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Principles of Decorative Design.


MTfiim miMr ptcoRAiivE

Design.


PRINCIPLES OK

Decorative

Design.

Christopher Dresser, Ph.D., F.L.S., F.E.B.S., etc.

Author of

"

;

The Art of Decorative Design," " Unity in Variety f

tie.

FOURTH EDITION.

Cajsjsell,

Petter, Qalpin

LONDON, PARIS

&째

NEW

YORK.

&

Co.


Preface.

-*Y object in

I

writing this work has been that of aiding in tbe

art-education of those

who

seek a knowledge of ornament

as applied to our industrial manufactures.

I have not attempted the production of a pretty book,

but have aimed at giving wbat knowledge I possess upon the

subjects treated

of,

in

a simple and intelligible manner.

I have

attempted simply to instruct.

The substance of the present work was lessons in the Technical Educator.

As

final

published as a series of

These lessons are now collected into

a work, and have been carefully revised

been inserted, and a

first

;

a few

new

illustrations

have

chapter added.

the substance of this work was written as a series of lessons for

the Technical Educator, I need not say tbat the book

working men,

for the

whole of the lessons

is

addressed to

in that publication

have been

prepared especially for those noble fellows who, through want of early opportunity, have been without the advantages of education, but

have the praiseworthy courage to educate themselves in later

life,

who wben

the value of knowledge has become apparent to them.

That the

lessons as given in the Technical Educator have not been

written wholly in vain I already know, for shortly before I had completed this revision of ball

them, I had the opportunity of visiting a provincial town

which I had heard was being decorated, and was pleasingly surprised


PREFACE.

Vi

to see decoration of considerable merit, [

and evidences that much of what

saw had resulted from a consideration of

Educator.

The

artist

my

articles in the Technical

engaged upon the work, although having suffered

the disadvantage of apprenticeship to a butcher, has established himself as a decorator while still a ability

young man

;

and from the manifestation of

which he has already given, I hope

for a brighter future for

who, as a working man, must have studied hard.

now

collected into a

crerras

which doubtless

which I have sought will

work should lead lie

dormant

Cressy, Notting Hill,

London,

W.

If these lessons as

development

of the art-

other working men, the object

to attain in writing

have been accomplished.

Tower

in

to the

one

and

collecting these together


CojMTE^T£,

CnAPTER Introductory— Division „

II.

III.

Truth, Beauty, Power,

Humoub

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.30

III.

CHAPTER „

I.

II.

— Ceilings .

.

.

.

.

V.

CHAPTER Woven

— Division

I.

II.

III.

Pottery

.

107

VII.

.

.

.

.

.

117 127

.135

....•«•••• ..••••••• VIII.

CHAPTER

Stained Glass

.

....... ......

CHAPTER

Hardware

.

Glass Vessels

Metal- work

94

VI.

Fabrics generally

CHAPTER Hollow Vessels

73

.83

...........

Curtain Materials, Hangings, and

50

IV.

General Considerations Decorations of Walls

CHAPTER

144

IX.

.....•• CHAPTER

Conclusion

25

...........

Decoration of Buildings— Division

Carpets

1

14

II.

.

CHAPTER

Furnitube

etc.

Ornament

in

CHAPTER Colour

.... ..... .....

pacp

Art-knowledge; Historic Styles

I.

I.

X.

...

153

160


Principles of Design. CHAPTER Division

There

are

mentation

many is

an

artist,

truths

;

I.

handicrafts in which a knowledge of the true principles of orna-

almost essential to success, and there are few in which a knowledge

of decorative laws cannot be utilised. is

I.

and

so

is

man who

the

can

but the converse of these facts

cannot form an elegant bowl, nor

make

The man who can form a howl or a vase well make a beautiful chair or table. These are is

also true

;

for if a

man

be not an artist he

a beaut iful chair.

At the very outset we must recognise the fact that the beautiful has a commoney value. We may even say that art can lend to an object a value greater than that of the material of which it consists, even when the object be formed mercial or

of precious matter, as of rare marbles, scarce woods, or silver or gold.

This being the case,

it

workman who can endow

follows that the

his productions

with those qualities or beauties which give value to his works, must be more useful to his employer than the

man who

produces objects devoid of such beauty, and his

time must be of higher value than that of his

less skilful

companion.

If a

man,

as a " son of toil/' has that laudable ambition

who has been born and brought up which causes him to seek to rise above his fellows by fairly becoming their superior, I would say to him that 1 know of no means of his so readily doing so, as by his acquainting himself with the laws of beauty, and studying

till

he learns to perceive

the difference between the beautiful and the ugty, the graceful and the deformed,

To perceive delicate beauties is not by any means an easj who have not devoted themselves to the consideration of the beautiful for a long period of time, and of this be assured, that what now appears to you to be beautiful, you may shortly regard as less so, and what now fails to attract you, may (he refined and the coarse. task to those

ultimately become charming to your eye. led

away by the

false

judgment

possessed of good taste.

It

is

In your study of the beautiful, do not be

of ignorant persons

common

to

who may suppose

assume that women have better

themselves taste than

men, and some women seem to consider themselves the possessors of even authoritative taste

from which there can be no appeal.

They may be

right, only

we must

be pardoned for not accepting such authority, for should there be any over-estimation


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

2

good

of the accuracy of this

taste, serious

loss of progress in

art-judgment might

result.

may he

It

taken as an invariable truth that knowledge, and knowledge alone,

can enable us to form an accurate judgment respecting the beauty or want of beauty of an object,

and he who has the greater knowledge

He who

ornamental qualities of an object.

of art

can judge best of the

would judge rightly of art-works must

Let him who would judge of beauty apply himself, then,

have knowledge.

to

earnest study, for thereby he shall have wisdom, and by his wise reasonings he will

him a new source

be led to perceive beauty, and thus have opened to

Art-knowledge the individual

is

it

is

and

of value to the individual

to the

and wealth, and to the nation

riches

it

to twelve according to size)

worth

pounds, or perhaps

five

To the nation

material.

A

it

It

fifty.

is

gold which

we

its

itself all

natural material than

value at five pounds sterling,

material and yet secure wealth, than

little

sixty

becomes a tazza, or a vase,

it

saves impoverishment.

pound of clay that a nation parts with,

for every

this material

the art which gives the value, and not the

wise policy induces a country to draw to

without parting with more of

but

hands of another

in the

;

man

number varying from

(a

To

saves impoverishment.

Take, for example, clay as a natural material: in the hands of one

becomes llower-pots, worth eighteen-pence a "cast"

of pleasure.

country at large.

rate cither in its native condition, or

it

is

the wenlth that

it

can,

absolutely necessary.

can draw to

itself

that

If

amount

of

obviously better thus to part wit

it is it is

li

to part with the material at a low

worked into coarse

vessels,

thereby rendering a

great impoverishment of the native resources of the country necessary in order to its

wealth.

Men stone

of the lowest degree of intelligence can dig clay, iron, or copper, or quarry

but these materials,

;

if

bearing the impress of

rendered valuable, and the more strongly the material

impress the more valuable I

must qualify

impress of mind

my

may

mind, are ennobled and

marked with

this

ennobling

becomes.

last statement, for there

are possible cases in

which the

degrade rather than exalt, and take from rather than enhance,

the value of a material.

only debase.

it

is

To

ennoble, the

mind must be noble

;

if

debased,

it

can

Let the mind be refined and pure, and

(lie more fully it impresses itself upon a material, the more lovely does the material become, for thereby it has

received the impress of refinement

impure,

Let

me

tin,'

more does the matter

to

and purity; but which

its

nature

is

if

the mind be debased and

transmitted become degraded.

have a simple mass of clay as a candle-holder rather than the earthen

candlestick which only presents such a form as

is

the natural outgoing of a degraded

mind.

There

is .-mot

should be of

her reason

little intrinsic

why

the material of which beautiful objects are formed

value besides thai arising out of a consideration of the


ECONOMY exhaustion of the country, and this to

form beautiful objects as

iron, stone, are materials silver,

MATERIAL.

01'

o

will lead us to see

that

it is

desirable in

far as pos>il>]<> of an inexpensive material.

which may be fashioned

The

and of gold, and of precious stones.

into beautiful forms, but

inosl fragile material often

cases

nil

Clay,

wood

beware of

endures for

a long period of time, while the almost incorrosible silver and gold rarely escape the " Beautiful though gold and silver are, and worthy,

ruthless- hand of the destroyer.

even though they were the commonest of things, to be fashioned into the most

money value makes them

exquisite devices, their of

How many

art.

a perilous material

works

for

the choicest relics of antiquity are lost to us, because

of

they tempted the thief to steal them, and then to hide his theft by melting them!

How many fierce

unique designs in gold and silver have the vicissitudes of war reduced in

haste into money-changers' nuggets

Where

!

Benvenuto

are

Lorenzo Ghiberti's cups, or the silver lamps of Ghirlandajo as Aaron's golden pot of

pletely

which kept

St.

because this

is

Paul

silent,

a world

becomes dim and the

'

'

we cannot now speak This, too,

silver perishes.

is

it

only

gold

a world where

to

do with the

costliest

could be exchanged as mere bullion for the lives of those it is

!

Nor

steal' that the fine

particularly.'

'

love

is

is

strong as

love of family, love of brother, love of child, love of

prompted man and woman

Workmen

Clone almost as com-

?

of which, for another reason than that

where thieves break through and

death;' and what has not love lover

manna,

Cellini's vases,

when they

things,

who were beloved?"*

fortunate for us that the best vehicles for art are the least costly

materials.

Having made these general remarks, about to attempt in the

aim

will

through

I

work which

little

may I

explain to niy readers what I

be to bring about refinement of mind in

my

studies, so that they

of the nature of

—and detect

any decorated

its faults, if

may

object,

new

and enjoy

such be present.

formations,

if

I

may

am

primary

who may accompany me

all

individually be enabled to judge correctly its

beauties

—should

it

present any

This refinement I shall attempt to bring

about by presenting to the mind considerations which so that its

My

have now commenced.

thus speak,

carefully consider certain general principles,

it

must digest and

may be

of knowledge.

which are either common

to

assimilate,

We

all fine

shall

arts or

govern the production or arrangement of ornamental forms: then we shall notice the laws which regulate the combination of colours, and the application of colours to objects

;

after

as associated

which we

shall review our various art-manufactures,

with the manufacturing industries.

furniture, earthenware, table

window-hangings, dress •

From a

and window

fabrics,

lecture

shall thus

and consider

art

be led to consider

glass, wall decorations, carpets, floor cloths,

works in

by the

We

silver

late Professor

and gold, hardware, and whatever

George Wilson,

of

Edinburgh.


— ;

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

4 is

I shall address myself, then, to the

a combination of art and manufacture.

and dyer,

carpenter, the cabinet-maker, potter, glass-blower, paper-stainer, weaver

silversmith, blacksmith, gas-finisher, designer,

and

who

all

any way engaged

are in

in the production of art-objects.

But before we commence our regular work, let me say that without laborious study no satisfactory progress can be made. Labour is the means whereby we raise ourselves above our fellows; labour

Think not that there

is

—the

road

not yourself with the idea that you were born a genius If

you are endowed with a love

we

the means by which

is

a royal road to success

toil.

Deceive

—that you were born an

remember that

for art,

arrive at affluence.

through

is

it is

artist.

by labour alone that you

can get such knowledge as will enable you to present your art-ideas in a manner

Be

acceptable to refined and educated people. of

an individual, success appears to

to the

me

One man works

study of that which he desires to master.

One

another works eighteen.

In the case

content, then, to labour.

depend upon the time which he devotes

to

has three days in one

;

six hours a

and what

day

the natural

is

Simply this—that the one who works the eighteen hours progresses with

result?

three times the rapidity of the one

who only works

duals differ in mental capacity, but

my

six hours.

experience has led

It

me

is

true that indivi-

to believe that those

who work the hardest almost invariably succeed the best. While I write, I have in my mind's eye one or two on whom Nature appeared yet these have made but little progress in life. o have lavishly bestowed art-gifts f

;

I

see,

as

were,

it

before

me

who were

others

less gifted

by Nature, but who

industriously persevered in their studies, and were content to labour for success; and

which the natural genius has

these have achieved positions

Workmen

We

I

!

will

am

commence our systematic

good decorations of any character, have are silent to the ignorant, facts

;

even to approach.

course by observing that good ornament qualities

and that these

we must

which appeal to the educated, but

make

qualities

but before we can rightly understand what

of ornament,

failed

a worker, and a believer in the efficacy of work.

I

utterance of interesting

may term

the hidden utterance

inquire into the general revelation which the ornament of

any

particular people, or of

makes

historic age,

to us,

any

and also the utterances of

individual forms.

As an

illustration

of

my

meaning,

the Egyptians.

In order to see this

say the

Museum

British

provincial in the

museums

— where

boast one or

it

we

may

find a

us take the ornament

be necessary that

we

produced by

visit a

museum

mummy-cases; but :is most more mummy-cases, we are almost certain to find search out the

leading country towns illustrations

mummy-case you may

let

t

hat will serve our present- purpose.

singular ornament, which

is

On

a

a conventional drawing of


EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. the Egyptian lotus, or blue water-lily* (see Figs.

1, 2,

Notice this peculiarity of the drawing of the lotus

ease.

Egyptian ornaments about

in all probability

—that there

is

you

mummy-

—a peculiarity common to

a severity, a rigidity of line, a sort of sternness

This rigidity or

it.

severity

and

:j),

ornamental device repeated over and over again on the one

will find this

drawing

of

is

a

great peculiarity or charac-

Egyptian draw-

teristic of

But mark

ing.

severity

there

coupled

an

dignity

some

firmness

of

cases

of line,

drawing,

se-

and sub-

of form,

verity

of

very ap-

is

Length

parent.

always

amount

dignity, and in this

with this

!

is

tlety of curve are the great

characteristics of

Egyptian

ornamentation.

What press

It

character

who

HUH does

all

expresses

the

of

ornaments

!!

IHil!llllllllllllllll|ilH!llll!ll)lll[|l

the

people

created the ornaments.

The

1

this ex-

iiiiiiniiiniimiiiimiimHuiuiiiHHiinHiiiumuiiiiuiiimimuiHinininmrrniuni

the

of

ancient Egyptians were

all

ordered by the priesthood,

amongst

whom

ing

this

people

Avas

The

priests

were

of

stored.

the learn-

the dictators to the people

not only

j >£

of the forms

religion,

sy»s^S!^sp|si^^

but

which their

ornaments were to assume.

Mark, then, the expression

Fig.

Fig. 3.

1.

of the severity of character

and dignified bearing of the priesthood

:

have presented to us the character of the this

is

only what

we

in the

men who brought

about

are in the constant habit of witnessing.

* This can be seen growing in the water-tanks in the

the Crystal Palace at Sydenham.

we

very drawing of a simple flower its

production.

A man

Kew Gardens

of

But

knowledge

conservatories,

and

in


;

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

fc

writes with

power and

force; while the

The

with feebleness.

man

of

wavering opinions writes timidly and

by knowledge) and the weakness of the other

words.

So

it is

made

force of the one character (which character has been

forcible

with ornaments

:

power

is

manifested by his written

or feebleness of character

is

manifest by the

forms produced.

The Egyptians were a

number

the work was not finished

when

till

— noble in

knowledge of the

arts,

work was completed; and

We

But the Egyptians were a noble

noble in the erection of vast and massive

buildings, noble in the greatness of their

drawing

the

the food was consumed, the slaves perished.

do not wonder at the severity of Egyptian drawing. people

a

of slaves were selected for the work, and

a portion of food allotted to each, which was to last if

When

severe people; they were hard task-masters.

great work had to be performed, a

Hence we have

power.

nobility of

— power and dignity mingled with severity in every ornamental form which

they produced.

We

have thus noticed the general utterance or expression of Egyptian drawing

but what specific communication does this particular lotus make?

ornaments of the Egyptians vessels, or

truth or

mere charms

dogma

to be

—whether

Most

of the

the adornments of sarcophagi, of water-

—were symbols

worn pendent from the neck

inculcated by the priests.

Hence Egyptian ornament

is

of

some

said to be

symbolic.

The its

Nile valley was chiefly due to the river annually overflowing

fertility of the

banks.

In spreading over the land, the water carried with

alluvial earth,

which gave fecundity

to the country

on which

it

it

a quantity of rich

was deposited.

When

the water which had overspread the surrounding land had nearly subsided, the corn

which was to produce the harvest was through which

it

within the river-banks, the to the

flower that sprang

first

was the

It

The water being now well-nigh up was the

first

lotus.

must be worshipped.

symbolised the springing

it

all

appearance, taught that in

The acknowledgment

object of worship caused

and on

its

it

it

abode a god, and that

of this flower as a

to be delineated on the

(first rose).

was viewed, and the

fit

and primary

mummy-cases, and sarcophagi,

sacred edifices.

A\ e shall

have frequent occasion, while considering decorative

symbolic forms; but we must not forget the fact that utterance.

This flower was

flower of spring, or their primrose

priesthood, perceiving the interest with which this flower

watchfulness manifested for it

by being cast upon the retiring water,

Egyptians the harbinger of coming plenty, for

forth of the wheat.

The

set

sank into the rich alluvial earth.

Let us in

all cases,

Egyptian ornament I cannot forbear giving

is

all

when beholding them, give

so full of forms

art, to

notice

good ornaments make

ear to their teachings

!

which have interesting significance that

one other illustration; and of this

I

am

sure, that not only

does a knowledge of the intention of each form employed in a decorative scheme


EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT. cause the beholder to receive

;i

amount

special

without such knowledge no one can

that

/

of pleasure

when viewing

it,

hut also

of the nature of any

rightly judge

ornamental work.

There

a device in Egyptian ornament which the most casual observer cannot

is

have failed to notice;

what

is

it

is

termed the " winged globe," and consists of a

small hall or globe, immediately at the sides of which are two asps, and from which

extend two wings, each wing being in length about

diameter of the

ball (Fig.

The drawing

I).

with which the wings

are

the protection which the

kingdom

delineated of

five

of this device

well represents

Egypt

to eight times that of the

afforded,

The

very grand.

is

force

powerful character of

the

and which was symbolised by

the extended and overshadowing pinions.

know

I

combined

of few instances where forms of an ornamental character have been

manner either more quaint or more interesting than in the example The composition presents a charm that few ornaments do, and is worthy

in a

before us.

- '

Fig.

of careful consideration.

when we

interest

shock which

its

consider

if

The priesthood so

it

where

it

this

-

-

-

< i - -

-

^

ornament derives a very

special

it

^

-

-

and unusual

purpose, the blow which was once aimed at

not believed,

-

4.

producers must have received, upon finding

they had taught,

that

But its

:

it

it,

and the

powerless to act as

would.

instructed the people that this was the symbol of protection, and

effectually appealed to the preserving spirits that

was portrayed.

With

no

evil could enter

the view of giving a secure protection to the inmates

of Egyptian dwellings, this device, or symbol of protection, was ordered to be placed on the lintel (the post over the door) of every building of the Egyptians, whether residence or temple. It

was to nullify

gods, that Moses was

this symbol,

commanded

and

to

show the vain character of the Egyptian have the blood of the lamb slain at the passover to

placed upon the lintel, in the very position of this

winged globe. It was also enjoined duty that the blood be sprinkled on the door-post but this was merely a new duty, tending further to show that even in position, as well as in nature, this as a further

;

winged globe was powerless interest,

to secure protection. This device, then, is of special both as a symbolic ornament and as throwing light on Scripture history.

Besides the two ornamental forms mentionedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;/.?., the lotus and the winged notice many others also of great interest, but our space will not

globeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;we might


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGX. enable ns to do so; further information may, however, be got from

Kensington

Museum

maybe

—from the "Grammar

seen;

Egypt by

library,*

Sir Gardiner

Wilkinson

of the Crystal Palace at

that court. f

we can

say

character,

little

here

we may

;

of

Ornament" by Mr. Owen

and, especially,

;

Sydenham, and by a

Much might

yet, as the

—by

Jones,

— the works on

a visit to the Egyptian Court

careful perusal of the

also be said respecting

hand-book to

Egyptian architecture, but on this

columns of the temples are of a very ornamental

notice that in most cases they were formed of a bundle of papyrus J

—the heads

stems bound together by thongs or straps of the column,

the South

where several interesting works on Egyptian ornament

and the stems the shaft

(Fig. o).

of the plant

forming the

capital

In some cases the lotus was sub-

stituted for the papyrus

;

and in other instances

the palm-leaf was used in a similar

way

these

;

modifications can be seen in the Egyptian Court at

Sydenham with great advantage, and many

varieties of

form resulting from the use of the

one plant, as of the papyrus,

may

also there be

observed.

We

have here an opportunity of noticing how

the

mode

of building, however simple or primitive

in

character,

employed

first

become embodied

by a nation may

in its ultimate architecture

undoubtedly, the rude houses

first

;

for,

Egypt

erected in

were formed largely of bundles of the papyrus,

which were gathered from the river-side

wood was

rare in

Egypt

—and,

ultimately,

for

when

buildings were formed of stone, an attempt was

made which the old reeds presented.

at

imitating in the

But mark, the imitation was no gross copy of the

original work, but a well-considered

and perfectly idealised work, substituting for

the bundle of reeds a

work having the true architectural

and useful column.

We

*

qualities of a noble-looking

must now pass from the ornament of the Egyptians to

that of the Greeks, and here object and different

new material the form

we meet with

decorative forms Laving a different

aim from those already considered.

Any person can have admission

to

the South Kensington

Museum Ait

library

and

its

Educational library, for a week, by payment of sixpence. t

A hand-book

to each of the historic courts erected in the

the time the courts were built. These are

still to

Sydenham Palace was prepared

at

be got in the Literary department, in the north-east

They are all worthy of careful study. The papyrus was the plant from which Egyptian paper was made.

gallery of the building. t

the Scriptures, in which the infant Moses was found.

It

was also the bulrush

of


GREEK ORNAMENT.

V

Egyptian ornament was symbolical in character. specific meaning's

find

—the

no such thing as symbolism

people,

Its

individual forms had

purport of each shape being taught by the priests in

—but wo

The Greeks were a

Greek decoration.

refined

who sought not to express their power by their art-works so much as their Before the mental eye they always had a perfect ideal, and their most

refinement.

earnest

were made at the realisation of the perfections of the mental

efforts

conception of

absolute

new

Egyptians, for they rarely created the Egyptians,

it

In one respect the Greeks resembled

refinement.

could not be altered

law, the love of

once a form became sacred to

but with the Greeks, while bound by no such

;

forms was great

old

When

forms.

the

;

yet the Greeks did not seek simply to

reproduce what they had before created, but laboured hard to improve and refine

what they had before done

and even through succeeding centuries they worked

;

at

the refinement of simple forms and ornamental compositions, which have become

them as a people. The general expression of Greek

characteristic of

art

is

ornaments

One

astonishing.

is

decorative

device,

my

pupils,

Fig

6, consists

—and the variety of refined forms in which But

it

appears

Great as is the refinement of

more than the perfected their creators

made manifest

in

expressed by their

(the original

ornamental

primarily of three anthemions) is

most interesting.

must not be thought that the Greek ornaments and

present nothing but refinement

architectural forms

in form, for this

not the case.

is

some of these forms, we yet notice that they speak

taste of their producers, for they reveal to us this fact

of

—that

had great knowledge of natural forces and the laws by which natural This becomes apparent in a marked degree when we inquire

forces are governed.

manner

into the

it

is

which we term the Greek

Anthemion, may be regarded as their principal ornament composition by one of

manner

that of refinement, and the

which the delicately cultivated taste of some of the Greeks

which they arranged the proportion of the various parts of their

in

works to the whole, and especially by a consideration of the subtle nature of the curves which they employed both in architectural

but into this we must not

upon the manner

in

now

Yet,

inquire.

which knowledge

is

members and

by way

of

throwing some faiut light

embodied in Greek forms,

I

may

the Doric column, such as was employed in the Parthenon at Athens* (Fig. idea presented

contact

in

by

this

column

is

forms;

in decorative

refer to

7)

.

The

that of energetic upward growth which has corns

with some superposed mass, the weight of which presses upon the

column from above, while the energy of the upward growth causes the column to appear fully equal to the task of supporting the

—that by pressure from above,

this

*

A capital, and

Museum column

superincumbent structure.

or weight, the shaft of the

column

is

portion of the shaft, of one of these columns are to be seen in the British

Sculpture-room, and a cast of the same at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham.

is

Mark

distended,

employed in the Greek Court

of the Crystal Palace.

This Doric


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGX.

10

or Lent out, about one-third of the distance from this distension

its

base to

its

apex

(just

where

would occur, were the column formed of a slightly plastic material),

Fig. 7.

and yet tins distension of the shift

is

no! such as to give

any

the column appears to rise with the energy of such vigorous able to bear the weight which

Mark

also

it

lias to

idea of weakness, for

life as

to be

more than

sustain.

the singularly delicate curve of the capital of the column,

which


EASTERN AND CHRISTIAN ORNAMENT.

1

1

appears as a slightly plastic cushion intervening between the shaft and the super-

incumbent mass which

presented by this capital

The

has to support.

it

is

delicacy and

form

refinement of

we

perhaps greater than that of any other with which

are acquainted.

The same

principle of life

pressure from above

and energy coming

in contact

with resistance or

constantly met with in the enrichments of Greek cornices

is

and mouldings; but having called attention to the

fact, I

must leave the student

observe, and think upon, these interesting subjects for himself.

to

Let me, however,

say that there are few classic buildings in England which will aid the learner in his researches; there

is

but

poetry in our architectural buildings, and but

little

refinement in the forms of the parts, especially in our classic buildings to this,

Greek

art

without Greek colouring

to the living form.

For the purposes of

is

my

;

little

and, added

dead, being almost as the marble statue readers, the

Greek Court at the Crystal

Palace will be the best example for study. I

might now review Roman ornament, and show that

materials of which the

the shapes which they assumed the all-conquering

in the hour of pride the

Roman works were formed were

Romans

;

and how we thus get

窶派ow the sunny climate and

considered, rather than

little

worthy

from

of praise

religious superstitions of the

East called forth the gorgeous and beautiful developments of art which have existed, or I

still exist,

with the Persians, Indians, Turks, Moors, Chinese, and Japanese

have not space to do so

;

yet

all

;

but

the forms of ornament which these people have

created are worthy of the most careful and exhaustive consideration, as they present art-qualities of the highest kind.

know

I

of no

窶馬o geometrical

and mingled than the Persian lines, so rich as

those of India

Moors

those of the

窶馬one

ornament more

intricately beautiful

strapwork, or systems of interlacing

(the Alhambraic)

窶馬o

fabrics so gorgeous as

harmonious as those of China; and Japan can

so quaintly

supply the world with the most beautiful domestic articles that we can anywhere procure.

We ment

of

itself in

must pass

on, however, to

ornament which had

what we may term Christian

its rise

art,

or that develop-

with the Christian religion, and has associated

a special manner with Christianity.

Neither the Egyptians nor early Greeks appear to have used the arch structurally in their

element.

buildings; the Romans, however, had the round arch as a primary structural

This round arch was also used by the Byzantines, and amongst their

ornaments we

find those combinations of circles, or parts of circles,

recur in later times in Gothic architecture and Gothic ornament.

again,

show us the round

arch,

which

so constantly

Norman

buildings,

and present us with such intersected arcs as would

naturally suggest the pointed arch of later times, with which

came the full development

of Gothic or Christian architecture

There was a very

and ornamentation.

fine

ami

marvellously clever development of decorative art, enthusiastically worked at by the


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

12 Christian

many

monks

of the seventh

beautiful examples

manuscripts; but what

is

called Celtic, of which we have Westwood's great work on early illuminated

and eighth centuries,

in Professor

generally understood by Christian or Gothic art had

Gothic ornament, like the Egyptian, in

many

is

essentially symbolic.

Thus the common

instances specific significance.

cases used to symbolise the

some

its

development about the thirteenth century.

finest

Holy Trinity

so are the

;

Its

forms have

equilateral triangle

two entwined

is

in

triangles.

But there are many other symbols employed in Gothic ornament which set forth the mystery of the Unity of the Trinity. Thus in Fig. 8 we have three interlaced circles,

which beautifully express the eternal Unity of the Holy Trinity,

for the circle

Fig. 10.

Fig. 8.

alone symbolises eternity, being without beginning and without end, and the three

A

parts point to the Three Persons of the Godhead.

very curious and clever symbol

portrayed in Fig. 9, where three faces are so combined as to

of the Trinity

is

an ornamental

figure.

form

Baptism under the immediate sanction of the Divine Trinity was represented

by

three fishes placed

together

numerous wei e Christian symbols -

merely would occupy

much

space.

in

the

manner

of

a

triangle (Fig.

after the ninth century, that to

Every

trefoil

And

the sop, the

into Gothic ornamentation the chalice, the

hammer and

passion have entered.

and

to

(

enumerate them

of

some

crown of thorns, the

dice,

martyrdom

the flagellum, and other symbols of our

:

columns

Lord's

the church spire points heavenwards, and the long lines of the cathedral direct

the thoughts upwards to heaven

rod.

Gothic ornament, having passed from

began

but so

But, besides these, we have more purely architectural forms

making gentle utterance of the clustered

nails,

;

symbolised the Holy Trinity, every

quatrefoil the four evangelists, every cross the Crucifixion, or the saint.

10)

to lose its hold on the people for

whom

its it

purity towards undue elaboration,

was created, and the form of religion


RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT. with which

IS

had long heen associated had become

it

of old traditions

and usages occurred, commonly

old,

when the great overthrow

called the Reformation.

^\'it

h the

reformation of religion came a revival of classic learning, and a general diffusion of

knowledge, and thus the immediate necessity for art-symbols was passing away,

it

being especially to an unlettered people that an extended system of symbolism

With

appeals.

learning came the investigation of classic

this revival of classic

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the exploration

remains

of

Greek and Roman ruins

;

a dislike to whatever had been associated with the old

which

up,

and while

this

was going on,

form of religion had sprung

dislike turned to hate as the struggle advanced,

till

the feeling against

Gothic architecture and ornament became so strong that anything was preferred to

Now

it.

arose Renaissance architecture and ornament (revival work), which

based on the

Roman

remains, but was yet remoulded, or formed

ornament of the Renaissance of the

end.

same genus

is

not

as that of

I confess that

all

the

Roman

ornament, but a

Roman.

new

Here, however,

anew ;

was

so that the

decorative scheme, all

my

sympathies

Renaissance ornament, whether developed under the soft

sky of Italy (Italian ornament), in more northerly France (French Renaissance), or

on our own

feeling of

me.

soil

sympathy

(Elizabethan, or English Renaissance), fails to in

my

breast;

and that

it,

awaken any

on the contrary, chills and repels

power and vigour of Egyptian ornament, the refinement of the

I enjoy the

Greek, the gorgeousness of the Alhambraie, the richness of the Persian and Indian, the quaintness of the Chinese and Japanese, the simple honesty and bold-

ness of the Gothic; but with the coarse Assyrian, the haughty cold

Renaissance, I have no kindred feeling

my nature this my feeling

which have no chords in

must be pardoned but

my

for

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;no

Roman, and the

They

sympathy.

strike notes

hence from them I instinctively

:

by those who

differ

continued studies of these styles only separate

fly.

I

from me in judgment,

me

further from

them

in feeling.

It will be said that in

and that

my

material at

sphere

is

my writings

I

mingle together ornament and architecture,

ornament, and not building.

command, the

religion of the people,

I cannot separate the two.

and the climate have,

extent, determined the character of the architecture of all ages

The

to a great

and nations; but

they have, to the same extent, determined the nature of the ornamentation of the edifices raised.

Ornament always has

arisen out of architecture, or been a

reflex of the art-principles of the building decorated.

ornament without architecture architecture than

is

;

We

mere

cannot rightly consider

but I will promise to take no further notice of

absolutely necessary to the proper understanding of our subject.


14

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

Division II.

my previous remarks I have attempted to set forth some of the first principles of ornament, and to call attention to the purport or intention of certain of the leading historic styles, and the manner in which they make utterance to us of the faith or sentiments of their producers. In

But there

are other utterances of ornament,

which decorative forms con vey

(

, ,

the mind.

and other general expressions

Thus sharp, angular, or spiny forms are more or less exciting (Fig. 11); while bold and broad forms are soothing, or

tend to give repose.

Sharp

combined senses

ings

in

much

forms,

where

ornament, act upon the as racy

and pointed say-

Thus " cut "

do.

glass,

angular

or

or

metal-work,

spinose

angular as

the

pointed foliage of some wrought-iron gates, is

and other works in which there

a prevalence of angles

so act

upon the mind

and points,

as to stimulate

and thus produce an effect opposite to repose while " breadth " of form and " largeness " of treatment induce it,

;

tranquillity and meditation.

Nothing can be more important to the ornamentist than the scientific

study of

art.

The metaphysical

quiry into cause and

Fig. II.

in-

effect, as relating

to decorative ideas, is very important

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; indeed, all-important â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

to the true decorator.

what

effect

which cheerful, which melancholy, which which he

He must

such and such forms have upon the mind

solid,

rich,

constantly ask himself

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;which

which

effects are soothing,

ethereal,

which graceful, which lovable, and so on; and

in

which gorgeous, order to do this

must separate the various elements of ornamental composition, and

these apart, so as to be sure that he

is

consider

not mistaken as to what affects the mind

any particular manner, and he must then combine these elements

in various

proportions, and consider the effects of the various combinations on his

own mind

in

and thai of others, and thus he

will

discover what will enable

the senses as to induce effects such as he

Are we

to decorate a

dining-room,

may

let

him

to so act

on

desire to produce.

the decoration give the sense of richness;


TRUTH, BEAUTY, POWER. ii

drawing-room,

give cheerfulness; a library,

let it

repose; but glitter

must never occur

only be sparingly indulged in

if

let it

give worth

a bed-room,

;

which

in large quantities, for that

excites can

too freely employed, it gives the sense of vulgarity.

Long

In this chapter I have to speak primarily of Truth, Beauty} and Power.

so fully impressed with the idea that true art-principles are so perfectly

was

since I

manifested by these three words, that I embodied them

which

on

painted

I

which

principles

I

my

study door, so that

my

sought to manifest in

There can he morality or immorality falsehood

;

Truth.

debasing

much

and hy

that

It

false,

might

the utterance

in art,

learn the

truth or ol

of

;

;

as well as morals;

degrading, and untrue in

and I fear that there

my

is

beautiful art as there

almost as is

of the

and exalting, although art should only be practised by ennobling

this grovelling

is

entered

works.

may exalt or debase a nation. how beautiful how righteous to utter it and how we see falsehood preferred to truth — that which debases

exalts, in art

is

noble, righteous,

hands.

noble,

falsehood; yet

is

who

all

an ornamental device

in

his art the ornamentist

— How

which

to that

5

]

ornamentation, which tends to

so-called

this

art,

make

debase rather than exalt, to degrade rather than

noble, to foster a

lie

rather

than utter truth, which brings about the abasement of our calling, and causes our art to fail in

many

instances in laying hold of, and clinging to, the affections of the

noble and the great.

Art ; there it

is

Ornamentation

can soothe the troubled

;

it

it

heaven and to God.

to

the feelings of the soul of

Creator into the

man

lifeless clay as

who make merry

refine, elevate, purify,

inward

who

it

and expresses

which was breathed by the

spirit life

;

aud point onward

It is a tine art, for it embodies

—that

refinement, and deprive themselves of

—however noble, pure, or holy.

ignore decoration cast aside a source of

what may induce

their elevation in virtue

Such a neglect on the part of those who can afford luxuries would be

highly censurable, were false pretenders,

it

not that the professors of the art are for the most part

knowing not what they

The

which they hold in their hands.

unknown, frequently misunderstood, lost to

can

the image of his

This being the case, those

and morals.

It can cheer the sorrowing;

can enhance the joys of those

can inculcate the doctrine of truth ;

and upward

in the highest sense of the word a Fine

is

no art more noble, none more exalted.

practise,

true artist

and men ignorant is

a rare creature

or not understood at

all,

and

of the ;

he

is

power often

not unfrequently

is

a people that prefer shallowness to deep meaning, falsehood to truth, aud

glitter to repose.

We

now

matters of

art,

see the utter folly of appealing simply to

and the uselessness

what

is

called " taste

of yielding to the caprice (falsely called taste) of

the uneducated in such matters, especially as this so-called taste

most vulgar and debased

order.

" in

We

is

also see the absurdity of persons

a true artist interfering with his judgment and ideas.

The true

often of the

who employ

artist is a noble


;

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

16 teacher

he be told, then, what morals he shall inculcate, and what lofty

shall

;

embody

truths he shall

what he

We

shall say,

in his

works, or omit from them

and ask him to withhold whatever

do not, and in art

we must

? is

Do we

tell

the preacher

refining and elevating

leave the professors free to teach, and hold

?

them

responsible for their teachings.

thought that I had now convinced

If I

my

reader that decorative art does not

merely in the placing together of forms, however beautiful they

consist

individually or collectively

but that

it is

nor in rendering objects simply what

;

a power for good or evil

which cannot be neutral

in its

that

;

tendency

it is

what

is

may be

called pretty;

will elevate or debase

I would advance to consider

—that

principles

its

but I cannot teach, nor can I be imderstood, unless the reader feels that he practises art wields a vast power, for the rightful use of

who

which he must be held

responsible.

wood

All graining of

is

false,

inasmuch as

it

attempts to deceive; the effort

being made at causing one material to look like another which

"marbling "is

made

false also: a floor-cloth

false; a Brussels carpet that imitates a

Turkey carpet

is

These are

all

is

;

and

beautiful, but it will not keep clean

and

own

its

duality

is

as each material has the

;

why

then

if

is

jug that

its

is

always

less

power of expressing

own punishment. A deal door It is now preserved,

then be varnished.

characteristic features are enhanced

A

by the varnish,

so that its indivi-

floor-cloth can present a pattern with

how absurd, then, to try and imitate the dotty effect of and the Brussels carpet can express truer curves than the Turkey carpet, ? But perhaps the most senseless making an earthen jug in imitation of wicker-work

imitate the latter in the finer material

of all these absurdities

when

let it

emphasised, and no untruth told.

true and beautiful curves a carpet

;

All

untruths in expression, and are, besides,

beauty truthfully, thus the want of truth brings is

not.

woven, a gas-lamp

vulgar absurdities which are the more lamentable, as the imitation beautiful than the thing imitated

is

false; so is a

imitates wicker-work, a printed fabric that imitates one which that imitates an oil-lamp.

it

in imitation of carpet or matting

so

formed

it

is

the

would be useless as a water-vessel.

I can

imagine a fool in his

simplicity priding himself on such a bright thought as the production of a vessel of this kind,

but

I

mending such an Beauty.

cannot imagine any rightly constituted mind producing or comidea.

Let the expression of our art ever be truthful.

I will say little

on this head, for decorative forms must be beautiful.

Shapes which are not beautiful are rarely decorative.

I will not

now attempt

to

express what character forms should have in order that they be considered beautiful, but

will content

myself by saying that they must be truthful in expression, and

graceful, delicate, and refined in contour, manifesting

obtrusiveness.

My

no coarseness, vulgarity, or

views of the beautiful must be gathered from the series of

chapters which will follow, but this I

may

here say, that the beautiful manifests


!

UTILITY.

A

no waut, no shortcoming. which could better.

composition that

taken from

be

perfectly beautiful

is

lovable, and, as that

which

it

the merely

;

its

we do not

really beautiful

is

good

new

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;We

importance, for

from the earth

The powerful

now come

if

The and

lovable, takes hold of the affections

to

them

as Lime rolls on.

an

If

of it; fashion does not induce us to change It

it.

becomes as an old friend, more loved as

.

in spring

orator

is

With what power do

!

man

a

Power

besides

fellow-creatures.

all this,

we

the result,

the buds develop into branches

we

man we

esteem.

involuntarily approve

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the

our commendation, for power

call forth

then,

is

power means energy

also manifests earnestness;

Our compositions,

impilies a conqueror.

is

great

the plants burst

to be admired, the powerful thinker a

or brute force, of animals

antagonistic to weakness.

But

With what power do

not pleasant.

is

powerful tiger and the powerful horse

in our works, for

an art-element or principle of

consider

to

absent from any composition, feebleness or weakness

Even the simple power,

;

must be powerful.

we, the professors of decorative

art,

must manifest power

are teachers sent forth to instruct, and ennoble, and elevate our

We

let truth, then,

;

is

and firmer

tire

does not displace

the manifestation of which

power

parts

qualities are better understood.

