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SLAVERY & ABOLITION

Curriculum Guide


Amistad On the GO! is an interactive print and digital educational program that works in partnership with teachers servicing students from 6th to 12th grade to provide comprehensive lessons on the history of African Americans in the United States. Amistad On the GO! Toolkits include detailed curricula, student activities, and access to online resources all of which focus on the study of primary sources in and outside of the classroom. The Amistad On the GO! program also includes thematic traveling exhibitions and in-service training for teachers. 2017 Š Amistad Research Center, New Orleans, LA

The Amistad On the GO! interactive print and digital educational program was made possible by a generous contribution from the Sherry and Alan Leventhal Family Foundation


About the Unit

The following lesson plans are divided into the lives of those who were enslaved and those who were free during the slavery and antebellum period.

Lesson 1: The Roots of African Americans Lesson 2: Slave Trade in Africa Lesson 3: Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Lesson 4: Chattel Slavery Lesson 5: Rebellion Lesson 6: Free People of Color Lesson 7: Abolition

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Common Core Standards CSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-12.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. CSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-12.2: Determine central ideas or information of a primary or secondary; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. CSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.6-8.3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-12.1: Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9[-12] topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-12.4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-12.5: Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. CSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-12.7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated) or solve a problem.

Louisiana Student Standards for Social Studies: World Geography Standard 1—World in Spatial Terms and Uses of Geography Students organize information and solve geographic problems using geographical tools, representations, and technologies. Standard 4—Place Students will identify the physical and cultural characteristics of a particular location and investigate changes to it over time.

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Introductory Activity: Using Primary Sources Grade Level: 6-8

Lesson Time: Three class periods

Introductory paragraph: The students will learn the importance of archives in preserving primary sources. They will be introduced to vocabulary words related to the archival field and learn the process of how archives acquire documents. Vocabulary: Primary Source-Material containing firsthand accounts of events which was created during the event or recalled by an eyewitness. Secondary Source-A work that is not based on direct observation of the subject but on sources of information. Objective: Students will be introduced to the archival profession and processes. Materials: Student Handout # 1: From Creation to Classroom Worksheet # 1: Brainstorming Worksheet # 2: Creation to Classroom Pencil 8.5x11 Poster: Photograph of Thomy Lafon Procedure: As an introduction, ask the students what they think a primary source is. If the students are already familiar with a primary source ask them to provide examples of primary sources. After a few responses, introduce the following vocabulary words: Primary Source-Material containing firsthand accounts of events which was created during the event or recalled by an eyewitness. Secondary Source-A work that is not based on direct observation of the subject but on sources of information. Clarify the difference between the two by asking the following prompts for which the students will answer primary source or secondary source: •

a book written about the Civil War

a letter from a soldier written during the Civil War to his family

a news story from a reporter about Hurricane Katrina broadcast during Hurricane Katrina

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Introductory Activity: Using Primary Sources •

a book written about Hurricane Katrina

After each prompt, ask the students to explain their answer. After this opening activity to gauge what they know, transition to the activity. Post “From Creation to Classroom� (handout and poster) for the students to see. Explain to them the six-step archiving process as follows: 1. Creation: The document is created by a person or organization during the time of the event. 2. Life of the Document: The document or item is kept by the creator, passed down through a family or organization, lost, or bought by a collector. 3. Acquired by Archives: The document is donated or sold to an archives, where it will be preserved and made accessible for research. 4. Processing and cataloging: The process by which a document is preserved, described, and cataloged. The document is assigned a classification number and entered into an archival inventory. 5. Preservation: The document is protected to prevent damage through proper storage and/or repairs. 6. Access: The document is made available to students, teachers, and the public at the archives or via digital means. After explaining the process, introduce the additional vocabulary words: NOTE: You can use the same introduction from the first two vocabulary words. Archives or Archive- 1) Materials created or received by a person, family or organization. 2) An organization that collects archival material. 3) The building housing archival collections. Preservation-The act or job of protecting materials and extending the life of the property. Individual Activity -Worksheet # 1 Introduce the following writing prompt for the students to complete individually: If you were to bury something related to your life for others to dig up 100 years from now, what would it be and why? How would others view your item if they have never seen it before? Hand out the activity Worksheet #1 to complete in class or as a homework assignment.

