meeting of the Council of the diocese held in Columbus, Ga., in the Spring of 1922 a movement was launched to build a new home. A site was purchased just beyond Ingleside on “Breezy Hill” about five miles from Macon, and a new home erected with buildings of the semi-cottage type. The grounds consist of about eighteen acres and is located on the highest point in Bibb County with a commanding view of the surrounding country. Increased interest has been manifested in the home and the future promises a new career of usefulness for this worthy institution. Sister Sophie is in charge of the Home at this time. Serving on the Board of Trustees are: Bishop H. J. Mikell, D. D. Rev. C. G. Richardson, W. A. Taylor, Mrs. Lamar Rucker, Rev. Oliver J. Hart, Frank Bone, Mrs. W. R. Prescott, Rev. H. A. Willey, E. E. Dallis, Mrs. Marshall Ellis. PIO NONO COLLEGE What was later known at St. Stanislaus was originally Pio Nono College. This school was founded in May, 1874, by Right Reverend W. H. Gross, Bishop of Savannah, and was chartered to confer degrees February 28, 1876. The corner stone of the building was laid May 5, 1874 with elaborate ceremonies, and in October, 1874, the school was opened in the new building. The college was under the supervision of the Catholic Church, and was established as an educational institution for the youths of the South, no distinction being made in the reception of pupils in the matter of religious belief. In 1887, however, the institution became the possession of the New Orleans or Southern Province of the Jesuit Order. After undergoing many improvements, it was opened under the name, St. Stanislaus. Its object was to furnish the initiatory training and education for the Jesuit priesthood. On the night of November 7, 1921, the building was completely destroyed by fire. The valuable library was burned,

The Georgia Industrial Home

only a few of the books being saved. All the records of the college were lost in the fire. Since that time there has been no disposition made of the property, the matter of rebuilding not having been decided up to the present time. GEORGIA INDUSTRIAL HOME In 1899 Mr. W. E. Mumford, aided by a strong board of trustees, with Mr. E. J. Williams as president, founded the Georgia Industrial Home for destitute, homeless and helpless children. It is a chartered institution under the laws of Georgia, is non-sectarian and is supported entirely by voluntary contributions. No help is received from the state. Just a few years after the Home was founded, Mr. Mumford died, a loss that has been keenly felt through the years. The work that was so worthily started has been continued in the face of difficulties, until now it has reached the place that it is on a firm footing. The Home is located on a farm five and one-half miles from Macon and not only provides food, shelter and clothing, but educational advantages such as the state schools give through the seventh grade. Mr. J. A. Harris is general manager, and the members of the Board of Trustees are: H. S. Strozier, President; C. M. Wiley, A. F Holt, R. G. Jordan, J. B. Riley and Luther Williams. A feature worthy of special mention in connection with the Home is the work done by the Georgia Industrial Home Band. This band, composed of the boys at the Home, has been the means of materially increasing the income of the institution. For several years these boys have traveled through Georgia,


which was donated by the Past Masters of the lodges of Macon and the Masons of Atlanta. The following compose the Board of Trustees: T. J. Carling, Chairman; James B. Clements, Secretary; W. G. England, Medical Director; J. D. Hamrick, W. S. Richardson, James W. Taylor, Charles L. Bass, George H. Fields, L. B. Veeder, J. A. Lee.

The Masonic Home of Georgia

Florida and Alabama, giving concerts and the response on the part of the people in the towns and cities has been most gratifying. The boys themselves are living witnesses of the good work done in the Home. THE MASONIC HOME At the session of the Masonic Grand Lodge of Georgia in 1902 the announcement was made that the Home for the aged, indigent and orphans among Masons which had been projected for several years was about to become an accomplished fact. Senator A. O. Bacon had donated 100 acres in North Highlands on one of the highest hills around Macon, commanding a beautiful view, and in October 1903, the corner stone of the building was laid. The Home opened June 14, 1905, with fourteen guests. For some years both the aged and dependents and the children were included, but the plan was changed and only the children were occupants of the home. A pension fund has been arranged for the old and needy. In 1916 the crowded condition of the Home called for an expansion, and $50,000 was spent in enlarging the building and making improvements. In 1917 fifty additional acres were purchased. The present value of the land and buildings is estimated at $150,000. The Home has an endowment fund of $125,000 made up by the Masons of Georgia largely through the efforts of Secretary Frank F. Baker. The present Superintendent is Mr. J. E. Summers. The land is cultivated and a dairy maintained under the supervision of Mr. Carlos Verdery. There are now in the Home one hundred and fifty children. They attend school in the city schools and business college, and at the Home are trained in the manual and vocational lines. The boys are taught the printer’s trade in the printing plant that is owned and operated by the Home. The girls are given instructions in all branches of domestic science. There is a well equipped play ground, all of the equipment of