Power.

power

must have no

beautiful

that which admits of no improvement.

is

clings to them, binding itself firmer

object

is

and yet leave the remainder equally good or

it

The

beautiful

17

we do

shall not be believed if

not utter our truths with

be uttered with power, and in the form of beauty.*

There are other principles governing the production and application of orna-

ment which we must now

notice, the first of

which

is utility,

for the first

aim of the

designer of any article must be to render the object which he produces useful.

may go

and say that an

article

perfectly sruted to the purpose for

which

not

further,

how

beautiful the object

were a mere work of

view

it

may

utility,

is

if

intended as

it is

intended to be,

and after

it

must

it

first

it

why

an object, however beautiful

beautiful ornaments, or

It matters

can be.

be formed as though

lines as

we

our works should be useful as well as beautiful, it

may

be in shape, however richly covered with

however harmoniously coloured, be unpleasant

one idea of power, energy,

force, or vigour

see in the bursting buds of spring,

especially such as are to be seen in the spring

;

and

to use, it will

flight,

in order to this, I

when the energy

of

growth

is

and which give us an impression

of

in the powerful propelling fins of certain species of fish.

embody

have employed such at its

maximum, and

growth of a luxuriant tropical vegetation

also availed myself of those forms to be seen in certain

the organs of

it

has been carefully created with this end in

* I have given in this chapter an original sketch (Fig. 12), in which I have sought to chiefly the

I

useful, but as

then be rendered as beautiful as you please.

There are special reasons for

must be made not only

;

I

have

bones of birds which are associated with

great strength, as well as those observable


18

PKINX'IPLES OF DESIGN,

Fig. 12.


;

UTILITY

AND BEAUTY.

ultimately be set aside, and that which

even

if

is

move convenient

As an

the latter be without beauty.

IV

for use will replace

it,

illustration of this fact, let us suppose

the balustrade railings of a staircase very beautiful, and yet furnished with such projections as render

almost impossible that we walk up or down the

it

how

tearing the dress, or injuring the person, and

beautiful railing disappear, and even be replaced

stairs

without

soon will our admiration of the

by hate

In like manner

!

the

let

handle of a door, or the head of a poker, be so formed as to hurt the hand, and the simple round knob, or round head, will be preferred to

however ornamentally

it,

or beautifully formed.

In relation to this subject, Professor George Wilson has said

" The conviction

:

seems ineradicable from some minds, that a beautiful thing cannot be a useful thing,

and that the more you increase the beauty implements of every-day

Put

pewter ink-bottle.

am

but I

the necessary furniture or the

Make

the more you lessen their utility.

the Queen's

but don't try to beautify a poker, especially iu

please,

My lady's vinaigrette

cold weather.

my

life

you

sceptre as beautiful as

of

carve and gild as you will, but lea\e untouched

fine furniture, if

you choose, into

a plain man, and like useful things in

my

my

drawing-room

Good

and so on.

parlour,

folks

of this sort seem to labour under the impression that the secret desire of art

rob

them

of

all

Its unconfessed

comfort.

the faith of their childhood,

when

it

but actual aim, they believe,

is

is to realise

was understood that a monarch always wore

crown, held an orb in one hand and a sceptre in the other, and a

to

his

literal interpretation

was put upon Shakespeare's words, "

Were

art

to

'

Uneasy

lies

the head that wears a crown.'

prosper, farewell to fire-proof, shapeless

salamanders unharmed in the hottest blaze. Cinderella's foot,

but

little

frost-bite to miserable toes.

varnished boots,

alabaster ink-bottles,

astonishing

his

velvet door-mats,

how many

...

spider-legged

chairs,

with the greatest beauty.

it is

I offer

place,

Farewell to shoot ing-eoats

white satin

and scrapers of

If there be one truth which the

like

modelled upon

Nothing

chair-covers,

or gold.

silver

people think that a thing cannot be comfortable

works more clearly than another,

utility

pair,

at the elbows, to patched dressing-gowns, and hair-cloth sofas.

full-dress,

beautiful.

aesthetic

and covered with snow-white embroidery, must take their

and dispense chilblains and out a

An

which bask

slippers,

Author of

all

It if

is

it is

has taught us in

the perfect compatibility of the highest

you one example.

the beautiful shell of the nautilus.

Give the nautilus

he will show you that one secret of

its

gracefulness

itself to

lies in its

All are familiar with

a mathematician, and

following in

or whorl a particular geometrical curve with rigid precision.

Pass

it

its

volute

from the

mathematician to the natural philosopher, and he will show you how the simple superposition of a great

number

of very thin

transparent plates, and the cIosp


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

'

rniNCiPLES of design.

20

approximation of a multitude of very fine engraved Pass

exquisite pearly lustre.

he will show you that this fairy shell sailing vessel

are the cause uf

lines,

from the natural philosopher

it

and a diving-bell,

is

a

which

in

most perfect

to the engineer,

practical machine, at once a

living possessor had, centuries before

its

Archimedes, applied to utilitarian ends the law of

and centuries

specific gravity,

before Halley had dived in his bell to the bottom of the sea.

Pass

engineer to the anatomist, and he will show you how, without marring is

occupied during its lifetime with a

it

its

from the beauty,

it

most orderly system of rowing and sailing

chambers for food, pumps to keep blood circulating, ventilating apparatus,

tackle,

and hands to control Pass

its

and

lastly

it

so that

all,

it is

from the anatomist

part of the shell and the creature

a model ship with a model mariner on board.

to the chemist,

compounded

is

and he

will

show you that every

of elements, the relative weights of

which follow in each individual nautilus the same numerically identical ratio. " Such is the nautilus, a thing so graceful, that when we look at it we are content to say with Keats " '

A thing

of beauty

is

a joy for ever

and

;

with the utmost perfection

and yet a thing so thoroughly

utilitarian,

the purely practical aim of

construction, that our shipbuilders would be only too

thankful

if,

its

though sacrificing

fulfilling

beauty, they could

all

make

their vessels fulfil their

business ends half so well."

Viewing our subject

we

in

another light, and with special reference to architecture,

notice that unless a building

words, answers utilitarian ends,

though

it

has said

pews

:

it

fitted for the

is

aisles of a

for Protestant worship,

where

it

Owen

Gothic church become absurd when

all

other

or, in

otherwise might be, even

In respect to this subject, Mr.

be of great aesthetic beauty.

" The nave and

purpose intended,

cannot be esteemed as

are required to see and hear.

Jones

filled

with

The columns

of

the nave which imj>ede sight and sound, the aisles for processions which no longer

rood screens, and deep chancels for the concealment of mysteries,

exist,

longer such, are Further,

"As

all

so

many

useless reproductions

architecture, so all

works of the decorative

arts,

should possess fitness,

M. Digby Wyatt

harmony; the result of all which is repose." has " Infinite variety and unerring fitness govern all forms in Nature." Vitruvius, Sir

proportion, said:

now no

which must be thrown aside."

that "

The

perfection of

all

works depends on their

fitness to

answer the end proposed,

and on principles resulting from a consideration of Nature East lake, that

"In

characteristic quality, fitness.'"

A.

itself."

Sir Charles L.

every case in Nature where fitness or utility can be traced, the or relative

W. Pugin

beauty,

(the father):

is

found to be identical with

"How many

that of

objects of ordinary use are

rendered monstrous and ridiculous simply because the artist, instead of seeking the

most convenient form, and then decorating

it,

has embodied some extravagance to


ADAPTATION TO

21

I'l'IU'OSE.

And

conceal (he real purpose for which the article has been made." of pointing out

how

fitness for, or adaptation to, the

end proposed

with the view

is

manifested

the structure and disposition upon the earth of plants, I have written in a

now

out of print

owing

leaves, which,

which grow at great

such as commonly occur

moors

altitudes,

and

;

This

seen in the case of the species of

is

where the leaves are more

also in the species of heath

owing

in both cases the plants are,

:

have usually long, narrow, and rigid

plain,

to their form, are enabled to bear the fury of the tempest, to

which they are exposed, without injury. fir

in

work

" The trees which grow highest upon the mountains, and the

:

grow upon the unsheltered

plants which

little

to the

like needles

than leaves

which grow upon exposed

form of the

leaf,

enabled to defy

the blast, while those with broad leaves would be shattered and destroyed.

"Not

only

the form of leaf

is

such as

fits

these plants to dwell in such

The stems

inhospitable regions, but other circumstances also tend to this result. are in both cases its

woody and

that while they bend to the wind they resist

destroying influence by their strength and elasticity.

the papyrus/' which Sir

flexible, so

W.

is

a plant constantly

met with

Hooker mentions an interesting

J.

in

which manifests adaptation to

fact

This plant grows in water, and attaches

position.

In relation to the stem of Egyptian ornaments, " the late the margins

itself to

its

of rivers

and streams, by sending forth roots and evolving long underground stems in the

Owing

alluvium of the sides of the waters. influences of the current,

which

it

stems of a triangular form

having

its

pressure

— but

to its position

has to withstand, and this

—a

it it

is

exposed to the

by

does, not only

shape well adapted for withstanding

by having them so placed in relation to the direction of the

also

stream, that one angle always meets the current, and thus separates the waters as

does the

bow

modern steam-ship."

of a

might multiply

I

illustrations

of

this principle of fitness, or adaptation

purpose, as manifested in plants, to an almost indefinite extent; but

been said we should yet have but the simple truth before

end which we should have in creating any object, fitted to

answer the proposed end.

invariably useful, as they should be also the

most convenient

— and

the beautiful would become

moment, the

price

perfect utility.

and that which rise to

it is far

perfectly

those objects which are most beautiful were

is

no reason

why

loved and sought after

is

it

of, if

otherwise

:

they should not be so !

— how

Cost would be of

little

beautiful objects were works of

that which

often inconvenient to use.

is

useful

is

often ugly,

This very fact has given

the highly absurd fashion of having a second poker in a drawing-room set of

fire-irons.

other

!

beautiful

that of rendering

chief

if

would not be complained

But, alas is

there

that the

to

had

all

works which are beautiful were but

If those ;

is

us,

when

is

The one poker is ornamental, possibly, but it is to be looked at ; the and as it is not to be looked at, it is hidden away in some corner, or

for use,

close within the fender.

I

do not wonder at the second poker being required

;

for


PltlNCIPLES OF DESIGN.

•£•&

nineteen out of every twenty pokers of an ornamental seen during the last

lump

to break a

of coal with, that

If the poker

of your drawing-room,

from the eye that

case, if

I if

if it is

;

an ornament,

it

is

it is

at such a distance

no use saying

it

would be

should he placed where

it

can be best seen

in a glas«

worthy of protection.

hope that

an object

is

sufficient has

now been

law we

this all-important necessity, that

it

strong ?

have to

is it

without using more, or another, material

When we

bottle should he

?

create a gas-branch

we

the end for which

it

it

When we

could

it

he stronger it

shall inquire, is it useful ? is it all that a

he more useful

and then,

?

is

intended? and then,

and perfectly answer

And

beautiful?

is it

When we

beautiful ?

it

shall ask, does it fulfil all recpiirements,

is

construct a chair

?

To we

and then we should consider whether

?

we

design a bottle

could

refer.

properly put together

as

it

objects which we create must be useful.

all

shall constantly

shall ask, is it useful ? is

beautiful.

upon

said

to be beautiful it should also he useful, to cause us to consider

a primary principle of design that this as a first

is

It

If to poke the tire with, its place is within the

out of place in such a position. fender

they were used

on the table or chimney-piece

it

and not down on the hearth, where

beauties cannot be discovered.

its

if

abolish the detestable thing altogether?

he retained as an ornament, place

to

character which I have-

would be almost impossible to employ them

it

But why not

constantly for such a purpose. is

(?)

few years would hurt the hand so insufferably

in relation to

we shall also have to make similar inquiries. Thus, if drawing a we shall inquire, is this form of ornament suitable to a woven fabric ?

patterns merely carpet design, is it

which

suitable to the particular fabric for

ment

of the

background does to a

of

is it

picture,

beautiful ?

which we

may

and

There are

Such inquiries we

suggest

many

to be

is

:

hence, in

utility before beauty, in order that

? is

the particular treat-

shall

all

my

subjects yet not

is

to act in relation to our furniture as a

viewed at some distance from the eye

and

art, consider

our inquiries, I shall, as I love

art

?

put respecting any object the formation

may

named

be fostered and not despised. in these pages

which we ought to

must content myself by merely mentioning them, and you must be

consider, but I

willing to think of them, and consider

demand.

intended

ornament which we have adopted the best possible when we bear in mind

that the carpet has to be walked over, as it

then,

it is

Some

of them, however,

we

them with such care as their importance may shall refer to when considering the various

manufactures.

A

principle of great importance in respect to design

an object

is

formed should

that particular

way

be used in a

in ichich

it

manner

object is about to be

are) most appropriate

to

its

that the material of which

Us own nature, and

in

can be most easily "worked."

Another principle of equal importance when an

is,

consistent with

witli

that just set forth,

is

this: that

formed, that material (or those materials) which

formation should be sought and employed.

is

(or

These two


23

CURVES, PROl'ORTIOX, ORDKR, REPETITION.

propositions are of very great importance, and the principles which they set forth

They

should never he lost sight of by the designer. successful designing, for

Curves

toill be

found

involve the

lir.st

principles of

ignored the work produced cannot be satisfactory.

if

to he beautiful

just as they are subtle in character

;

those

which are most subtle in character being most beautiful.

The

arc

the least beautiful of curves (I do not here speak of a

is

the line, as a line, is

which bounds the

instantly detected, while the

circle)

mind

;

The

powers of inquiry.

of

origin

its

requires that a line, the contemplation of which

be pleasurable, must be in advance of

shall

circle, but

being struck from one centre

elliptic curve, or

its

knowledge, and

curve bounding the

call into activity its

ellipse, is

more beautiful

not so strikingly apjiarent, being formed from two

than the

are, for its origin

centres.

The curve of the egg' is more beautiful still, being formed from three As the number of centres necessary to the formation of a curve increases,

centres.*

the difficulty of detecting

curve presents the

number

is

is

origin also becomes greater, and the variety which the

its

also proportionally great; the variety being obviously greater as

of the centres

from which

it is

struck

is

increased.

Proportion, like the curve, must be of a subtle nature.

A surface must never be divided for the proportion of 1 to 1

beauty.

is

bad.

As

The proportion of 2

5 to 8, or of 5 to 13,

is,

purpose of decoration into halves.

proportion increases in subtlety

to 1

is little

better

;

it

The

also increases in

the proportion of 3 to

8,

or of

however, good, the last named being the best of those which

I have adduced; for the pleasure derived increases with the difficulty of detecting

from the contemplation of proportion This principle

it.

is

true in relation to the

division of a mass into primary segments, and of primary segments into secondary

forms, as well as in relation to the grouping together of parts of various sizes it is

worthy of

A principle Confusion

The operation least,

;

hence

special note.

of order must prevail

is

of

in every

ornamental composition.

the result of accident, wdiile order results from thought and care.

mind cannot well be

set forth in the absence of this principle; at

the presence of a principle of order renders the operation of

mind

at once

manifest.

The orderly repetition of parts frequently aids in the production of ornamental effects.

The kaleidoscope

affords a wonderful

example of what repetition will do.

mere fragments of glass which we view in

this instrument

please were they not repeated with regularity.

can do much.

(Figs. 13

and

would altogether

Of themselves

repetition

The fail to

and order

14.)

* The ellipse and egg-shape here spoken of are not those which are struck by compasses in any way, for the curves of such figures are merely combined arcs, but such as are struck with string, or

a " tramel."


24

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN. Alternation

a principle of primary importance in certain ornamental com-

is

positions.

In the case of a flower coloured leaves do not

fall

(as

the buttercup, or chiekweed, for example)

over the green leaves (the petals do not

Fig. 14.

sepals), but

manifested

fall

the

over the

Eig. 16.

between them in plants,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;(hoy alternate

hut also in

with them.

This principle

many ornaments produced

in the best

is

not only

periods of art

(Fig. L5).

If /tin n Is are employed as ornaments they must nut be treated imitatively, but must be conventionally treated, or rendered into ornaments (Fig. 16).

A

monkey can

imitate,

man

can Create.


EASTERN GROTESQUES.

These are the chief principles which we

shall

25

have to notice, as involved in the

production of ornamental designs.

Division III.

Some

other principles of

a

noble character than

less

amused I hold to

must he pleased

as well as instructed; he

as well as ennobled

Man

will

by what he

be

sees.

as a first principle that ornamentation, as a true fine art, can administer

it

man

we have

those which

already noticed as entering into ornament yet remain to be mentioned.

varying moods, and under

his

in all

all

phases of feeling.

Decoration,

if

properly understood, would at once be seen to be a high art in the truest sense of the

word, as

it

can teach, elevate,

we have now

to notice

rather than as the

it

handmaid

Humour seems

refine,

induce lofty aspirations, and allay sorrows

amount

of

much an

to be as

humour, and

It not unfrequently

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;great

talent

The

in his various

;

but

moods,

to religion or morals.

attribute of our nature as love, and, like

There are few

varies in intensity with different individuals.

certain

man

as a fine art, administering to

in

some

in

whom

there

is

it,

not

a

this one quality predominates over all others.

happens that men who are great thinkers are also great humorists

and great humour heing often combined in the one individual.

feeling for

humour

ministered to in ornament by the grotesque, and the

is

grotesque occurs in the works of almost

Egyptians employed

it,

of these nations used

all

ages and

so did the Assyrians, the Greeks,

it

all

peoples.

The

and the Romans

;

ancient

but none

to the extent of the artists of the Celtic, Byzantine,

and

" Gothic " periods.

Hideous

"

almost every Christian

edifice at

one time, and much of the Celtic ornament produced an anastomosis, or network, of grotesque creatures.

by the early monks consisted

The

of

evil spirits

"

were portrayed on the outside of

old Irish crosses were enriched with this kiud of ornamentation,*

and some

of the decorative embellishments of these works are of extraordinary interest; but

those

who have

access to the beautiful

scripts will there see this grotesque

Eastern nations, while nearly

all

work

form

of

of Professor

ornament

to

Westwood on Celtic manuperfection. As regards the

have employed the grotesque as an element of

decorative art, the Chinese and Japanese have employed

they manifest a most decided partiality.

The drawings

it

most

largely,

and for

it

of dragons, celestial lions

(always spotted), mythical birds, beasts, fishes, insects, and other supposed inhabitants of the Elysian plains, which these people produce, are most interesting and

extraordinary.

Without

in

any way going into a history

characteristic forms

which

it

of the grotesque, let us look at the

has assumed, and what

is

necessary to

its

successful

* Casts of one or two of these can be seen in the central transept of the Crystal Palace at

Sydenham.


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

We

production.

humour

have said that the grotesque in ornament This

in literature.

is

it

with power

;

for

if

This form

repulsive.

ornamentation that I shall not dwell upon "be associated

may

the ease; but the grotesque

and be simply

horrible or repellent,

it,

the horrible

is

is

the analogue of

represent the truly

so seldom required in

and when required

it

should always

feeble

is

but only revolting, like a

cannot be corrective,

miserable deformed animal. I think

may

it

be taken as a principle, that the

further the grotesque

removed from an imitation of

is

a natural object the better

it

is,

energetic and vigorous- -lifelike.

provided that

Nothing

be

it

worse

is

Fig. 17.

Fig. 18.

than a feeble joke, unless

it

be a feeble grotesque.

The amusing must appear

to

be earnest. In

connection with this subject I give here a series of grotesques, with the

view of illustrating

me t<> do The initial

permit

(Fig.

17).

It

is

my

meaning, and

I

would fain

n-ive

letter

S,

formed of

a

bird,

quaint and interesting, and

is is

n

characteristic

It

is,

in

Celtic

grotesque

sufficiently unlike a living creature

to avoid giving any sense of pain to the beholder, while position.

more, but space will not

so.

it

is

yet in a most unnatural

truth, rather an ornament than a copy of

a

living creature, yet


NATURE OF GROTESQUES. suggestive as to

it is so

call forth

27

the thought of a bird.

It

should be noticed;

in connection with this figure, that the interstices between certain portions of the

creature are

This

well

is

by a knot.

rilled

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the

whole

thing being an ornament;

and not

naturalistic repre-

a-

sentation.

Fig. IS

Siamese

a

is

grotesque head, and a

sample

it

fine

of the curious

is

form of ornament which

Mark;

represents.

it

it is in

no way a copy of a human but

head,

ment, with

its

ranged as to

true orna-

a

is

parts so ar-

up the idea

call

and nothing more.

of a face,

Notice the volutes forming the chin highly

Fig. 19.

the grotesque, yet

;

ornamental,

lines

forming the mouth and the upper boundary of the forehead, and ears

the

flambeauant

the whole

;

thing

is

worthy of the most careful study. Fig. 19

features

a Gothic

is

which are

We

have, in-

;

but here

naturalistic.

deed, only a hideous

with

face

human

marginal ex-

a

This

crescence of leafage. is

foli-

we have much too

ated face

a type to be avoided

;

it

is

not

is

simply unpleasant to look

droll,

nor quaint

;

but Fig. 20.

upon. Fig. 20

is

a

fish,

with the feeling of the grotesques of the Middle Ages.

It

a good type, being truly ornamental, and yet sufficiently suggestive.

In order that I convey to the reader a

fuller idea of

my

views respecting the


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

PRINCIPLES

ids

grotesque than Tig-. 21

01'

DESIGN.

otherwise could, 1 have sketched one or two original illustrations

I

being suggestive of a face, Fig. 22 of a skeleton (old bogev), and Fig. 28 1

of an impossible animal.

They

are inten-

from imitative.

If naturalistic

some would awaken a sense

of pain, as they

tionally far

are contorted into curious positions, whereas

that

which induces no thought of feeling

induces no sense of pain.

Of

all

grotesques with which

quainted, the

am

I

ac-

dragons of the Chinese and

Fig. 21.

Japanese arc those which represent a combination of power, vigour, energy, and passion

most fully. the fact

This

is

to be accounted for

by

that these peoples are believers in

dragons.

When

the sun or

moon

they believe that the luminous

swallowed by some

fierce

eclipsed

is

orb.

has been Fi<* 22.

monster, which they

give form to in the dragon, and upon the occurrence of such a phenomenon they,

with

(.-ins

and

kettles,

make rough music, and thus cause the monster

the luminary, the brilliancy of which I

can understand

spirit

that the

could do so

a

to disgorge

it

would otherwise have for ever extinguished.

believer in dragons

drawing these monsters with the power and

Chinese and Japanese do; but

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a man's very nature must

and mischievous power,

in order that

I

can scarcely imagine that a disbeliever

be saturated with a belief in their existence

he embody

in

his delineation such expres-


urvorit

assumed character of

sion of the

tin's

in

ornament.

29

imaginary creature as do the Chinese and

Japanese.

Although

now

am

1

may

ture of objects, I

he

frequently

where

used

meet with

naturalistic

We

imitations.

say

should

grotesque

the

that

â&#x20AC;˘we

no1

considering the struc-

not unfre-

quentlysee a figure, naturally imitated, placed as a support

to a superincumbent weight

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

female

figure

architectural

pillar

weight of

the

bearing

the entab-

men

lature above,

an

as

crouched

most painful positions

in the

supporting the bowl of some Natural-

colossal fountain. istic figures in

such positions

are simply revolting, however

perfect

If

sculpture.

be

to

as

works

of

weight has

by

supported

that

which has a resemblance

a

living

creature

of

to

any

kind, the semblance should

only be suggested

;

and the

more unreal and wooden v I

may make

the

support,

(if

such a word) if

possessing

the quaintness and humour of

true

a

grotesque,

the

better. It

is

not the business

of the ornamentist to pro-

duce that which shall induce the feeling of continued pain, unless there exceptional reason for his so doing, and such a reason

is

of rare occurrence.

is

some


CHAPTER

II.

COLOUR.

Having considered some

the chief principles

of

decorative design so far as " expression " goes,

involved in the production of

we come

to notice that constant

adjunct of form which has ever played an important part in

窶馬amely,

Form can

exist independently of colour, hut it never has

From

development without the chromatic adjunct. should be led to conclude that form alone as satisfy colour.

all

;

for

is

no national system of decoration has ever existed in the absence of

Mere outline-form may be good, but it is not satisfying mere light and With form our very nature be pleasing, but it is not all that we require. demand colour and it is only when we get well-proportioned forms which ;

are graceful, or

arranged, that

noble,

we

vigorous, in

or

combination with colours harmoniously

are satisfied.

The

Possibly this feeling results from our contact with nature.

thousand hues, and the

hills are of

ours would appear, were the ground, the

the waters

all

of one colour

!

Form we

What

ever-varying tints.

flowers appear

a barren world

the trees and the flowers, the sky and

hills,

should have, and that in

its

richest variety

and shade we should have, with ever-varying intensity and change

would be gone.

so appalling that

we can

would be a deadness, although the world be

scarcely conceive of

it,

and cannot feel

full of life,

it.

A

Colour alone seems to have greater charms than form alone.

entrancing when the sky glows with radiant hues; the blue yellow

is

as a sea of transparent gold,

which charm, and soothe, and

of tints

is

combined with beautiful shapes? I

sunset

almost lost in red, the

lull

to reverie; and yet all form

It is

difficult,

is

indeed, for

is

indistinct

when

colour

many

properly

of those for

write to answer this question, even by a mental conception, save by

England

reference to nature; for I could scarcely point to a single building in

which would be

in

any way a

satisfactory illustration of

combination of forms and colours. nut

is

and the whole presents a variety and blending

and obscure. If so charming when separate from form, what

whom

;

but colour

;

There would be no green to cheer, no blue to soothe, no red to

excite; and, indeed, there

d<>

we

incapable of yielding such enrichments

;

seems to

light

had any important

a consideration of history,

may

shade

in a

decorative schemes

colour.

even

know

of

:

it

There

is

a beauty in Art which

does not exist around us,

thought about, and never seen.

A

what may be done by the

decorator

is

it

is

little

we

talked

in

England

of,

rarely

called in to beautify a house,

and


31

OBJECT OP APPLYING COLOUR. yei not one in

know even

the so-called decorators

fifty of

the

first

principles of their

and would not believe were they told of the power of the art which they employ.

art,

place on the walls a few sickly tints

They

The

not very apparent.

— so pale that their want

colours of the wall

of

harmony

is

become the colours of the cornice and

know not how to produce a harmony a house which may be clean, but which is in every other

and the

of the doors, because they

of hues

result is

respect an offence

against good taste.

;

I do not wonder that persons here in England do not care to

have their houses " decorated," nor do I wonder at their not appreciating the " decorations " when they are done. Colour, lovely colour, of itself would make our

rooms charming. There are few objects to which colour

which are

now

colourless

may

not be applied, and

ing colour to objects are twofold, and here, in

new charm

Colour lends to objects a

without

it

its

first,

absence.

it

is

see its true use.

if

on objects a charm, such as they could not have in

In the hands of the man of knowledge

do so

it will

mere application of colour

it will

make an

will not do this.

Colour

be so applied to objects as to render them infinitely more ugly than they were

without

it.

I have seen

less satisfactory

when

rather than improved,

Knowledge

many a bowl

its

so coloured at our potteries as to be

when white

coloured than

stone

for,

;

we may almost we produce

it is

knowledge that we want.

Knowledge, then,

by the

say, if possessed

But a

true beauty,

we

little

require

the true philosopher's

is

artist it does enable

knowledge

will not

much knowledge, and

be got by constant and diligent labour, as I have before said

gained

is

worth the plodding

toil.

Believe me, there

works develop as things of beauty, delighting only, but also the educated thinker

there

is

— such

all

who

is

difficulties,

that one obstacle after another inexpressible satisfaction.

separation of form. of the

same

is

see

The second

him

this can only

—not the

as words fail to express. is

illiterate

Although

long, and lies through is

pleasure in feeling

from your path, and at the end there

object of colour

to

In

this.

but the end to be

;

them

yet as you proceed there cleared

do

a pleasure in seeing your

no royal road to art-power, and although the road

much tod and many

much

colouring having marred,

transmute base materials into works of marvellous

transmute the baser metals into gold. order that

—the

Here, again,

general effect.

will enable us to

beauty, worth their weight in gold.

all

1st.

charm which they would not possess

These, then, are the two objects of colour.

to form.

to bestow

object lovely or lovable, but the

may

we

fact,

articles

for apply-

and, 2nd, Colour assists in the separation of objects and parts of objects,

;

and thus gives assistance

Mark,

—a

many

Our reasons

might be coloured with advantage.

is

is

that of assisting in the

If objects are placed near to one another, and these objects are

colour, the beholder will

have much more

difficulty in seeing the

boundaries or terminations of each than he would were they variously coloured

;

he

would have to come nearer to them in order to see the limits of each, were

all


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

32

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

coloured in the same manner, than he would were they variously coloured

forms

produce a decorative form,

to

much

often lost sight of, and

is

it

is

confusion thereby results.

worth while to render

much ornament, and even good ornament, dered manifest by colour Colours,

!

when placed

Colour

is

it

it is

visible

;

worth while

and

yet,

when

together, can only please and satisfy the educated

What, then,

are the

and how are they to be applied

?

making

shall endeavour to answer these questions by

we

how

the means by which we render form apparent.

laws which govern the arrangement of colours

We

If

to the eye through not being ren-

is lost

combined harmoniously, or according to the laws of harmony.

axiomatic form, and then

thus

:

This quality which colour has of separating

colour assists in the separation of form.

a series of statements

?

in

upon these propositions.

shall enlarge

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. Regarded from an art point of view, there are but three colours

1.

red,

i.e.,

blue,

and yellow. Blue, red, and yellow have been termed primary colours; they cannot be

2.

formed by the admixture of any other colours. All colours, other than blue, red, and yellow, result from the admixture of

3.

the primary colours.

By

4.

the admixture of blue and red, purple

red and yellow, orange

is

formed

;

is

formed; by the admixture of

and by the admixture of yellow and blue, green

formed.

is

Colours resulting from the admixture of two primary colours are termed

5.

secondary

:

By

6.

hence purple, orange, and green are secondary colours. the admixture of two secondary colours a tertiary colour

purple and orange produce russet (the red tertiary) (the yellow tertiaiy)

;

and green and purple,

and olive are the three tertiary

;

is

formed

:

thus,

orange and green produce citrine

olive (the blue tertiary); russet, citrine,

colours.

CONTRAST.

When

7.

lighter than

When

8.

when is,

a light colour

it is,

is

juxtaposed to a dark colour, the light colour appears

and the dark colour darker.* become influenced

colours are juxtaposed, they

red and green are placed side

by

side, the red

Thus,

as to their hue.

appears redder than

it

actually

and the green greener; and when blue and black are juxtaposed, the blue mani-

fests

but 9.

Thus,

little alteration,

No

if

one colour can be viewed by the eye without another being created.

red

is

viewed, the eye creates for

â&#x20AC;˘ If a dark grey tint be

white, but

if

while the black assumes an orange tint or becomes "rusty."

itself

mixed upon a white slab

a small portion of this same grey

is

green, and this green it will

is

cast

upon

appear dark in contrast with the

applied to black paper

it

will

appear almost white.


COLOUR whatever

If

near.

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; CONTRAST

views green, red

it

adjacent objects; thus,

is in

upon the green

cast

is

The eye

being juxtaposed.

also

yellow,

is

and

;

tint,

and

is

with the blue, this orange thus causing it to look " rusty."

10. In like

cast

of the three primary colours,

these are not present, whatever

if

is in juxtaposition

orange

manner,

if

upon adjacent colours ;

cast is

cast

or, if

we

upon

it,

formed

is

is

upon what-

a mixture of red and

is

upon whatever

look upon red, green

we

and the green created

red,

this induced colour will be cast

created in the eye, and this colour

is

upon the

cast

Thus, when we view blue, orange, which

near.

upon

<;ist

and the red and the green become improved by

;

deficient will be created in the eye, is

manner created and

demands the presence

either in their purity or in combination

ever

like

red and green are juxtaposed, each creates the other in

if

the eye, and the red created by the green

by the red

33

AND HARMONY.

look upon yellow, purple

is

is

near;

black

if

and gives to

it

in the eye,

and

an

is

formed.

HARMONY. 11.

Harmony

results

from an agreeable

contrast.

12. Colours which perfectly harmonise improve one another to the utmost. 13.

In order to perfect harmony, the three colours are necessary, either

in their

purity or in combination. 11.

Red and green combine

green, which

to yield a harmony.

a secondary colour, consists of

is

Blue and orange

primary colours.

also

Red

is

a primary colour, and

blue and yellow

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the

other two

produce a harmony, and yellow and purple,

for in each case the three primary colours are present. 15. It has

been found that the primary colours in perfect purity produce exact

harmonies in the proportions of eight parts of blue, 5 of red, and 3 of yellow

;

that

the secondary colours harmonise in the proportions of 13 of purple, 11 of green,

and 8 of orange 21-,

russet 21,

and that the

;

and

harmonise in the proportions of olive

tertiary colours

citrine 19.

harmony which

16. There are, however, subtleties of 17.

The rarest harmonies frequently

18.

Harmony

of colour

is,

in

many

lie close

it is difficult

on the verge of

respects, analogous to

to understand.

discord.

harmony

of musical

sounds.

QUALITIES OF COLOURS. 19.

Blue

20.

Red

is is

21. Yellow

a cold colour, and appears to recede from the eye.

a

warm

is

colour,

and

is

exciting

;

it

remains stationary as to distance.

the colour most nearly allied to light;

it

appears to advance

towards the spectator. 22.

At

twilight blue appears

By

yellow slightly darker.

and yellow lighter. white

itself,

By

when viewed

much

lighter than

it

is,

red

much

darker, and

ordinary gaslight blue becomes darker, red brighter,

this artificial light a pure yellow appears lighter than in contrast

with certain other colours.


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

34

Bv

23.

certain combinations colour

of purity, richness, or poverty, or

may

may make affect the

glad or depress, convey the idea

mind

in

any desired manner,

as

does music.

TEACHINGS OF EXPERIENCE.

When

24.

a colour

darker shade of

its

When

25.

own

placed on a gold ground,

is

it

should be outlined with a

colour.

a gold ornament

on a coloured ground,

falls

it

should be outlined

with black.

When

26.

an ornament

must be outlined with a falls

falls

on a ground which

lighter tint of its

own

is

colour.

in direct

harmony with

on a green ground, the ornament must be outlined with a lighter

When

27.

the ornament tint of the

it, it

Thus, when a red ornament red.

the ornament and the ground are in two tints of the same colour,

is

darker than the ground,

same colour

but

;

it

will require outlining

with a

still

if

darker

lighter than the ground no outline will be required.

if

ANALYTICAL TABLES OF COLOUR.

W hen commencing my studies both in science and art, I found gi-eat advantage T

from reducing

all facts to

would recommend for

by

done,

it

it

we

a tabular form so far as possible, and this

To me

to others.

see at a glance

becomes an analysis

method appears

this

what otherwise is difficult to understand if carefully and by preparing these tabular arrangements of work ;

;

another, or of one part of a scheme to another,

The following propositions. The

figures

.

8

Purple

Bed

.

.

5

Green

Yellow

.

.

3

Orange

Primary Colours. .

o

.

Red Red

§

. .

.

Yellow Blue Yellow

.

Blue

.

Red

.

of the facts stated in our

Tertiary Colours.

Secondary Colours.

.

Blue

many

which follow the colours represent the proportions

Primary Colours.

.

.

13

Olive

.

.

24

.

.

11

Russet

.

.

21

.

.

8

Citrine

.

.

19

Secondary Colours.

Orange

to

seen.

:

Blue

Blue Yellow

is

analytical tables will illustrate

which they harmonise

Yellow

of study I

becomes impressed on the mind, and the relation of one fact

of facts the subject

Red

mode

to have great advantages,

Tertiary Colours.

in


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

COLOUR

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; PROPORTIONS

how

This latter table shows at a glance colours

formed, and the

is

proportions in

35

THAT HARMONISE.

each of the seeondary and tertiary

which they harmonise.

It also

shows

the three tertiary colours are called respectively the yellow tertiary, the red

why

tertiary,

and

enter,

yellow

;

two equivalents* of one primary

.one equivalent of each of the other primaries.

two equivalents tertiary.

tertiary, for into each tertiary

and the blue

of yellow,

Thus, in citrine we find

and one each of red and blue; hence

In russet we find two equivalents of

red,

is

it

the yellow

and one each of blue and of

Hence they

and in olive two of blue, and one each of red and yellow.

are

respectively the red and blue tertiaries.

BLUE PURPLE

RED

PURPLE

8.

OLIVE

13

YELLOW

5.

ORANGE

GREEN

3.

1-

RUSSET

24.

ORANGE

II.

CITRINE

8.

and 25 are diagrams of harmony.

harmonise when placed together.

I

19.

thus, blue, red, and yellow

Purple, green, and orange also harmonise (I have

connected them by dotted lines in the

secondary formed of the other two primary colours

with orange, a secondary

is

presence of the three

the two remaining secondary colours.

harmonies I have placed opposite to each other

is

(for the

and the other a

necessary to a harmony), or the one will be a secondary, and the

other a tertiary colour formed of

colour

But when two

the two diagrams).

first of

colours are to produce a harmony, the one will be a primary colour,

is

8.

have connected in the centre, by

harmony ;

three similar lines, the colours which form a

primary colours

21.

Fig. 25.

Fig. 24.

Figs 2

13.

;

yellow with purple

;

and red with green

;

placed between the two primary colours of which

formed of red and yellow, between which

and purple, of blue and

red.

it

Such

thus blue, a primary, harmonises

it is

;

and the secondary

formed; thus, orange

stands; green, of blue and yellow;

In the second of the two diagrams we see that purple,

green, and orange produce a harmony, so do olive, russet, and citrine.

We

also see

that purple and citrine harmonise, and green and russet, and orange and olive.

Continuing this diagrammatic form of

illustration,

quantities in which the various colours harmonise

*

An

equivalent of blue

is 8,

:

of red

thus

5,

we may

:

of yellow 3.

set forth

the


36

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN. Blue.


TRUE COLOURS AND PIGMENTS. the agency of the prism

pure colours harmonise

nevertheless, a

;

knowledge of the quantities

The proportions

very desirable.

is

.'57

which these

in

which we have stated

in

that colours perfectly harmonise, and in which the primary colours combine to form the secondaries, and the secondaries the tertiaries, are given in respect to the colours of light, and not of pigments or paints, which, as

we have

base representatives of the pure colours of light.

our purpose, he regarded as representing pure colours. ultramarine we will regard as blue (cobalt

yellow in

it,

the purest French carmine as red is,

less

has a

is, it

real little

and the French and German ultramarines are generally rather purple,

or have a little red in them, yet the best of these latter

that

Thus, the purest

rather green, that

is

more or

just said, are

Yet certain pigments may, for

has blue in it; vermilion

is

a tolerably pure colour),

is

(common carmine is frequently rather crimson, much too yellow), and lemon-chrome as yellow

chrome selected must be without any green shade, and without any orange shade, however slight) ; and these pigments will be found to represent the colours (the

any that can be found.

of the prism as nearly as

I

would recommend the learner to

get a small quantity of these colours in their powder form, substituting the best pale fill

German

ultramarine for real ultramarine, as the latter

is

of high price,*

and to

the various circles of our diagrams, which represent the primary colours, with

these pigments, mixing

them with a

prevent the colours from rubbing

colours

be fairly represented by pale-green

will

—that

by orange-chrome orange-rind

—and

about the colour

of

depth as the green. tertiary colours.

I cannot

Citrine

is

often

lake,

a

little

white to bring

is

is

to the

same

;

olive about the

often seen on the skin of certain apples

form of a slight roughness; but

this russet

cases not quite sufficiently red to represent the colour bearing the

rust

it

well represent the

about the colour of candied leu/on-peel

called "russet apples," in the

drop-green,

deep-coloured,

German ultramarine and

name any pigments which would

colour of candied citron-peel, and russet

just

The secondary

called

rather

ripe,

the purple by the admixture of pale

crimson-lake, in about equal proportions, with a

arabic and water

the paper.

off

of

gum

dissolved

little

sufficient to

in

is

same name.

many Iron

This colour should bear the same relation to red that

rather too yellow.

the candied lemon-peel does to yellow. If the student will try carefully to realise these colours, and will circles in

but

it

our diagrams with them, he will thereby be

will be still better if

squares instead of circles.

* Real ultramarine

is

pigment. pound.

The

up the

scale,

and use

I do strongly, that the

German ultramarine, is The best carmine should be procurable colourmen often charge £1 Is., owing to the small demand for this

sold at

£8 per

recommend, and that

fill

assisted in his studies;

he prepare fresh diagrams on a larger

I should

procurable at any oil-shop at about 3s. to at 6s. per ounce, but artiste'

much

ounce. 4s.