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Introductory Activity: Using Primary Sources Group Activity-Worksheet # 2 Connect the first assignment with the vocabulary term primary source. As an example, show the students a photograph of Thomy Lafon. Explain to them that Thomy Lafon was born a poor free person of color in New Orleans in 1810. He became a businessman and philanthropist. He had a school named after him in New Orleans. This photo was hanging in the Thomy Lafon Elementary School in Central City New Orleans when it was demolished in 2011. It was rescued from a dumpster by a teacher who had taught at the school while the school was being demolished. He kept the photograph for a couple of years and donated it to the Amistad Research Center prior to moving from New Orleans in 2014. Explain that if their item were dropped off to an archive it would be a primary source. Explain to them that their next task would be to create a story as a group using the archival process “From Creation to Classroom” handout. Divide the students into groups of 5 or 6. Explain to them the following steps and handout Worksheet #2: 1. Create a story using the archiving process. 2. Decide what the document or item will be. 3. Decide who will be the creator. 4. Decide how it got to the archives. 5. Someone will be the archivist. 6. The archivist will preserve it. 7. Then you all will present the item or document to the class as an archivist. Explain that they will use the vocabulary words and the “From Creation to Classroom” handout to create a story about how the item got to the “School Name” Archives. They can choose to present the story in any way they would like. For example, they can do a re-enactment of all characters involved through a skit, a visual presentation, an audio presentation, etc. Give them time to work on it in class the same day or the next class period. Presentations should follow as the third class session.

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Introductory Activity: Using Primary Sources Grade Level: 9-12

Lesson Time: Two class periods

Vocabulary: Archives or Archive- 1) Materials created or received by a person, family or organization. 2) An organization that collects archival material. 3) The building housing archival collections. Primary Source-Material containing firsthand accounts of events which was created during the event or recalled by an eyewitness. Secondary Source-A work that is not based on direct observation of the subject but on sources of information. Finding Aid- 1) A tool that helps to locate information within an archival collection of records. 2) A description of records that gives the location and permission to the user to access materials. Materials: Ruffin Family newspaper clippings booklet Worksheet # 3: Written document analysis Computer/ projector Pencil Procedure: As an introduction, ask the students what they know about archives or an archive. If the students are already familiar with archives ask them to talk about the uses of an archive or what an archival document is. After a few responses, introduce the following vocabulary words: Archives or Archive- 1) Materials created or received by a person, family or organization. 2) An organization that collects archival material. 3) The building housing archival collections. Primary Source-Material containing firsthand accounts of events which was created during the event or recalled by an eyewitness. Secondary Source-A work that is not based on direct observation of the subject but on sources of information. After introducing the vocabulary explain to the students the relationship between archives, a primary source and a secondary source: When students and researchers want a firsthand account of an event, they go to an archive to view the primary source. Often times, researchers write books based on primary sources that they find at archives. Students and others then read these books as secondary sources.