THE SOUTH GEORGIA CONFERENCE ORPHANS’ HOME The Orphans’ Home of the South Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South was established in 1872 at the conference in Thomasville, Georgia. The charter was granted under the laws of Georgia February 8, 1873, and the object was to maintain, support and educate indigent orphans within the bounds of the Conference and elsewhere, if practicable. On the first Board of Trustees were Samuel Anthony, A. M. Winn, George G. Clark, John W. Burke, James O. Branch, G. J. Pierce, A. L. Maxwell, J. W. Jordan, H. L. Jewett, J. W. Cheatham, W. D. Williams and James Jackson. December 17, 1873 the Board of Trustees acquired by deed of conveyance from the Bibb County Orphan House Society a tract of land near Vineville containing about ninety four acres and known as the “Cowles Spring Place.” The work was organized by appointment of Dr. Erwin as superintendent, who took charge of about twenty orphan children. June 19, 1882, the charter of the Home was amended and the scope of the work enlarged, and on August 3, 1903, it was further amended by which important privileges and powers were attained. On January 1, 1887, the main building, a wooden structure, was burned and it was later replaced by a brick building. In 1918 the main building was again partially burned and since then the buildings have been entirely remodeled and great improvements made. There are now seven buildings. For some years a school was maintained at the Home, but now the children attend the public schools in Macon. Mr. H. Daugherty is superintendent of the Home at the present time.

SKETCH OF MRS. ANNE ROYALL MRS. ANNE (NEWPORT) ROYALL, daughter of William and Mary Newport, was born in Maryland, June 11, 1769, but when still a child moved with her parents to the frontiers of Pennsylvania, where she endured the usual hardships of the pioneer, witnessed more than the usual amount of Indian savagery, and grew up with scant education. In 1797 she was married to Captain William Royall, an eccentric Virginia gentleman many years her senior, who had served under LaFayette, and spent his money freely in the cause of the Revolution. Captain Royall’s home, near Staunton, Va., contained a large and well selected library. He was a man of education, devoted to his young wife, and took pleasure in encouraging her natural aptitude for reading, particularly in the school of thought represented by Voltaire. He was an ardent Mason, and imparted to his wife a special zeal for all that Masonry represented in an age when Washington and Lafayette


were among its great exemplars. In 1826 the mysterious disappearance and alleged murder of William Morgan, at Batavia, N. Y., for the pretended exposure of the secrets of Masonry, and the discovery of a body which, in the language of Thurlow Weed, was “a good enough Morgan until after election,” aroused a bitter factionalism which dominated American politics for twenty years. Against the Anti-Masonic party and all its works Mrs. Royall hurled her most scathing invectives. Early in the history of the republic it was at least widely believed that certain religious movements were designed to unite church and State, at the sinister instigation of Great Britain, and in 1817 two men who came from Scotland to introduce the tract system were suspected as being political emissaries. Whatever the facts, Anne Royall strongly shared these suspicions. This feeling colored all her life and work, and, together with her defense of Masonry, brought down upon her most of the troubles that dogged her career. On the death of her husband, his will was broken, the very fact of his marriage called into question, and Anne Royall was left penniless. She was living in Alabama when she received the news of her misfortune, and at once set out for Washington City, in 1824. There she eked out a precarious existence with her pen, while importuning successive Congresses to grant her a pension or to reimburse her for some of the money her husband had spent for his country in the War of Independence. She had many warm friends in high places, but always found herself baffled by yet more powerful enemies, arrayed against her by the reckless boldness of her pen. She wrote ten volumes of travels, principally contained in Sketches of History, Life and Manners in the United States, the Black Book, a continuation of the foregoing: A Southern Tour, (3 volumes, 1830-1831) and Letters From Alabama. In 1820 she was tried and convicted as “a common scold” – the only woman in the United States ever tried for that offense, which in England had long since fallen in abeyance. Sarah H. Porter, in her Life and Times of Anne Royall, says: “The chief movers (in the prosecution) were two clergymen who also figured, not at all to their advantage, in the Mrs. Eaton, or Peggy O’Neil scandal which broke up Jackson’s Cabinet.” Her biographer continues: “The formal report of Chief Justice Cranch to the Supreme Court of the case of “The United States versus Anne Royall,” is almost as funny as Mrs. Royall’s own account of this legal absurdity. The general understanding of the obsolete English law was that no other punishment but ducking was legal for the offense of a common scold. Judge Cranch balked at ducking Mrs. Royall.” After long deliberation, Mrs. Royall was found guilty and sentenced to pay a fine of $10 and give a bond in the sum of $50 to keep the peace for one year. Secretary of War Eaton (husband of Peggy O’Neil) together with the postmaster general and other prominent men who happened to be at the secretary’s home hastened to fill out the necessary bond and send it to the court, but they had been anticipated by two of the