The

be3t imitation, or

per pound.

best chrome yellow (chrome yellow

is

kept in

many

shades)

is

about

Is.

6d. per


;

38

FKINCIPLES OF DESICN.

student work out

the diagrams which I have suggested on a tolerably large

all

using the colours where I have used words.

scale,

him

I should also advise

do

to

an ornament, say in red on a gold ground, and outline this red ornament with a deeper red

to do a gold

;

ornament on a coloured ground, and outline

with black

it

and indeed to carefully work out an ornamental illustration of our propositions, Nos. 24, 25, 26, and 27, and to keep these before

which they

to feel the principle all

him

he

till

impressed by them as

is so

This should be done on a large scale in

set forth.

our designing-rooms and art -workshops.

have to refer to colours by naming pigments, and as I

am

constantly asked what pigments I employ, I shall enumerate the paints in

my

As we colour-box

shall

but I shall place a dagger against those which I have in

;

my

box, and which I do not supply in

offices

;

but these I seldom use.

my

private

Of

yellows

have fking's yellow (not a permanent colour), tvery pale chrome, lemon-chrome

I

(about the colour of a ripe lemon) , middle-chrome (half-way between the lemon and

orange-chrome), orange-chrome (about the colour of the rind of a ripe orange), tyellow-lake, -fTndian blues

fcobalt,

Of greens

Of

yellow.

German

reds

—vermilion,

— emerald, green-lake, pale

Vandyke, Venetian red, purple-brown, brown-lake.

which

called celestial blue,

a very pure

is

Antwerp

Of browns

and deep.

Of

carmine, crimson-lake.

ultramarine, both deep and pale,

—raw

blue, indigo.

Turkey umber,

Besides these I have what

is

and intense turquoise, vegetable black,

and gold bronze.*

flake white,

There are certain facts connected with the mixing of colours which must never be lost sight of; thus, while the colours of light co-mingle without any deterioration,

but by admixture tend to

or loss of brilliancy,

pigments or paints

destroy one another.

This takes place only to a small extent when but two primary

colours are

combined

but

;

if

any

will

not do

so,

of the third primary enters into the composition

of a tint, a decided deterioration, or loss of intensity, occurs.

For this reason we employ many pigments, so as to avoid as far as possible the

mixing of is

But there

colours.

is

another reason

why

the great admixture of colours

Colours are chemical agents, and in some cases the various pigments

undesirable.

Of

act chemically on one another.

with other colours

;

but this

is

all

colours yellows suffer

most by admixture

accounted for by their delicacy and purity.

For this

reason I use a greater variety of yellow pigments than of red or blue.f

Were *

Some

it

possible to procure three pigments devoid of chemical affinities, and

of these colours are

not of a permanent character and could not be used

use them for patterns for our manufactures, where

intended to he lasting.

I

once copied in a fabric

it is

destroyed.

Some

when

in

work

the drawing

of the brightest colours are unfortunately the

is

most

fleeting.

f Of chemical

all

mediums

affinities,

and

in is

which colours can be mixed, paraffine

is

the safest;

it

is

without

therefore well calculated to preserve pigments in thoir original condition.


COLOUR each of the same physical

—SHADES,

AND HUKS.

TINTS,

;

39

constitution, as of equal degrees

of transparency

or

opacity, one truly representing the blue of light, another the red, and another

we

the yellow,

should need no others, for of these

we could form

other colours;

all

but as no pigments come even near to the fulfilment of these conditions, we have to

employ roundabout and clumsy methods There

one statement which

is

of arriving at desired results.

have made that, perhaps, needs a

I

may have

elucidation, although the careful student

with

might have expressed

I

olive.

The complement complement of is

of citrine

green

is

it,

A

asser-

many would have done is

thus

so)

:

green, and the

is

complementary

any other

to

thus

:

the complement of red, and red of green, for each, together with the colour

is

which

now

my

green with russet, and orange

complement of russet

colour which

little

completes the presence of the three primary colours

But

the complement, completes the presence of the three colours.

it is

order to a harmony, the complement

us

citrine,

(and

it

purple, the

olive is orange.

that which, with

to

harmonised with

I said that purple

tion.

seen the reason of

refer to our second

must be made up

diagrammatic

table,

Let

in certain proportions.

and we there see that

in

citrine is

formed of two equivalents of yellow and only one equivalent of red and of blue.

Now,

in order to a

as one

harmony, each primary should be present

present in this quantity

is

i.e.,

the yellow.

One

two equivalents,

in

equivalent of blue and

one of red (both of which are wanting in the citrine) form purple is

the complement of citrine, or the colour that with

russet one equivalent of blue

bination are green

is

also

in

all

then,

is

the complement of russet.

or reduced

;

portion of

All colours

by white, when

intensity, a portion of

one colour

blue be mingled with

may

or

In

in olive

one

like

when blue

manner, when yellow is

may be

is

Thus,

added to another.

becomes a

a small

if

becomes a crimson or blue-red

;

or

if

a

scarlet or yellow-

we have

in excess in a green,

in excess, a blue-green;

to deal

Besides these alterations

tints are produced.

red, the red

we have

be darkened by black, when shades are

small portion of yellow be added to the red, the latter red.

And

—red and yellow form orange, hence

colours as of full intensity and purity, but

with other conditions.

produced

In

the complement of olive.

have spoken of

I

harmony.

a

and one of yellow are wanting, and these in com-

red and one of yellow are wanting

equivalent of

orange

—green,

produces

it

hence purple

;

and so with the other

a yellow-green

Such

colours.

alterations produce hues of colour.

We now come to

—a

scarlet

blue-green

the subtleties of harmony.

red with yellow in ;

or if

we

—the

it

Thus,

have a blue-red or crimson

:

we have

— a red with

that will harmonise with it will be a yellow-green. This

reasons

if

a yellow-red or

green that will harmonise with

is

blue in

it,

thus causing

it

will

be a

green

obvious, for the following

—Let us suppose a red represented by the equivalent number,

part of blue added to

it

—the

it

to be a blue-red or crimson.

five,

with one

Were

the red


40

PRINCIPLES OP DESIGN.

pure, there should be eleven parts of green as a

complement

which green eight parts would be blue and three yellow six parts,

one of which

blue

is

;

are, then,

;

but the blue-red occurs in

but seven parts of blue remaining

combine with the three of yellow, one being already

in the equivalent quantity to

used

—there

to the live of red, of

hence the green formed

is

a yellow-green, one of the equivalents of blue

necessary to the formation of a true green being already in combination with the red,

and thus absent from the green.

The same reasoning all

will

apply to the scarlet-red and blue-green, and, indeed, to

similar cases; but to take the case of the crimson-red and yellow-green, as just

given, and carry

it

blue to the red, and

still,

make

it

more

we might add two

blue,

parts (out of the eight)

and then form the complementary green

and three of yellow, and thus make

six parts of blue

further

a stage further,

more

it

of of

Or we may go

yellow.

and add to the red six of the eight parts of blue, when the admixture

would appear as a red-purple rather than as a blue-red, in which case the complementary green

three of yellow.

These

or, rather,

OOOOO)

Bed.

.-

O

)

OOOOO

)

Blue.

green-yellow

n

.

—would

consist of

two parts

of blue and

diagrammatically expressed in the following-

facts are

,

O O O

(

Yelloiv-

.

Crimson harmonises with

Yellow ^, Blue.

^OOOOOOO

;

Green-

:

Or, B<>,1.

OO

Blue.

Very

Blue-

.

,

-

)

Crimson

7

Ee(1 -

O O O

(

.

harmonises with Yellow

Yellow. „. Slue.

OOOOOO

-?

i

.

ff?ye/

Or,

OOOOO

Bed.

Purple

In

all

these cases

it

Yelloio.

will be seen that

any

^

we have eight

and three of yellow, only the mode of combination to

O O O O O

Green- (

.

harmonises with

parts of blue, five of red,

This variation

varies.

Yellow.

Blue.

may

occur

extent, provided the totals of each be always the equivalent proportions.

These remarks

will

apply equally to hues of colour, shades, and

tints,

and

to

shades and tints of hues. Care, and a a

number

little

practice, will enable

the learner to arrange

colours

not here use the term as signifying pure colours darkened with black.)

into

(We do

of degrees of depth, or shades, as they are. generally called.

Ten shades

of each colour differing obviously in degree of depth can readily be arranged

by the

experienced, the ten shades being equidistant from each other as regards depth

—that

is,

shade

-'3

will be as

much darker than shade

so on throughout the whole.

Purple

is

2 as shade 2

is

darker than shade

1,

and

a colour intermediate between blue and red.

Imagine ten hues between the purple and the

red,

and ten more between the purple

and the blue: thus we should have purple, then a slightly red purple, then a rather redder purple, then a purple

still

redder,

and so on

f

.ill

we get

purple-reds,

and


COLOUR finallv the

pure red

further, the green

and the same variations of hue

;

towards the yellow

41

Imagine,

at the blue side also.

having ten hues extending towards the blue, and ten more stretch-

ing towards the yellow

the ten, thus

DIAGRAMS OF HARMONY.

and the orange having ten hues towards the

;

in all cases I count the colour

from which we

red,

Red

Purple

Bluo

76543212

8

— and we shall have

4507890

3

Of each

54 colours and hues of colour.

of these 54 colours

and hues imagine 10 degrees of depth, and we get 540 colours, hues,

Mark

tints,

this fact, that

any

colour, tint, hue, or shade of such a

diagram has

in one other of the colours, tints, hues, or shades of the diagram,

that only two of this series of 540 are complementary to each other; thus,

on any one colour of the 540, there

complementary

to

The student

it,

and

it is

is

numbers ; but

in

and make a colour-diagram of

it

will

of tint or shade,

and

this

if

he can

care, in order that call to his aid

kind,

CO 4.

A

J" 1

*

£

3

•b

*&

3 t*

* Red-

v

&

*.

P'»-pie

5

s

*

eP

w fi-moll»J

<o

fS-

** /> uri'

Ie

>~.

<»°/p6.

TCt

KH4Q

<b

<*

/

X

8

%

my

he secure

*T3

1

is

an experienced

be of great assistance to him.

v

you

this one other colour.

doing so he must exercise the utmost

some degree of accuracy

its

and

but one colour in the whole that

complementary to but

will do well to try

if

of a simple character, say such as the following, only using pigments for

colourist

and

differing from one another to an obvious degree.

complement

fix

one of

:

09 shades, all

and ten

start as


PRINCIPLES OP DESIGN.

42 Tbis table in colour

highly valuable, as

is

gives ninety harmonies,

it

and the preparation of such a table

;

is

if

carefully prepared

the very best practice that a student

can possibly have. Let us for a moment consider this

complement plement of

some

to

and

so on.

we want

that

supj. ose

green opposite.

this in the third shade of

of the second shade of orange-yellow, opposite,

and

table,

we

find

Thus we have a means

it

we want

If

to find the

We find

particular colour, as the third shade of red.

the com-

the complement

in the second shade of blue-purple

of at once judging of the

harmony

of

colours.

It will

must ever be borne

in

mind that pigments mixed

in the proportions given

not yield results such as would occur when the coloured rays of light are

combined

thus three parts, either by weight or measure, of chrome yellow when

;

combined with eight parts

would not form a colour representing

of ultramarine

the secondary green, nor would the result be more satisfactory were other pigments

What we

combined in the proportions given. in

have said in respect to the proportions

which colours combine to form new colours applies only to the coloured rays

of light.

now be

It must

the areas

noticed that while colours harmonise in the proportions stated,

occupied by the

alteration in intensity.

harmony when both perfect

harmony

if

may

different colours

Thus eight

of blue

vary

if

and eight

there be a corresponding of orange

colours are of prismatic intensity; but

the orange

is

we

form a perfect

shall still

have a

diluted to one-half its strength with white, and

thus formed into a tint, provided there be sixteen parts of this orange of half strength to the eight parts of blue of full strength.

The orange might be further

diluted to one-third of its full power, but then

twenty-four parts would be necessary to a perfect harmony with eight parts of prismatic blue

or to one-fourth of its strength,

;

when thirty-two

parts would be

necessary to the harmony. It

is

not desirable that I occupy space with diagrams of these quantities, but

the industrious student will prepare

a true

half-tint, quarter-tint,

etc.,

practice, however, it will readily

new power

What apply in

all

them

which

for himself, and will strive to realise is

not a very easy thing to do.

be accomplished, and anything achieved

By is

a

gained. I

have said respecting the harmony of blue with tints of orange

similar cases.

Thus red

will

will

harmonise with tints of green, provided

the area of the tint be increased as the intensity

is

decreased

;

and so

will yellow

harmonise with tints of purple under similar conditions.

But we may the secondary in

reverse the conditions, and lower the primary to a tint retaining

its

intensity.

Tims

blue,

if

reduced to a half-tint, will harmonise

with orange of prismatic intensity in the proportion of sixteen of blue to eight of


IIAItMONY OF SHADES

COLOUR orange

;

or, if

AND

43

TINTS,

reduced to a quarter-tint, in the proportion of thirty-two of blue to

Red,

eight of orange.

if

ten red to eleven of green

reduced to a half-tint, will harmonise in the proportion of

and yellow

;

as a half-tint in the proportion of six yellow

to thirteen of purple.

The same remarks might be made respecting the harmony Thus,

with colours of prismatic intensity. intensity with black,

it

if

orange

is

of shades of colour

diluted to a shade of half

harmonise with pure blue in the projx>rtion of sixteen

will

of orange to eight of blue, and so on, just as in the case of tints

;

and

this principle

harmony of all hues of colour also. To go one step further we scarcely ever deal with pure colours or their shades With great intensity of colour we or tints, or even come as near them as we can. seem to require an. ethereal character, such as we have in those of light; but applies to the

:

our pigments are coarse and earthy

—they may reason

—they are

we have

to avoid the use of our purest

their poverty of nature manifest,

and

For this

not apparent

is

pigments in such quantities as render

to use for large surfaces

and

their subtlety of composition, interest is

too real-looking, and are not ethereal

be said to be corporeal rather than spiritual in character.

A

please.

such tints

through

as,

tint the composition of

always preferable to one of more obvious formation.

which

Thus we

are

which are subtly formed, and such as please by their newness and

led to use tints

bewilder by the intricacy of formation.

To do what I here mean

it is

not necessary that

many pigments

be mixed

The effect of which I speak can frequently be got by two well-chosen pigments. Thus a fine series of low-toned shades can be produced by mixing together middle-chrome and brown-lake in various together in order to the formation of a tint.

proportions, and in

all

represented, but in

some yellow

it will

of the shades thus

formed the three primary colours

will predominate,

and in others red; while

will be

in

many

what proportionate extent the three primary colours

not be easy to discover to

are present.

Let us suppose that we make a tint by adding white to cobalt blue.

This blue

But

to this tint

contains a small

we add a

small

amount

amount

atmospheric character. that

is, it

of yellow, of

is

a slightly green blue.

raw umber with the view

Raw umber

consists of red, blue,

order that an

and

is

of imparting a greyness* or

a neutral colour, leaning slightly to yellow

and yellow, with a slight excess of the

In

latter.

orange harmonise with this grey-blue of a slightly yellow tone,

the orange must be slightly inclined to red, so as to form the complement of the

little

green formed by the yellow in the blue.

grey-blue as a pure tint

if

the area of

* Cobalt, raw umber, and white

It

may harmonise with

the diluted and

make a magnificent

neutralised

the

primary

is

grey, both in oil-colours, in tempera

(powder-colours mixed with gum-water), and in distemper (powder-colours mixed with

size).


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

41 sufficiently

depth, I

extended, or

when both

may

itself

be likewise reduced to a tint of the same

would have the same

tints

might go on multiplying

area.

cases of this

character to almost

any extent,

but these I leave the student to work out for himself, and pass to notice that while it is

to

desirable to use subtle tints (often called

make up the

"broken

tints'") it is rarely

expedient

harmony by a large area of a tertiary tone and a single positive Thus, we might have a shade or a tint of citrine spreading over a large

colour.

full

surface as a ground on which

harmonise in pure purple were

we wished

of a certain size, and yet

it

This figure would

to place a figure. if

thus coloured

it

would

when finished, for the harmony would be too It would be much better to have the nineteen parts of citrine intensity, when the area would be increased to thirty-eight,

give a somewhat common-place effect

simple and obvious. reduced, say, to half

with the figure of eight parts of blue and five of red, than of thirteen parts of purple.

But

would be better

it

citrine, three parts of

still if

pure yellow, thirteen of purple, five of red, and eight of blue,

together with white, black, or gold, or the conditions, as

there were the thirty-eight parts of reduced

all

three (these

act as neutrals), for here the

all

may

be added without altering

harmony

is

of a

more subtle

character. If

we count up

harmony, we

the equivalents of the colours employed in this scheme of

we

shall see that

have, in the citrine

Ycilow

.

.

.

Blue

.

.

.

.

.

Red

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.6' (two

equivalents).

.8 (one equivalent). .5 (one equivalent).

In the purpleBlue

.

.

.

.

.

Bed

.

.

.

.

.

Of the nure

.8 (one equivalent). .5 (one equivalent).

colours

Yellow

.

.

Bed

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Blue

.

.

.

.

.

.

.3 (one equivalent). .5 (one equivalent). .8 (one equivalent).

Thus we have three equivalents of each primary, which give a perfect harmony. I must not say more respecting the laws of harmony, for in the space of a small work it is impossible to do so, but proceed to notice certain effects or properties of colours,

which I have

as yet only alluded to, or

have passed altogether

unnoticed. I is

have said that black, white, and gold are neutral as regards colour.

the case, although

as a yellow,

but

it

many would is

suppose that gold was a yellow.

Gold

This

will act

generally employed as a neutral in decorative work, and


it is

more of a neutral than a yellow,

The

pictorial artist

for both red

and blue

frames his picture with gold because

exist largely in

it.

being a neutral, does

it,

It has the further advantage of being

not interfere with the tints of his work.

and costly in appearance, and thus

rich

45

TEACHINGS OP EXPERIENCE.

COLOUR

of giving

an impression of worth where

it exists.

Black, white, and gold, being neutral, separate colours where separation

is

may

be advantageously employed to

necessary or desirable.

Yellow and purple harmonise, but yellow

is

a light colour and purple

is

dark.

These colours not only harmonise, but also contrast as to depth, the one being

The

and the other dark.

light

juxtaposition, It

is

is

limit of each colour, wherever these are used in

therefore obvious.

not so with red and green, for these harmonise

This being the case, and red being a glowing colour,

if

when

of the

a red object

is

same dep'h. placed on a

green ground, or a green object on a red ground, the "figure" and ground appear to

"swim" together, and

form, and not confuse

Colour must

will jjroduce a dazzling effect.

It will do this in the instance just

it.

named

if

will

;issist

the figure

outlined with black, white, or gold, and there will be no loss of harmony.

is

But

experience has shown that this effect can also be averted by outlining the figure

with a lighter tint of

its

own

Thus,

colour.

may

green, an outline of lighter red (pink)

page

if

the figure

red and the ground

is

be employed.

(See Proposition 26,

34.)

A blue figure on a red ground

ultramarine on carmine), or a red figure on a

(as

swimming and

blue ground, will also produce this

unsatisfactory effect, but this

is

again obviated by an outline of black, white, or gold.

Employing the

must not be regarded

outline thus

dering what was actually unpleasant endurable, for

one of the richest means of

A

effect.

ornament having a gold outline

is,

it

as a

does

means

of merely ren-

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

much more

it

affords

carmine ground well covered with bold green if

well managed, truly gorgeous;

and were

the figure blue on the red ground, the lavish use of gold would render the employ-

ment

of yellow unnecessary as the yellow formed in the eye

gold would satisfy It ficiency.

a curious fact that the eye will create any colour of which there

is

This

it will do,

unless white or gold position, the colour

in the eye

may

and

be, will

8 and

9,

and cast upon the

all recpiirements.

page

While

is

present;

which

east

but the colour so created

is

if,

is

neutrals,

assume the tint of the

is

a de-

of little use to the composition

however, there be white or gold in the com-

absent, or

upon these

is

insufficiently represented, will be

formed

and the white or the gold, as the case

deficient or absent colour.

(See Propositions

32.)

sometimes it occurs to a marked degree, as can be shown must not be supposed that a composition in which any element is

this occurs (and

by experiment),

it


;

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

46 wanting

1

is

as perfect as one

which reveals no want. It

here comes to our assistance, and

short-comings

is

but in the one case

;

in the other,

harmony; while

all

is

Nature

far otherwise; only

content to help herself rather than endure our

we give Nature

the labour of completing the

being prepared, we receive a sense of satisfaction

and repose. In Proposition 8 we showed that when blue and black are juxtaposed, the black becomes " rusty," or assumes an orange tint; and in Proposition 9 we gave the cause Let a blue spot be placed on a black

of this effect.

the

yet appear rusty.

silk, it will

blue on black,

This

silk necktie,

we sometimes

a fact; but

is

and however black employ

desire to

and wish the black to look black, and not an orange-black. How can Obviously by substituting for the black a very dark blue, as indigo.

we do this ? The bright blue spot induces orange orange, when cast upon black, causes

complement of

(the

blue)

This

in the eye.

the latter to look " rusty " but

if

we

place in

the black an amount of blue sufficient to neutralise the orange cast upon

it,

the

effect will be that of a jet-black.

We have now considered those qualities harmony, which may

and those laws of contrast and

of colour,

be said to be of the grosser sort

;

but we have scarcely touched

on those considerations which pertain to special refinement or tenderness of effect. But let me close the part of my subject of which I have treated, by repeating a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a statement, colourâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

statement already made really

harmony

me

let

of

which improve each other

to the utmost,

come now

character, the

power to produce which only

8, 9, 10,

;

colour effects are those of a rich, mingled,

results

sr.lt

as will

and

colouring.

rich,

It

This leads

is

which,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;namely, that the

finest

bloomy character. are filled with a thousand

the colours of the rainbow, and imagine these arranged as closely

permit of their growth.

and

effects,

33.)

from the consideration of the effects I can say little beyond

Imagine a luxuriant garden, the beds in which

tfi^i'tlu.-r

(Consider

but of these

This principle however I cannot pass without notice

all

to perceive

and 11, pages 32 and

pointing out what should be studied.

having

me

the skilful exercise of the laws enunciated, are yet of a

works of the masters of great art-nations

flowers,

led

and refinements in colour

to consider delicacies

although dependent upon

first

those particular hues of colour,

are those which perfectly harmonise.

this statement in connection with Propositions

We

which

say,

and

those colours,

full

and varied, and

When is

all

viewed from a distance the

that

is

pleasant.

This

is

effect

is

Nature's

our work humbly to strive at producing like beauty with her.

me

to notice that primary colours (and secondary colours, also,

when

of greal intensity) shoi.M be used chiefly in small masses, together with gold, white, or black.


:

REFINEMENTS OF HARMONY.

COLOUR

Museum

Visit the Indian

and consider the beautiful Indian

at Whitehall,*

shawls and scarves and table-covers

;

unable to do

or, if

17

so,

look in the windows of

our large drapers in the chief towns, and see the true Indian fabrics, t and observe the

which small portions of intense reds, blues, yellows, greens, and a of tertiary tints, are combined with white and black and gold to produce a very

manner

score

in

miracle of bloom.

I

know

beautiful, so gorgeous,

It

curious that

is

taste as regards colour

of nothing in the

and yet so

we never

soft, as

way

some

of colour combination so rich, so

of these Indian shawls.

work otherwise than

find a purely Indian

harmony.

Indian works, in this respect

—whether —

or shawls, or dress materials, or lacquered boxes, or enamelled weapons

perfect

How

in colours

By

carpets,

are almost

perfect in harmony, perfect in richness, perfect in the softness of their

general effect.

work

good

in

strangely these works contrast with ours, where an harmonious

scarcely ever seen.

is

the co-mingling (not co-mixing) of colours in the manner just described,

a rich and bloomy effect can be got, having the general tone of a tertiary colour of a wall be covered with

ornamental flowerets, by

any desired hue.

Thus,

colouring

and letting each contain two parts of yellow and one part of blue

all alike,

and one of

if

red, as separate

little

and pure colours, the distant hue

the same effect will result

the flowers are coloured variously, while the same

if

proportions of the primaries

will be that of citrine

preserved throughout.

are

I

can conceive of no

now

decorative effects more subtle, rich, and lovely than those of which I

Imagine three rooms,

all

connected by open archways, and

all

speak.

decorated with a

thousand flower-like ornaments, and these so coloured, in this mingled manner, that in one

room blue predominates,

in another red, and in another yellow;

then have a beautiful tertiary bloom in each quisite delicacy

— a subtle

a rich mingling of closely inspected

;

besides which,

detail

of

we should have

the

should

mingling of colour, an ex-

and refinement of treatment, a fulness such hues, and an amount

we

as always results

which would

harmony

interest

from

when

of the general effect

of the three rooms, the one appearing as olive, another as citrine, and the other as russet.

This

mode

beauty, but

it

of decoration has this advantage, that

also gives purity.

reduced in intensity, as

If

we have

it

not only gives richness and

pigments are mixed together they are thereby

already seen

;

but

if

placed side by side,

when

viewed from a distance the eye will mix them, but they will suffer no diminution of brilliancy.

With the view of cultivating the eye, Eastern works cannot be too carefully studied. The Indian Museum should be the home of all who can avail themselves of the opportunity of study which

* This

museum

is

it

affords

open free to the public.

;

and the small Indian department of the

f These will only be seen in very

first -class

shops.


f

48

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

South Kensington

Museum

should not be neglected, small though

Chinese

it is.*

works must also be considered, for they likewise supply most valuable examples of colour

harmony ; and although they do not present such a

perfect colour

bloom

as do

the works of India, yet they are never inharmonious, and give clearness and sharp-

with great brilliancy, in a manner not attempted by the Indians.

ness, together

The

best works of Chinese embroidery are rarely seen in this country; but these

by the productions

are unsurpassed

any other people.

of

For richness, splendour,

know

colour, together with a delicious coolness, I

and purity of

of nothing to equal

them.

The works

of the Japanese are not to be overlooked, for in certain branches of

art they are inimitable,

of their lacquer trays

and as

pictures are sometimes marvels of

As

the commonest

harmony.

to the styles of colouring adopted

by the nations

that the Indians produce rich, mingled, bloomy,

which red and yellow prevail coolness

On

colourists they are almost perfect.

generally have a bit of good colouring, and their coloured

we

;

that

warm

referred to, I should say

effects

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

the Chinese achieve clearness,

effects in

is,

repose,

and

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a form of colouring in which blue and white prevail; and that the Japanese

effects are

warm, simple, and

quiet.

Besides studying the works of India, China, and Japan, study those also of

Turkey and Morocco, and even those

of Algeria, for here the colouring

than with us, although not so good as in the countries

must be

progress must be neglected, and no help

first

is

much

better

No

aid to

named.

despised.

"With the view of refining the judgment further in respect to colour, get a good

and study

colour-top, J

* It

may

its

beautiful effects.

not be generally known, but nearly

connection with the

Chamber

of

Commerce, a

See also the "gas tubes" illuminated

all

our large manufactnring towns have, in

collection of Indian fabrics, filling several large

volumes, which were prepared, at the expense of Government, under the superintendence of Dr. Forbes Watson, and which were given to the various towns on the condition that they be accessible to all persons

who

costly decorated fabrics, yet

always harmonious.

A much

are trustworthy.

much can be

Although these

collections do not

embrace the

learned from them, and the combinations of colour are

larger collection

is

now

in course of formation.

t The South Kensington Museum has a very interesting collection of art-works from China and Japan but the latter are chiefly lent. It is a strange thing that the perfect works of the East are bo poorly illustrated in this national collection, while costly, yea, very costly works of ;

inferior character, illustrative of Eenaissance art,

swarm

as thickly as

flies

in August.

This can

only be accounted for by the fact that the heads of the institution have a feeling for pictorial rather than decorative art, and the Eenaissance ornament

element.

To me,

the style appears to owe

its

is

that which has most of the pictorial

very weakness to this

fact, for decorative art

should

more or less imitative. % Not the so-called colour or "chameleon" top sold in the toy-shops, but the more scientific toy procurable of opticians, together with the perforated discs of Mr. John Graham, M.K.C.S., of be wholly ideal.

Tunbridge, Kent.

Pictorial art is of necessity


COLOURING

by

by

electricity, as sold

Soap-bubbles noted.

may

also be blown,

and

let

]-9

the prism yield you daily instruction.

and the beautiful colours seen

to

by such means only can we become great

in

them

carefully

colourists.

works on colour, we have the writings of Field, to

for valuable discoveries; of

useful to the student

;

whom we

Hay, the decorator, and friend of the

but some of his ideas are wild and Utopian

;

of Chevreul,

late

are indebted

David Roberts,

whose work

will be

most

and the small catechism of colour by Mr. Redgrave, of the

South Kensington Museum, which carefully study the excellent Coll cere.

METHODS.

These and any other available means of cultivating the eye should constantly

be resorted to, as

As

opticians,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; EASTERN*

manual

The student

will also do well to

is

excellent.

of

"Colour" by Professor Church, of Cirencester


CHAPTER

III.

FURNITURE.

Having considered those principles which are of primary importance to the ornawe may commence our notice of the various manufactures, and try to discover what particular form of art should be applied to each, and the special manner meutist,

in

which decorative principles should be considered as applicable to various materials

and modes of working'.

We

shall first consider furniture, or cabinet-work, because articles of furniture

occupy a place of greater importance in a room than carpets, wall-papers,

any other decorative works ; and,

because

also,

we

perhaps,

or,

from a consideration

shall learn

of

furniture those structural principles which will be of value to us in considering the

manner

in

which

all

art-objects should be formed

if

they have

solid,

and not simply

superficial, dimensions.

In the present chapter, I ornamentation

may

be

that design and

shall strive to impress the fact

essentially different things,

and that in considering the

formation of works of furniture these should be regarded as separate and distinct.

" Design," says Redgrave, " has reference to the construction of any work both for use and beauty, and therefore includes

its

ornamentation

also.

Ornament

is

merely

the decoration of a thing constructed."

The construction of furniture

will

form the chief theme of

this chapter, for

unless such works are properly constructed they cannot possibly be useful, useful they

would

fail to

if

not

answer the end for which they were contrived.

But before commencing a consideration construction of works of furniture, let if

and

of

the

principles

me summarise what

involved in the

required in such works

is

they are to assume the character of art-objects. 1.

The general form,

considered.

The aspect

or

mass form, of

all

constructed works

important, for as the day wanes the detail fades and parts

mass drawn in darkness on the glowing sky ; is

pleasing, a great point

have primary consideration. furniture should

first

carefully

become blended,

members compose but one whole, which, when seen from the en masse

must be

of the "sky-blotch" of an architectural edifice

be cared

general mass beauty of shape.

is

gained.

east,

and every

very

till

the

appears as a solid

this is the sky-blotch.

If the edifice

Indeed, the general contour should

In like manner, the general form of for,

is

effort

all

works of

should be made at securing to the


51

GENERAL PRINCIPLES.

FURNITURE

After having cared for the general form, the manner in which the work

2.

he divided into primary and secondary parts must he considered with reference

shall

to the laws of proportion, as stated in a former chapter.

may now

Detail and enrichment

3.

too excellent, they

must

to the aspect of the

work

The material

4.

of

still

be considered

but while these cannot be

;

be subordinate in obtrusiveness to the general mass, or

as a whole.

which the object

is

formed must always be worked in the

most natural and appropriate manner.

The most convenient or appropriate form

5.

for an object should always be

chosen, for unless this has been done, no reasonable hope can be entertained that the

work

will be satisfactory; for the consideration of utility

must

in all cases precede

we saw in our first chapter. Having made these few general remarks, we must consider the structure The material of which we form our furniture is wood. of works of furniture. " Wood has a grain," and the strength of any particular piece largely depends upon

the consideration of beauty, as

the direction of length, or

weak

its if

may

It

grain.

be strong

However strong the wood,

transversely.

if

its

grain runs parallel with

the grain crosses diagonally, or very weak it

is

its

the grain crosses

becomes comparatively much weaker

the grain crosses the piece; and however weak the wood,

grain

if

it

becomes yet weaker

if

if

the

These considerations lead us to see that the grain

transverse or diagonal.

of the wood must always be parallel with its length whenever strength is required. For our guidance in the formation of works of furniture, I give the following short table of woods arranged as to their strength

Iron-wood, from Jamaica

Box of

:

—very strong, bearing great

lateral pressure.

New South Wales —very strong, but not so strong as iron-wood. New South Wales — about two-thirds the strength of iron-wood.

Illawarry,

Mountain

ash,

Beech—nearly

mountain ash.

as strong as

Mahogany, from

New

—not quite so strong as —three-fourths as strong as the

South Wales

Black dog-wood of Jamaica

last.

mahogany

just

named.

—not half strong the box of New South Wales. —half strong the mahogany of New South Wales.*

Box-wood, Jamaica Cedar of Jamaica

Wood

as

as

as

as

can be got of sufficient length to meet

all

the requirements of furniture-

making, yet we not uufrequently find the arch structurally introduced into furniture, while

it is

absurd to employ

in

it

a most ingenious invention, as

it

wooden construction

of

any kind.

The arch

is

affords a means of spanning a large space with

small portions of material, as with small stones, and at the same time gives great

* For full particulars on this subject see " Catalogue of the Collection illustrating Construction and Building Material," in the South Kensington Museum, and the manual of " Technical Drawing for

Cabinetmakers," by E. A. Davidson.


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

52 It

strength.

is,

therefore, of the

utmost

utility in constructing stone buildings; but

we have no

in works of furniture, where

the utmost length required, and

is

large spaces to span, and where

is

of

stronger than our requirements demand, the use

The

of the arch becomes structurally foolish and absurd.

when we

ture becomes more apparent

wood

notice that a

folly of this

wooden arch

is

mode

of struc-

always formed of

one or two pieces, and not of very small portions, and when we further consider that, in order to the formation of an arch, the

the greater portion of if

its

wood must be cut

length, whereby

strength

its

is

across its grain throughout

materially decreased

;

while

the arch were formed of small pieces of stone great strength would be secured.

Nothing can be more absurd than the construction which

practice of imitating in one material a

mode

of

only legitimate in the case of another, and of failing to avail

is

ourselves of the particular

maximum

of utilising a material which secures a

mode

of desirable results.

While

I protest against the arch

objection to

from

structurally used in furniture, I see no

when

used only as a source of beauty, and

when

so situated as to be free

strain or pressure.

One The

it if

of the objects

chair

which we are frequently

called

upon to construct

So largely used are chairs, that one firm at High

house.

hands in making

common cane-bottomed

market which are well constructed.

in the

the curve

is

wood

in the

As they

chairs alone;

Wycombe employs

are formed

being surrounded by

5,000

and yet we see but few chairs

All chairs having curved frames

They

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;whether â&#x20AC;&#x201D;are

and being weak are not

are of necessity weak,

by using wood

in a

manner which

qualities of strength, these chairs are offensive and absurd.

fails

a chair.

of the back, in the sides of the seat, or in the legs

constructed on false principles. useful.

is

throughout Europe and America, considered as a necessity of every

is,

It

is

fails to utilise its

true that, through

such ill-formed objects from our earliest infancy, the eye often

to be offended with such

works as would offend

it

were they new to

it;

but this

does not show that they are the less offensive, nor that they are not constructively Besides, whenever

wrong.

wood

is

cut across the grain, in order that

thing approaching the requisite strength,

it

has to be

much

than would be required were the wood cut with the grain

;

we get any-

thicker and more bulky

hence such furniture

is

unnecessarily heavy and clumsy. Fig. 20 represents a chair which I have taken the liberty of borrowing from Mr. Eastlake's

work on household art*

This chair Mr. Eastlake gives as an illustration

of good taste in the construction of furniture; but I give

which Âť

is

essentially

bad and wrong.

The title of the work

be learned from

it.

I

is

**

The

as an illustration of that

legs are weak,

Hints on Household Taste."

think Mr. Eastlake right in

it

many

It is well

views, yet

being cross-grained

worth reading, as much may in others, but I cannot

wrong

help regarding him somewhat as an apostle of ugliness, as he appears to

and refinement.

me

to despise finish


FURNITURE

CH

53

Ml:-.

throughout, and the mode of uniting' the upper and lower portions of the legs (the

two

by a circular boss

semicircles)

is defective in the highest degree.

Were

I sitting in such a chair, 1

should be afraid to lean to the right or the

fear of the

left, for

me

Give

giving way.

chair

Yorkshire rocking-chair, in

a

pre-

ference to one of these, where I

know

my

of

much

insecurity,

as

I hate such.

A

chair

back-rest,

is

and a

a

with

stool

a

board

stool is a

elevated from the ground or floor of eleva-

by supports, the degree being

tion

by the

determined

length of the legs of the person for

whom

the seat

made, or by

is

the degree of obliquity which the to take

body and legs are desired

when seat

the seat

is

to

is

If the

in use.

support the body when

Fig. 26.

in an erect sitting posture, about

seventeen to eighteen inches will

be found a convenient height for the average of persons

;

but

if

the

legs of the sitter are to take an

oblique forward direction, then the seat

may

be lower.

A stool may consist of piece of

a thick

wood and of three

legs

inserted into holes bored in this

thick top.

If these legs pass to

the upper surface of the seat, and are properly

wedged

in,

yet clumsy seat results.

a useful

In order

that the top of the stool be thin

and

light, it will

be necessary that

the legs be connected by frames,

and

it

will be well

that they be

Fig. 27.


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

54

may

connected twice, once at the top of each leg, so that the seat

frame, and once at least two-thirds of the distance from the top.

now it is

stand alone, and although the seat

supported

A chair, that It

we

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

is

a stool with a hack.

There

it will

not crack, as

not one chair out of fifty

is

hack so attached to the seat as to give a

make a hack

is,

formed of thin wood

this

round on the upper frame.

all

I have said,

find with the

usual to

is

wood

is

upon

rest

The frame would

maximum

of strength.

leg and one side of the chair-hack out of one piece of

to continue the hack legs

up above the

and cause them

seat,

become

to

ihe sides of the chair-back.

When

this is

done the wood

almost invariably curved

is

the back legs and

so that

the chair-back both incline

from

outwards

There

the

seat.

no objection what-

is

ever to the sides of the back

and the legs being formed of the one piece, but there is

a great objection to either

the supports of the back or

being formed of

the legs

cross-grained wood, as of their strength sacrificed.

is

Our illustrations

(Figs. 27 to 32)

Fig. 28.

;

will give

modes of construct-

several

ing chairs such as I think legitimate

much

thereby

but I will ask the reader to think for

himself upon the construction of a chair, and especially upon the proper means of

giving due support to the back. I have given, in an axiomatic form, those principles

which should guide us in

the construction of works of furniture, and endeavoured to impress the necessity of

using wood in that manner which

is

most natural

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that

grain (the manner in which we can most easily work shall secure the greatest

I wish to impress lie at

my

amount

is,

it),

"working" and

in that

readers with the importance of these considerations, for they

the very root of the successful construction of furniture.

grain, tliey

must

rightly constituted

with the

of strength with the least expenditure of material.

If the legs of chairs,

or their seat-frames, or the ends or backs of couches, are formed of tlic

it

way which

cither

lie

thick

mind can only

which arc wisely formed.

wood cut

mid clumsy, or weak; but, besides

receive pleasure

across

this,

the

from the contemplation of works

Daily contact, as we have before said, with ill-shaped


FURNITURE

may have more

objects

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; CHAIRS.

55

or less deadened our senses, so that

offended by deformity and error as

we might be;

we

are not so readily

yet, happily for us, directly

we

seek to separate truth from error, the beautiful from the deformed, reason assists the

judgment, and we learn to

when we

feel

are in the presence of the beautiful or in

contact with the degraded.

My

illustrations will

is essentially

further comment.

show the

show how

bad, although

careful

I think chairs should

be constructed.

has traditional sanction, hence I pass

Fig. 20

it

over without

chair.

It serves to

in which the Egyptians constructed their works.

The curved

Fig. 27

way

it

is

in the

manner

an Egyptian

of

Wm^MMMM uTu'i

utii't Âť7YYiYn f

Fig. 30.

Fig, 29.

rails

against which the back would rest are the only parts which are not thoroughly

correct

and satisfactory

in a

wood

structure.

Were

the curvature would be desirable and legitimate.

members were connected by

a straight rail,

the curved back

The back of this

members metal,

chair, if the side

would have immense strength (the backs if well made it is a seat which

of some of our chairs are of the very weakest), and

would endure for have sought

centuries.

Fig. 28

to give strength to the

is

a chair of

my own

back by connecting

designing, in which I

its

upper portion with

a,

strong cross-rail of the frame. Fig.

29

is

a chair slightly altered from one in

"Household Taste;" Fig. 30

is

as

shown

in our illustration,

an arm-chair in the Greek ;

have prepared

modes

show

different

which

it

I

is

a correctly

have designed.

formed work. Fig. 31

Fig. 32, a lady's chair in early Greek.

lady's chair in the Gothic style to

style,

Mr. Eastlake's work on

is

a

These I

of structure; if the legs are fitted to a

frame


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

58

(the seat-frame) , as in the early

Figs. 33 and

the

level of the

Fig. 33 in

34.

the last

The

best general structure

upper surface of the a copy of a chair

is

Greek chair just alluded

must he connected by

short, as in this instance, or they

is

to,

they should he very

frame below the

seat, as in

that in which the front legs pass to

seat.

shown by Messrs. Gillow and

Paris International Exhibition.

In

many

The skeleton brackets holding the back

constructed.

a

Oxford

Co., of

respects

it

Street,

admirably

is

to the seat are very desirable

Fig. 32.

Fig. 31.

adjuncts to light chairs; so are the brackets connecting the legs with the seat-frame, as these strengthen the entire chair.

The manner

back passes through the side uprights and only important, fault in this chair

is

is

in

which the upper

"pinned"

is

good.

rail

The

of the

chief,

and

the bending of the back legs, involving their

being cut against the grain of the wood. Fig. 84 niture."

It

is

a chair from Mr. Talbertfs very excellent work on "Gothic Fur-

shows an admirable method of supporting the hack.

designed as a high-backed lounging chair. back, I

have extended (he

seat,

"Willi the

Fig. 35

I

have

view of giving strength to the

and arranged a support from this extension to

the upper back-rail, and this extension of the seat I have supported

by a

fifth leg.


;

1'TliXITrUE

There

no reason whatever

is

better, or five, or

why

COUCHES.

57

a chair should have four legs.

any other number,

let

If three

would he

us use what would he best.*

now given several illustrations of modes of forming chairs. I might have given many more, but it is not my duty to try and exhaust a subject. What I have

I have to .do

is

simply point out principles, and

reader who must think

for himself

first,

call

attention to facts.

of the principles

It

and facts which

I

is

the

adduce

secondly, of the illustrations which I give; thirdly, of other works which he

may

Pig, 34.

Fig. 33.

meet with results

it

may

means

of further

than those set forth in

As it

and fourthly,

,

my

of producing desirable and satisfactory

illustrations.

cannot be doubted that a well-constructed work, however plain or simple

—while — badly constructed we

be, gives satisfaction to those

who behold

it

a work of the most

shall give a

few further

illustrations of structure for other articles of furniture, besides chairs,

which have

elaborate character fails to satisfy

become necessary Fig. 36

one of

mode

my

of

life.

sketches for Greek furniture, designed for a wealthy

Here the frame

of the seat

It

was formed of black wood.

my

drawing, the stuffing of the back has been accidentally shown too

client,

In

is

to our

if

E

is

first

formed,

much rounded.


â&#x20AC;˘j

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

8

and the legs are inserted beneath end of the couch stands upon

it,

and

it,

let into it,

being inserted into

the general method with the Greeks of forming

my

correct structurally as Fig. 37, another of

are formed of one piece of wood.

any amount

of pressure

The

from above, but

first it

while the wood-work of the

This appears to have been

it.

their furniture, yet

it

is

not so

sketches, where the end and the leg

formation (that of Fig. 36) would bear not well calculated for resisting lateral

is

pressure; while the latter would resist this lateral pressure, but

the same

The

amount

latter,

would not bear quite from above.

of pressure

however,

could

bear

more

weight than would ever be required of

it,

and would be the more durable piece of furniture.

Fig. 38 gives a legitimate formation for a settee; the cutting-out, or hollowing, of the sides of the legs

is

not carried to an

extreme, but leaves a sufficiency of strong

wood with an upright grain

to resist all

the pressure that would be placed on the

and the lower and upper thickened

seat,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

portions of j

l~fZH beneath

the legs act as the brackets

The arch

the seat in Fig. 33.

here introduced

is

not used structurally,

but for the sake of a curved

line,

simply as a pair of brackets. tration

is

Fig. 39

is

meet with.

Fig. 35.

also

and acts

This

illus-

from Mr. Talbert's work.

a table such as I see

we

occasionally

no objection

to the legs

leaning inwards at the top; indeed, we have Fig. 40

here a picturesque and useful table of legitimate formation. elevation of a sideboard structure.

The leading

Mr. Talbert

is

;

and

his

book

I

am

The general want which we perceive easiest

mode

is

(if

of constructing a

liel'ore

the end

and obvious.

Although

of the most careful

compares favourably with

acquainted.

modern furniture

in

construction.

work

is

the simplicity of the

well worthy

this I can truly say, that it

other works on furniture with which

structure and truthfulness

Mark

are straight

ok structural lines

not always right, yet

consideration and study all

from Mr. Talbert's work.

If

is

persons would but

they commence to design

simplicity of

think out it,

the

and would

be content with this simplicity of structure, we should have very different furniture From

what

command.

we have.

Think

first

of

what

is

wanted, then of the material

at


Fl'KNITl'ItE

I fear that I

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Til

I

Til

I'll.

59

CONSTRUCT* >\.

have very feebly enforced and very

inefficiently illustrated the

true principles on which works of furniture should he constructed

that the structure of such works

beyond

of importance

is

all

;

and yet

I feel

other considerations.

Fig. 36,

Space

is

limited, however,

and

I

must pass on; hence

induced the reader to think for himself, and

my

if

I

I only

hope

that.

have done so I

shall

have

I

have

fulfilled

desire, for his progress will then be sure.

Respecting- structure I have but a few general remarks further to make, and

Fig. 37.

all

these are fairly embraced in the one expression,

true structure

is

through the various members, and

wooden

pins.

Thus,

if

let

"Be

place

the frame of a chair-seat

by glue and wooden pins

protrude beyond the surface

;

but

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

why

An

obvious and

the parts be "pinned'" together is

side,

and

pins being visible.

hide them

?

by obvious

tenoned into the legs,

tenon pass through the leg and be visible on the outer its

truthful.'"

"tenon" and the "mortise" pass

Let, then, the

always pleasant.

In this

way

let it

let

the

be held in

Yet they need not that old furniture


60

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

was made which

lias

endured while piece after piece of modern furniture, made

with invisible joints and concjaled nails and screws, has perished.

This

and

structural treatment,

is

a true

honest in

is

expression also.

I do not give this as a principle applicable to one class of furniture only,

but to

When we

all.

have "pinned"

furniture with an open structure (see

the back of chair, Fig. 33), the

mode of

putting together must of necessity be manifest

;

but in

all

other cases the

tenons should also go through, and the pins by which they are held in their place be driven

from one surface to the

other side right through the member.

In

Fig. 38.

the

commencement

of

this

chapter on furniture, I said that after

the most convenient form has been chosen for an object, and after

arranged that the material of which

it

is

to be

formed

shall

has been

it

be worked in the

most natural or befitting way, that then the block-form must be looked

to, after

which comes the sion of the

primary

mass into

parts,

the

lastly,

divi-

and

considera-

tion of detail.

As form,

to the block-

let it

be simple,

and have the appearance of appropriateness

and consistency.

Its

character must be regulated, to an extent.

by the nature of the house Fig. 39.

and of the room in which

the subject

is

this

:

it

is

to

!>ÂŤâ&#x20AC;˘

placed.

which

for

furniture

is

the

intended,

by the character

All I can say to the student on this part of

Carefully consider good works of furniture whenever oppor-

tunity occurs, and note their general conformation.

strong architectural qualities

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that

is, it

A

fine

work

will not look like pari of a

will never

have

building formed


PROPORTION AND ENBICHMEHT.

FURNITU11E

of

wood

There

instead o£ stone.

error in the block-form,

provided that

the

if

is

to

look like

work

wood,

in

~-"5).

may bo broken

has been considered, the mass

Tims,

parts.

;i

height to width and of width and height to

thickness are duly eared for (see page

After the general form

1

danger of committing any great

be kept- simple, and

it

proportions of

primary and secondary

but small

(

into

we

if

have to construct a cabinet, the upper part of which consists

cupboard, and the

a

of

lower portion of drawers, we should have to

determine the proportion which the one part This

is

an in-

—that the work must not

consist

should bear to the other. variable rule

of equal parts

thus, if the whole cabinet be

;

could not

sis feet in height, the cupboards

three

be

feet

while the drawers

three feet also.

The

be of a subtle character

occupied

would have to

division

— of a character which Thus the cup-

could not be readily detected.

board might be three

feet

five

inches,

and

the drawers collectively two feet seven inches.

same

If the drawers are not all to be of the

depth, then the relation of

regards

its size,

considered,

In

like

to that of another

and of each

and

;

until

all

must be

to the cupboard above.

manner the proportion

of the doors to the styles

out

one drawer, as

this

of the panels

must be thought

has been done no

work should ever be constructed.

Next comes the enrichment

of

parts.

Carving should be sparingly used, and

is

best confined to mouldings, or projecting or

terminal ends.

If

employed

in

mouldings,

members should be enriched which are more or from dust and injury by some overhanging member. those

it

less

If

completely guarded

more carving

should certainly be a mere enrichment of necessary structure

as

is

we

used,

see

on

I

am

the legs and other uprights of Mr. Crace's sideboard, by Pugin (Fig. 41).

not fond of carved panels, but should these be employed the carving should never project

beyond the

styles

members must protrude

surrounding them, and in

all

cases of carving

no pointed

so as to injure the person or destroy the dress of those

use the piece of furniture.

If carving

is

used sparingly,

it

who

gives us the impression


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

Fig

n


Fl

that

valuable

it is

The aim

less.

carved

is

if it is

;

of art

lavishly employed, it appears to be comparatively worth-

A

the production of repose.

is

63

MODES OF ENRICHING.

KXtTIRE

work of furniture which

large

over cannot produce the necessary sense of repose, and

all

is

therefore

objectionable.

work; for

the finish

if

of furniture It

be an excess of finish in works of carving connected with cabinet-

may

There

command

too delicate there

utility,

which

undivided attention

it is

;

a work which

to

is

and

is

not to

combine with other works

The South Kensington Museum purchased

in rendering an apartment beautiful.

the last Paris International Exhibition, at great cost, a cabinet from Fourdonois it is

a

a very unsatisfactory specimen, as

work

of utility

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

it is

The

highest commendation

the grain

pictorial or naturalistic a

that which

would have been worthy of the

but works of this kind wrought in a material that has a

;

little

may

A

manner.

Besides, the subjects are

show, are absurd.

of too pictorial a character for " applied

is

in

but

too delicate, too tender, and too tine for

in marble and used as mere pieces of sculpture

figure

;

an example of what should be avoided rather than of what delicately carved and beautiful panels of the doors, if cut

it is

should be followed.

" grain," however

piece

to be investigated in every detail.

is

to appear beautiful in a room,

is

A

a lack of effect in the result.

is

not a miniature work, which

is

an object of

is

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

work"

is,

they are treated in too

broad, simple, idealised treatment of the

alone legitimate in cabinet work.

is

Supports or columns carved

human

the form of

into

are

figures

always

objectionable.

Besides carving, as a means of enrichment,

we have

inlaying, painting, and

the applying of plaques of stone or earthenware, and of brass or ormolu enrich-

we have

ments, and is

the inserting of brass into the material

when buhl-work

formed.

Inlaying

a very natural and beautiful means of enriching works of furniture,

is

A

for it leaves the flatness of the surface undisturbed. this

way by

black

wood

the

employment

inlaid in

of simple means.

A

mere row of

oak will often give a remarkably good

can be " worked " with the utmost

ease.

figure

neglected.

form

is

be done

in

circular dots of ;

and the dots

trefoil,

four dots a

can often be produced

inlays.

Panels of cabinets treated

effects

may

effect

Three dots form a

quatrefoil, six dots a hexafoil, and so on, and desirable

by such simple

great deal

subjects.

The couch

may

be

This

(Fig. 37)

painted, and enriched with ornament, or flatlyis

a

beautiful

mode

of

decoration

very much

I intended for enrichment of this kind.

If this

employed, care should be exercised in order that the painted work be in

cases so situated that

it

cannot be rubbed.

It should

fill

all

sunk panels and hollows

and never appear on advancing members. I

am

not fond of the application of plaques of stone or earthenware to works


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

6-1

Anything that

of furniture.

is

an enrichment of wood-

Lrittle is not suitable as

work, unless it can be so placed as to be out of danger.

Ormolu ornaments, when applied to cabinets and other works in wood, are They look too separate from the wood of which the work is formed too obviously applied and whatever is obviously applied to the work, aud

also never satisfactory.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

;

is

not a portion of

whether a mass of Mowers

fabric,

even

general

its

wood

carved in

if

an

or

ornament, is not pleasant.

ormolu

Buhl-work

often

is

clever in character

and

very

skilfully

wrought, but I do not care for It

too laborious a

of

is

it.

nature,

and thus intrudes upon us the sense of labour as well as that of

As

skill.

I

a

means

of enrichment,

approve of carving, sparinglyinlays,

used, of

and of painted

ornament in certain cases

and

;

by the just employment of these

means

utmost

the

beauty

be

can

Ebony

with ivory

inlaid

in

achieved.

cabinet-work

is

very

illustrate

my

beautiful.

In

order

to

remarks respecting cabinets, side-

and

boards,

similar

of

pieces

furniture, I give an engraving of a sideboard

executed by Mr.

('race,

from the design of Mr. A. Welby

Pugin

(the father),

to

Fig. 42.

have before alluded (Fig. a painted cabinet

by Mr. Burgess

must be admired.

architecture

(Fig- '12), the

Both

of these

which 4>1),

1

and

well-known Gothic architect, whose

works are worthy of study of

a

very

careful kind.

In

the sideboard,

work, then the manner structural first,

iii

in

members which

the carving

second,

notice

is

first

which

i(

the is

some parts there

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; thus, the is

:i

structure or construction

broken into parts, and

arc carved.

in excess

general

slight

If this

work has

lastly, that

faults,

it

indication

buttress character of the ends of the sideboard.

the

is

the

they arc these:

panels would have been better plain of a

<if

;

and,

stone structure, as in the


65

THE FALSE IN FURNITURE.

To tiles

much more

the cabinet

A

1st.

roof

serious objections

may

a means whereby the weather

is

be taken.

kept out of a dwelling

and

-

is

,

afford a means whereby small pieces of material enable us to form a perfect

covering- to our houses of a weather-proof character. treat the roof of a cabinet,

which

It

is

very absurd, then, to

to stand in a room, as if

is

it

were an entire

house, or-an object which were to stand in a garden.

The windows

2nd.

in the roof,

which in the case of a house

let light into

those rooms which are placed in this part of the building-, and are formed in a particular

manner

when placed roof,

so as the

more perfectly

A

3rd.

house in appearance.

doll's

panelled structure, which

become simply stupid

These, tog-ether with the imitation tiled

in the roof of a cabinet.

degrade the work to a mere

to exclude rain,

is

the strongest and best structure,

ignored

is

;

hence strong metal bindings are necessary.

The painting treated,

of the

work

is

highly interesting, and had

it

been more

would then have been truthful, and would yet have lent the same

to the cabinet that it

now

does, even

we

if

flatly

interest

consider the matter from a purely

pictorial point of view.

Before we pass from a consideration of furniture and cabinet-work generally,

we must have

notice a few points to which

left altogether unnoticed.

we have

Thus we have

as yet merely referred, or

which we

to consider upholstery as applied to

works of furniture, the materials employed as coverings for

seats,

and 1he nature of

picture-frames and curtain-poles; we must also notice general errors in furniture, 6trictly so called.

When

examining certain wardrobes and cabinets

tion of 1S62, I

these works.

was

One

classic character.

especially

commended

itself to

Just as I was expressing

me

as a fine structural

my admiration,

the doors of this well-formed wardrobe to show

my

in the International Exhibi-

forcibly impressed with the structural truth of one or

me

its

of

of

the exhibitor threw open

internal fittings, when, fancy

feelings at beholding the first door bearing with

pilasters that I conceived to be the supports of the

two

work

it,

as it opened, the

two

somewhat heavy cornice above,

and the other door bearing away the third support, and thus leaving the superincumbent mass resting on the thin sides of the structure only, while they appeared altogether unable to perform the duty imposed upon them.

was

all

Some

of the most costly works of furniture

Paris International Exhibition were not free for to the rightly constituted

neutralise whatever pleasure

work.

" Horrible

!

horrible \"

I could exclaim.

We

see a

from

shown by the French this defect

;

and

in the last

this is strange,

mind this one defect is of such a grave character as to might otherwise be derived from contemplating the

man, a genius perhaps

admire; but he has one great vice

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

man having

qualities that all

one sin which easily besets him.

must

While the


;

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

fifi

man

has excellent and estimable qualities,

we

we

yet avoid him, for

see not the

which we

It is so with such works of furniture as those of

excellences but the vice.

have been speaking, for their defects are such as impress us more powerfully than their excellences.

Respecting these works of furniture, this should be said imitative of works of a debased art-period utterly

disregardedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;yet

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;of a period

no reason

this is

why we

in

:

they are more or

less

which structural truth was

should copy the defects of our

ancestors. Infinitely worse than the

furniture, since I

works just spoken

where the very truthfulness of structure

was staying with a

whose house

client

is

falsely constructed Gothic

of, is is

Not long

openly set before us.

Being about

of Gothic style.

to

furnish drawings for the decorations of this mansion, I was carefully noting the character of the architecture and of the furniture, which latter had been designed and

manufactured expressly for the house by a large Yorkshire firm of cabinet-makers.

The

structure of the furniture appeared just, the proportions tolerably good, the

honest, and the inlays judicious series of frauds

and shams

but, can

;

it

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the cross-grain

wood

be imagined, the whole was a mere ends of what should be supports were

attached to the fronts of drawers, pillars came away, and such falsity became

How

apparent as I never before saw.

any person could possibly produce such

furniture, be he ever so degraded, I cannot think. I

have seen

falsities in art,

uncalled-for deception as these works presented.

but when a special effort

is

have seen works that are bad,

I

but I never before saw such

made

of disappointment is experienced

falsity of structure

The untrue

and such

always offensive

is

at causing a lie to appear as truth, a double sense

when the untruthfulness

is

discovered.

In his work on "Household Taste," to which I have before alluded, Mr. Eastlake objects,

and

table.

He

I think

says

:

very justly, to the character of an ordinary telescopic dining-

"Among

the dining-room appointments, the table

furniture which stands greatly in need of reform.

polished oak or

mahogany laid upon an

It

is

is

made

generally

an

article of

of planks of

insecure framework of the same material, and

supported by four gouty legs, ornamented by the turner with mouldings which look like inverted cups

and saucers piled upon an

insecure, because I

am

describing what

one which can be pulled out to twice leaves in its middle,

its

is

attic baluster.

commonly

'

telescope

I'm- its

of

which

in

and

if is

out,

support on some contrivance which

made.

Few

'

table, or

usual length, and, by the addition of exl ra

accommodate twice the usual number of

diners.

cannot be soundly made in the same sense that ordinary furniture

depend

framework

I call the

called a

is

is

Such a tabic

sound

;

it

must

not consistent with the material

people would like to sit on a chair (he logs of which slid

and were fastened at the required height by a pin

sense of insecurity in the notion eminently unpleasant.

;

there would be a

You might put up with

6uch an invention in camp, or on a sketching expedition, but to have

it

and use

it


THE FALSE

Yet

this

When

it is

much what we do

very

is

extended

in

Hie ease of the

get out of order, and from the very nature of

Why

Whether

in.

should such a table be there arc few or

many

made

its

;

it is

It

is

if

always

its

liable to

construction must be an inartistic

its

at all?

space

table.

reduced to

A

dining-room

is

a room to dine

people seated for that purpose, the table

well be kept of a uniform length, and

use in

when

weak and untidy appear heavy and ill-proportioned.

shortest length the legs

object.

modern dining-room

at the sides

looks

it

a

M'KXITUIiE.

strong and serviceable chair, would be absurd.

roof, instead of a

under your own

IN

is

an object

it

is

might

always possible to

stead tw o small tables, r

These might

each on four legs.

be placed end to end when dinner parties are given,

and one of them

would

family use.

suffice for

table of this kind

might be

solidly

and stoutly framed, so as to for ages, and become, as

A last

all fur-

niture ought to become, an heir-

When a man

loom in the family.

builds himself a house on freehold land, he does not intend that shall only last

beuueaths to

it

in

ought

furniture

any

we cannot

to

lie

which

continually being replaced events,

it

he

lifetime;

sound condition

We

posterity.

ashamed of

his

is

Fig. 43.

at all

;

possibly take

In former days, when the principles of good

interest in such furniture.

joinery were really understood, the legs of such a large table as that of the dining-

room would have been made things of modern use." In nearly

remark

that,

must be an

all

of a very different

these remarks I agree with

owing

form from the lumpy, pear-shaped

Mr. Eastlake, and

to the very nature of its construction, a

inartistic object.

No work

especially in his

modern dining-table

can be satisfactory in which any portions of

the true supporting structure or frame are drawn apart; and this occurs to a marked

degree in this table, as

is

shown

in

Mr. Eastlake's

illustration,

which we here copy

(Fig. 43). Falsities of structure,

although not so glaring as that of the telescopic dining-

everywhere met with in our shops, and, curious as it may appear, the great majority of the works offered to the public are not only false in structure, but are

table, are

utterly offensive to

good taste

in every

way, and are formed almost exclusively of


68

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

wood

cut across the grain, which secures to the article the

weakness.

Figs. 44,

Âą6,

-15,

and

Fig. 44.

Another

utterance

is

falsity

in

I'V-

furniture

Simple honesty

of

Fig. 45.

Fig. 46.

abandoned.

maximum amount

are examples of utterly had furniture.

-17

is

is

veneering

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

preferable to false

always to be desired.

It

a

17.

practice which should be wholly

show

was customary

in all cases;

truthfulness in

at one time to veneer almost


VENEERING.

(59

every work of furniture, and even to place the grain of the veneer in a manner totally at variance with the true structure of the

framework which

method of making- works, which might

in their unfinished state be satisfactory,

it

This was a

covered.

when finished as most unsatisfactory objects. Since this time much progress been made in a knowledge of truthful structure and of truthful expression, yet

appear has this

method of giving a

despicable

and

false surface

by means of veneer

not wholly abandoned as

is

false.

A few months

back I had occasion to

my

and the owner called

visit

a cabinet warehouse in Lancashire,

attention to the fine grain of

some

old English oak,

Upon

remarked that certain pieces of furniture were of solid wood.

and

investigation,

however, I discovered that while the furniture in question was made throughout of

was of common wainscoting, and the surface was

oak, the bulk of the structure

veneered with English oak.

I confess that I

furniture without its false exterior,

the " unity " of the parts,

work

into

love for fine grain in

which

it is

formed, and tends to break

What

by rendering every member conspicuous.

furniture, before all other considerations,

parts

would much rather have had the

my

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

so that

is

wood

is

is

wanted

a fine general form

no one member usurps a primary place

possible to achieve if a

wood gets

from the fact that strong grain in wood takes from

I think that this arises

less.

and daily

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and

it

up into

work

in a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a harmony

of

of all

this it is almost im-

employed having a strongly marked grain.

With us a room is considered as almost unfurnished if the windows are not hung with some kind of drapery. The original object of this drapery was that of keeping out a draught of air, which found its way through the imperfectly fitting windows; and the antitype

of our

window-hangings was a simple curtain, formed of Such a curtain was legitimate

a material suitable to achieve the purpose sought.

and

desirable,

and would contrast strangely with the elaborate festooning and

quadrupled curtains of our present windows. material, arranged in massive

and absurd

necessary to our health and well-being of lace curtains being cient

amount of material

drapery is

hung

is

to

at each

;

folds,

We

daily see yards of valuable

shutting out that light which

window, each curtain consisting of a

more than cover the window

always vulgar, while a

little

is

a pair of heavy stuff curtains and a pair

of itself.

An

suffi-

excess of

drapery usefully and judiciously employed

pleasant.

Many windows no curtains. coloured

much

that are well made, and thus keep out

If the

window mouldings

all

currents of air, need

are of an architectural character,

and are

darker than the wall, so as to become an obvious frame to the window,

and thus do for the window what a picture-frame does for a picture, no curtains be required.

I have recently had a wonderfully striking illustration of this.

adjoining rooms are alike in their architecture; one

is

decorated,

will

Two

and has the window

casement of such colours as strongly contrast, while they are yet harmonious, with


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

70

Before the room was decorated, and the windows were thus treated, a

the wall.

general light colour prevailed, both on the wood-work and on the walls of the room,

and curtains were hung

With

the usual way.

windows

at the

*=-

c O

==-

o

o

<=*

O o

cÂť

windows became

tions, the

at once

=*

so effective that I

saw the imdesirability of re-hanging

the curtains, and yet not one of

my

all

friends has observed that there are no cur-

Fig. 48.

tains to the

are

in

the altered decora-

windows; while

the curtains

if

removed from the adjoining room, where tbe window-frames are as light is, " Where are your curtains?"

as the

walls, the first question asked

hung on a simple and obvious

Curtains should be

All means

pole (Fig. 48).

and

of hiding this pole are foolish useless.

thick,

This pole need not be very

and

better formed of

is

wood

than of metal, for then the rings to

which the cm-tains are attached pass

Tbe ends

along almost noiselessly.

may

of the pole

be of metal, but I

The

prefer simple balls of wood.

pole

may

be grooved, and any

enrichments

A

may be

little-

introduced into

tbese grooves, providing tbe carving

does not

come to the

and

surface,

tbus touch the rings, which by their

*-

<$T

motion would injure is

used in the

way

Whatever

it.

of enrichment

should be of simple character, for the height at which the curtain pole is

placed

would render

fine

work

altogether ineffective.

h

As

to upholstery, I

would say,

A wood

never indulge in an excess. 'â&#x20AC;˘'i'-'-

frame should appear in every work

>'

of furniture, as in the examples

have given. soft

that

Sofas arc

you sink

upon them, and which a

now made

into them,

their

appeal' as legs.

properly constructed

as

though they were feather beds; they are so

and become uncomfortably warm by merely resting

gouty forms are relieved only by

a

Stuffing should be employed only as a seat

c

we

fortablj

soft.

If

it

few inches of wood,

means

goes beyond this

of rendering it

is

vulgar


LTHOLSTEIUNG OF Fl'UNITURE.

f:^r^Ti

PICTURE- 1'i! AMES.

rT^^a

Fig. 50

71


F1UN0IPLES OF DESIGN.

72

and objectiu liable.

Spring stuffing

old-fashioned hair-stuffed seat perished.

As

more

to the materials with

they are many.

Hair

Nothing

effect.

is

is

cloth,

is

desirable, as it will endure

rep, plain cloth,

am

when

although very durable,

is

little,

for

altogether inartistic in

its

better than leather for dining-room chairs;

on library chairs

and many other fabrics are appropriate

a good

springs have

which seats may be covered I can say

either plain or embossed, looks well

Chintz I

not to be altogether commended;

;

to

silk

Utrecht velvet,

and satin damasks,

drawing-room furniture.

not fond of as a chair covering, and in a bed-room I would rather

have chairs with plain wooden seats than with cushions covered with this glazed material.

With a mere remark upon

picture-frames I will finish this chapter.

Picture-

frames are generally elaborately carved mouldings, or are simple mouldings covered with ornaments, which, whether carved or formed of putty, are overlaid with gold leaf; they are, indeed, highly ornamented gilt mouldings.

I

much

prefer

a well-formed, yet somewhat simple, black polished moulding, on the interior of

which runs a gold bead (Fig. 49). in the

A

fanciful yet

good picture-frame was figured

Building News of September 7th, 1SC6, which we

now

repeat (Fig. 50).


— .

CHAPTER

IV.

DECORATION OP BUILDINGS. Division

Having considered construction, or of

— Ceilings.

General Considerations

I.

furniture,

formation of

the

what we may term

which requires a knowledge of

structural art,

we

pass on to notice principles

involved in the decoration of surfaces, or in " surface decoration," as

it is

We

usually

commence by considering how rooms should be decorated yet, in so doing, we are met at the very outset with a great difficulty, as the nature of the decoration of a room should be determined by the character of its architecture. called.

My

;

How am

difficulty rests here.

room, when

I to tell

the suitability of the decoration

and ornamental

details

and when, in

;

is

you what

the just decoration for a

often dependent upon even structural

cases, the

all

is

character of the decoration

should be in harmony with the character of the architecture? is

in the Gothic style, all that

also,

should be Gothic.

should be Greek.

it

contains in the

If the building

is

way

Broadly,

of decoration,

if

a building

and of furniture

Greek, the decorations and furniture

If the building is Italian, all its decorations

and furniture should

be Italian, and so on.

But there

a group of styles having

Semi-Norman

under Henry

II.

(it

common

is

origin

this

have now employed, as

and

is is

less generic in

character,

and resemblances, known to the

or Transition style,

was at

is

I

usually termed Gothic architecture,

more or

What

therefore too broad for general use.

as the

Each term that

are further requirements.

expressive of a style of architecture,

architect

which occurred in the twelfth century

time that the pointed arch was

The Early English, which was developed

in the

the thirteenth century, under Richard

I.,

first

employed)

end of the twelfth and early part of

Henry

John, and

III.

;

the Decorated,

which occurred at the end of the thirteenth, and early portion of the fourteenth century, under

Edward

I.,

Edward

II.,

and Edward

III.

;

the Perpendicular, which

occurred at the latter part of the fourteenth, and through the greater portion of the

under Richard

fifteenth century,

and Richard III.

;

and the beginning

II.,

Henry

IV., V., and VI.,

Edward IV. and

V.,

and, lastly, the Tudor, which occurred at the end of the fifteenth, of the sixteenth century, under

Henry VII. and Henry VIII.

All these styles are popularly spoken of as one, and are expressed by the one term

Gothic.

It

is

so also, to an extent, with the Greek,

Roman, and

Italian styles, for

each of these appears in various modifications of character, but into such details

F

we


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

74 will

not enter

must

it

:

suffice to notice that the character of the decoration

not only broadly in the style of the architecture of the building which to beautify,

but

it

must be

similar in nature to the

must be intended

it is

ornament produced at precisely

the same date as the architecture which has been employed for the building. It

must not be supposed that

styles of architecture, such as

I

am

an advocate of reproducing works, or even

were created in times gone by, for T

peoples of past ages carefully sought to ascertain their wants

from climate

—the

wants resulting from the

resulting from social arrangements

command.

We, on

am

The

not.

—the wants resulting —the wants

natui-e of their religion

— the wants imposed

by the building material

at

the contrary, look at a hundred old buildings, and without

considering our wants, as differing from those of our forefathers, take a bit from one

and a

bit

from another, or we reproduce one almost

as

stands,

it

on, instead of seeking to raise such buildings as are in

all

and thus we bungle

respects suited to our

modern requirements. Things

however,

are,

much

are dealing with the Gothic style in its various forms.

many and

others are venturing to alter

acquiring

is

new

elements,

it;

it is

and thus, while

Scott, Burgess, Street,

and

suitability to our special requirements.

In time to come, further changes will doubtless be made arose as an imitation of the past will have

;

and thus the style which

become new, through constantly departing

as constantly adopting

new

elements.

I have said that the decoration of a building should be brought about

ployment of such ornament as was,

in

bygone ages produce

till

what has gone

if

a precisely similar

Let not the ornament, however, be a mere

of architecture previously existed.

servile imitation of

by the em-

time past, associated with the particular form

of architecture employed in the building to be decorated,

form

and

losing old characteristics,

it is

already assuming a character which has nobility

of expression, truthfulness of structure,

from the original type, and

Bold men

better in this respect than they were.

before, but let the designer study the

he understands and feels

new forms and new combinations

This must also be carefully noted

its

spirit,

and then

in the spirit of the

—that

let

ornament of

him

strive to

ornament of the

past.

the ornament of a particular period

does not consist merely of the forms employed in the architecture, drawn in colour

on the wall, or the ceiling, as the case

may

be.

The

particular

form of ornameut

used in association with some forms of Gothic architecture was very different in character from

what we might expect from the nature

of the architecture itself,

and

did not to any extent consist of ilatly-treated crockets, gable ends, trefoils, cinque, foils, etc.

The ornament

of the past

must be studied

in its purity,

those wretched attempts at the production of Gothic decoration which

In what

wc may

no architecture, and to

call if

and not from

we

often see.

the typical English house of the present day there

such a building

eninlov any style of ornamentation.

is

to be decorated

In such a case

it

I

is

is

really

almost legitimate

should choose a style


;

DECORATION OF CEILINGS.

which has no very marked features Gothic, or strongly Italian

and

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;which

there

if

75

not strongly Greek, or strongly

is

the necessary ability, I should say try

is

and produce ornaments having novelty of character, and yet showing your knowledge of the good qualities of

styles that are past.

all

If this

is

attempted, care must be

exercised in order to avoid getting a mere combination of elements from various styles as one ornament.

Nothing can be worse than

fragment of Egyptian, an Alhambraic

Greek, a

to see a bit of

a Gothic flower, and an Italian husk

scroll,

associated together as one ornament; unless this were done advisedly and in order to

meet a very

What

I

an ornamental composition would be detestable.

special want, such

recommend

new forms; but

the production of

is

new composition may

the

have the vigour of the best Gothic ornament, the severity of Egyptian, the intricacy of the Persian, the gorgeousness of the Alhambra, and so on, only

must not

it

imitate in detail the various styles of the past.

Now

as to the decoration of a room.

If one part only can be decorated, let that

Nothing appears

one part be the ceiling.

me more strange

to

than that our ceilings,

which can be properly seen, are usually white in middle-class houses, while the which are always in part hidden, and even the colour and pattern applied to

them

and of

;

floor,

this I

a decorative point of view, our ordinary treatment "VVe glory in a clear blue

beauty as

familiar to us

is

hence

it

ethereal

am

and

this question,

walls,

tread, should

have

certain, that, considered

from

wrong.

Why,

all.

Thus the depth of the make our ceilings white ?

tint of the

tint.

then,

I often ask

told that the whiteness renders the ceiling almost invisible

This idea

preferred.

is

am is

we

sky overhead, and we speak of the sky as increasing in

becomes deeper and deeper in

it

Italian sky

on which

and most distant of

all

is

very absurd;

first,

because blue

colours (see Chap. II., page 33)

not build a house with the view of procuring shelter? hence

;

the most

is

we

and, second, do

why do we

seek to

we are without a covering over our heads ? We only like a because we have been accustomed to such from infancy, and because

realise the feeling that

white ceiling

we have been taught to regard a clean white ceiling as all that is to be desired. I knew a Yorkshire lady who, upon being asked by her husband whether she would like the

drawing-room ceiling decorated, replied that she thought not, as she could

not then have

have

it

re-whitewashed every year.

said, is ethereal in character; it is

medium depth and it

as

of a grey hue

would be desirable that

we have

this colour

Further, the ceiling

be seen as a whole.

or, if

so,

hence,

when we do

there not,

is

we

Why

idea was clean certainly.

Blue, I

and may become exceedingly so

if

if

of

a mere atmospheric effect was sought,

be used on the ceiling rather than white.

just said, invisibility of the ceiling

the weather.

object

;

The

is

absurd, as

may become an

it is

But,

our protection from

object of great beauty,

and

it

can

then neglect the opportunity of arranging a beautiful

no reason to the contrary can have

it

?

We

like

a,

beautiful coloured vase,

whitewashed, or even dispense with

it

altogether.


7ÂŤ

We

PKIXCIPLES OP DESIGN. like beautiful walls, or

we would have them whitewashed

our surroundings generally beautiful.

Why

Kg.

not,

then,

pictures

;

indeed,

we

like

61.

especially as they can be seen complete, while the wall ;iik1

also

have beautiful ceilings,

is

in part

hidden by furniture

?

I will suppose thai

we have an ordinary room

to deal with.

First, take

away


PAPERS

FOIt

77

CEILINGS.

the wretched plaster ornament in the centre of the ceiling, for

There

it

is

sun' to be had.

not one such ornament out of a thousand that can he so treated as to make

is

the ceiling look as well as 1

would do without

it

Now

it.

place

over the ceiling

all

Hat painted or stencilled pattern, a pattern which repeats equally in Fi^. 51),. and let this pattern be in blue (of

depth) and cream-colour, and

any depth) and white,

all

;i

directions (as

or in blue (of

any

sure to look well (the blue being the ground, and

it is

the cream-colour or white the ornament).

Simple patterns in cream-colour on blue ground, but having also look well (Fig. 52)

might he prepared

hung on the

paper, and

in

ceiling

paper-hangings,

;

common

as

cheapness

if

outline

a black

and these

is

Gold ornaments on a

essential.

deep blue ground, with black outalso look

line,

These are

and

rich

effective.

however, simple treat-

all,

ments, for any amount of colour

may be the

used on a ceiling, provided

small

masses, and

that of a

(see

Chap.

perfectly

min-

the effect produced

that

gled, so is

are employed in very

colours

coloured bloom

rich

page 46).

II.,

A

ceiling

should be beautiful, and should also

be manifest

somewhat

but

;

if

it

must be

indistinct, in order that

the caprices

humoured,

the

of

let

the

ignorant

be

be

in

pattern

middle-tint or pale blue and white only.

Fig. 52.

I like to see the ceiling of a

room covered

all

over with a suitable pattern, but

central ornament

cornice

is

only, or to a centre

I

do not at

object to a large

all

ornament and corners

;

especially

heavy, so as to give compensating weight to the margin.

I

the

if

have recently

designed and seen carried out one or two centre ornaments for drawing-rooms,

which ornaments were twenty-one treated,

may

two-thirds of the

way from

A

feet in diameter.

be very large without looking heavy

it

;

centre ornament,

if

may, indeed, extend

the centre to the margin of the ceiling.

I

properly at

least

do not speak

of plaster ornaments, but of flat decorations. If the ceiling

is flat all

ornament placed upon

it

must not only be

flat also,

but


rnixciPLES or design.

7S

must not

fictitiously represent relief, for

placed as the decoration of a I

with

flat

no shaded ornament can be pleasant when

architectural surface.

have already noticed that the decoration of a room should be in character

its

ornament applied by way

architecture, but that while this should be so, the

of enrichment should not be a servile copy of the decorative forms employed in

ages gone by, but should be such as

t'tg

63.

is

new

in character,

while yet of the spirit

of the past.

.Many circumstances tend

to

determine the nature of the decoration which

should be applied to a ceiling: thus, panels, the character of the

be large

while in

if

some

it

will

if

ornament

a ceiling

is

is

structurally divided into square

thereby restricted, and should these panels

probably be desirable thai each be

fitted

they arc small three or four different patterns orderly or methodical manner.

with the same ornament;

may

be employed,

if

arranged


TREATMENT or

A

ceiling

may

also

decoration would have

fco

have the

7

JOISTS IN A CEILING.

joists

or

beams

visible

be of a very special character.

upon

it

:

in this case

The bottoms

'J

the

of the joists

Fig. 54.

might have a string pattern upon them (a running pattern), as the "Greek key," or whilst the sides might have either a running pattern, or a pattern with

guilloche

;

an upward tendency, as the "Greek honeysuckle;" and the ceiling intervening


PRINCIPLES

80 between the or

it

joists

might have a running

mio-ht have bands running

thern, to If,

01'

DESIGN.

pattern, or better, a star, or diaper pattern,

in the opposite direction to the joists, so as,

form squares, which squares might be filled with ornament. however, the ceiling is flat, and is not divided into sections

with

structurally.

Fig. 55.

almost any " setting out " of the surface centre ornament, as Figs. 54 and 55 Fig. 50. relief

and

In

any case

upon the

ceiling.

all fictitious

it is

;

may

be employed, as Fig. 53

;

or a large

or a rosette distributed over the entire surface, as

not necessary or even desirable that the ornament be in

Flatly treated ornaments

appearance of

relief, as

we have

may

be employed with advantage,

already said,

must be avoided.


M

COLOURING OF FLAT CEILINGS.

There are so many different ways of setting out ceilings, that I cannot attempt even to make any suggestions. I would simply say, however, Avoid an architectural setting out, if there are no structural members; for ornament which is Hat spread in any manner over a surface without even appearing to need structural

may

As

supports.

to the colour of a ceiling

it'

be a cream-colour (formed of white with a

there little

is

to be no

ornament upon

it, let

Cream-colour always looks well upon a ceiling, and gives the idea of purity. grey-blue

also a very desirable colour for a ceiling, such as

is

ultramarine, white, and little

raw umber, just

make

to

cient

it

middle-chrome) rather than white.

is

A

formed of pale

a

suffi-

the

bine

atmos-

slightly

grey

pheric).