reporters of The National Intelligencer, who were waiting to furnish security. Shortly thereafter, in the Spring of 1830, Anne Royall started on the Southern tour that brought her through Macon. Her biographer says: “Although Mrs. Royall showed herself game to the end of the farce, she was really much shaken by the trial. The ordeal was a great strain for a woman of her years. She was never quite strong again. The ignominy seared deep. Her enemies had won * * * Mrs. Royall’s Southern tour ended in somewhat disastrous results, physically and financially. The account of her trial had preceded her * * * Several towns refused to admit her within their limits. She was mobbed by certain students of the University of Virginia.” She returned to Washington considerably worn out, but on December 3, 1831, at the age of sixty-three, began the publication of a weekly periodical called Paul Pry, issued from her home on Capitol Hill. A little later the name of the paper was changed to The Huntress, which she continued to publish until July 2, 1854. She died October 1, of that year, at the age of 85. She had known every president from the days of Washington, including the future president, Lincoln, and practically every person of prominence, including Alexander H. Stephens, of whom she wrote a sketch in The Huntress in 1846, and again in 1847, thus linking her span of life from the foundation of the republic to our own day. In the last issue of The Huntress, she wrote: “We have only thirty-one cents in the world, and for the first time since we have resided in this city, thirty-one years, we were unable to pay our last month’s rent.” She was buried in the Congressional cemetery, in an unmarked grave, and her two periodicals are now among the rarest finds of the bibliophile. She was, says her biographer, “for thirty years a Voice, a strident Voice, crying out for national righteousness.” In her periodicals she wrote personal sketches of most of the public men and women of her day, including the following Georgians: Julius C. Alford, John M. Berrien, Mrs. Daniel J. Bailey, Edward Black, Absalom Chappell, Mrs. Chappell, Robert Charlton, Elijah Chastain, Augustine Clayton, D. L. Clinch, (General) Howell Cobb, Miss Martha Cobb, Miss Mary Cobb, Alfred Colquitt, (General) Walter Colquitt, Mrs. Walter Colquitt, Mark Cooper, S. Daguerrian, William C. Dawson, John Forsyth, Roger L. Gamble, Mrs. Genty, James Gerry, Richard Habersham, Hugh Haralson, Mrs. Hugh Haralson, the Misses Haralson, Junius Hillyer, James Johnson, Seaborn Jones, Thomas Butler King, John P. King, Henry G. Lamar, Joseph H. Lumpkin, Gov. Wilson Lumpkin, James A. Meriwether, Charles Murphey, Eugenius A. Nisbet, A. F. Owen, Oliver H. Prince, William Schley, Alexander H. Stephens, William H. Stiles, Wiley Thompson, George W. Towns, Mrs. Towns, George M. Troup, Lott Warren, Marshall Wellborn, G. W. Worter.



Above: Photo of Macon-area Scouting leaders taken in 1921. Right: Ocmulgee National Monument – Lamar Mounds – late 1920’s. Bottom Left: The Macon Telegraph composing room – October 1926. Bottom Right: Famed Macon boxer, W. L. “Young” Stribling with Jack Dempsey on the steps of the City Auditorium September 2, 1929.