In depth this blue

(or

should be about half-way

between

Another

and white. which

ultramarine

the

I like is

effect

produced by

the full colour of pure (or

almost

In

ultramarine.

pure)

this

case

the

cornice

should l>e carefully coloured,

and pale

and white

blue

should prevail in

pure

little

it,

but a

must

red

be

present.

A

further and very de-

sirable effect is

produced by

placing pale cream-coloured stars irregularly over the pale blue, or even the deep blue ceiling, or

pale blue stars

upon the cream-coloured

ordinary room ceiling

(say a

The

ceiling.

room sixteen

feet

some four

;

others being smaller and with five points points,

and some

three.

by placing

should vary for an

square by ten feet high) from

about three inches from point to point down to one inch six points

stars

;

;

the larger stars having

and the small ones having,

If such stars are irregularly (without order)

intermixed over the ceiling, and yet are somewhat equally dispersed, a very pleasing

and interesting

effect will

the Japanese.

The

pale, blue

stars,

thereby be produced.

This effect

however, should be smaller

if

is

in

much

favour with

placed on a deep, than on a

ground.

Another good

effect is

Portland, stone, and starring

produced by giving the ceiling the colour of Bath, or it

with a deeper tint of the same colour.

This effect


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

82 is

improved by each star having a very 1

fine outline of a yet

darker tint of the same

colour.

should recommend those interested in the decoration of ceilings to study

I

Egyptian, Alhambra, and Greek Courts

the

carefully

Sydenham,

two

especially the

last

named

;

Palace,

ceilings in the Oriental Courts, by Mr. Owen Jones, at the South Museum are worthy of careful notice but the Renaissance ceilings in parts of the Museum are both wrong in principle and are bad examples of their

The

Durham.

Kensington

;

style.

The

Street,

London, and

Oxford

Street, are well

On

formed glass ceiling of the Crystal Palace Bazaar

structurally

still

better, the

ceiling of

Mr.

we very

the Continent

authorities of the South style into

frequently meet with

Kensington

England, but such

A

1st.

ceiling

is

Osier's

in

Oxford

warehouse in

glass

worthy of note.

pictures have been painted, as in the Louvre and the

be

Crystal

and the ceiling of Ushaw College chapel near

Great Hall, Piccadilly, London,

other

the

at

also to notice the ceiling in St. James's

a

flat

Museum

are

ceilings

Luxembourg

making

pictorial ceilings are in every

on which large in Paris

;

and the

efforts to introduce this

way wrong.

surface, hence all decoration

placed upon

it

should

flat also.

2nd.

A

picture can only be correctly seen from one point, whereas the deco-

ration of a ceiling should be of such a character that

can be properly seen from

it

any part of the room. 3rd. Pictures

have almost invariably a right and wrong way upwards.

picture placed on a ceiling

is

thus wrong

way upwards

A

to almost all the guests in

the room. 4th. In order to the proper understanding of a picture, of its surface at one time neclc, or

;

you must see the whole

this is very difficult to do without almost

being on your back on the

floor, if

the picture

is

breaking your

on the ceiling

whereas an

;

ornament which consists of repeated parts may render a ceiling beautiful without requiring that the whole ceiling be seen at the one glance.

Most of the French pictorial ceilings are so painted that they are properly seen when the spectator stands with his back close to the fire. This is very awkward, as the rules of Pictorial

society do not allow us to stand

in

position before company.

this

works are altogether out of place on a ceiling

;

they ought to be framed

and hung right way upwards upon walls where they can be seen.

known painted Arabesque

ceiling at the

We

have a well-

Greenwich Hospital.

ceilings, such as that of the

Roman Court

at the Crystal Palace, are

also very objectionable.

What can be worse than upon a

festoons of leafage, like so

ceiling, with griffins, small

ornament,all with

fictitious light

framed

and shade?

many

sausages, painted

pictures, impossible flowers,

and feeble

But not content with such

absurdities


;

WALL DECORATIONS.

S3

and incongruities, the festoons often hang upwards on vaulted or domed

ceilings,

Such ornaments arose wdien Rome, intoxicated with

rather than downwards.

its

conquests, yielded itself up to luxury and vice rather than to a consideration of

beauty and truth. Decorations like these were to an extent again revived by the great painter

Raphael

but

;

great painter

hence

and

;

it

requires

all

of the greatest

It requires all the energy of a life to

the energy of a

all

not expected that the one

it is

In

must ever be remembered that Raphael, while one

it

was no ornamentist.

of painters,

man

life

become a

to become a great ornamentist

should be great at the two

arts.

ages when decorative art has flourished, ceilings have been decorated.

The Egyptians decorated

their ceilings, so did

the Greeks, the Byzantines, the

Moors, and the people of our Middle Ages, and a light ceiling appears not to have many cases desirable. It is strange that so few

been esteemed as essential, or as in

of our houses and public buildings contain rooms with decorated ceilings

but the

;

in, and many are at this present moment must get simple modes of enrichment for general rooms modes of treatment which shall be effective, and yet not expensive—and then we

want

already

is

felt,

may hope

the fashion has set

that they will become general.

Division

We

We

being prepared.

must now devote

Decorations op Walls.

II.

ourselves to the consideration of wall decoration, or to the

manner in which ornament should be them decorative. It will

appear absurd to say that

applied to walls with the view of rendering

all

ornament that

be such as will render the wall more beautiful than

statement

is

needed, for I have seen

they would have looked

washed over with a

To ornament

much

many

better

if

it

is

applied to a wall should

would be without

it

walls ornamented in such a manner, that

tint of colour.

is

to beautify.

To decorate

is

to ornament.

But a surface cannot

it

vigorous, or true, and unless the colours applied to

are harmonious.

walls do

but this

they had been perfectly plain, and simplv

be beautified unless the forms which are drawn upon

many

;

we meet with

it

even in good houses —-walls

are graceful, or bold, or

Yet how

of corridors, walls of stair-

cases, walls of dining-rooms, walls of libraries, and, indeed, walls of every kind of

room

—which are rendered A

leads

wall

me

may

offensive, rather than pleasing,

by the decorations they

bear.

look well without decoration strictly so called, and this statement

to notice the various

ways

in

which walls may be treated with the view of

rendering them beautiful.

A " is

wall

flatted."

may be

simply tinted either with "distemper" colour, or

Distemper colour gives the best

not durable, and cannot be washed.

effect,

Oil colour

and

is

when

much flatted

oil

colour

the cheapest, but

makes a nice

it

wall,


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

84

whether "stippled" or plain, and

is

both durable and washable.

An

entire wall

should never be varnished. I say that a wall can look well even

if

Let

not decorated.

s.ea.fcSMftF

me

give one or two

Fig. 58.

Fig. 57.

instances

;

the ceiling,

A

but, perhaps, I had better give treatments for the entire room, including

and not for the wall simply.

good

effect of

by having a black

a very plain and inexpensive character

skirting, a cream-colour wall

would be produced

(this colour to be

made

of the

Fig. 59.

colour called middle-chrome and white, and

to

resemble in depth the best pure

cream), a cornice coloured with pale blue of greyish tint, with deep blue, white,

and a slight

line of red,

colour to be pure a

and

a

ceiling of blue of almost

any depth.

The

ceiling

French ultramarine, or this ultramarine mixed with white and

touch of raw umber (the cornice blues to be made in the same way).

The

red


DESIGN. Ceiling & JIM Colouring.

DECORATIVE IUnstrxuting Cornice,


85

WAIX DKCOUATIONS. in the cornice to be deep vermilion

carmine

A

if

very narrow (one-sixteenth of an inch), or

broad.*

if

room

more decorative character would be produced by making the wall of a different colour (by forming a dado) from the

of a slightly

the lower three feet of

upper part of the wall

:

thus,

the other parts of the room were coloured as in the

if

example just given, the lower three feet might be red (vermilion toned to a rich Indian red with ultramarine blue) or chocolate (purple-brown and white, with a little orange-chrome) cream-coloured black an

double

inch

this lower portion of the wall

;

being separated from the

upper

portion by a line of broad, or better by a

the upper line being an

line,

inch broad, and the lower line three-

eighths of an inch, the

lines being-

from each other by

separated

five-

eighths of the red or chocolate. I like the formation of a dado, for it

an opportunity of giving

affords

apparent

making'

stability its

furniture

is

the

to

wall

lower portion dark invariably

;

by and

much improved

by being seen against a dark back-

The occupants

ground.

room

of a

always look better when viewed in conjunction with a dark background,

and

The

ladies' dresses certainly do.

dark dado gives

the desired

ground without rendering

it

mahogany,

it

I:ti:ri:g3.n.t3:g3.iy.g3.g:i.r3

necessary

that the entire wall be dark. furniture be

back-

Km.

:.:'.

If the

will lie

wonderfully improved by being placed against

a chocolate wall.

The dado extent.

It

of a

may

Figs. 57, 58,

and

room need not be

plain

;

indeed,

51),

or the coloured border on Plate

have a simple Hower regularly dispersed over

it

;

may

it

I.

or

geometrical repeating pattern, in either of which cases it

may

it

be plain with a bordering separating

it it

be enriched to any

from the

wall, such as

(frontispiece)

may

;

or

would have a border

be enriched with a specially designed piece of ornament, as Fig. 60.

particular pattern should not, however, be enlarged to a height of

In some parts of the country If this has

may

it

be covered with a ;

or

This

more than twenty

it is customary to wash the cornice over with quick-lime. been done the lime must be carefully removed, for lime will turn carmine black.


80

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN. inches; but

to twenty-four fifteen inches, I

it

would look

if

of this width,

and above a skirting of twelve or

well.

have designed two or three narrow dado papers for Messrs. Wylie and

Lockhead, of Glasgow, which are about eighteen inches broad, and are printed in the direction of the length of

the paper, so as to save

unnecessary

joins

;

and

Messrs. Jeffrey and Co., of Essex Road, Islington, are

issuing

series of

for

my

walls,

complete

a

decorations

dados,

and

ceilings.

If the dado

is

en-

riched with ornament, and

the

cornice

coloured,

is

and a pattern spreads

all

over the ceiling, the walls

can

well

they

may

a simple

plain,

lie

but

be covered with

"powdering"

as

the patterns in Fig. 01, if

these are in soft colours,

or with patterns such as

those set forth in colours

<m Plate

I.;

but these,

especially that on the blue

ground, would

only

be

used where a very rich effect is desired.

A Fie:.

ceiling in dark blue

valence

good room would

be produced by

Fig. 61.

behn

pattern th

and cream-colour, by the cornice being coloured with a pro-

dark blue, the walls being cream-colour down to the dado; the border

<if

separating the dado from the wall being black ornament on a dull orange-colour ;

and by the dado being chocolate with a black rosette upon being bright of the wall

bordering

black.

can (inly

may

it;

the skirting boards

The dado may or may not be varnished; the upper part be "dead" (not varnished dull). If the room is high a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

ran round the npper portion of the wall, about three to four inches


87

WALL-PAPEKS.

be employed in dull orange

may

such a bolder as Fig. 62

below the cornice;

and chocolate.

A

citrine wall

comes well with a

prevails in the cornice, and this wall

with a

little

dee]) blue, or blue

may

and white

white) dado, or a rich maroon dado (brown-lake)

employed the

ceiling,

if

blue

have a dark blue (ultramarine and black

junction with the blue, will appear as black as

.

If the blue dado

when varnished and

skirting- should be indigo, which,

is

seen in con-

(See the coloured examples on

jet.

Plate II., and remarks on colour on pages 45 and 46.)

Walls are usually papered universal custom; but

In

strips.

all

cases

lines, for straight

I

in

I

middle-class houses.

do say, try to

must not object

avoid showing the joinings

where possible cut the paper to the pattern, and not

joinings are very objectionable.

If

to this

of the various

you use paper for

in straight

walls, use it

Fi". 62.

artistically,

and not as

bordering (dado

rail)

so

much

paper.

Let a dado be formed of one paper, the dado

of a suitable paper bordering

the upper part of the wall

;

being covered by another paper of simple and just design, and of such colour as shall

harmonise with the dado.

Proceed as an

Think out an ornamental scheme, and then try all

and not as

The

best for

all

which designs similar

a

mere workman.

to realise the desired effect.

papers in which huge bunches of flowers and animals or the

depicted. in

artist,

human

Avoid

figure are

purposes are those of a simple geometrical character, or

to those in Fig. 01 are

"powdered"

or placed at regular

intervals over a plain ground.

Just as the ceiling ornament must accord in character with the architecture of the

room

in

which

it is

placed, so

architecture of the room.

must the wall decoration be

Indeed, whatever

we have

of the

same

said respecting the

style as the

harmony

of

the ceiling decoration with the architecture of the building, applies ecpially to the

ornamentation of the wall. It has been customary to arrange walls into panels

when decorating them, and


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

88 of this

mode

of treatment

we give one

illustration (Fig. 63)

absurd than such a treatment, unless the wall

A wall

is

;

yet nothing can be more

architecturally (structurally) arched.

ma}- be so formed that some parts are thick, so as to give the required strength,

while other portions are thin.

In such a case the wall would be formed of arched

Fig. 63.

This being

and thickened piers alternately.

recesses

flic case,

the decoration should

be so applied as to emphasise, or render apparent, this arched structure; but wall

is

of

We view of

one thickness throughout,

sometimes see great brinerine

about

the

follies,

its

division into arches

is

if

the

absurd and foolish.

and even gross untruths, perpetrated with the

so-called

decoration

of

a room.

Thus

it

is

not


SHAMS IN DECORATION. unfrequentlv that

we meet with

89

imitation pillars, recesses, and arches as the so-called

ornamentation of a room.

In low music halls we are not surprised by such decorations, for we do not look for truth or

any manifestation of delicacy of feeling

such places.

in

Falsity and the

Sham

untrue appear in natural juxtaposition with the debased and the vulgar.

marble

a fictitious and merely imitative architecture, an assumed and unreal,

pillars,

yet coarse and vulgar, gorgeousness, are the natural adjuncts of immorality and vice;

but such

cannot be tolerated in the abodes of those

falsities

and truth, nor

has sham marble pillars

Here we

sham

containing falsity

which a

How

;

a display of false decoration such as I never

;

falsely constituted it

is

sham pillars, giving a false architecture ; sham niches,sham clouds, forming an absurd ceiling and almost every

find

statues

strange

mind could

fierce quarrel,

perpetrate.

that in a church, where purity and truth are taught, the

is

whole of the decorations should be a sham

theological

It is said that if

!

and to see true hatred, you must seek

On

discussionists.

it

you want

is

As the

that of contrast.

to hear a

in religious sects and

the same principle, I suppose,

we must

ourselves for a display of the worst art-falsity in the sacred edifice. idea

to purity

say this to our shame), and but recently I visited a

(I

church near Edgware, in which there before saw.

who pretend

which they frequent; yet even the new Albert Hall

in the buildings

among prepare

Perhaps the

had a drunken man by him

teetotal lecturer

a frightful example of what was to be avoided, so the decorations of this church

as

may

be intended as a warning, rather than as an example of what should be followed.

Happily such churches as this are architecture and decoration has in

very

many

instances

rare,

and

made great

it

can be truly said that ecclesiastical

strides

with us in recent years, and that

rigidly truthful as well as beautiful.

it is

Before leaving the consideration of wall decorations, I must object to imitations, as

sham marbles,

any extent a display of costs

granites, etc., for no wall can be satisfactory

false

grandeur

and

more to produce an imitation marble

walls with the marbles imitated. cost

;

I have

this is curious, that in

staircase

known a

it

case in

would to

many

and granites,

as I

have already

work

is

always expensive.

said, I strongly object,

not fond, unless sparingly and judiciously used. :

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

1st.

exactness

is

Harmony

of

colour depends

rarely attainable in the case of

to

same

which the imitation has

To

not

is

imitations of marbles

and of the genuine stone

My objections to

its free

upon great exactness of two marbles.

all

is

cases it

line the

double what the genuine stone woidd have cost, and such a case

exceptional, for hand-polished

these

than

which

One

tint.

I

am

use are

This

stone may, however,

be brought into direct and perfect harmony with a coloured wall, by the tint of the wall being carefully suited to the marble. costliness of the material of

2nd.

The

true artist thinks less of the

which he forms his works than of the art-effect produced.

Thus the old Greeks, who were

full

of art-feeling and refinement, coloured the


90

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

buildings which they constructed of white marble, and they certainly thereby

improved them

charm

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

;

for colour, if

harmoniously employed, lends to objects a new

charm which they would not without

before leaving our present subject, that

all walls,

must further

I

possess.

it

say,

however decorated, should serve as

a background to whatever stands in front of them.

Thus they must

retire

even

behind the furniture by their unobtrusiveness.

The

The

order of arrangement in furnishing must be this.

room should be most

attractive

such a character as to secure their attire;

man should be now employ any amount of colour

and conspicuous, and the dress of Ladies can

this.

Next come the

all,

in

both are dressed in an unbecoming and inartistic

furniture and draperies

prominence according to circumstances are to serve as backgrounds to

all

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

one or the other having

then come the wall and

;

floor,

taken into consideration, that they are but enriched backgrounds

be remembered that the nature of the enrichment applied

by the character of the architecture

is

both of which

In decorating walls,

that stands in front of them.

or in judging of the merit or suitability of wall decorations, this

extent,

of

but poor man, however noble, cannot by his dress be distinguished

from his butler ; and, worst of manner.

living beings in a

must always be

and

;

it

should also

determined, to a great

of the building of

which the wall forms

a part.

We

come now

to consider wall-papers,

which are hangings prepared with the

view of enabling us to decorate our walls at comparatively small confess that I

am

Yet they are largely used, and

I have already said that

come.

if

may

I prefer a

not very fond of wall-papers under any circumstances.

tinted or painted wall.

I

cost.

long time to

will be for a

wall-jiapers are used they should not be joined

we ought

together with straight lines, and that

them

to consider

as

much

so

art-material which should be used artistically.

As

to the nature of the pattern

which a wall-paper should have,

impossible to speak, as there are endless varieties; but as a rule

it

may

it is

almost

be said that

those consisting of small, simple, repeated parts, which are low-toned or neutral in

Most wall-paper

colour, are the best.

pattern can scarcely be too simple, and If the

may

ornament

is

patterns are larger than it

should in

all

very good, and the pattern

is

desirable.

eases consist of

is

flat

The

ornament.

the work of a true artist,

it

be larger, for then the parts will be balanced and harmonised in a manner that

could not be expected from a less skilful hand designer,

it

but even

must ever be remembered that he has designed

a suitable decoration for any particular room. a particular wall must choose that which

The

;

effect of

by the quantity

a wall-paper

is

it

it

The man who

by the most talented at random,

and not as

selects the pattern for

suitable to the special case.

materially affected

by many circumstances.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;whether (ho room

Thus,

is

dark or light; by

receives the sun's rays direct or does not;

by the character

of light admitted to the

(ho aspect, whether

is

if

room


91

WAU.-I'APKR I'ATTKHNS.

green lawn, or of the light, as whether direct from the sky, or reflected fi'om a well in the looks what and be considered, must things these All red-brick wall. pattern-book ma}' look bad on a wall.

Fig. 65.

Fig. 64.

Fig. 66 Fig. 67.

As

to colour, the best wall-paper patterns are those

strong colours in very small masses

paper

is rich,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;masses

which consist of somewhat

so small that the general effect of the

low-toned, and neutral, and yet has a glowing colour-bloom; but these

are rarely to be

met with.


92

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

was a fashion some time since

It

fabrics,

and

this fashion has

to

make wall-papers

imitation of woven

in

not wholly disappeared yet, absurd though

it

be.

It arose

through the accident of a designer of wall-paper patterns having- been a shawl pattern designer, and having- a number of small shawl patterns on hand, which he disposed of as wall-paper jwtterns. suitable to a printed fabric,

A pattern which is suitable for a woven fabric is rarely and especially when the one pattern is to be seen in folds

on a moving object, and the other

flat

And

on a fixed surface.

at all times imitation

by one material of another -

\Xv,

: :

:.

untruthful,

and

specially absurd

when we think

that almost every material

capable

good

of

is

some

producing-

art-effect

material can.

is

becomes

it

which no other

We

should

al-

ways seek to make each material as distinctive in its art-character as

we

can, and to cause each to

appear as beautiful as possible that

in

which

particular

manner

in

can most naturally be

it

worked.

A

word should

be

said

about the particular character

which

a

wall-paper

pattern

should have, but the remarks

which will

Fig. 69.

I

am now about

apply equally to

all

to

make

patterns

employed as wall decorations. If

we view

trees or plants, as

we

them against the sky

see

objects which point upwards and have a bilateral (Figs,

view we

may

and

til

may

poinl

(15)

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; or

are

more or

less irregular in

Fig-.

01, and be

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; their halves are

alike

form, and when seen in this

regard them as natural wall decorations.

upwards, as in

as a background, they are

symmetry

Our

wall patterns, then,

bilateral or otherwise; but

it

must be

remembered that when the flowers of

a

primrose protrude from a bank they are

regular radiating-, or star, ornaments.

I

think that

on

wall

a

star, or

it

is

legitimate for us to use

regular radiating- ornaments, as well as those having- an upward

tendency. I

have said that when seen from the side plants are

irregular.

As

I

bilateral, or are

more or

less

have referred to plants as furnishing- us with types of ornament,

should not be doing- rightly were

I

to leave this statement

in its present form;

I

for


93

COLOURING OP CORNICES. the tendency of the vital force of

symmetrical character

and

frosts, so act

apparent

w ant r

of

;

all

plants

is

to produce structures of

rigidly

hut insects, which eat buds and leaves, and blights, winds,

upon plants as to destroy their normal symmetry, hence we

symmetry

in the

find an

arrangement of the parts of plants.

Respecting the colouring of cornices, a few words should be

said.

1st.

Bright

colours

may

on

or hollow surfaces, especially those that recede from the eye, and yellow on

flat

here be employed.

rounded advancing members.

2nd.

3rd.

blue, ultramarine either pure or with

with white.

medium

4th.

Use

As Use

a rule, get red in shadow or in shade, blue

for red either vermilion or carmine

white; for yellow,

middle chrome much

for

red very sparingly, blue abundantly, the pale yellow in

quantity.

Besides primary colours, none others need be used on the cornice.

mistake to use many, or dull, colours, here, but gold

With

;

diluted

may

the view of explaining the principles which

It

is

a

be used instead of yellow.

we have

just enunciated

by

diagrams, we give four illustrations (Figs. 66, 67, 68, 69), which I advise the student to try and colour in accordance with the principles just set forth.


CHAPTER

V.

CARPETS.

It

is

not

my

intention in this chapter to consider in detail the various kinds of

common

carpet which are

manufacture, interesting as

in our market, nor even to review the history of their

would be to do

it

so; for

we must

more

confine ourselves

particularly to an examination of the art-qualities which they present, and to the

form of pattern which may be applied to them with advantage. Although we cannot here enter into a consideration of the manufacture of

particular

carpets, I cannot too strongly to consider

recommend

all

who intend preparing designs

for

minutely the powers of the carpet loom ; for the nature of the

them effect

produced will depend to a large extent upon the knowledge which the designer possesses of the capabilities of the manufacture for

the case of any manufacture

it is

highly desirable,

which he designs patterns.

if

not

the designer of the patterns to be wrought should be acquainted with the process

which his design

is

has been prepared

amount

to be converted into the particular material for

;

for this knowledge, even

of freedom and

The

carpets

power which nothing

most extensively

in use are

kinds both of better and inferior qualities.

when not else

small, as

it

;

absolutely essential, gives an

can supply. ;

is

a

common

fabric suited to the

but the art-capabilities of this material are very

can only have two colours in any line running throughout

its

This carpet consists of two thicknesses, which are imperfectly united, and

" Brussels carpeting," now made chiefly in Great Britain,

durable.

for general purposes.

Its surface consists of loops,

of extra quality, six colours in colours in the

worsted

woven

;

same

any

by

which the pattern

" Brussels " but there are many other " Kidderminster carpet" (a carpet not

now made by even one Kidderminster manufacturer) bedrooms of middle-class houses

In

absolutely essential, that

line

and

it

may have

running throughout

its

is

length. is

five, or, if

length.

not

a good carpet

made

If with five

line the carpet will, in a sense, consist of five thicknesses of

In some cases a " Brussels carpet " is thus we have a " velvet texture, with the loops cut through

yet these are united into one fabric.

of very close

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

"Wilton carpet" a fabric which is very rich-looking, and durable. Those called real " Axminster" carpets are, perhaps, the best made. They are formed by the knotting together of threads by hand, consequently any number of pile" or

colours

may

be used in their formation

;

but such are necessarily most costly.

A


"

95

VARIETIES OF CARPETS.

"patent Axminster" carpet

rough "cloth"

is

is

made by a double

formed, which

these are again

woven

carpets produced

by

it

process of hand- weaving, by which

and any number of colours used.

fine results are achieved,

This process

into the carpet.

are very good

;

first

weaving a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

most ingenious, and the

is

but they are costly.

Some few years since a most ingenious process as " tapestry " carpets was patented

In the

cut into strips called " chenille threads/' and

is

of manufacturing

a process resembling in

its

what are known

nature that of the

" patent Axminster manufacture, but differing in this particular, that the " warp threads are coloured by printing, and thus the with.

These carpets

are, like Brussels,

They cannot be

pile.

said to

made

process of weaving

first

is

dispensed

with a looped surface, and also with a

compare in any way with the patent Axminster carpets,

which are of a pretentious and costly character, nor even with a good " Brussels but they are low in price, and meet a want, as is proved by their enormous sale.

;

Besides these varieties of carpet there are a number of kinds of foreign produc-

most of which are hand-made, and are very beautiful. By far the greater number of these have a " pile," although this is sometimes rough and uneven, yet

tion,

rarely, if ever, inartistic;

but a few are without pile;

indescribable something which renders

Having hastily noticed the chief kinds might say in almost all countries, we come or

what character

When

of ornament, should

still

them estimable

these are not without that

in the eye of an artist.

of carpet in use in this country, to the question

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;what

and we

form of pattern,

form the "enrichment" of such a fabric?

speaking in a previous chapter

page 92) of wall decorations, we

(see

noticed that a wall-paper pattern, or, indeed, a wall pattern of any kind, might

upward direction and a

desirably have an

bilateral

surface, or have a simple radiating

symmetry, as Fig. 56

have a radiating pattern on a wall, but

pattern on a

;

It is not

whether the pattern be simple or complicated. before, to

symmetry.

This can never be the

must be equally extended

case, however, with a carpet pattern, which

it

is

and

all

over the

this rale will apply

wrong, as we have said

wrong

to have a bilateral

floor.

The reason of this is obvious. If such an object as we have indicated is placed on a wall, from whatever point the occupants of the room may view it, it is yet right way upwards to them; but if such an object were placed on a floor it would be wrong way upwards, or sideways, or oblique to most of those who viewed it; and to employ a pattern of this character in such a position readily be

we asked work

formed which to

is

highly absurd, when a pattern can as

will avoid this unpleasantness.

view a picture, or even

to visit

while the pattern

And

;

think were

an apartment containing such, were

of art presented to our view in an inverted

at the absurdity

What would we

manner ?

We should

this

feel astonished

yet this would be no worse than expecting us to view a carpet is

to us in

an inverted position.

the principle which

we have

just set forth

is

one taught by a consideration


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

96 If

of plants.

that

all

ments "

the

we wander over

we

tread on Nature's carpet,

we

find

plants which nestle in the short mossy grass are " radiating orna-

little

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

the moor, where

is,

they are pretty objects which consist of

pai-ts

spreading regularly

from a centre. I cannot too strongly advise the

which Nature works. plant-growth

Knowledge

very desirable ; hut

is

beautiful of plant-forms

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

this

young ornamentist

of the laws it

to study the principles

not our place to imitate even the most

is

being the work of the pictorial

artists.

to study Nature's laws, and to observe all her beauty, even to her

and then we purposes.

may

But

safely pillage

in order that

principles will

all

that

(See page

which we may apply

in art,

and

manner

Thus Fig. 04

is

(Viburnum opulns) when seen from the

when viewed

as a wall decoration; and Fig. 70

same manner

infuse

mind

effects,

to our

own

or soul into

in

which Nature teaches us

of aiding the student in his inquiries,

{guelder rose

or, to use the

ours

2.)

the view of more fully impressing the

give one or two illustrations.

it is

most subtle

we can consistently adapt

we produce ornament, we must

whatever we borrow from her.

With

from her

Yet

Fig. 73.

Fig. 71.

Fig. 70.

on

which govern the development of

of expression,

is

we

a drawing of a spray of the side, or, as I

might express

it,

the same spray as seen from above,

when

seen as a lloor pattern.

Further,


97

TREATMENT OF NATURAL FORMS IN CARPET PATTERNS. Fig. 71 represents a

of speedwell {Veronica) as a wall orna-

ment, and Fig. 72,

as a floor

yotmg plant of a species tbe same plant when seen

ornament

;

and Pigs. 65 and

two 73 represent a portion of the goosegrass (Galium Aparine) as seen in the same views.

Fig. 74.

From

Fig. 76.

Fig. 75.

these illustrations

we

see that

plants furnish

us with types of

two

essentially different ornaments, which are adapted to the decoration of the two

positions of wall

and

floor,

and may he introduced with truthful expression and

effect

into wall-paper or carpet.

Even when the

leaves appear

somewhat dispersed upon the stem,

Fij;.

Fig. 78.

Fig. 77.

order can yet he distinctly traced in

diagrammatieally expressed in Figs.

the

7-4,

manner

75, 76

;

of

their

a principle of

79.

arrangement, as

is

and here, also, the top view gives

us a regular radiating ornament.*

The same law

prevails in the flower that

arrangement of leaves upon the stem

:

we have

traced as existing in the

thus Fig. 77, which represents the London

pride {Saxifraga umlrosa), affords an example of a regular radiating flower, which

*

spiral

Tbe spray here represented manner

in

is

that of the oak, and the diagram (Fig 74) shows the orderly

which the leaves spring from the stem.


98

we

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

ornament; and

find so placed, in different examples, as to appear as a floor or wall

Figs. 78 and 79, the former being the flower of the speedwell {Veronica), and the latter that of the

common pansy

(Viola tricolor), furnish us with illustrations of

bilateral flowers intended only as wall

pansy only tally

from the

with a bent stalk

laterally, it is furnished

upon the summit of

hence

never rests horizon-

it

it is

perfectly seen only

side.

bilateral flowers are placed horizontally

but

;

very interesting to notice that when this occurs the disposition or arrangement

of the flowers

is

such as to restore the radiating symmetry.

candytuft (Iberis) or the is

;

stem, but always hangs so that

its

There are cases, however, in which it is

In order to secure our seeing the

ornaments.

common hemlock

bilateral in character, the flowers are yet

(Conium),

we

Thus,

if

we take

the

find that while each flower

arranged around a centre in such a manner

that the smaller portion of each flower points to the centre of the flower-head, while the larger parts point outwards from the centre of the group.

we

teachings of plants, to which

The above

These, then, are the

are called irpon to hearken.

illustrations are not only useful

examples of the suggestions of

plant-forms to the ornamentist, but form excellent material to the art-student for

They

the conventional treatment of leaves and sprays, buds and blossoms.

will also

serve to indicate the kind of plant-forms that should be chosen for decorative purposes.

Students of this branch of art would find flowers

it

a useful practice to

and plants or parts of plants that appear

of which

we have been

by endeavouring

make a

collection of

to offer features similar to those

writing, and test their capabilities for decorative purposes,

them

to arrange

we

for the ornamentation of wall and floor, as

have treated the plant-forms indicated in this chapter.

We

have now seen the principle on which

all

carpet patterns

should be

constructed as distinctive from wall patterns, and in order to impress the necessity of giving a radiating basis to the ornaments placed structure,

that

all

we have referred when viewed

plants,

to the principle as floor

radiating character; whereas

if

are either radiating or bilateral.

some covering

;

bilateral

we

noticed

they are seen as wall or vertical ornaments, they This

is

a necessity of a carpet pattern, that

for his floor

richer in colour than stone or brick.

warmth

and not a

plant growth, where

it

And

it

have

point in more than two directions.

naturally accustomed to tread on grass,

civilisation, seeks

carpets,

ornaments (when viewed from above), are of a

a radiating structure, or, in other words, that

Man

of

upon

which

when brought shall

into a state of

be softer to the tread and

in our northern climate

hence he chooses not a mere matting, or

lattice of reeds,

he seeks

also

but a covering

such as shall satisfy his requirements.

In early times our lingering floor,

in

floors

some country

appear to have been strewn with sand

districts; then

eame the habit

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a custom

still

of strewing reeds over the

and on the part of the opulent, sweet-scented reeds {Acorns calamus).

And

it


QUALITIES OF A CJOOD CARPET PATTERN. is

99

curious to notice, in connection with this subject, that one of the charges brought

by Henry VIII. against Cardinal Wolsey was that of extravagance in the use of sweet reeds. This use of reeds was succeeded by the employment of mats of simple appearance, formed of a kind of grass, and these by the introduction of wool mats, at

tvhich,

country.

were chiefly imported, but afterwards manufactured in our own The wool mats were in their turn replaced by carpets, which gradually first,

increased in size

their proportions

till

became such

as to cover the entire floor

on which they were placed. This brief history brings us to notice what

is

required of a carpet

be soft in texture, rich in appearance, and of "bloomy"

We may suitable

any

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

add to these requirements by saying that a carpet should

background

that in character in

:

with the objects with which

should accord

shoulj

also

works of furniture or other objects placed upon

to all

it

it

effect.

it

be a

it,

and

associated

is

particular apartment.

Considering more fully these requirements, we notice that a carpet should be This

soft. is

as

is

very desirable, for softness gives a sense of comfort, and with softness

generally combined durability of the fabric

an art-quality.

when the

may

Yet

as the art

but softness can scarcely be regarded

;

which an object bears

fitness of the object to the

purpose for which

is

it is

more leniently viewed

intended

is

apparent,

we

safely regard softness as a very desirable quality of a carpet.

The Eastern carpets are pre-eminent in this made carpets "Brussels" and tapestry are the

quality of softness, and of English-

character,

If the carpet

employed in any apartment as a

desirable to place soft felt under

it is

it (felt

at carpet warehouses), or evenly spread soft hay, for fabric will be greatly increased,

as

kind of Brussels carpeting with

a soft back has recently been brought out, but at pi-esent the trade.

way;

least satisfactory in this

A

usually made, they have a hard "backing."

it

floor

is

not general in

covering

harsh in

is

for this purpose can be got

by

so doing the

and the pleasure of walking on

it

wear of the will also

be

correspondingly greater.

is

The next quality of a carpet is richness. No carpet is " washy" or faded in appearance. There must be "depth" of Hangings may be

of art-quality. carpet must be

But

rich and "

this richness

must be

which a carpet can present I

young

hope that student.

my

full

''

is

delicate,

a "fulness"

wall-decorations soft in tint, but a

in effect, yet a general softness of tone

of singular character, for the

is

desirable.

most desirable

effect

that of a glowing neutral bloom.

language does not appear mystical to the general reader or

To the ornamentist

I think

it

will be intelligible.

What

to say is that the effect should be glowing, or radiant, or bright, as dull, quiet, or

which

satisfactory effect,

heavy; that

it

dominance of bright and warm

I wish

opposed to

should be such as results from the use of a precolours, rather

than of cold and neutral hues

;

that

it


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

100 should be neutral, inasmuch as

but should have an

it

should not present large masses of positive colour,

equality of rich

be " bloomy," or have the

harmonious colours throughout

effect of

a garden full of

;

that

flowei-s, or better, of

of a Swiss alp, where the flowers combine to form one vast harmonious

it

should

the slope

"glow"

of

-a?

TC

Fig. 80.

colour.

This

is

the effect which a carpet should present, yet

flowers, imitatively rendered, as its

ornamentation.

not to be produced by the ornamentist for they arc

pictures.

;

picture,

also,

will

should never present

they must come from the pictorial

They cannot form

living objects, for they are positive, and

copies of the

it

Such imitative renderings are artist,

suitable backgrounds to furniture

not neutral, in their general effect.

and

A

not bear repetition: whoever heard of one person having two

same picture

in

one room

?

Yet a pictorial group of flowers

may


" COT.OI-R-BLOOM be seen repeated

many

times over a

floor,

101

IN CARPETS.

which

is

very objectionable.

The

effect to

;

be produced achieve this

will that of a rich " colour-bloom " but the skilled oroamentisi and delicately gently and will without violating any laws of fitness, is

hint at the beauty of a profusion of blossom through his tenderly

formed pattern. Yet a carpet must be neutral in its general effect, as

background

objects

Neutrality of effect

rest.

of

is

masses of

Large

two kinds.

the

it is

which

on

tertiary

or neutral colours will

achieve

its

the

of

juxtaposition

the

will

so also

production,

primary colours in small quantities, either

alone or with the

secondary colours, and black or white;

but there will be this

difference

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

between the two

produced by

colours will

effects

low-toned

be simply neutral,

while that produced by the pri-

mary

"bloomy"

colours will be

and

as well as neutral,

if

yellows

and reds slightly predominate in the intermingling of colours, the effect will

The

be glowing or radiant. radiant,

glowing,

or

bloomy neutrality of that which

is

it

effect

most

is

desirable

that a carpet should present.

This effect

is

rarely

duced in English carpets,

want of

either to the

skill

the part of the ornamentist, is

pro-

owing on

who

unable to produce such works

Fig. Si.

;

the want of judgment on the part of the manufacturer, whereby he fails to produce

such patterns

;

or the

want

of taste on the part of the consumer,

buys works of a more vulgar character. sought to

realise as

much

I

owing

to

which he

have designed carpets in which

of this effect as I could with six colours

I

have

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the number to


102

P1UXCIPI.ES ok design.

which I have been limited by the conditions of manufacture, and fortunately these appear to be commanding a large sale, and to be setting a fashion in carpets but ;

those

who wish

to study these

bloomy effects

in their

more perfect forms, must do so

in

the carpets of India, Persia, Smyrna, and Morocco, but especially in the Indian rugs.

Some

of the carpets

from India are perfect marvels of colour-harmony, and

They appear

radiant bloom.

of

glow

to

as a bed of flowers in the sunshine,

and yet they are neutral general

effect,

in their

and when placed

in

an apartment do not usurp a primary

any

place, as does

pictorially treated

pattern.

This " bloom " was seen to perfection in one or

two

silk

rugs which

were shown at the International Exhibition of 1862 in London,

and

was not much

less

of the carpets

from India shown

it

apparent in some in

Most

the Paris Exhibition of ISO 7.

Indian carpets have this colour-bloom

some

to

extent,

and few are unworthy

of careful study.

Persian carpets also models of

be

;

they are

(Fig.

(SO)

are

what carpets should

less

many

radiant than

of the Indian works, but are almost

more mingled pattern

Fig. 8

many

in

of

colour-effect.

the

Indian

In

and

Persian carpets are identical, being

and both arc worthy of much consideration.

traditional, yet in colour they differ,

The Morocco Persia,

and even to

In these there mingled with

is

carpets

a greater degree

differ

again from both those of India and

than the Persian carpet

often a prevalence of soft yellows

reds, blues,

harmonious and

(Fig. 81)

and grey-whites,

in

To the young

artistic effect.

to cultivate his taste in respect to such matters,

differs

from the Indian.

and juicy yellow-greens,

inter-

such a manner as to produce a most student, and to 1

say,

any who may

desire

Study the carpets of the East

most carefully, especially those of India, Persia, and Morocco. Indian carpels, such as the building of the

\vc

new India

have

jus!

may be seen al the museum in which museum is open free to the

referred to,

Office at "Whitehall,

public (for examples, see Figs. 82, 83, 81).


AND

"ALL-OVER

to the nature of the pattern which

As "

fiEOM ETHICAL PATTEHNS.

may he

J

we have

applied to a carpet,

all-over " patterns, or patterns spreading- regularly

all

over the surface

;

" geo-

metrical " patterns, or those which have an apparent regularity of structure

panel patterns, or those in

which particular parts

are, as it were,

framed

03

off

anil

;

from

other parts.

both Indian and Persian carpets, and for a

woven

What

floor covering.

will give richness

may have

These are what we almost always

"all-over" patterns.

Firstj as to

is

are,

find in

undouhtedly, the true form of decoration

desirable

is

an evenly spread pattern, such as

without destroying" the unity of the entire

effect.

The

pattern

parts slightly accentuated

or emphasised

beyond other

but not strongly

so,

parts,

and this em-

phasising of parts must be arranged

with the view of securing to the

Thus,

pattern special interest.

carpet

a

if

viewed at a distance

is

should not appear as devoid of

it

all

pattern, but through the slight pre-

dominance of certain leading features Indian

(in

generally

carpets,

of

ornamental flowers) the plan of the

More

design should be indicated. detail should

work

is

seen from a nearer point of

view, and spection parts

be apparent when the

;

still

more upon

close in-

fSiSiililKffif*

1

but in no case should any

appear

Fig. 83.

strongly pronounced,

or otherwise than refined and beautiful, and in of interest manifested

by the

pattern.

Carpet patterns are generally better

way most

of the Indian

no case should there be a want

if

founded on a geometrical plan.

and Persian patterns are constructed.

A

In this

geometrical plan

secures to the design a manifestation of order and thought in its formation. patterns, unless very carefully find a sort of panel in

managed, become

which the colour of the ground

Panel

In some Indian carpets

coarse. is

we

changed from that of the

general ground of the carpet, but here the panel has usually a truly ornamental

form, and

is,

distinct space. it is

so

indeed, rather a large ornament than a sort of frame enclosing a

Whenever a panel

managed, and

its

surroundings are such, as to cause

natural to the general design

we

occurs in an Indian, Persian, or Moorish carpet,

;

but

it is far

it

to appear as a part

otherwise with the panel patterns which

occasionally see in our shop-windows as the produce of native industry, and

it is


.

PRINCIPLES

104 far

otherwise with

those which ai e -

Judging from the carpets which they in matters of decorative art so

great

floral

01'

used in vast quantities by the Americans. order, I

depraved as

patterns have ceased to be

DESIGN.

imagine that nowhere on earth it

is

America.

in

is

taste

It is true that the

demanded by them, but they

are only replaced

Fig. 84.

by

coarse, raw-looking panel patterns, coloured

the most vulgar manner, and

in

without even a hint at refinement or harmony of colour.

and inharmoniously coloured, and the chances of

its

Let the pattern be " loud

sale in the

"

American market!

are great

But we must not forget that even as well as good, inartistic patterns

character,

and that even here in

as

in our

own country bad

well as those

Great Britain more

patterns sell equally

which are of a more

of the indifferent,

if

refined

not of

tin*


WANT OF NOVELTY very bad,

sells

we

eye, before

try to extract

it

white,

is

They have

white.

and

This

some

may

vary much, as we

any other

almost impossible that

it is

grounds.

from that of another.

of a carpet

blue, red, green, or white, or

often told that

Let us east the beam, then, Prom our own

than of the good.

The ground colour

it

a mistake.

When

look well.

of the Indian carpets

Some

it is

make a

not an easy matter to

The

I

it

is

show that the most

will

it is

a thing difficult to If on

black or indigo blue.

drawn

in small masses of

be achieved, and a glance at our satisfactory carpets are coloured in

way.

As

to the size of the pattern

we can say but

is

obvious that a

much

carpet pattern

A

the design.

is

pattern

about

a quarter of

is

smaller and finer pattern can be produced

(twenty-seven inches

best small, or at least small in detail

may

Brussels), or but one figure

if

of smallness which

is

if

not in the extent of

repeat three or four times in the width of the fabric

latter case the detail of the pattern

may

may

be shown, yet in

be as great as in the former.

compatible with tolerable distinctness of detail

For this reason Turkey carpets are not altogether satisfactory; no

this

That degree is

desirable.

fine pattern

be worked in them, and besides this they have no colour-bloom and

harmony.

is

than in Turkey carpet.

in Brussels

A

It

by

as this will be determined

In some Turkey carpets each stitch

the one-tenth of an inch square.

an inch square.

little,

In a Brussels carpet each stitch

the coarseness or fineness of the fabric.

little

can

colour-

In some respects they are good, but altogether they are not satisfying.

Before I close these remarks upon carpets,

let

me

say that, as designers,

we are one and all timid of new things. produce new things, to manufacture them, to

manufacturers, and consumers,

daring

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

What

if

energy to the pattern is " extreme,"

should think us eccentric If

pure

Yet even with a light-toned

can be done, but

may

bright colour, a beautiful bloomy effect

this

am

this assertion I

carpet which shall appear as a suitable

and best ground for a carpet

safest

shop-windows

make

pure

is

light grounds, but not

this a closely fitting, well-studied pattern be arranged,

best

be black,

light cream-grey, or green-white grounds, but not pure white,

background to the furniture of a room; achieve.

may

it

which I so much admire have white

them have

of

know;

all

ground of a carpet

If the

colour.

this variety of tone altogether alters the case.

ground

105

IN PATTERNS.

?

if it is

better than others

?

what

if

We

want

use them.

Mrs. Grundy

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

better be eccentric than ever harping on one monotony.

we could but bear calmly the

derisive smiles of the ignorant, art-progress

would

be easy.

With us

carpets cover the entire floor.

the boards, and but seldom taken up.

In London these carpets are nailed to

In some parts of England we find rings sewn

around the under edge of the carpet, which rings are looped to the heads of

nails.

Carpets so furnished can be more readily removed for cleaning than those which are


100

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

Square carpets, such as the Turkey, Indian, and Persian, are

nailed to the floor.

spread loosely on the boards, and can he taken up and shaken without difficulty.

This

unquestionably the most healthy plan of using a carpet, and

is

If the outer portion of the

artistic plan.

room

simple and suitable pattern, and a loose square carpet

have an

is

spread in the centre,

and the desirable knowledge that cleanliness

artistic effect,

it is also

an

formed of inlaid wood of

floor is

is

we

also attainable

with a reasonable expenditure of labour. Before

we

we

leave the consideration of carpets

the conditions which govern the application of

can more easily be

made

short

to

concise

will state in axiomatic

ornament

sentences

to

form

them, as reference

than to more extended

remarks. 1st.

Carpet patterns

gives to the 2nd.

mind an

When

may with advantage have

a geometrical formation, for this

idea of order or arrangement.

the pattern has not a geometrical basis, a general evenness of

surface should be preserved. 3rd. Carpets are better not

of

wood

formed into " panels," as though they were works

or stone; on the contrary, they should have a general "all-over" effect

without any great accentuation of particular parts.

The Indian and Persian

carpets

meet this requirement. 4th.

While a carpet should present

a general appearance of evenness, parts

may

yet be slightly "pronounced" or emphasised, so as to give to the mind the idea of centres from which the pattern radiates. 5th.

A

carpet should, in

flowers; thus,

"bloom"

when

of colour;

features of

some

respects, resemble a

bank richly covered with

seen from a distance the effect should be that of a general

when viewed from

somewhat

special

make their appearance. 6th. As a floor is a flat make it appear otherwise.

interest;

a nearer point

it

should present certain

and when looked at closely new beauties

should

7th.

A

carpet,

somewhat neutral 8th. to it as a

lo

surface,

no ornamental covering placed on

is

should

having to serve as a background to furniture, should be of a

character.

Every carpet, however small, should have a border, which frame

it

is

as necessary

to a picture.

Having thus summarised the principles that govern the application of ornament carpets, we may proceed to notice the conditions governing the decoration of

other

woven

fabrics.


CHAPTER

VI.

CURTAIN MATERIALS, HANGINGS, AND WOVEN FABRICS GENERALLY. In the consideration of hangings of various kinds, we have of the cloth on

which the pattern

is

The openness

than those which are thicker or closer. will thus determine, to

notice the nature

first to

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;whether

Fabrics of an open character should bear upon

texture.

upon

worked

to be

of open or close

it is

them a

larger pattern

or closeness of the fabric

an extent, the nature of the ornament which

to be placed

is

Muslins, being open in character, should have larger patterns than calicoes,

it.

which are closer in texture, or the pattern will be indistinct in the one case or coarse in

the other.

But not only does texture

influence the pattern

when

considered as to coarseness

or fineness, but also the nature of the cloth as regards material.

greater fulness of colour than muslins or calico-prints, lustre of the material,

by

Silk, as a material, also

should be in cheaper and

the contrast of

where

it is

silk will bear

commoner

fabrics.

as in the case of those

"tabby" and

woven

may

satin, it

which a

less reflective material

conveys to the mind an idea of costliness or

worth, and wherever the material does so the pattern

same colour only,

Thus

to the fact that the

reflecting light to the eye of the observer, destroys a

certain portion of the intensity of the effect of colour

would exhibit.

owing

may

be richer in colour than

If a pattern silks

is

in

two

where the pattern

tints of the is

This latter remark will apply also to damask table-linen, and to

we

The

formed by

be considerably larger than in those cases

rendered conspicuous by colours.

materials, as well as to dress fabrics,

these

it

shall say a

word

and draperies such

as

all

similar

window hangings ; but

of

shortly.

closeness or openness of a fabric should, then, be considered

when we design

patterns for its enrichment, and so should the nature of the material, as this will influence

its

dcadness or lustre.

not be lost sight conditions

of.

But there

If the pattern

must be complied with

;

if

is

are also other considerations

to be

which must

wrought by printing, theu one

by weaving, then another

class of

class of requirements

call for consideration.

The requirements

of manufacture are

much more numerous

supposed, and are in some cases very restrictive. in

The

than might be

size of the repeat, the

manner

which colour can be applied, the character of surface attainable, and many other

considerations have to be carefully complied with before a pattern cau appear as a

manufactured

article.


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

PRINCIPLES OP DESIGN.

108

The

chief fault of patterns, as applied to fabrics generally,

simplicity of

-effect

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;want

and together with

we

this

want

their

is

want of simple treatment, want

of simple structure,

of

of simplicity

and coarsenesss

generally find largeness

of parts.

These errors the material. that

we

we should

want

arise chiefly out of a

What

of consideration of the capabilities of

can be done with this or that particular fabric,

carefully ask ourselves before

we think

colour at our disposal, or texture merely? and

or only sparingly? and can certain tints

?

if

a question

is

Have

of preparing a design.

colour, can

any desired colours be placed

be employed freely

it

in juxtaposition or only

These are questions of great importance, and they should be asked and

carefully considered before the first step

is

taken towards the formation of a pattern.

Having ascertained what can be done with the material at command, let us ever remember that we should always endeavour to so employ the capabilities of a material as to conceal its weakness and emphasise its more desirable effects. If this consideration were always given

by designers

to the

power which the material has

we should see, in very many instances, effects strangely different from those which we often encounter and this remark applies to no class of fabrics more fully than to damask table-linen and coloured damask window hangings. of yielding effects,

;

No fabric

satisfactory effect can be got in light and shade besides, to

;

attempt such a mode of treatment

belong only to pictorial

art.

upon any woven

The ornamentist when enriching a

with a surface, and has no thought of placing pictures thereon

or printed

Light and shade

absurd.

is

fabric deals only

he has simply to

;

enrich or beautify that which without his art would be plain and unornamental.

"Who ever heard

picture will never bear repetition.

one picture in a room perhap

;

?

Yet how much more absurd

a pictorially rendered flower

this,

a surface must always be

in a

manner calculated

which is

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

to repeat

a

little

to deceive

by giving apparent

and the pattern which

only (why a margin of "ingrain" colour nine cases out of ten the pattern

which

a pictorial treatment,

relief, or

Take a common damask

is

it

picture

Besides

!

and not

thickness, to that

if

of a deep cream-

not added, I could never

presented by such a fabric

and

This

table-cover.

bears results from a change of surface

it

is

would be better

A

copies of

treated, for decorative purposes, as a surface,

by custom almost always white, although

shaded attempt at

is it

hundred times over one surface

essentially without thickness.

colour, or soft buff;

man having two

of a

is

also a

thorough

Simplicity of pattern naturally accords with a simple

see)

is

;

yet in

a miserable

failure.

mode

of production, and

That there is the means of producing pattern in damasks is certainly most simple. a natural harmony between simplicity of pattern and simple means of producing an art-effect is obvious, for of all patterns that I have ever seen upon damask tablelinen (lie simple spot, or dot, is the

most

satisfactory.

If,

combined with

we have a border formed of a simple Greek " key-pattern," or of mere

this spot,

lines

(a

very


DAMASK TAUU5-I.INEN. usual border to is

good

10!)

cloths), the effect is perfectly satisfying, and, as far as it goes,

highly to be commended. It

curious that this spot

is

they

least so

tell

me

only sold in the better quality of table-linen

is

and

in the City),

shows that the wealthy,

this

or, in

(at

other

words, the educated, buy such patterns, as they prefer the true to the meretricious,

while the

tlie false

common

and showy devices which we see on the common

people of vulgar taste.

am

I

cloths please; only

many

not sure, however, that

persons,

whose means are limited, would not buy spots and other simple, but correctly treated, patterns, if such

were to be got in

must govern the purchase,

the pocket

that I thereby give to that little

done

is

it

spot, it

a high place as an art-work.

Little

But

one tint throughout,

if I

may

thus express myself

the reverse of that of the ground.

and

or globe,

is

It

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

not shaded so that

is

must inevitably

treated as a surface ornament.

First, the spots are of

a tint, shall

not graduated in "colour" in any

shaded, feebleness of effect

preferred

is

here attempted, and

is

analyse this pattern.

let us

when

must not be thought

little

well.

but

;

with the means at command.

from this

I cannot withhold praise

damask

qualities of

hard to say that the false

it is

to the true, if the true is not procurable

While

common

may

it

way

we

(were

which

say,

appear as a it

is

ball

graduated or

accrue), but is a simple, honest spot,

Secondly, this spot

is

geometrically arranged,

fir,

in

other words, has an orderly arrangement. If an attempt

is

made

at rendering a pictorial, or light-and-shade effect, in

damask, an absurd failure can alone the material

;

result, for

depth of shade

and, besides this, what appears as shade,

one point of view, appears as light

if

it

would

still

is

seen from

But were the

effects

Nothing

with such means

fabric capable of rendering such effects,

be wrong to employ them, as we deal only with the surface, and are

seeking to enhance the value pictures.

cloth

seen from another point of view.

could be more absurd, then, than seeking to produce shaded as are here at our disposal.

not obtainable in

is

when the

or beautify, a fabric, and not to cover

of,

In our simple spot we have those elements which

damask

the richest and most artistic

geometrical plan of the pattern

patterns.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and

We

may

have order

it

with

be extended into

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;as indicated by the

an honest and simple expression, or appli-

cation, of the capabilities of the material.

All table-covers should certainly have a border.

used as a whole looks unsatisfactory If a cloth

is

without border

it is

if it

we

is

seen

flat,

the border portion

of the great peculiarities of

is

is

to

most

is

is

be

were part of a whole. it is

a part

decidedly unsatisfactory.

notice one peculiarity of a table-cover before

dismiss the consideration of such fabrics, which portion

object which

it

impossible to avoid the impression that

of a larger cloth, and in every respect the general effect It is perhaps well that

Any

appears as though

this,

we

that while the central

viewed in folds; and here we come to one

draperies, that of their being viewed not as

flat


I'UIXCIPLES OF DESIGN".

110 surfaces, hut in

but this

is

waves or

folds.

One

portion of a table-cloth

almost an exception in the ease of draperies.

is,

Another exception

Fig. P0.

Fig. 89.

hangings appearing

in folds,

damasks which are used

mansions

The

;

hut of table-cloths

central part of

a

to this

Fig. 88.

Fig. 86

silk

flat,

Fig 87.

Fig. 85.

rule of

however, seen

as

we

a

and thai of rich

will

a

very complete character, occurs in

lining to the walls of palaces and some

speak for the present.

table-cloth, that

portion which

is

always to he viewed as


TAIil.K-CUn'll

a flat surface,

maybe

enriched with any diaper pattern that

may

this diaper pattern

I'ATTKKXS.

he

full of

is

simply treated, and

design, provided the parts are not too large

too

<>r

Jt may also he formed of gracefully curved parts, or of straight lines or or of any combination of these elements; lad, preferably, not wholly of

small. circles,

straight lines.

Were

not for the fact that

it

much

of this central portion of the cloth

covered by articles of the dinner-table,

ornament, quarters

ment,

repeating

it

might well he furnished with

to be

a central

in

hut as such an orna-

;

order that

in

only

is

he

it

satis-

fying, requires to be seen as a

whole,

not

is

it

A diaper

many

pattern that repeats in the centre

that

desirable

such he here employed.

times

preferable, as the

is

then he seen in a

pattern can

satisfactory manner.

The border like

seen

of a table-cloth, are

fabrics that

all

be

special

requires

folds,

in

to

treatment, for what looks well

when not

seen as a

look well

waved

curves

viewed upon appear

Tender

the

are

contrary,

and

when

lost

folds, for

mere

as

may

surface

when seen on a

surface.

graceful

On

flat

they here

wormy

lines.

right

lines,

Fig. 91.

whether horizontal or diagonal, and grounds.

These

character.

lines

The manner

in

(Fig.

8(i).

look well

when seen upon wavec

which

surface can be readily illustrated into cones, after having

circles, all

become, owing to the folds of the fabric, curves of a subtle lines become influenced by falling on a curved by forming semicircles of paper, and folding them

drawn upon them

If these cones (Figs.

a series of circles (Fig. 85) or straight lines

87 and 88) are now viewed from above, or

a manner that the eye rests over the apices,

it

will be seen that the circles

such

in

have now

become richly varied curves, each having somewhat the form of a blunt heart or cardioid (Fig. 89), and that the straight lines become horse-shoe-shaped (Fig. 90). These illustrations surface

may

will

be delicate

be sufficient to show that what

and satisfying

lead us to understand that

if

what may be

is

plain

when

seen upon a

fiat

seen upon a curved surface; and will also delicate

and refined when' seen upon

a

flat


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

112

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

may become

surface

and unsatisfactory

feeble

have said that stripes or straight This

is

falling

if

lines, if crossing

upon

waved ground.

a

I

a folded fabric, are satisfactory.

so in almost all cases, the only exception being in ladies' dresses..

Here

lines

crossing the fabric are not satisfactory, as they become rings around the body, which

appear to divide

it

into

The

hoop-like strata.

patterns of dresses may consist of narrow, verstripes, as these

tical

are collected together at

the waist

and

figure,

into

fall

with

curves

graceful

any

th

of

motion

the

of

body, but the very opposite is the case with

window-hangings. All are

stripes

vertical

here highly offensive, while horizontal stripes

thoroughly

are

satis-

factory.

A consideration of window-hanging

the

made

materials

in

Spain, Algeria, and on

the Morocco coast, will

show us the beauty of horizontal stripes; and in

some

Algerian

Fig. 92.

such

Regent

Street,

fabrics of a

To

London, and

the

Rue de

Rivoli in Paris,

we

the

little

warehouses,

we have in some of these

as

see

most interesting character. form the laws which should govern the application of

state in a concise

ornament to certain 1st.

in

of

fabrics

Great simplicity

which arc to be seen

<>f

pattern

is

in folds, I

should say

necessary.

2nd. Circles, straight lines crossing the fabric, and diagonal lines are in such a case,

and are improved by the

beautiful curves (Fig. 91).

folds,

all

correct

which form them into subtle and


OK \\\ MENTATION OK FABRICS SEEN IN 3rd. If curves are tender and graceful, they

L13

lor. lis.

become commonplace od

a w.

or folded ground. Itli.

The

size of the pattern should

be considered

in relation to the size of

the

folds of the material.

Fig. 93.

In Germany a kind of ornament peculiar to the country. in

every

way adapted

is

applied to rich

This ornament

is rich,

stiff fabrics

for the decoration of a costly fabric

the folds changing- the hard and

stiff lines

which

is

almost

bold, hard or stiff in its lines,

which

into graceful curves.

and

falls in large folds,

This should also he

noted respecting these curious yet beautiful patterns, that they are always simple in


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

114-

however rich in detail, and are invariably founded on a geometrical basis. " German Gothic " is a name by which such ornament may he distinguished (flat

plan,

Gothic ornament has always been quite distinct from the stone and metal ornaments of Gothic building's,

which have

solid

and not merely

92

superficial form), see Figs.

and 93.

This

parti-

ornament

cular class of

forms the background to

many

old

pictures,

a most interesting collection of in

which exists

museum

the

Cologne, and

worthy

tainly

of cer-

is

the

of

most careful study.

As

to

flat

wall -damasks,

used

are

in

silk-

which

some

of

the upper-class houses as wall-papers are used

houses,

be

middle-class

the

in

said

should wall

all

that

need

is

that

they

be

treated

not as

fabrics

as

and

decorations,

which

are to he seen folded.

"Were 1

I

approve

damasks ings, Fig. 94.

wall for

is

asked whether

1

of

these

as wall cover-

should

"Certainly not."

say,

A

as to leave space better treated as a wall, and not so covered with drapery further objection the also is There the wall and its enrichment.

vermin between

that the lines where the fabric

is

joined are visible, and these arc most certainly

objectionable.

Besides

the illustrations of

German ornament

just

given,

we

figure also a

I cannot too strongly recomspecimen of Indian embroidery on cotton (Fig. ill). study the native fabrics of India, goods to woven mend the designer of patterns for

exhibited at the Indian

Museum,

Besides the collection

Whitehall.

here brought together, there

is

also

in

most of our


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

INDIAN E.MISIiOIDERY

manufactnring towns a large

Chamber

of

series of

ON'

HE

COTTON.

specimens of these cloths deposited with the

Commerce, and these can he consulted by

all

respectable

members

of the

Fig. 95.

Fig. 96.

community.

Speaking of these Indian

Design prepared for the Commissioners

" These

fabrics,

Mr. Redgrave

says, in his

Report on

of the International Exhibition of 1S51

:

are almost wholly designed on the principles here presumed to be just ones


116

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the ornament

is

always

and without shadow

flat,

natural flowers are never used

;

imitatively or perspectively, but are conventionalised by being displayed flat and

according to a symmetrical arrangement birds, is

when used

added,

it is

;

and

other objects, even animals and

all

as ornament, are reduced to their simplest flat form.

darker shade of the colour, to give

The

flowers are rarely introduced.

a clearer expression

it

cloth of gold figured in the

geometrically and symmetrically arranged,

flat,

loom (Fig.

in simple tints,

The

above described, with darker shades of the local colour. is

colour

but the shades of the

;

part of an Indian scarf (Fig. 96), illustrate fully these remarks.

adopted

When

usually rendered by the simplest local hue, often bordered with a

95),

and

The ornament

is

and bordered, as

principle of colour

a balance of the complementaries red and green, in both cases with white expression, and to lead the eye to the symmetrical

introduced to give points of

arrangement of the ornament. the gold ground, a

In Fig. 95 purple

harmony very frequently used

is

in

introduced to harmonise with

the rich tissues of India.

In

Fig. 96 variety has been obtained by introducing two reds, giving an interchange of

a lighter tint in every other flower in the border.

The borders

of these scarves are

beautifully illustrative of the simple and graceful flowing lines which characterise

Indian ornament; and in Fig. 96

and the mediaeval patterns latter are often stiffer

we can

observe the difference between the Eastern

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;while the same

acknowledged in both, the

principles are

and more angular than the graceful sprigs of this border.

Both these works show how much beauty may be obtained by simjde means, when regulated by just principles, and

how

perfectly unnecessary are the multiplied tints

by which modern designers think

to give value to their works, but

the difficulties of production out of

all

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;nay, often

even to the absolute disadvantage of the fabric.

details of the Indian patterns,

we

which increase

proportion to any effect resulting from them If

we

look at the

be surprised at their extreme simplicity, and

shall

be led to wonder at their rich and satisfactory effect

;

it

will soon be

evident,

however, that their beauty results entirely from adherence to the principles above described. yet,

The

parts

themselves are often poor, ill-drawn, and common-place;

from the knowledge of the designer, due attention to the just ornamentation

of the fabric, and the refined delicacy evident in the choice of tints, both for the ground, where gold

is

selection of quantity

and the

not used as a ground, and for

the ornamental forms, the fabrics, individually and as a whole, are a lesson to our designers and manufacturers, given by those from

Much

that Mr. Redgrave here says

is

whom we

least expected it."

worthy of careful consideration, and I can

do no more than recommend the student to study these beautiful Indian consider

them

and fabrics

in conjunction with the

in general.

fabrics,

and

remarks which we have made respecting them


CHAPTER Division

VII. I.

In this chapter I have to commence our consideration of pottery, and of hollow vessels

and

especially;

I do with considerable pleasure, as works in pottery

this

enjoy a longer existence, though through the character of the material of which

they are made they are more fragile, than those formed of almost any other

Many works

substance.

known

of Greek pottery are

to us,

and not a few such

works by the ancient Egyptians, and these are preserved not as fragments merely, but as works in their entirety, and with the same beauty that they possessed when first

they

left

Clay

is

the hands of the workman.

a most desirable material with which to form works of

beauty, and this for secondly, it

is

it

many

easily

is

First, it is so inexpensive as to be

reasons.

formed into vessels of almost any required shape

capable of being " worked " into

exercise of skill

;

fourthly, clay

shapes of great beauty by a

naturally of

is

capable of receiving by application

to its

preserving such colours as are applied to sixthly, it is susceptible

modeller's hand. vessels

many

surface

more

any amount of

;

fifthly, it is

colour,

and of ;

and

of the highest art-finish, or the bold sketchy touch of the

I say that clay

is

of various kinds, because of

a very desirable material for formation into its

inexpensive

character.

many

This quality of

other substances of a

much

costly character, such as should not be overlooked, for the long existence

which

cheapness gives to the material an advantage over

so

beautiful colours

thirdly,

;

momentary

an unimpaired state for ages

in

it

and of

utility

almost valueless;

many works

of earthenware have had

material of which they are composed.

In

is

mainly due to the worthlessness of the

my

first

chapter I gave an extract from the

writings of Professor George Wilson, showing that gold and silver, while beautiful in

themselves, and worthy to be fashioned into exquisite devices, are yet too tempting to all who are pressed for means, to remain long in the form of art-works. who have been reduced in circumstances, and have thereby been constrained

the thief, and to Families

to part with their old plate, this,

let

me

Renaissance,

have melted

as

applied

to

many

idea of

so as to hide their shame.

Decoration

the

translated from the French of

of

it,

M.

of

Furniture,

illustrate

artists these Italian

sixteenth centuries, and

Arms, Jewels,

etc.,

After giving the names

Jules Labarte, 1S56."

workers in the precious metals, the author says

what

To

quote from the " Handbook of the Arts of the Middle Ages and

:

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;" We

may form some

goldsmiths were of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and

what admirable works they must have produced.

But,


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

118 alas

these noble works have almost

!

all

perished

their artistic

;

worth proving no

safeguard against cupidity or necessity, the fear of pillage, or the love of change.

But

a very few

names even of those

making known those preserved

have descended to

skilled artists

and

us,

to us in the writings of Vasari, Benvenuto, Cellini,

and others, we can rarely point out any of their works as being still in existence. " Cellini tells us that while Pope Clement VII. was besieged in the castle of Angelo, he received orders to unset

all

fragile material

fragility, gives to it

We

We

than either

to melt

down the

must have

see clearly that while clay

silver or gold, its

is

much

a

is

very worthlessness, despite

its

formed into vessels of almost any required

easily

Throughout these chapters

so within certain limits.

is

now

and

;

artistic treasures

length of years.

have said that clay This

shape.

How many

which he obtained 200 pounds.

perished in the crucible of Cellini."

more

St.

the precious stones that were upon the tiaras,

the sacred vessels, and the jewels of the sovereign pontiff gold, of

in

have

I

lost

no

opportunity of insisting upon the importance of working every material in a befitting

manner, and in the most simple and easy way in which the material can be wrought. Almost every material can be simply " worked " in some way, or while in some particular condition.

Glass has a molten state in which

it

of shapes, and this process of blowing

is

condition, yet as it can be formed into

also a solid

exercise of

momentary

skill, it

would be extremely

glass, and by laborious grinding form

happens that

if

a material

results obtained are

more

is

worked

beautiful

when

in

as

we

vessels

its plastic

mass of the

most simple and

solid

It fortunately

befitting manner, the at

by

Glass should be formed into hollow vessels it

cannot be shaped into the form of such

in its solid state without

wasteful, labour.

unnecessary, therefore

foolish to take a

and satisfying than those which are arrived

condition, for

when

require

it

Glass has

works of great beauty by the

into a bottle or a bowl.

in its

any roundabout method of production. only

can be " blown " into the most beautiful the work of but a few seconds.

But

the expenditure of

much

a mass of crystal or marble

if

is

required to assume the form of a bowl or font, then the laborious process of grinding

must be resorted

The at

all

to, for

potter's

these substances have no plastic state.

wheel has been known from the

earliest historic time,

times been the instrument with which the best earthen vessels

formed.

A

mass of clay of suitable

which a rotary motion of the clay,

is

imparted.

and then, by causing

size is placed

The operator

his fingers to

if

skilful,

thai astonishes

the operator can all

who

this has

have been

on a horizontal disc of wood, to

presses his

thumbs

into the centre

approach his thumbs, manipulates the

clay into a cup, a bowl, a vase, an earthen bottle, or whatever form he

and

and

may

form objects of marvellous beauty with

see for the first time his

mode

please

;

a rapidity

of working.

If potters would but content themselves, in order to the production of such


119

CLAY AS A MATERIAL FOE ART PURPOSES.

we

articles as

common

require in

life,

with the "potter's wheel/' we should be

almost sure of a certain amount of beauty in domestic earthenware, but such

They make fancy moulds

the case.

out clay as the pastrycook does dough,

and manipulate

instead of applying to it simple

Neither a bowl nor

scalloped edge, indeed they are

is

of plaster of Paris and of wire gauze, and

skill.

much

better without

undesirable, absurdities were avoided,

it

it

and

;

much

as sc

not roll

pie-crust,

plate need have a

a

unnecessary, and even

if

and a simple and natural method of working

each material alone employed, a great improvement in

would speedily take

art

place.

It

strange but true, that the worker in one material seems rarely to be

is

with making his works look as well and as consistent as possible

satisfied

rather to form poor imitations of something

made

imitation of wicker-work, although to do so

in

wicker vessel could hold water,

thousand forms which clay

were at I

is

least, favourite jugs.

doubt not

;

yet

head, I

know

district

of

why we

by

;

A

ejected.

and the thing imitated

have

is

;

he desires

seen earthen jugs

obviously foolish, as no

much

is

all

than a

less beautiful

capable of assuming. Men's heads without brains are, or "Well, that there are

should copy them by

my

I have in

not.

many models

making

for this idea in

a hole in the

yet the vulgar admire this jug.

is

common

The

tail is

possession a milk-jug, such as

back the milk

more wretched and

coarse idea

is it

Nature,

jug in the form of a hollow

a

in South Wales, in the likeness of a cow.

Swansea

into a handle it is

We

else.

admitted, and through the is

in the

twisted

mouth

scarcely possible to conceive of,

Let us work the material

in a simple

and

befitting

manner, and satisfactory results are almost sure to accrue. I

have said that clay, as such, has

black, grey-white, red, brown, desirable tints

we should

it

is

capable of assuming

least,

is

capable,

is

many

coloured clays as

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

cold whiteness which the

good natural colour is

Naturally clay

beautiful colours.

by the agency of chemical means. We do not use We want so much white everything to look

do.

ornamental ware, at

Clay

many

and yellow, and

clean.

so

All

should be artistic, and the art-effect should supersede that

Dutch and the English mistake

for cleanliness.

not a thing to be hidden, or ashamed

when

glazed,

of receiving any

A

clay of

of.

amount

of colour,

and

of

preserving these colours in their beauty for almost any length of time. These qualities are invaluable to the ornamentist. Colour is not always at his disposal.

The goldsmith has

difficulty in

getting

it,

but to the potter

it is

very accessible.

capable of giving to objects a charm which they could not possibly have Colour without it. Let us use the power thus placed at our disposal rightly and well, and is

then the enduring

character

of

the colour-harmonies

which we

produce

may

gladden posterity in ages yet to come.

Clay Finish

is

is

susceptible of the highest art-finish, or of a bold sketchy treatment.

very desirable in some

cases.

The cup which

my

lady uses in her boudoir

'


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

120 should be delicate and

occupant of a

As

fine, for

what

apartment but such

fair

we

a rule, however,

worthy

is

a

work

as

to approach the sacred lips of the is

tender and refined?

over-estimate the value of finish, and under-value bold

Excessive finish often (but by no means always) destroys art-effect.

art-effects.

me some

have before

brown

coarse dark

I

specimens of Japanese earthenware, which are formed of a

and are to a great extent without that

clay,

finish

which most

Europeans appear so much to value, yet these are artistic and beautiful. In the ease of cheap goods we spend time in getting smoothness of surface, while the Japanese devote

to the production of

it

they prefer art without

Fig. 97.

We vessels,

an

art-effect.

We

get finish without art 5

finish.

Fig. 100.

Fig. 99.

Fig. 9S.

must now devote ourselves

to a special consideration of the shapes of earthen

and to the manner in which ornament should be applied

In bis primitive condition as drinking vessels half-civilised

and bottles

men using

;

man

to them.

appears to have used the shells of certain fruits

and to

this

day we

find

many

tribes of uncivilised or

"Monkey-pots"

the same class of vessels.

(the hard shells

of the Lecgthis allaria), the coverings of the Brazil nut [Bertholetia excelsa), and especially the rinds of the calabash

been used

iii

this

way.*

wen- mere attempts

al

use as ill-inking vessels. i

nit

The

copying

first

in

and many species of gourd (Figs. 97 and 98),have efforts

day

* All

of perfection of manufacture,

who

at the production of earthen vessels

the forms of the fruit-shells which were in

After a power of forming earthen vessels, having

was gained, we

potter's art manifested Irv certain works.

of the

made

Thus

in

still

find

a certain

the origin of the

China, where the potter's

art lias

are interested in tins subject are referred to a paper published in the " Transactions

Edinburgh Botanical Society/' for 1859, by Professor George Wilson, on tho " Fruits

Cucurbitacese."

of the


CHARACTERISTIC SHAPES.

we

so long been understood,

made

find vessels

still

just as was their custom in the days of their

first

121

form of the bottle-gourd,

in the

manufacturing

efforts (Pig.

Before considering the shapes of vessels from a utilitarian point of view,

1

99).

should

the student that certain shapes are characteristic of different nations and of

tell

different periods of time.

The Greek

we may

shapes, as

which the Greeks produced

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; are

them

call

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

the forms of those vessels

is,

of a particular class, and the vessels produced by

the Egyptians are of a different type; while those of the Chinese, Indians, Japane

and Mexicans again

For grace of form the

the Egyptians. (Figs. 101

100)

and 102)

;

Greeks stand pre-eminent

vessels of the old

for simple dignified severity, those

for quaintness, those of the

;

Mexicans (Fig. 103)

with dignity, those of the Cliinese (Figs. 104 and 105)

;

of the Egyptians

(Fig.

for a combination of grace

;

beauty with quaintness, those of the Japanese (Fig. 100)

and ;

for a combination of

while in

many

the Indian shapes (Figs. 107 and 108) resemble those of the Japanese. is

e,

from each other, and from those of both the Greeks and

differ

respects

Fig. 109

a water vessel from Ha, and Figs. 110 and 111 are jugs from Morocco. I cannot enter into

any

details respecting the characteristic

forms of vessels

produced by these various nations, but must content myself by giving a few tions of the various shapes,

Museum,

British

him

and leaving the matter with the learner

the South Kensington

Museum, and

the Indian

illustra-

for study.

Museum

The

will aid

in his researches.

It has been said that the character of a people can be told

As the

consideration of this statement will lead us to see

utensil

may answer

the end which

it

by

how

their water-vessels.

perfectly a domestic

should serve, I will extract from

my "Art

of

Decorative Design " a few remarks on this subject.

This statement can well " be illustrated by the Egyptian and Greek watervessels, the

small

former of which has sides tapering to the top and slanting- inwards, a

orifice,

and a rounded base, and the mouth of the

by an arched

vessel bridged

handle, the whole being constructed of bronze (Fig. 112); the latter consists of an

egg-shaped body (the broad end being above) resting upon a secure

surmounted by a handle over the

large, divergent, funnel-shaped

orifice,

but has one at either

" Not only do these also

;

and

it is

member

which renders

mouth, and the handle arching the clay, the secure base, the

at either side. i

We

which

It has

is

no

vessels differ in form, but associated circumstances differ

this variation in circumstances

its base,

foot,

113).

side.

which brought about the difference

form of the two water- vessels. " The peculiarities of the Egyptian water-vessel are roundness of

(Fig.

it

its

in

formation of bronze, the

unfitted for standing, the narrowness of its

orifice

;

and of the Greek,

its

being wrought in

wide mouth, the contraction in the centre, and the handle

should judge from these vessels that the Egyptians drew water


122

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN. Fig. 105.

Fig. 104.

Fig. 110.

from

and this, its

a

Fig. 103.

being

base Hat

it

a

provision

would

float

Fig. 108.

Fig. 107.

nvcr, or some position which required thai

cast into the source it

Fig. 101.

the vessel be attached

t<i

a

curd

of supply, for the roundness of the base at once points to I'or

enabling- the vessel to

on the water)

;

it is

lill

by turning upon

its

side (were

also formed oul of metal so as to facilitate


123

EGYPTIAN VESSELS.

The arched handle

this end.

string in order that

it

not

be cast

pendent from the hand

in

only points to the attachment of the vessel to

a

into the water, bu1 also to the carrying the vessel

the

manner

present carried, and the

pails are at

thai

contracted mouth restrains the splashing over of the water: and what this simple water-vessel points to

we

find to

have been the

ease, for the

Fig.

Egyptians derived water

in.

Fig. 112.

Fig. 113.

from the Nile

in the

very manner that the vessel would indicate; but with the

circumstances were different, and the shape of the vessel varies accordingly. is

here

flat,

in order that the vessel

the water which being- the

manner

fell

in

from above,

may

stand

;

the

mouth

is

rreeks

base

large, in order to collect

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; from the dripping-rocks and water-spouts.

This

which water was gathered, a vessel formed of heavy metal was

unnecessary; the contraction prevented the water from splashing- over

and up

(

The

to this point the vessel

was

tilled,

when

carried,

and no higher; and the handles at the

side


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

12J.

show that

it

carrying, there is

If

high.

another consideration of interest, which

is

we attempt

the centre of gravity finger,

weight be at the top ; and in balancing anything,

found that the object, in order that

will be

is,

having one enlarged end, on the

to balance a stick,

it will be found necessary that the it

But, in conjunction with this mode of

was carried on the head.

greatest weight considerably elevated above

which was carried balanced on the head, we

it ride

have

steadily,

its

point of

In the Greek water-vessel,

base.

its

find this condition fully complied with,

the centre of gravity occupying a high position, while in the Egyptian vessel the

was low ; but where the

centre of gravity

vessel

to be carried underhand,

is

great an advantage to have the centre of gravity low as

where security

thus

is

gamed

it is in

just as the centre of gravity

is

it is

as

the case of a coach,

The Greek

lowered.

water-vessel, then, consists of a cavity for holding water, a funnel to collect and

guide the water, a base for the vessel to rest upon, and handles to enable raised to the head, and the centre of gravity

balanced

and we should judge from

;

high in order that

is

this vessel that the

dripping-rocks and water-spouts, and this

is

exactly

stances and

incidents of

common There

life

is

case,

The

occur.

yet

;

These are the

how many

circum-

can be conceived as associated with these

the gossip round the well, and the lingering by

the river-side where the image of the date-palm

the waters.

to be

Greeks procured water from

what did

direct teachings of the Egyptian and Greek water-vessels

different forms of vessel.

it

be readily

it

is

mirrored by the glassy surface of

water upon the mind in the one

effect of the noise of the splashing

combined with the comparatively loud and energetic speaking which would be

by the

necessary in order that the voice be not drowned

river-bank in the other, where tie limpid water

trancpiillity of the in silent

majesty, must be considerable.

Then we have the

and of the calm

noise,

is

ever flowing on

potter's art essential to

the production of the vessel in the one case, and the metal-worker's in the other

We

the digging of clay, the mining of metal, the kilns and smelting furnaces.

will

not continue this portion of the subject further, and have brought forward this

show how well-considered

illustration in order to

objects reveal to us the habits and

customs of the peoples and nations in which they originated." It will

now be apparent

that even a

common

object

consideration that its form will at once suggest

which

reveal the purpose for

it

was created with

perfectly answers the end proposed

to every designer

is

by

its

its

is

The advice which

to the

want which

More

it is

will be said

of silversmiths' work

;

it

I

when

it

must give

required, before he proceeds to

form his ideas of what the object proposed to be created should be diligently Btrive to arrange such a form for

such careful

definiteness of expression

formation.

to study carefully exactly what

may result from

use; but the object will only

like,

and then to

as shall cause it to be perfectly suited

intended to meet. vessels

and

shall also give the

law

upon the subject of form when speaking of glass and when considering these subjects we


SHAPE AS ADAPTED TO

1

which governs the application of handles and spouts

utmost importance that they be correctly placed

in

and

it

is

may

ol

the

be used

Fig. 116.

Fig. 117

Fig. ii;

(see

to vessels;

order that the vessel

Fig. 114.

with convenience

US

SE.

page 140).

A word

must now be

said respecting the decoration

of earthen vessels, but on this subject our remarks must be brief.

The

object to which the decoration

is

applied

must determine the nature of the


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

126

In the ease of

ornament to be employed.

when

a vessel

which

to be in part hidden

is

treatment should be adopted, and the ornament

in use, great simplicity of

In

with advantage consist of repeated parts.

ornament should be placed in the centre

;

but

the case of a

if

there

plate,

ornament

a central

is

it

may

should

The

be a small, regular, radiating figure, consisting of like parts (Figs. 114 and 115). border should also consist of simple members repeated, for

it

will

portions are covered; and these remarks will apply equally to

whether intended

No

Whatever has

a right

whatever ornament

position, as

way upwards

then look well

if

kinds of plates,

all

dinner or dessert.

for use at

plate should have a landscape painted

flowers.

no

or

little

a

upon

nor

it,

and wrong way upwards

is

nor a group of

a figure,

inappropriate in such a

plate bears should be in all positions as fully right

to the beholder as it can be.

Besides, landscapes, groups of flowers,

and figures are spoiled in part hidden,

ii'

provided

they are satisfactory when the whole

seen.

is

may have

Plates

white ground,

for

it is

a

de-

sirable that those articles

which

on

sented

plates, witli

and

I

them

is

pre-

manifest

cleanliness,

should, however, prefer white

rather deep blue, Indian red, maroon, or

a

a pale hull' table-cloth for

should

utmost

the yet to a cream tint there can be no objection.

food

brown pattern upon them,

to rest upon.

In the case of cups and saucers the treatment should be similar to that of the

The saucer may have

plate.

and

a

simple border ornament, consisting of parts repeated,

or no ornament in the central

little

may have

portion on which the cup rests.

an external border ornament, and

a

the upper portion of the interior, but no other ornament

Whatever ornament ench

as

is

placed around

a

is

here required.

any

cup, or vase, or

not suffer by perspective, for there

will

is

tall

simplicity be the ruling principle in the decoration of that

round surface I

a

(see

line

page

have given what

which I

is

straight

on

a

Hat

all

and 117).

little

1 0:3

and 111).

Let

rounded objects, and ever

surface becomes a curve

on a

10). is a

correct decoration

for a

plate

and cup and saucer, but

there are other methods of treatment than those just named. fond of placing

object must be

any portion of the

scarcely

ornament that can be seen otherwise than foreshortened (Figs.

remember

The cup

double narrow line of colour around

The Japanese

circular groups of flowers on plates, saucers,

The Greeks had

are very

and bowls (Figs. IK!

various methods of enriching their tazzasand vases with


127

GLASS.

ornament, and the Egyptians were partial to the plan of rendering a cup as a lotusflower

But when they formed

100).

(Fig.

draw

a cup thus, they were careful to

the flower conventionally and ornamentally, and never produced an imitative work

The Chinese

page 24).

(see

same way

treat the flower of the sacred bean in the

(Fig. 118).

The remarks, however,

"What I have said has been addressed to the student.

made respecting the form chosen being that which

make

and the conditions to which I shall

proposed,

application of handle and

produce satisfactory works

is

most

reference as governing the

spout to any object, are binding upon ;

but to the genius

who

and vigorous ornament, and whose taste

has,

become refined and judicious,

rules, his

no

I can give

end

suitable to the

all

who would

has power to produce beautiful

by years of study and

own

cultivation,

taste being his best guide.

Division II.

When

speaking of earthenware, I insisted upon the desirability of using every

my meaning

material in the easiest and most natural manner, and I illustrated

by

saying that glass has a molten condition as well as a solid state, and that while in the molten condition

blowing aid,

is

it

can be " blown " into forms of exquisite beauty.

an operation of

skill,

and an operation

and I cannot too strongly repeat

"worked"

in

the most simple

my

in

Glass-

which natural laws come to our

statement that every material should be

and befitting manner;

and

think

I

that our

consideration of the formation of glass vessels will render the reasonableness of

my

demand apparent. Let a portion of molten glass be gathered upon the end of a metal pipe, and

blown into a bubble while the pipe drops

and a

what

flask is

formed such as

vessel could be

all

vertically

from the mouth of the operator,

used for the conveyance of olive

more beautiful than such a

the delicate curvature of

rounded base,

is

its sides,

flask ?

Its grace of

form

is

;

and

obvious;

the gentle swelling of the bulb, and the exquisitely

manifest beauty.

Here we get a

vessel

formed for us almost wholly by Nature.

attraction of gravitation which converts

what would be a mere bubble,

sphere of glass, into a gracefully elongated and delicately-shaped

be taken as a principle, that whenever a material

manner which

(Fig. 119)

oil

is

flask.

capable of being

It is the

or hollow

This

"worked"

may in a

will so secure the operation of natural laws as to modii'y the shapes

of the objects into which

it is

formed., it is very desirable that

we

avail ourselves of

such a means of formation, for the operation of gravitation and similar forces upon plastic matter is calculated to give

When skill,

and

extent

;

is

clay

is

beauty of form.

worked upon the

potter's wheel, it

sufficiently stiff to retain the shape

yet the operation of gravitation upon

is

given to it,

shaped by the operator's it

to a very considerable

so long as

it

has any plasticity


128

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

whatever,

is

to

calculated

secure

remembered by the art-student Chap.

difficult to detect (see

knowledge of

this law

plastic vessels is

is

I.,

curve

a

is

should

rule

ever be

as its origin

beautiful just

In the formation of vases, bottles,

page 23).

is

etc.,

very important, and the operation of gravity upon hollow

calculated to give to their curves subtlety (intricate beauty) of

Having arranged that the material

character.

This

of form.

delicacy

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that

we must next

befitting its nature,

worked

shall be

in the

manner most

consider what purpose the object to be formed

is

intended to serve.

Take

a

common

hock-bottle (Fig. 120) and consider

must have

driven

in

is

wanted

which wine can be

vessel such as will stand, in It

What

it.

a strong neck, so that a cork

without splitting

of a material

that

not

is

it,

a

is

stored.

may

be

and must be formed Glass, as a

absorbent.

material, admirably answers the want, and this bottle is

capable of storing wine;

and has a

will stand,

it

rim around the neck such as gives to

it

strength.

But, besides serving the requirements named,

both easily formed and

must be a

We

utilitarian,

must have

it is

The designer

beautiful.

is

but he must be an artist

useful vessels, but the objects

also.

with

which we are to surround ourselves must likewise be beautiful; and unless they are beautiful, our delicacy

of feeling and power to appreciate Nature, which full

A

of beauties, will be impaired.

hock-bottle

is

is

a

mere elongated bubble, with the bottom portion pressed in so that it Fig.

no.

may

stand, and the neck thickened

rim of glass being placed around

Fig. 120.

Here we have it is

formed of heavy

elongated form; light, it

but

glass, if

a bottle

length

is

may

be brought into play in the direction of

to be widened, this can as easily be done by giving to

the centrifugal force

is

lower part, hence is

its

even

amount of beauty would appear (Compare the

Our

in in

the former instance.

its

length

a rotatory

;

or

if it

has

motion, whereby

the shape

In either case a certain

produced, for

dumpy, yet beautiful bottle, when the two natural modes

short,

the hock-bottle,

illustrated.)

it

caused to act from the axis of the vessel outwards, and not

from the apex to the base, as

with

its

any bubble, and the glass

can always be given by swinging the bubble round from the centre, so that

centrifugal force

us.

shaped by natural agency;

and the bubble was thick at required in

by a

it.

in

Nature here works

which we receive curacao,

of forming

wine-bottles are moulded, hence their ugliness.

Nature's assistance, and we reap ugliness as the reward.

for

bodies

will

be

We work without


SHAPKK OK DECANTERS. Lei us

which

now

bottle, as just

to be bottle

consider

decanter

a

filled

once,

whereas

so that

it

subject of long journeys. it is till

not intended that it

decanter should be.

a

clearly shows,

it

a

is

decanter will have to he

It

is

should, as the fact that

refilled

may

it

funnel

for transport.

many times, hut when we wish to

not complete.

All objects

mouth

conduct

must

out of the bottle.

It

A

into the bottle,

if

a bottle had a distended

decanter should have capacity

and a funnel

also be convenient to use

upper funnel should be of such a character that

(see

Fig. 122.

should stand securely, and have a double runnel it

a

he the

to

times should have a funnel-shaped

to collect the fluid and conduct it

only intended

meant

Fig. 123

would not he well adapted

is

many tames; and

not

we use a

a funnel the vessel is

many

is

refilled

remarks on the Greek water-vessel, page 121), but

for containing liquid;

filled

he

true that a bottle

Fig. 121.

orifice it

wants

respects, the

a great differenceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; a bottle

can travel, while a decanter

and without

which are meant to be

my

mnny

In

intended to meet are similar to those which are met by the

is

enumerated, but here

made

is

what

129

it will

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a funnel

to collect

and

hold,

guide the liquid in

it

and

and the a

proper

when poured from the decanter. If we take a flask and flatten its base, and extend the upper portion of the neck slightly into the form of a funnel, we have all that is required of a decanter, with

direction

the exception of a permanent cork, which

But

as

is

a stopper (Fig. 121).

most decanters are intended to hold wine, the brilliancy of which

is

not


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

130 readily apparent

when that

portion of the vessel which contains the liquid rests

immediately upon the table,

it is

desirable to give to the vessel a foot, or, in other

words, raise the body of the decanter so that light possible (Figs. 122

and

may

surround

it

as fully as

12:3).

In Figs. 124 to 135 I give a number of shapes of decanters and jugs, such as

may

be seen in our best shop-windows, and such as I consider desirable forms for such

vessels;

and

in considering the shape of

portion of the neck (the

lip)

such vessels, the character of the upper

must be regarded,

Notice also whether the centre of gravity

Fig. 124.

Fig. 126.

Fig. 126.

is

Fig. 127.

as well as that of the

Fig. 12S.

) Fig. 130.

Fig. 132.

Fig. 133.

body and

base.

high or low, and the position and

Fig. 129.

Fig. 131.


FORMS OF BOTTLES.

a very excellent and picturesque spirit-bottle

Pig. L36 is

and quaint wrought artistic,

in

131

appearance.*

entirely at

the

Figs. 137, 188,

is

it

easyto hold,

is

glass

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;they

a

work of Roman

contains

a

sediment which

1

in

vessels,

nor engraved

is

Fig.

useful if the liquid

;

are Venetian

furnace-mouth, and neither cut

and of interesting appearance; while

which the upper distension

and L39

are

glass, in is

it

not

desirable to pour out with the liquid.

There

is

one thing pertaining to table-glass that we do not now sufficiently

Fig. 136.

Fig. 137.

consider,

which

is

its

capacity for colour.

vessels is the imitation of crystal, unless

strongest tint. colour,

strong

Our one

Fig. 140.

idea in the formation of glass

we happen

to

produce a vessel

of the

the exception of hock-glasses, which are generally either ruby-

dark green, or intense yellow-green, we rarely employ tinted glass on our

These three colours, which we usually employ

tallies.

that

With

Fig. 139.

in tint for

we should

ordinary purposes, and they are coarse and vulgar.

confine ourselves to these colours

the most delicate of shades, of appearing as beautiful

light tertiary green, lilac,

* In order that the nature of this bottle

when cut through the

in hock-glasses, are all too

central part.

a

when

glass

soft, subtle,

is

It

is

curious

capable of assuming

golden hue of the most

and blue, and, indeed, of almost any colour. be better understood,

I

give a section of

it at

a as seea


I

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

132

Why,

we employ only two

then, should

character?

Roman and Greek

If the

or three colours,

and those of the most crude

glass of the British

Museum

he inspected,

il

Romans employed various soft and delicate tints, and why we For many reasons the colours of our hock-glasses cannot see.

mil he seen that the should not do so I

First, as already stated, the colour

are highly ohjectionable, but especially for two. is so strong- that

they appear as mere dark spots on the cloth, and altogether

imparting to the table a pleasant colour-effect

;

fail in

and, secondly, they utterly destroy

the beauty of appearance which the wine would otherwise present.

No

glass

il

which

to contain a liquid of pleasant colour should be so strong in

is

l— &

LA L* Fig. 141.

tint as to

colour

<if

Fig. 142.

mar the beauty the glass

of the contained fluid, and especially

is

this true

of an opposite character to that of the liquid

is

:

when the

thus a red liquid

placed in a strongly-coloured green glass becomes highly offensive in appearance,

and yet we often see colour.

claret served in

Let the cloth be pale

A

green hock-glasses.

buff, or cream-colour, instead of

dinner-table requires

white

;

and the glass

water-vessels of very pale, but refined and various, tints; and the salt-cellars, if of glass, also coloured, in will

lie

produced.

tender and befitting manner, and

a

The

flowers with which the table

is

a

most harmonious

effect

adorned would then har-

monise with the other things, and much beauty might he produced. Respecting the ornamentation of ^lass, two methods of treatment are resorted to,

which are "cutting" and "engraving."

crystal-like substance

;

and consist

" dead " or repolishing

it.

substance of the glass

is

in

Both modes deal with

«»lass

as a

hard,

grinding the surface, ami either leaving

[n the case of

" cutting"

a

it

considerable portion of the

generally removed, and the surface

is

repolishedj but in


ORNAMENTATION OF SLASS. the ease of "engraving"

more than the surface

little

i.-;:i

generally acted upon, and

is

the.

engraved portion remains dead.

Cutting may be employed is

form to the vessel vessel

in

commended when

rarely to be

;

bringing ahoul ornamental effects

so lavishly used as

be the chief

ti>

indeed, cutting should be sparingly and judiciously used.

formed of glass should never he wholly shaped by cutting,

work of

If the neck of a decanter can he

stone.

slightly cut

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

if it

can

lie

so treated that

it

can

lie

the

;

but in

work

to appear laboured, for

results

it

A

wen.- a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; then

let it

be

Fig. 141.

been the result of much labour

which

though

held more securely

cases avoid falling into the error of too

all

as

it

made more convenient by being

Fig. 143.

cut

glass, Imf

in

means of giving

is

much

cutting which causes

any work which presents the appearance of having as unpleasant to look

from the exercise of momentary

skill.

upon

as that

There

is

work

is

pleasing

a great art-principle

manifested in the expression " Let there be light, and there was light." capable of yielding most delicate and

Engraving

is

also laborious,

beautiful effects,

it

should yet be somewhat sparingly used, for extravagance in labour

is

never desirable, and there

is

and while

it is

such a thing as extravagance of beauty.


134

PRINCIPLES OP DESIGN.

However

delicate

ornament may

lie,

and however

well composed, yet

the whole of the walls of an apartment and of the objects which to please.

these remarks fully apply. effect will

mind

Let there be plain surfaces as well

be more satisfying than

glass, considering only the different

an

ornamented parts,

as

damask

table-linen will apply equally

which the

in

effect

produced

is

(see

Thus we have ornament produced only

Chap. VI., page 108).

by a

fails

plain for

be covered with ornament.

if all

way

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

covers it

In the enrichment of glass

to enjoy.

All that I said respecting the decoration of to

if it

contains,

There must be the contrast of plain surfaces with ornamented

the eye to rest upon, ornament for the

and the

it

Such simple means of producing

variation of surface.

art-effect are capable of rendering in a satisfactory

manner

simple treatments only, but simple patterns are capable of yielding the highest pleasure, and such patterns can be almost perfectly rendered 1

by engraving,

shown

as

in Figs. Til,

1-1:2'

13* Somewhat

elaborate effects can

rendered in glass by

lie

very laborious engraving, whereby different depths of cutting are attained

but such work

;

rarely produces an effect

upon

it;

and

if

is

a

drawing of

was shown

in

the result of great labour, and

proportionate to the

a bottle so engraved

wine, the entire beauty of

144

is

a

its

is filled

engraving

is

Fig.

destroyed.

must elaborately engraved

the Exhibition of 1862.

expended

toil

with a coloured

which

bottle,

It represents, to a

great extent, wasted labour. It

Fig. 145.

must be borne

in

mind that any ornament placed on

decanter, wine-glass, or tumbler,

and the remarks made respecting the

in perspective;

surfaces on

ornament

my

It is not

call

all

to earthen vases (Chap. VII.,

;

is

capable of yielding

this

is in

some

* Pig. 143 represents a decantutaste.

of Faris in 1867.

There

into use during the last few years, and

come

uncomfortable to handle, and

good

to

the

here.

province to enter into the various methods of manipulating glass,

the classes of art-effect which glass

Venetian work

in

in reference

waved

page 126), apply equally

what should be the treatment of any particular object.

is

effects of folded or

:

attention to general principles, and leave the art-student to think

glass which has

a

to be seen almost wholly

ornament (Chap. VI., page 110), and those made

application of

nor into

is

Fig. 141

is

is

is

made

to

keep clean;

for the Prince of

a goblet from Austria;

it

ils

himself

an imitation of old it is

somewhat

use must therefore be

Wales by Messrs.

was shown

can only

a sort of crackle

respects pleasant in appearance, but difficult

I

I'm-

IVllatt

and

Co.,

which

in the International Exhibition


SlI.VKIl.SMlTlls'

The Romans were

limited.

and of many

colours.

forming glass which was opaque, dark,

in the habit of

H5

Pig.

is

135

WOKK.

an illustration of

this kind of ÂŤk" ss > <lle pattern

in the substance being formed by portions of various coloured glass being imbedded

of the vessel.

In another chapter

have a few remarks to make upon stained "lass

shall

I

but as our present remarks

pertain to hollow vessels chiefly,

regulate the formation of

all

or metal, I think

it

and

;

as general principles

such, whether they are formed of earthenware, glass,

better to proceed to the consideration of silversmiths' ware, and

thus continue a notice of hollow vessels, than to pass to glass windows, although "What we are specially conthey are formed of the material now under review. sidering at present are vessels of capacity, or hollow wares.

Division III.

Continuing our remarks upon

we have now

hollow vessels,

to

notice silversmiths' work, and here

we may observe that while the material with which we have now

Fig. 146.

to deal differs in character widely

from that of which those vessels already noticed have been formed,

yet

many

that

principles

which

have been enunciated are equally applicable

the

to

under consideration. jects, like those

glass, should

now

objects Silver

ob-

formed of clay or

perfectly

Fig. 147.

serve the

end for which they have been formed

;

also,

the fact that ornament applied to rounded

surfaces should be adapted for being viewed in perspective remains as binding on us as before

cussed

but herein the works of the silversmith

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;they are formed

worth,

it is

from those already

of a material of intrinsic value, which

earthenware or glass.

articles of

differ

Silver

is

dis-

not the case with

and gold being materials of considerable

necessary that the utmost economy be observed in using them, and in

order to effect this a special

mode

of construction

must be

resorted to.

If

we

propose to ourselves the formation of a sugar-basin of semi-circular shape, of what thickness

must the metal be

in

order that

obvious that the vessel must not yield to alterations of

form when

its

in ordinary use

metal of such thickness as will secure

its

it

may

not bend when lifted?

It is

shape to ordinary pressure, nor be subject ;

but

if it is

retaining

its

to be formed throughout of

shape,

it

will

be costly and


;

136

PRINCIPLES OP DESIGN.

heavy, and an amount of metal will be used in

manufacture of two or three such

formation sufficient for the

its

articles.

we may

Instead of forming the vessel throughout of thick metal,

from a thin sheet of

silver

but in order that

;

indent one or more beads in

(see Fig.

its side

construct

possess sufficient strength

it

146)

;

or

we can form an

having a rim projecting into the basin (Pig. 147), or extending from give strength at the top

it,

it

we must angle by

and thus

but the two beads are the more desirable, as the one gives strength

;

and the other at a lower portion of the

Modes of economising

material,

are of the utmost importance,

when we

vessel.

are forming vessels of costly substances,

and should be carefully thought

If the designer

out.

forms works which are expensive, he places them beyond the reach of those who

might otherwise enjoy them, and

if

heavy they appear clumsy

in the

hands of those

accustomed to delicate and light objects. Besides this, works in silver and in gold are always in danger of being destroyed,

owing to the

intrinsic value of these metals

Now

hidden in the melting-pot.

money

value of the material

less,

if

for if stolen, the theft

;

we form the

vessels of thin metal,

and thus our works are

and their chance of long existence

to the avaricious,

is

to a smaller degree

The

greater.

are at all times perilous materials for the formation of works of art

them,

years, it

existence

that which

tempting

precious metals

but while we use

;

is

If a

work

is

to be so formed that

it

may

exist for

becomes of the highest importance that those objects which we create

be well considered as to their

Long

promptly

take care so to employ them as to give to our works every possible

let us

opportunity for long existence.

many

is

we render the

an

is

evil in

not refining in

utility,

and at the same time be beautiful

in form.

the case of an ugly object, or an ill-considered vessel its

influence

is

Let that

better blotted out.

man who

will

not seek to embody beauty in his works make them heavy with metal, so that

they

may tempt

the thief, and thus sooner blot out his works from existence, as they

tend only to debase and degrade; but he

who

loves refinement,

chasteness of character to the objects which he creates,

them length

may

and seeks to give

well strive to secure to

of duration.

There are various modes of working metal.

It

may

be cast, hammered, cut,

engraved, and manipulated in various ways. Little that

producing a

is

result,

satisfactory can result

from casting.

Casting

is

a rough means of

and at best achieves the formation of a mass which

may

be

troublesome to cut into shape than a more solid piece of metal

;

the application of other means of working metal achieves

of an art nature.

Some

of the fine iron castings of Berlin are wonderfully good in their way, and

are to an extent artistic;

and certainly they contrast strangely with the cast handles

and knobs which we often see applied here

little

less

but easting without

n England

;

J'et

to vegetable-dishes,

and similar

silver objects

even these will not compare with works wrought by the


A11AU1A.-N

hammer and

METAL-WOttK.

137

the chisel.

Thin metal hammered into form,

and touched

where necessary with (he chisel, the graver,

and the chasing-tool, is

capable of the very

which

effects

finest

can

achieved

be

metal-work. reader

in

the

Let

consider

the

vessels

with

beautiful

which Arabian metal-

work presents are

us: these

formed by the

all

hammer

and

chisel,

with the assistance of

and chas-

the graver

how mar-

ing-tool, and

and

vellously delicate beautiful sults

are

We

!

these

the

re-

have

in

beauty

vessels

and dignity of form, richness

great

of

design,

intricacy

and

delicacy of detail, and

altogether a refinement

of effect

long

which

he

may

considered

and repeatedly enjoyed (Fig. lis).

Several,

almost

may

I

many, of

say

these beautiful objects are

to

be

found

in

the South Kensington

Museum, and be generally lopies,

it

should

known

that fac-similes of these lovely works, in the form of electrotype

have been prepared by Messrs. Elkington and Co., under the sanction of the j


PRINCIPLES Of DESIGN.

138 authorities of the

small cost. originals,

Department of Science and Art, and that these are procurable

a;

For purposes of study these copies are of almost equal value with the

and

adornment of a sideboard they are hardly

for the

who can

advise those

I strongly

inferior.

afford to purchase these beautiful copies to garnish their

sideboards with plate of this description, rather than with the meretricious electro-

we often see in our shop-windows. Having determined on the best mode of working the material, consider carefully the requirements which the work to be produced is intended to meet, and then strive

plate which

to form the object so that

may

it

What

Let us take a sugar-basin.

and 150 are those which best is

form should

it

fulfil

owing to

of the basin exist at

much

thumb has

smallness, while the

its

when

all, it

con1

19

itself

from the lumps.

of a sugar-basin are often so small as to be partially or wholly

It not unfrequently happens that only one or

useless.

After

the requirements of such a vessel, for in them the

always collected together, and the dust sugar separates

The handles handle,

have?

its creation.

have arrived at the conclusion that the two shapes engraved in Figs.

sideration, I

sugar

by

perfectly answer the end proposed

it is

desired to

move

two

fingers can rest on the

to be placed within the orifice

This should not be so

it.

;

if

a handle

is

to

should be so formed as to be useful, and afford a means of moving the

object with ease and comfort.

To form a handle

mere ornament

as a

an absurdity,

is

the vessel structurally, while the ornamentation

In order to

its

is

for the

handle

is

part of

an after and separate consideration.

must be constructed, but when formed it need not ornamentation must ever be regarded as separate from

existence a vessel

of necessity be ornamented

;

construction.

Such a sugar-basin as therefore have

combined

;

them

;

I

have suggested would not stand without legs

but I see no reason

hence I propose three

why

:

it

must

the legs and handles should not be

formed as to serve as handles throughout

feet so

their upper parts (Figs. 149, 150), they being convenient to hold.

Modern European

silversmiths have fallen into the error (an error

any

vailing wherever art can be applied to pictorial, rather

object)

of

making

their

now

pre-

works of a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an error which the Arabians, Indians,

than an ornamental, character

and Japanese never perpetrate, whose works in metal are unsurpassed by any, and equalled relief;

by indeed

few.

It

is

a mistake to cover an entire vase with figures in high

but wherever anything of the kind

is

attempted, care must be exercised in

causing the groups to follow the line of the vase, and not to appear as irregular projections from

they are

many;

it.

As

to the

But

of chasing and engraving. great

interest,

modes

of decorating

of ornamentation by repousse work

lor there

is

enamelling; and niello work

works

in

we have

silver

and

in gold,

already spoken, and

besides these there are other methods, and

some of

damascene work, or inlaying; and applying colour, or ;

jewels

may

also be added.


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

SPOUTS AA'D HANDLES.

Damascene work

of great interest.

is

Metal of one colour

the Indians being experts at this manufacture

Inlaid

into metal

as

effects,

have examined the large inlaid

Having chosen

work consists

but the Indian

chiefly

who

all

will

;

This mode of work seems to be capable of producing many

of silver inlaid in iron.

hookahs of India

is

India produces, perhaps, the rarest examples of this kind of work,

of another colour.

beautiful

L39

^g

-r-

/

admit.

form

a

for

a vessel, the next question with

which we have to deal it

It

is

curious that

position of a spout in

will

is,

require a handle and spout

while

and handle

relation to a vessel

verned law,

by

we yet

as a vessel

a

?

the

simple

go-

is

Fig. 149.

natural

them placed as they should be. This may become practically of great weight, owing rarely find

is

the more curious,

to the handle being

misplaced.

A

pound weight

steel-yard

it will

is

easily lifted,

but when applied to the shorter end of the

balance a hundredweight.

If this principle

applied to a tea-pot

is

Fig. 150.

which actually weighs but

little, it

may

yet be very heavy to

lift.

In nineteen eases

out of twenty, handles are so placed on tea-pots and similar vessels that they are in use lifted only by a force capable of raising two or three such vessels, of the steel-yard was not acting against the person

ordinary forms of tea-pot, and see gravity)

is

from the handle

how

who

of the leverage acting disadvantageous!}' to the person

the principle

uses the vessel.

far the centre of the

in a horizontal direction,

if

and you

Take our

weight (the centre of will be able to

who may pour

judge

tea from such


140

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

Now

pots.

passing-

if

the part which

is

grasped

is

to the right or left of a

through the centre of gravity of any

there

vessel,

is

right

line

leverage acting to

the disadvantage of the person desiring to pour from that vessel, and this leverage increases just as the point held

Fig. 151 would pour

the hand that holds

it

when

removed from the central

in the position

shown

line

spoken

in Pig. 152,

would be to the right of the centre of gravity

of great disadvantage, as

is

is

it

causes the vessel to appear

of.

but see

(a), which

much

how

far

distance

heavier than

it

and requires a much greater expenditure of force in order that the tea-pot be put to its use than is necessary were it properly formed.

actually

is,

Fig. 153.

Tlie law

governing the application of handle and spout

to vessels is this,

and

the same principle applies whether the vessel be formed of metal, glass, or earthen-

ware

:

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Find the centre of gravity of the

a vortical I'll,

drop over

and where the two

gravity. of

line

The

at right

freely while the handle

pour iVom

when

vessel,

placed in

two

which can easily be done by different

it,

as

it

is

just

Pig. a

line

L55,

line.

hung upon

ma\ be seen from

If this

the

is

the centre of

through the centre

through the centre of gravity of the

angles to this

letting-

positions, as in Figs. 153,

vertical lines intersect, as in a in

position of the handle being fixed on, draw

the handle, ami continue

must now be

to

it

vessel.

The spout

be (he case the vessel will pour

thumb

or finger of the person

Pigs. 150, 157, in

desiring

which the straight

line A,


SI'OUTS

passing through the centre

of

gravity

AND HANDLES. a, is at

Ill

right angles, as

it

should

lie,

with the

straight line passing through the spout.

This law,

it'

obeyed, will always enable liquid to be poured from

appearing heavier than

its

it

actually

is,

hut

il

will

be seen

a

vessel without

that the shape of

the vessel must he considered so that the spout and handle can bear (his relation to

each other, as in Figs. 156, 157, 158, 159, and 100.

Fig. 159.

Fig. 156.

it,

so they

show

must be avoided,

as

may

be seen by examining Figs. 151 and 152, which

a tea-pot of faulty shape in this respect.

A silver,

this

Sonic shapes will not admit of

consideration of this law shows that of glass, and of earthenware alike

respect things are

much

see a

hack we never did.

Silver jugs are

from ignorance, for

jug with the handle

now

in the right place, while

of

but

in

Now

we

some years

the most generally faulty hi this respect.

wrong placing of the handle or spout of a no man knowing the law would violate it.

as the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;those formed

usually placed too high;

better than they were a few years hack.

somewhat frequently and such mistakes

the handles of jugs

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;are

vessel result only

Fig. 101 shows a


PRINCIPLE? OV DESIGN.

142

common form

of jug with

its

handle, but the handle

is

shown by the dotted line. A very many of the French water-pots, as shown in Fig. 162. it

should occupy

is

too high; the position which excellent handle

It

is

applied to

unnecessary that

is

more respecting the

I say

shape and general construc-

and gold ves-

tion of silver

except to remark that

sels, if

ments

other

or

figures

beaten

are

they must

surfaces,

their

orna-

up on

not destroy or mar their general contour.

Iron us as

only

Not

should be.

the effect produced

is

when

inlaid

is

it

silver

not used with

is

it

with

and other metals exbut by this mode

cellent,

of work

our art-creations

are

greatly preserved,

the

iron

is

valueless,

for

and

the labour of remo\ ing the

small quantity of precious

metal inlaid

would be so

great as to render the gain rcinuncrat ion

inadequate

for the time consumed

collecting

M. and

in

it.

Christophle, of Paris,

also

M. Barbedien

in

a lesser degree, have com-

menced Fig.

sels

1(52.

to inlay copper ves-

with

silver,

and some of

their works are very beautiful.

The Japanese have from an

of silver into copper lovers of art. in

the

iron fir

;

is

a

early time inlaid silver in bronze.

This inlaying

step in the right direction, and should be encouraged by

The Indians not only

all

inlay silver in iron, but also gold in silver and

and the Italians and other peoples have inlaid metals

in a similar

way; and

ess and intricacy of some specimens of this inlaying are truly marvellous.


;

ENAMEL

By

143

JEWEL-WORK.

NIELLO

the process of enamelling-, colour can be applied to metal, and of

this art of enamelling-

produces works which are most lovely

all

arts

at least, if the best

;

works of enamel do not surpass those produced by any other manufacture, they are Transparent enamels are

equal in beauty to the works of the highest excellence.

some cases very

in

beautiful, but they do not generally

compare with the opaque

enamels, such as were largely used by the Chinese about a hundred and

by the Japanese, or those now

back, and

Algerian

Onyx Company, and

Christophle,

Chinese daisonnu enamel vases

and here you may

may be

find one or

also

so skilfully produced all

fifty

years

by Barbedien, the

of Paris.

seen at the South Kensington

two small

Museum,

pieces of Japanese enamel, as well as

one or two grand specimens by Barbedien, of Paris.

The Chinese enamels have most frequently a

light blue (sort of torquoise)

ground, but they occur with both red, white, green, and yellow grounds

ornament

mixed

of

is

green, or dark blue prevailing in

work

is

finer

while the

it.

The Japanese enamels have a lower tone of the

;

but generally with light yellow-green, deeper blue-

colours,

colour-effect

than the Chinese, and

and the colours more mingled, while the modern French enamels

are full in colour, and are yet rich and subdued in general effect

most beautiful works. The Elkingtons, of Birmingham and London, have

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; some of them,

indeed, are

also

produced some beautiful

things in this way, but not in the quantities that Barbedien has.

I

most strougly

advise the art-student to study these works in enamel.

Niello-work it is

niello pattern niello pattern is

is

a form of enrichment applied to metal, but

a difficult process.

Silver snuff-boxes

upon them are not uncommon, however,

may

much need

be inserted in metal, but

glitter,

production of repose.

for

is

if this

is

not in general use

watch-chains with a

Belgium and

Some

silver.

not be said respecting

Itussia, the

niello-work

it.

done they should be somewhat

sparingly used, even in the most costly of works, for

produce mere

in

appearing as dark lead-pencil work upon the

very quiet and beautiful, but

Jewels

and pendants

if

they are abundant they

and the aim of the ornamentist must

in all cases be the


CHAPTER

VIII.

HARDWARE.

Having

considered metal-work in

and

sideration of hardware,

am

I

its

more costly branches, we come

we have now

glad that

as results from the use of inexpensive materials, for

work

to the con-

to deal with such metal-

such that must be

it is

generally employed, while works formed of the precious metals can be used only by

The

comparatively few persons. of the artist to

is

an extent

object of art

is

fulfil

my

amount of the most

mission

but I do

;

refined pleasure

by

my

;

but

if

the

many

art that

myself to the few, and be content with necessary to the appreciation of If

educated.

more

fully

from

it

some

persons,

than those

by

all

my

only

it is

many

when

I give the greatest

possible for

me

to give.

If

I give pleasure, it is well that I

my

to derive pleasure from

fail

the mission

;

If as an artist I give pleasure, I

so, perfectly,

by producing works which can be procured by do so

the giving of pleasure

that of giving ennobling pleasure.

works, then I must address

Education appears to be

lesser mission.

art; the artist, then,

is

a

man who

appeals to the

their superior education, are enabled to appreciate art

are ignorant, and can consequently derive more pleasure

who

than the less cultured person,

it

might then be

desirable that the artist

should address himself, through costly materials, to the few, for thereby he

giving the greatest amount of pleasure.

I always, however, like to produce

might he works in

know that I form what is capable of giving pleasure to appreciative who may possess it, as well as the rich. poor man if the In hardware we find two classes of work in the market which appear to have the one class being characterised by a preponderance of excellence, little in common cheap materials, for then I

and the other by the dominance of what

work

is

that which

is

is

is

generally

known

—and they

selves almost exclusively to domestic work, styles of art.

judgment approves

style, are to

first class

of

Birmingham ware. ecclesiastical

or mediaeval, as they

arc

now many in number

— devol

and most of them fabricate

If I wanted an artistic set of fire-irons, I should go

ecclesiastical warehouses, for there I

that I liked;

The

metal-workers; the

ecclesiastical

metal-workers produce only ecclesiastical and mediaeval work.

On the contrary, some of these men

my

as

an error to suppose that these so-called

are sometimes called

and

coarse and inartistic.

produced by what are termed

second consists of what It

is

and the most

;

have seen

many

sets that

but I never saw a set produced artistic fenders, grates,

be got at these shops.

I do not

mean

my

to

1

hem-

one of the

1<>

reason

commends

for the general

and gas-fittings,

e

articles in all

in

market

almost any

convey the impression that

all


UTILITY THE FIRST THING TO BE CONSIDERED.

145

things made at these ecclesiastical warehouses are good, and that

Birmingham

(or Sheffield)

manufacture are bad,

for I

Birmingham

these mediaeval shops, and I have seen excellent things from I

might mention

mingham

houses

as

things of

all

have seen indifferent works

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

in

especially

good certain gaseliers produced by two of the smaller Bir-

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;but

as a rule the

works found

in the mediaeval

warehouses are

Fig. 104.

Fig. 163.

good, and as a rule the works in hardware produced by Birmingham and Sheffield are bad, in point of art. It will appear a

mere

repetition if I insist that the materials of

which works of

hardware are formed be used in the easiest manner in which they can be worked, and that every article be so formed as perfectly to answer the end of I

must do

so.

Let us look

for a

common

set of fire-irons,

and we

pokers out often have a handle terminating in a pointed knob. of this

knob

is

formation.

\et

shall find that nine

Now,

as the object

that of enabling us to exercise force wherewith to break large pieces

of coal, the folly of terminating this knob with a point essentially,

its

an object of

utility;

it

is

should therefore be useful.

obvious. It is

A

poker

is,

ridiculous to talk


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

146 of a poker as

an ornament

an ornament, which

which

is

;

we

yet

find it fashionable

now

have a bright poker as

to

obtrusively displayed to the visitor, and a

is

carefully concealed from view, reserved for use.

black poker,

little

1 cannot

imagine what

i#r~cjR-nrrÂťra^wrvinTjtf('p.^nif7ifnnwi: ifwrafiftyrrrriii' t .

O'S-K'Q g+

.;

o;Wh>.i ;4:'0'

^onrH

Vm

mid*

rtaftof*

y&wSW^

trÂą%

^isiW1

-m-

jHatj

Fig. 166.

ll?^

8

Tjvjj^V

D

Fig. 185.

people will not do for thai

:

which induces

until persons

who

ornament and an simplj

a

show and

women

to

fashion, but to the thinking

keep

:i

mind such

littleness as

poker as an ornament must be distressing; and

desire 1" be regarded as educated learn to discriminate between article of utility, little progress in art can

thing to be looked

at.

then

it

may

be made.

be as inconvenient

as

you

If a poker

an is

please, for if


147

ORNAMENTAL IltON-WOKK. it

has no purpose to

same remarks utility,

will

fulfil

by

creation

its

I

;

hut

answer any particular end,

formation; but after

it

is

it

should

created as

lie

a

hut

;

if

an

may

or cut, or

Casting'

is

must be exercised

in

work of

utility, care

With due

them

make

consideration, almost every it

mode

the least artistic

of working-

may

work

must ever be the aim of the

so.

be cast, the patterns formed should be so facture that the

intended its

capable of being- wrought in various ways;

tiled.

is

fitted to answer the end proposed by

be rendered both useful and beautiful, and

is

any kind

Fig. 16S.

be also a work of beaut}'.

intelligent ornamentist to render

Iron

they are to he mere

if

article of

Fig. 167.

it

The

works of

have nothing to say respecting them.

Utility and beauty are not inseparable

order that

purpose.

its

If they are intended as

then their form must he carefully considered

ornaments

to

cannot be unfitted to

it

apply to shovel and tongs.

mode

full}-

it

:

;

but

if iron is to

adapted to this method of manu-

be readily apparent.

cast-iron appear as wrought-iron

ma}' be cast, or hammered,

of treating- iron

It

is

foolish to seek to

cast-iron should appear as cast-iron, and


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

14-8

wrought-iron as wrought -iron. of great strength

Cast-iron

while wrought-iron

;

is

is

rather than break.

Wrought-iron can be

rod of metal can be

hammered

flat

brittle,

and must not be

relied

upon

as

tough, and will bend under great pressure readily bent into scrolls, or the end of a

and shaped into the form of a

and parts tan

leaf,

One or two either be welded together or fastened by small collars, pins, or screws. Hart, are given Benham, and by Skidmore, illustrations of good wrought-iron work in the engravings.

As an

illustration of a simple railing,

Exhibition of 1862. (Fig. 163), which

very great, yet

is

As

quaint and beautiful.

it is

colours were so applied as to increase

is

figured one

shown

in the International

in every respect excellent. it

its effect

was shown

it

and beauty.

carefully devote himself to the consideration of excellent

Its strength

is

was coloured, and the If the student will

works in metal, he

will

Fig. 1(59.

Let him procure, if possible, the illustrated London, Hardman of Birmingham, and Dovey of Hart of catalogues of such men as Manchester, and study the sketches which he will there see, and he will certainly

more than by much reading.

laarn

discover the principles of a true art, such as he

concordant with his

own

must seek

to apply in a

manner

original feelings.

Of our illustrations, the example by Skidmore (Fig. 164) furnishes us with an excellent mode of treatment. Iron bands are readily bent into volutes, or curves of various descriptions, and the parts so formed can be united by welding, screws, or bolts,

llardman's

gate

105)

(Fig-

vigorous, and illustrative of a true (Figs.

is

mode

in

Hid, L67) are also very meritorious.

parts are well

fastened together.

consider the illustrations which

every respect

of working metal.

They

excellent;

The two

is

quaint,

are simple in design, and

their

I advise very strongly that the student carefully

accompany

this chapter.

In iron-work the manifestation of a true constructive principle things desirable.

it

foliated railings

Iron, being a strong material, should not

is

beyond

all

be formed into heavy


OKNAMK.VTAI. I110N-W011K.

masses unless immense weight If

we form

lias

in be sustained, or \ci-\ greal strength

lamps, candelabra, and such works of iron,

of metal employed

strength.

may

their construction

in

Were we

it

is

a

required.

obvious that the portions

is

be thin, as the material

to form such works of wood, then

of material would be necessary, in order that the is

H!Âť

is

of great

greatly increased thickness

same strength he

secured, as

wood

not nearly so strong as iron.

My

remarks

fully he said to

have special reference to wrought -iron, as cast-iron cannot so

will

have a constructive character.

The small

railing (Fig. 163)

is

an

admirable illustration of a true constructive formation, as the parts are

held together, and

all

strengthened to a wonderful degree, by the introduction of a horseshoe-shaped member.

This

worthy of the most careful study,

for its

railing

is

strength

great.

is

The horseshoe form,

beauty. judiciously

Utility it

applied,

must come

we have also especially when

Besides strength

far

is

first,

from being offensive.

and then beauty, and so

does in this particular railing-;

hut here

we

have great simplicity, and a correct structural character has been arrived at in

its

production

rather than any elaboration of the principles of

beauty.

From

the catalogue of

chester, I select

"W. Dovey, of

J.

Man-

an illustration of structure in the

form of a candelabrum which in character as a simple

is

work

highly satisfactory (Fig. 168).

There Fipr.

is

170.

a solidly-formed heavy base, an upright stem

terminating in a candle-holder.

and extra strength

is

There

is

an arrangement

waste grease,

for catching

given to the stem by four slender buttress-like brackets, which

are securely and well attached to the base and to the stem above

;

and these are

strengthened by two hoops, which prevent their bending under pressure. Figs. 169 and 170, the former being a ridge or wall cresting, and the latter a stair railing, are each

structural quality)

Fig. 109

is

zontal line.

illustrations of a correct treatment,

and beauty (an art quality) are

admirably constructed, only

These two

it

is

illustrations are also

inasmuch

secured

at

as strength (a

the

same time.

a little slender above the middle hori-

from Mr. Dovey's catalogue.

In the catalogue just named, and in those previously named

also,

many good

found illustrative of the successful combination of true structural qualities with a considerable amount of beauty, and also acknowledging the strength

examples

maybe

of the material by the lightness of the parts.


150

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

Those who reside

Museum, and study

in,

or visit, London, will do well to

go

to the

South Kensington

a large and splendid candelabrum of Messrs. Hart, Son, and

Fig. 171.

Peard, which

is

strength, bul

in

well

worthy of consideration.

mewl ether respects

proportioned, and

illustrative

it

is

It is

rather heavy, and

highly commendable.

of a correct

treatment

of

metal.

is

of enormous

It is beautiful, well

Besides

tins,

it


OTHEK METAI-S CSED WITH exemplifies

may

the manner in which stones or jewels

As a

hardware with advantage.

further illustration

151

IKON.

oi'

be applied to works

in

a correct and very beautiful

treatment of metal, we give one segment of the Hereford Cathedral Screen (Fig. 171;. the work of that most intelligent of metal-workers, Mr. Skidmore of Coventry.

This screen was shown in the International Exhibition of

from there removed to this beautiful

place in the cathedral.

its

work, which

which we are acquainted.

is

All

London, and was

18(i;2, in

who can

will

do well to view

one of the finest examples of artistic metal-work with Notice the ease with which iron

may be

treated

if a

Fig. 172,

correct

mode

of working be employed.

half an inch in thickness,

mode

of treatment), or

its

by lj

To the student

rivets, screws, or ties, or

I say,

Brass, copper, and other metals

is,

they

care

it

about

filigree it

can be bent into any

study the shapes into which simple bars of

by observing well-formed works.

may

be associated with iron in the formation of

If well managed, brass and other bright metals

may give bright

must be

This can be rolled into a volute (the

broad.

iron can be beaten, both mentally and

any works.

is

end can be hammered out into stems and leaves, and to

can be attached other leaves by structural form.

Let a bar of iron be taken which

may

act as

gems

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

spots; but where the bright metals are used with this viewT ,

exercised in order that the bright spots be formed by beautiful parts, and

that their distribution be just, for that which

is

bright will attract

Before leaving this part of our subject, I must

call

first

attention.

attention to a hinge

by


152

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

Ilardman, of Birmingham, which was shown in the International Exhibition of 18G2, it is both quaint and beautiful (Fig. 172). The door to which this hinge was

as

applied opened twice ; the

first half opened and folded back on the second half, and then the two halves opened as one door, as will be seen from the illustration. It is

very desirable that we have a

little

too apt to repeat ourselves, heuce It

imrjossible that I take

is

All I can do

them of

it is

a sort of relief to meet with a

up each

article of

hardware and consider

be brought forward for criticism.

a duct through which gas

be exposed to pressure, or

if it

is

is

I will, however,

It

must be strong

The main part of a gas-branch

to convey the gas, but this

their

mode

to

may

be supported in

is

the tube

many ways, and

;

as

if

by

there

well be connected with the central

own attachment, but by

brackets of some sort, or with one

another by some connecting parts. this

gas-

may

are branch tubes for several lights, these

by

A

if it is

runs the chance of coming in collision with the person,

such buttress-like brackets as in the candelabrum shown in Fig. 168

tube, not only

separately.

wrongly constructed.

to be conveyed.

as do standard lights in public buildings.

or pipe which

it

and may lead to the formation of a correct judgment

may

just call attention to gas-branches, as they are often is

idea.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; principles which, once understood, may result in the construction

excellent works,

respecting such objects as

branch

new

to point out principles, and leave the learner to consider and apply

is

for himself

many

We are

novelty of arrangement in our works.

Whether the gas-branch be pendent

or standard,

of strengthening the tube-work should be employed, for the tubes

themselves are but

slig-htly

held together, and by pressure being brought to bear

upon them, a dangerous and expensive escape of gas may

result.

In the manufacture of gaseliers one or two of the smaller Birmingham houses

have certainly distinguished themselves by the production of works both beautiful

and true in

;

which

win to

its art shall

it

me

and these lead

to think that a better

day

is

dawning

for

Birmingham,

be exalted rather than degraded, and shall be such as will

the esteem of the world rather than

call

forth the execrations of art-

loving people.

As

to the colouring of iron I can say little.

In

my

judgment the best modes

of colouring metals were originated by Mr. Skidmore of Coventry, of

His theory

before spoken.

When

oxides.

is this,

that metals are best coloured

a metal, especially brass,

the flames, where the

is

seen in a furnace in

by the a

whom

I have

tints of their

molten condition,

oxygen of the atmosphere is uniting with the vapour of the The same thing in a lessor degree occurs

metal, present the most resplendent tints. in

the case of iron, but here the colours arc loss brilliant, and are more tertiary in

character.

furnace where

whereby metals

is

applies to a metal the colours seen in the flames of the

Mr. Skidmore it

melts.

his ideas

Without attempting

might be

very good.

restricted, I

to limit the colourist to

any theory

must say that Skidmore's colouring

of the


CHAPTER

IX.

STAINED GLASS.

From

early

times

it

customary to

been

has

colour

Egyptians a method of forming glass of various tints a

To the ancient

glass.

was known, and by producing

mass of glass consisting of variously coloured pieces vitreously united, and cutting

which might

glass

sort of stained

and laborious manner, produced a

this into slices, they, in a costly

have been employed for the sides of lanterns or other purposes.

The Greeks were acquainted with a similar by them are common in our museums.

and bowls formed

process,

manner

in this

Soon after the re-discovery of glass in our own country, methods of colouring it

were sought, and cathedral windows were formed, which were of such beauty,

and were

so thoroughly fitted to

answer the end of their creation, that

improvement upon these early works has even yet been made, and decorative glass which colour,

A

far inferior to

is

thfm

or no of the

as regards design,

and mode of treatment.

window must

must admit light If a

sheets

we now produce

little

much

;

fulfil

having

two purposes

must keep out

it

fulfilled these ends, it

window commands a

(if

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

lovely view let

may

it, if

rain, wind,

and

cold,

and

be beautiful.

possible, be

formed of but few

not very large, of one sheet) of plate-glass; for the works of

God

are

more worthy of contemplation, with their ever-changing beauty, than the works of

man

;

but

if

arranged, let

the it,

window commands only a mass if possible,

manifested by the arrangement of picture with parts treated in light all

the

of bricks

and mortar

its

parts.

and shade.

A

window should never appear

The foreshortening

perspective treatments, are best avoided, as far as possible.

human

glass, for,

inartistically

be formed of coloured glass having beauty of design

I

as a

of the parts, and

do not say that

figure, the lower animals, and plants must not be delineated upon

window

on the contrary, they may be so treated as not only to be beautiful, but

also to be a consistent decoration of glass

;

but this I do say, that

many

stained

windows are utterly spoiled through the window being treated as a picture, and not as a protection

from the weather and

as a source of light.

If pictorially treated subjects are

employed upon window

glass,

they should be

treated very simply, and drawn in bold outline without shading, and the parts should

be separated from each other by varying their colours.

may

Thus, the

flesh of a figure

be formed of glass having a pink tone; the robe of the figure of glass which

green, purple, or any other colour

K

;

a flower

may

is

be formed of white glass, or of glass


104

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

of any colour; the leaves of green glass; and the sky background of blue glass.

All the parts

will

thus

be distinguished

from each other by

Fig.

distinction of part from part will be further enhanced

colour,

and the

1

by the strong black outline

which bounds the parts and furnishes the drawing of the picture. Strong colours should rarely be used of tight.

Light

is

in

windows,

as (bey retard the

admission

body depends

in a large

essential to our well-being; our health of


STAINED

U

(J.ASS.

measure upon the amount, of light which

falls

upon the

depend upon the exposure of our bodies life-giving rays.

It

must

also be

Fig.

Fig. 175-

Fig 178.

It

is

if it

light

;

let

life,

part, al

in

least,

our windows, then, admit these if

light

is

not freely admitted

Fig. 177.

17tJ.

Fig 179.

to an apartment the colours of decorations

tfa

remembered that

Those wonderful

skin.

chemical changes, in the absence of which there can be no

all

the objects which

it

contains,

and of

has any, are sacrificed, for in the absence of light there

is

its

no colour.

not necessary, in order to the production of a beautiful window, that

strong colour be used

;

tints of

blue, blue-grey, olive, russet,

creamy yellow, pale amber,

and other sombre

light

own much

tints of tertiary

or delicate hues, if enlivened

with


PRINCIPLES OV DESIGN.

15(3

small portions of ruby or other

by

their use

A

we

full colours,

have consistent windows.

good domestic window

is

produce the most charming

often produced

by armorial bearings

in colour

benefit

view

which

may

is

a bit of colour will

and

highly desirable, for the room

may

thus get the

sometimes afford, and at the same time

be had through the uncoloured portion of the window.

being

In some ease*

placed on geometrically arranged tessera- of slightly tinted glass.

such an arrangement as this

effects,

.

As an

a pleasant

illustration

Fig. 182.

Fig, 181.

of this class of window', we extract one from the catalogue of those excellent artists stained glass, Messrs. Heaton, Butler, and Bayne, of Garrick Street (Fig. 173).

in

A good window may (Kg. a

17

I),

also be

formed

by bordering

a plain

or in place of the plain centre squares of glass

diaper pattern, as Pigs. 17o to

may

window with

1^:2.

\<> architectural constructive feature should be introduced into a

an elaborate architectural If

a

figure

building,

it

is

formed

is

well that

canopy overshadowing

of a it

colour,

be used, each bearing

perishable

material,

a

figure

is

not

and stands on

be protected from the rain by

a

window

at

all

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; thus,

desirable.

the outside of a

canopy

;

but such a


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

FAULTS IN STAINED GLASS DESIGNS.

when

contrivance

troduced over

in-

a figure

a flat win-

drawn on

dow

167

absurd, being

is

Let

useless.

us

always consider what

we have to do before we commence the any

of

formation

ornamental

article,

to do

and then seek it

in the must simple,

and beau-

consistent,

manner.

tiful

1st repre-

183 and

my

sent

what

Figs.

views

of

glass

stained

may advantageously be.

More than once in the course of these

chapters I have protested in strong terms

against

pretence

in

art and art-decora t ion

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

make

desire to

things appear to be

made

ma-

of better

terial or

more costly

substances than what

they have

in

reality

been wrought from that

leads

men

to

paint and varnish a plain freestone

man-

telpiece in imitation

of

some

marble, or

expensive to

make

Fi'-.

1S3.

doors and window-shutters, skirting and panelling that the carpenter has fashioned

out of red or yellow deal, assume the appearance of oak, or maple, or satinwood, by


158

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

the deceptive

In no

of the grainer.

skill

ease can the imitation ever approach a fair

resemblance to the reality

The

imitate.

which

freestone,

it is

proposed to

rough grain of the soft

coarse,

incapable of receiving a

is

polish, or rather of

being polished until

it

becomes as smooth, and even, and lustrous

good

as

can never be made by suc-

glass,

and varnish to

cessive coatings of paint

a

afford

satisfactory resemblance

marble that

it

to the

supposed to represent,

is

however carefully the cunning hand of the

may

painter spots,

have imitated the veins, and

and curious

of

diversities

colour

which Nature has variegated

with

substance that

surface of the

deavouring to copy.

he

the

is

en-

Nor, again, can a

coarse-grained, soft wood, however skilled

may

be the hand that manipulates

it,

treated so as to resemble the texture

be

and

smoothness of hard, close-grained wood,

which from

its

very nature

is

capable of

receiving the high polish that the softer

material can never take

same process

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

by the

treated

if

unless the expense

is,

of producing the imitation greatly exceeds

the cost of the thing imitated. is

applicable to the treatment of

stone

freestone mantelpiece,

for as a

:

or deal door, to

wood and

applicable also to the treatment

is

of ^lass

And what

however suitable and pleasing

may

the eve either

be

when simply

painted in the one case and varnished in the

other

to

the

preserve

surface

from

the deteriorating influences of dirt of kind, can never he

of reasonable time

made by the

and

appearance of marble

by

the

application

transparent

Fig. 184.

by

skill

or

of

varnish,

any

exercise

to present the

oak; colour

can

so

glass,

rendered

inner

be


PRETENCE IN ART-DEC011AT10N. brought to resemble glass stained in delicacy of tint, or depth,

<>r

painted

and richness, and

by the legitimate method,

faulty.

patterns,

The

and

it

may

is

either

styled, fails not only

perhaps be said to be especially

designs, which are printed on paper, with the view of imitating glass

err principally

scenery which are not

being too elaborate, and

in

in character or

represented in painted glass. heraldic emblems, as in

in this indeed

it

5 [>

The greater

brilliancy of colour.

part of the imitative stained glass, or " diaphanie " as in colour, but in design;

1

shown

in

representing figures and

keeping with the designs that are usually

If confined to simple diaper work, or borderings and

in Figs. 173

and 174, or patterns similar

Fig. 188, the artistic effect produced would be

more

to

satisfactory,

that

shown

although

can never equal genuine stained glass in depth of colour or purity of tone.

it


CHAPTER

X.

CONCLUSION. I

have now

treated of art as applied to our industrial manufactures, and have pointed

out principles which must be recognisable in

We

have seen that material must in

manner;

natural

that,

all

art-works which pretend to merit.

all

and most

cases be used in the simplest

wherever possible, we must avail ourselves of the friendly aid

of natural forces ; * that the most convenient shape must always be selected for a vessel or art-object of is

tarian,

any kind

All art-objects

useful.

;

and that beauty must then be added to that which

must be

useful

and then beautiful

and yet so graceful, so comely, that they

While

well as valued for their usefulness.

I

must ever govern the application of ornament

shall

;

they must be

utili-

their beauty as

be loved for

have set forth those principles which to useful articles, I cannot

student any royal road to the attainment of art-knowledge.

show the

something in a " a quality " about

There

is

is too subtle for expression by words ; there is an art-work, or the expression of an amount of " feeling," which cannot be described,

true art-work which

yet which

so obvious as to

is

The only way

in

be at once apparent to the trained eye.

which the power of appreciating

especially if these qualities are of a subtle nature,

known

excellence.

Could the student

who would

ornamentist,

visit

our

is

art-qualities can be gained,

by the

museums

careful study of

in

works of

company with a

trained

point out what was good and what was bad in art, he would

soon learn, by studying the beautiful works, to perceive art-qualities

;

but as this

is

not possible to most, the learner must be content to consider each art-work with

which he comes in contact in conjunction with the principles I have Let him take a work material of which

venient to the

?

is

it is

seen

in

is

the form graceful or vigorous?

is

will

now

set forward.

ask himself ?

is

— has

the

the shape con-

are the engraved forms beautiful,

perspective on a rounded

making such

is

the curve which bounds the

the engraving applied in judicious quantities and in just

inquire into the nature of whatever

constantly

He

the handle properly applied, and does the spout bear a proper relation

handle?

?

a tea-pot.

formed been judiciously and simply used

form of a subtle nature? proportions

— say

inquiries,

the knowledge which will enable

surface? is

By

as

do not suffer by being

such questions the student will

presented to his consideration, and only by

and seeking

him

and such

to

answer them correctly, can he gain

rightly to judge of the nature of art-works.

• See chapters on glass and earthenware.


INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN AND EASTERN ART UPON EACH OTHER.

Some

young student

of these inquiries (he

have difficulty;

form

for, his taste

will readily answer, with others

being yet uncultivated, he will not

you

various inquiries as well as

By

you must frame your

them

will

know whether

and then note the shape of the object

can,

memorandum-book, and write your opinion respecting reasons for your opinion. thus,

he

a

Nevertheless, I say to the learner, try to answer these

beautiful or not.

is

161

ideas with

in brief terms,

and your

many advantages

some degree of exactness when you have

into words, and exactness of idea

refer to previous thoughts,

it

thus noting your studies you gain

is

essential to

in a

your success.

;

to put

You can

also

and thus impress them upon the memory; and you can

observe your progress, which

is

important, and should be encouraging.

In order

that you acquire the power of perceiving art-merit as quickly as possible, you must

study those works in which examples of bad taste are rarely met with, you must at first

consider art-objects from India, Persia, China, and Japan, as well as examples

of ancient art from

But

Egypt and Greece.

East, choose those which are not altogether

During the

ten

last

lamentable extent.

the art-works of Japan have deteriorated to a

:

demand

for

European demand be met, quantity

in order that the

we work we

produced and quality disregarded, for creating a

modern works from the

if possible.

Contact with Europeans unfortunately brings about the deterio-

of Eastern art

ration

years

in selecting

new

inferior

cavil

is

respecting price, and yet by thus

raise the price

even of that which

is

comparatively bad, and soon have to pay for the coarser wares a price for which superior articles could at

But

this should

first

be procured.

be noted

:

that the commonest wares which

Japan and India are never utterly bad

in art.

we

receive from

Inharmonious colouring does not

appear to be produced by these nations, and the same

may

be said of Persia and

China, and, to an extent, of Morocco and Algeria, the only exceptions being where

European influence has been long continued.

may almost

rely

upon the beauty of

all

In selecting examples for study you

works from China, Japan, Persia, and India,

which have not been produced under European influence.

A chiefly

notable example of the deteriorating influence of European taste (perhaps

English taste) upon Eastern art

wood boxes from

India,

is

apparent

if

we examine

old carved sandal-

and those which are now sent to us from the same country

the quiet, unobtrusive consistency of the ornament by which

it

was sought only

â&#x20AC;˘

to

enrich a properly constructed box was not sufficiently attractive to suit European (or

English

?) taste.

The ornament must be more pronounced and in higher relief, and more vulgarly attractive I might say,

the entire work must be more attractive

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

and thus the exquisite refinement of the older works rich but vulgar people,

brethren, from

whom

whose

taste for art is infinitely

is

sacrificed to the

wants of a

below that of their conquered

they learn the principles of a beautiful art but slowly, while they

do much to destroy the refinement of art-taste which the workmen of our Eastern


162

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

empire appear to

Study the works of the Eastern nations in conjunction

inherit.

made in

with the remarks which I

my first

consider the numerous ohjects left to us

chapter (seepages

hy the

and 48), and then

6, 9,

early Egyptians

and Greeks, and bear

mind while viewing them what we have said on Egj^ptian and Greek pages 6, 8, and 10), and after having learned to understand the merits of in

art (see

Persian,

Japanese, Indian, and Chinese art, and of that of the ancient Egyptians and Greeks,

you may commence Renaissance art in a

style

may

I

if

various forms last of

thus

speak, there

is

for in these styles, or dialects of

;

and

that

false

in structure, false

pictorial rather

than ornamental in

is

that a very complete acquaintance with ornamental art

effect,

that

all

much

so

representation, untruthful in expression,

in

up the study of Italian and

to consider other styles, taking its

all

necessary in order

is

the defects of these styles he apparent, and in order that the student avoid

falling into the error of regarding a pictorial effect as the result of a true style of

ornamental

art.

Study,

knowledge will

make

when accompanied hy

a great ornamentist.

whatever commends think

No

will be gained.

much upon

itself to

individual thought,

is

the means wherehy art-

mere looking

at

He who would

attain to great

him

worthy of

as

works which are beautiful and true

knowledge must study

his attention, and,

the works which he contemplates;

it is

all,

must

mind

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;not

above

the evidence of

of degraded but of noble mind, of refined mind, of cultivated mind, of well-informed

mind, of mind which has knowledge, of mind which has vigour, of mind which fresh

and new

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that we

find impressed

we, as art-students, have, above

upon a work and giving

to

it

While

value.

things, to attain to cultivation of the mind,

all

is

we

cannot give expression to refined feelings manifested in form unless we can draw, and

draw almost

and the

faultlessly;

can only result from

much

ability to

draw with accuracy, power, and

feeling

practice.

Let every spare moment, then, find the sketch-book in your hand, and be constantly trying to objects as for

you

see

draw both

carefully, neatly,

around you, even

by constant and

if

careful practice

artist,

you can

afford to

make

Avoid making hasty sketches.

sketch memoranda; but

posit ion

in

life

till

you can draw

your every drawing be as

in character,

does, to a great extent, depend.

sedulously be cultivated; is

let

When

however simple the object portrayed, as though depended upon its character, lor upon every sketch your future

and as finished

your welfare

such

examples of good art-works are not at hand;

with great power, energy, truthfulness, and refinement, careful

finish,

you can alone acquire the necessary power of

expressing refined thought in refined form. a finished

and with exactness and

The habit

of careful painstaking should

and with every drawing thus made an amount of power

gained which the making of a hundred careless sketches would not afford.

Let

painstaking, then, be characteristic of your working.

Ornament

of some kind

is

applied to almost every article that

we

see around us.


CHARACTER SHOWN IN ORNAMENT.

The papers on our plates

even

on our

walls, the carpets

from which we

eat, are all

floors,

the hangings at our windows, the

covered by patterns of some kind

now when ornamentation has become general, if we do meet with something new

to

producer was a is

a

man

does not altogether

if it

man

fail

it

that

character;

he

if

he

if

a

is

man man of

is

a

In

tenderness of perception.

of power,

works

his

will

the designer

if

fail

to reveal his

strength

his

reveal

ol

refined feelings, that his designs will manifest his

like

manner,

if

man

a

is

ignorant he cannot withhold

Did not the Egyptians

from his patterns the manifestation of his ignorance. express their power of character in their ornaments their refinement in the forms

rare*

is

often feeble or

is

Let the reader be assured that

of knowledge.

it

to impress us with the idea that the

of knowledge, his ornamental conrpositions will never

learning;

yet

;

anything original in

find

in kind

ornament; and timid-looking,

163

which they drew

?

?

did not the Greeks manifest

do we not even find an expression

of religious feeling strongly, yea, impressively, set forth by some art-works, as by

the illuminated manuscripts of the early Middle Ages

?

and do we not every day see

the impress of the ignorant upon certain wall-papers, carpets, and other things is

a

fact,

producer

and is

necessary that

it is

we

fully recognise

it,

It

?

that the knowledge of the

manifested by his works; and that the ignorance of the ignorant

is

also

manifested in his works. If ornament

without grace

;

is

Without claiming to this to

produced having new characters,

while power to have

volume (Plate

me more

I.),

is

it is

often feeble,

made a

four of

studies in original ornament, all of

amount of energy, vigour

to avoid coarseness, or

is

generally

successful effort, I put forth, in the frontispiece

my

or less satisfactory as studies in composition.

secure in each an

and

the expression of manliness, and grace of refinement.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the power of

any glaring want of refinement.

life,

I

which arc

I have endeavoured

t*>

yet at the same time

have sought to combine

right lines, which are expressive of power, with such curved shapes as shall, with

them, produce a pleasing contrast of form, and

In the light ornament on the

citrine

ground

expjress a certain

amount of

grace.

(that at the lower left-hand corner

of

our plate) I have endeavoured especially to secure an expression of grace in combination with that

amount of energy which avoids any expression of

feebleness.

In the border ornament I have introduced the arch form, as structural " setting out " which

is

composition to appear as though

it

I do not

feeling of security.

that in some cases

it

it

hints at a

pleasant; and I have endeavoured to cause the rested

on the lower dotted band,

say that it is necessary that this be so

as this gives a :

all I assert is

gives a feeling of satisfaction.

So far as I know, the colouring

is

also original.

The

colours employed are

chiefly of a tertiary character, but small masses of primary or secondary colours are

employed in order to impart "life" to the composition. I do not set these studies before

my

readers with the idea of

showing them


PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN.

164

what

ornament should be

original

compositions, and

I only set

:

must leave each

them

clothe his

to

forth as examples of

own thoughts with

new

a befitting

expression of his individual original ideas.

As

I

am

is

me

writing for the working man, as well as for others, will he pardon

reminding him that we are called to exercise an associated with the scientific professions

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

art,

yet at the same time our art

knowledge of natural

sciences, of

botany, zoology, natural philosophy, and chemistry can be very fully utilised in our art

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and that

we

should, therefore, act as professional

highest rank; for thereby only can

esteem in which

it

we

In taking leave of

any way,

I

shall

my

reader, let

be glad to do

comment,

do what Preface.

or desire

little

I can

so.

me

say that If any

I personally can aid

if

who

really seek

me

any other aid that I can give them, for

them.

if

we

we ought.

decorative design, and are hard workers, choose to send or

as artists of the

should be held, and must be held, by the people at large,

are to administer to their pleasure as

in

men and

hope to place our calling in that position of

My

him

knowledge of

designs for criticism I shall be

happy

to

address will be found at the end of the


;

\ji

Alternation in Ornament, 24.

Christian Art, 11, 12.

America, Depraved Artistic Taste

Anthemion

;

104.

in,

a Greek Decorative Device,

9.

in Furniture, 51, 52.

Art may be Degrading, 2 Repose, 63

;

Art-knowledge, The Value in

of,

et seq.

producing

at

33

32,

of,

of, 2.

34

regard

Gothic Art, 12.

;

Tertiary, 32; Qualities

144,

of,

— in Decoration, 30,

in,

aims

;

the Object

Baptism, Symbol

Clay as a Material for Art-purposes, 117, Colour

Arabian Metal-work, 137.

Arch used

DEX.

Harmony

of,

seq.

in, 33, 39, et seq. ;

to, 34,

16, 17.

Colours Harmonise, 34, 35,

for a, 15.

and Pigments,

144, 145, 152.

Buhl-work,

Work,

45.

Byzantine Ornament, 11. Cabinet, Construction of

;

on, referred to, 49; for Stained

Cornices, Colouring 94,

of,

etseg.; Din*erentSortsof,94,95; Foreign-

how they should be

laid

Couches, 57,

et seq.

Curves, most Beautiful

Damascene Work,

the Application of Ornament

Damask

when

to,

106.

to be used, 61, 62.

Damask Mode

of Treating

worthy of Study, 82

;

;

Various,

with

Painted

Pictures Objectionable, 82.

Ornament,

Table-linen, Patterns on, 107, 108.

Wall-coverings.

See

Silk Wall

Damasks. Decoration should be in keeping with Architecture, 73, 74, 75.

Design and Ornament, Redgrave on, Dining-room, Decoration for

25.

Chairs, Construction

of,

52

— 57.

Character of the Designer shown by his

66, 67.

Distemper Colours

for

Doric Column, The,

163.

Chinese Enamels, 143. „

Harmony

Ornament,

50.

a, 14.

Dining-tables, Mr. Eastlake on Telescopic,

Chair-coverings, 72.

Work,

Subtle, 23.

139.

Decanters, what they should be, 129.

Iron, 147. Ceilings, Decoration of, 75, et seq.

Celtic

et seq.

when most

109.

Casting in Metal, 136. Casting, the least Artistic

Silver, 142.

of, 93.

Curtain Materials, 107,

down, 105; the Conditions which Govern Carving,

See Skidmore, Mr.

Copper Vessels Inlaid with

a, 61.

Carpets, Art-qualities and Patterns

;

154, et seq.

Colour-top, the, 48, and note.

Calico, Patterns on, 107.

made, 102, 103

Pure,

38, note

Colouring Metals.

of, 73, et seq.

,°6;

Permanence of, Shades, Tints, and Hues, 39 37, 38;

Works

Windows,

64.

Buildings, Decoration

in

45; Proportions in which

Bed-room, Decoration

Black, a Neutral in Decorative

Tables

Experience

of

Beauty in Decoration,

Birmingham Ware,

Contrast

;

33, 34; Analytical

Teachings

;

.et

Primary, Secondary, and

of Colour, 48. 11.

Wall Decoration,

83.

9.

Drawing-room, Decoration

for a, 15.

Dross, Ladies' and Gentlemen's, 90. terns for Ladies', 112.

Pat-


166

INDEX.

Earthen Vessels, Decoration

125,

of,

126,

Historical Inquiry Necessary to the Under-

standing of Decoration,

127.

Eastlake, Mr., on Household Art, referred

and

to, 52,

Humour

Egyptian Architecture,

Indian Art Injured by European Influence,

Coloured Glass, 153.

Drawing, Peculiarity

Ornament, 4

161. of, 5.

Fabrics, 48, note.

8.

Mr. Redgrave

Embroidery on Cotton, Indian,

Work

Enamelling in Metal-work, 143. 11

in,

;

House Decoration in, 30, 31. European Influence Injurious to Eastern

in regard to Colouring, 47.

Inlaying as a means of Enriching

Works

of

Furniture, 63. Irish Crosses,

Numerous Ornaments

on, 2".

Iron, as an Art-material, 142.

Art, 161.

Excess in Upholstery,

how Wrought, 147. may be Associated

70.

Fabrics, Patterns Suitable for

Woven,

107,

Metals that

with,

151.

et seq.

Value Over-estimated,

Finish, its

Iron-castings of Berlin, 136.

120.

Folds, Ornamentation of Fabrics to be seen

French Errors of Taste in Furniture,

;

what

is

to,

Required to make

an Object of Art, 50

Material used

;

Truthful Construction

it

for,

59, 65,

of,

Proportion and Enrichment

et seq. ;

148; Colouring

65.

Furniture, Decorative Principles applied 50, et seq.

Iron-work, Ornamental, 147,

of,

61, 63.

of,

152.

Japan, Deterioration in the Art-works

Japanese Art, 11. „

Colouring, 48.

Earthenware, 120.

Enamels, 142, 143. Metal-work, 112.

Cutting

Jewels in Metal-work, 143.

132

;

of,

Coloured, 131, 132

Engraving

of,

133

Gold, a Neutral in Decorative

Gold and Silver, Works

Ornamen-

;

133; Stained, 153,

;

44, 45.

Furniture, Falsely Constructed, 06.

Ornament,

Vessels, 121.

Grotesque.

See

5, 6.

to, 89.

Effects

produced

by

Decorative

14. 11.

Muslin, Patterns on, 107.

Natural Forms in Carpet Patterns, 96, 97,

Humour. Connection with,

98.

144,

Niello-work applied to Metals, 143.

Norman

et tea.

of Colour.

a, 15.

Marble Imitated, Objected

Moorish Ornament,

9, 10, 11.

in

be

to Success in Art, 4, 31.

Egyptian Design,

Forms,

Handles of Vessels, 138, 139, 140.

Hardware, Art

in

Mental

to, 89.

Greek Coloured Glass, 153. Ornament,

how they should

Mediaeval Metal-workers, 144, 145.

12.

Granite Imitated, Objected

Ceilings,

Labour Necessary Lotus

74.

,,

in

Library, Decoration for

in, 136.

Gothic Architecture, Modern,

Joists

Treated, 79.

et seq.

Work,

of,

161.

127, et seq.; Vessels, Various, 130, et seq.;

tation

must

Italian Metal-work, 142.

Glass, as a Material for Art-purposes, 118,

Vessels,

et seq.;

Manifest a True Constructive Principle,

in, 112, et seq.

Harmony

on, 115, 116

Metal-work, 142.

114.

England, Architectural Buildings

of,

Chinese and

;

Imitations of Marbles and Granites, 89.

14-1, 1-15,

8.

;

4.

Ornament, 24—29

Japanese, 25, 27, 28.

note.

Ecclesiastical Metal-workers,

51

in

See Colour.

Architecture, 11.

Novelty Wuntcd in Carpet Patterns, 105.


.

IG7

INDEX. Oil-colour " Flatted" for Wall Decoration, 83.

Study of Art-decoration, how

Order, a Principle in Ornament, 23.

Ormolu Ornaments, 64. Ornament and Architecture Inseparable, Papered Walls. See Wall Papers. Papyrus

in

Egyptian Architecture,

8.

Sugar-basin,

its

Form,

138.

Surface Decoration, 73,

Symbols

et seq.

in Christian Art, 12.

The Borders

Table-covers,

Picture Frames, 72.

Taste of the Uneducated,

Pigments.

Trinity,

See Colour.

How

to Treat, 24.

Plaques of Stone or Earthenware applied to

Works

Pottery,

Art

Utility

17.

the

in

109, 11

1.

the, in

Gothic Art,

Form

of Art-

must Govern the Production and

in Architecture.

Professor George Wilson on,

Various Writers on, 20.

—159.

Proportion must be Subtle, 23.

Veneer Hg. 09. Venetian Glass,

Purpose, Adaptation

Vessels, Primitive, 120.

2<

I.

to,

Taught by Planes,

Wall Decorations,

21.

8:1. et seq.

Wall Papers,

Repetition of Parts in Ornament, 23.

Walls should be Unobtrusive,

Roman Ornament,

Water- vessels, Egypt ianand Greek, 121

Silk,

11.

Patterns on, 107.

Wall Damasks,

87, 90,

et seq.

90.

— 124.

White a Neutral in Decorative Work, 45. Window-hangings, 69, 70, 108. Windows, 69, 70; the Object of, 153; how

in Decoration, 89.

114.

Work, 135, et seq. Skidmore, Mr., and his Theory

they should be Treated, 153.

Silversmiths'

of Colouring

Forms of, 128. Winged Globe," in Egyptian Design, 7. Woods and their Relative Strength, 51. Workmen; their Study of Decorative Law.-, Wine-bottles,

"

Metals, 152. Sofa-coverings, 70, 72.

South Kensington Museum, Spouts of Vessels, 139, Stools, 53

19, 20.

130, 131.

Renaissance Ornament, 13.

Silk

— 22,

Vehicles for Art, The Best, the least Costly, 3

v., vi.

Pretence in Art-decoration, 157

Shams

12.

15, 16, 89, 158, 15t>.

145.

works, 117, 118. Preface,

of,

15.

Application of Ornament, 17

in, 117, et seq.

Power an Art-principle,

Symbols of

Truth an Art-principle,

of Furniture, 63, 64.

Precious Materials

should be

Styles of Architecture, 73. 13.

Persian Ornament, 11.

Plants as Ornaments,

it

carried on, 14, 160, 161,162.

48, note.

et seq.

Advice

Wrought-iron,

;

Oassell, Petter,

&.

to, 164.

its Qualities, 147, 148-

Galpin, Belle Sacvage WottES, London, E.G.

1


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

MANUALS OF TECHNOLOGY. EDITED

ISY

PROFESSOR AYRTON, (Finsbury

Technical College,

City

F.R.S.

ami Guilds of London

Institute),

AND

RICHARD WORMELL, pjURING

L

'

The

so

D.Sc, M.A.

the last two years a very great impetus has been given to the advancement of Technical Education,

that at the present time there

object of this series

is

to

meet

a widespread

is

this

demand by

demand on

the part of technical students for text-books.

furnishing books which describe the application of science to

industry, which translate the language and results of science into the language of the workshop, and will thus bring to the benefit of the English Industries the workman's acquaintance with the scientific principles which underlie

work.

his daily

These manuals of Technology are not intended to teach pure science. Nor are they intended to enable the reader to dispense with learning, by actual practice in the workshop, the handicraft of the various trades. They will

form a link between these two designs.

machinery of the

No

special

They

factory.

They

are designed to

will

give the reader an intelligent grasp of the complicated

make workmen

knowledge of mathematics or of science

is

thinkers,

and not merely human

tools.

necessary to the student of this series, but

that he will have been observant of the processes carried

on

in his

is

it

workshop, which will be here

expected

scientifically

The subjects will be treated analytically rather than synthetically that is to say, the machine, as the workman knows it, will be taken as a whole and analysed, and special care will be taken to avoid the method too common in scientific books, according to which a number of abstract principles are first developed, while their explained.

;

practical application

As

deferred to the end of the book, which, probably, the practical

is

text-books for the large and increasing

and Guilds of London

knowledge with a

Institute,

An

especially valuable.

with which

number of candidates

many

who was

man

never reaches.

Technological Examinations of the City

of the authors are connected, these

author in each case has been selected

practical familiarity with the

at the

Manuals of Technology

will

be

able to comprise a well-grounded scientific

minute details of the trade treated of

in his

book.

Consequently,

while the latest and most approved processes of manufacture will be found described, the exact scientific reasons for the superiority of these

science

would suggest

The

for

modern methods over the older ones

will

be given

in full, as well as

such indications as

improving the present processes.

following books are already in preparation, and others will be added

:

......

ELECTRIC LIGHTING and TRANSMISSION of POWER Professor Ayrton, F.R.S. APPLIED MECHANICS Professor Perry, M.E. CUTTING TOOLS WORKED by HAND and MACHINE Professor Smith. IRON and STEEL "W. H. Greenwood, Esq. FLUID MOTORS Professor Perry, M.E. .

.

.

CHEMISTRY FLAX SPINNING WATCH and CLOCK MAKING The numerous Illustrations factories,

and

will not

to these

books

.

.

.

.

Dr. Armstrong, F.R.S.

D. .

will

.

.

.

S.

be pictures of the actual machines as they

be merely conventional representations conveying but

little

The aim throughout has been to prepare books that shall appeal at once to who know what the workman's difficulties are, what and

this is

Wherefore, instead of

t

piesented in such a form that the reader

may be

exist in the

intelligence to the practical

has been entrusted to writers in his trade,

Thomson, Esq.

D. Glasgow, Esq.

attracted

the

workman.

best

man.

Their preparation

information he needs to help him

by a desire

to learn the

Why

and

eing repelled by the supposed difficulties of science.

P.T.O.

CASSELL, FETTER, GAL/'/X $

CO.,

LUDGATE

HILL,

LOXPOX.


MANUALS OF TECHNOLOGY, NOW READY. Applied Mechanics. Perry, M.E.

Extra

—By

With numerous

fcap. %vo, doth,

t,s.

Prof.

John

Cutting Tools and

Illustrations.

Machine.

M.I.M.E.

;

8n>, doth,

y-

Worked by Hand

— By

Robert H. Smith,

Assoc. M.T.C.E. Professor of Engineering in the Mason Science College, Birmingham ; formerly Professor of Engineering in the Imperial University, Japan. With numerous Practical Drawings. Extra fcap.

bit.

{For full particulars of this Scries,

;

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Intermediate Text-Book of Physical Science.

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at Liverpool by Professor Huxley, who represented the Il serious want felt by students at night-classes for a general introduction to science suited to their needs. will occupy, as Professor Huxley suggested, an intermediate position between the elementary text-books for use in schools, and those which are suited for colleges and universities. Not only will it be specially suitable for the science classes connected with Mechanics' Institutes, Young Men's Associations, Intermediate Schools and Colleges, and other educational institutions, but for all non-mathematical students who desire a complete introduction to science. It embodies the latest scientific researches, and contains an accurate and philosophical account ol the present condition of the physical sciences in all branches, enabling its readers to follow the advance continually being made in the application of science to the arts and uses ofevery-day life.

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