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Introductory Activity: Using Primary Sources People who work at archives are archivists. Their job is to acquire, organize and preserve rare items to make them available for the public to view and study. Once the archives are organized, researchers and students can use finding aids to help with the research process. Share the following vocabulary word: Finding Aid- 1) A tool that helps to search information within a collection of records. 2) A description of records that gives the location and permission to the user to access materials. Since one archive can hold thousands, even millions, of items and documents, the collections are organized and items can be researched and found using a finding aid. Using a projector visit the Amistad Research Center website and show the students how the finding aid works: 1. Find the Archival Finding Aid Database button at the bottom of the site under the banner. 2. Click on the button and search for a topic, such as “civil war” or “civil rights” in the search box. 3. Search results will appear such as Records and Manuscripts, Books Collection, Unprocessed Materials, etc. 4. Select the Records and Manuscripts category and then select one of the collections. 5. Once a collection is selected the next page that appears contains the title of the collection on the left and the Scope and Contents on the right. Select either “[read more]” or Detailed Description to see the full background of the collection. 6. Explain to students that they can use this information to help research an item or document they are studying. This is how to appropriately use a finding aid. Divide the students into groups. Hand out the Ruffin Family newspaper clippings booklet and one Worksheet # 3 Document Analysis page for each group. Tell the students they are to fill out the document analysis sheet and if necessary, use use Amistad’s online finding aid for the Heslip-Ruffin Family Papers to help you understand your document. They can then, as a class-wide discussion, address their group’s document by proving or disproving the following thesis: Boston was not a good place for African Americans to live in the 1800s. It was dangerous and did not have many opportunities.

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Lesson 1: The Roots of African Americans Grade Level: 6-12

Lesson Time: Three class periods

Vocabulary: Africa-The second largest continent after Asia. Savanna-A flat, nearly treeless grassland. Homestead-Any dwelling with its land and buildings where a family makes its home. Hamlet- A small village. Village-A small community or group of houses in a rural area. Ancestor-A distant family member beyond a grandparent. Descendant-Family members that come from a distant bloodline. Objective: Students will view maps and video footage to understand the origins of the African American population in the United States. Materials: Video Link: Ghana; Mali Worksheet # 4: Ghana Worksheet #5: Mali Student Handout # 2: Map of Africa Pencil Paper Procedure: Before starting the lesson, ask the students: What do they know about Africa? What have they seen about Africa? What have they heard about Africa? After allowing the students to talk about the myths of Africa, engage with the students the following truths about Africa: Africa is the second largest continent on the globe. It is made up of several climate regions that include rainforests, mountain ranges and plateaus, savanna and steppe, and deserts. Africa is the birthplace of humanity. All people today, descended from those beings who lived in Africa millions of years ago. West Africa is the immediate ancestral homeland of most African Americans. Many of the early settlers

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Lesson 1: The Roots of African Americans in West Africa traded with each other and with the peoples who lived across the Sahara Desert in North Africa. West Africans raised crops and animals in their settlements that ranged from hamlets and homesteads in rural areas and villages to towns and cities in more populated areas. The widespread trade led to the three ancient kingdoms of the area: 1) Ancient Ghana, 2) The Empire of Mali, 3) The Empire of Songhai. After the fall of these great kingdoms, West Africans continued to settle and trade in the two main regions of the area: the savanna and forest. Post the map of Africa. Point out the West Coast of Africa and tell the students that the majority of enslaved Africans that came to America were from there. Have the students view the videos on Ghana and Mali and then complete the corresponding worksheets and/or write a personal reflection after watching the film links on Ghana and Mali. Instruct the students to reflect on Africa after watching the short video clips. Ask them to write down their thoughts in response to the following prompts: •

Do the images in the videos reflect what you have heard or seen about Africa?

Would you visit Africa? Why? Why not?

What else would you like to learn about Africa?

Student Activities by Grade: 6-8: Map Activity Map Activity-Explain to the students that the Student Handout # 2 is of modern-day Africa. Have them answer the following questions as a group discussion: •

How many countries make up the continent of Africa?

How many islands are shown along the coast of Africa?

9-12: Research the three ancient kingdoms of West Africa. The presentation can be in any format: digital presentation, research paper, or poster presentation.

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Lesson 2: Slave Trade in Africa Grade Level: 6-12

Lesson Time: Two class periods

Vocabulary: Pawn-A child that is sent from a family to labor to pay off a loan. Indentured Servant- An individual who labors to pay off a debt. Domestic Slave- A form of slavery that originated as a pawn or some other form but slipped into being a permanent debt. Materials: Pencil Worksheet # 6: Slave Trade -Map part of Western Africa/Mendeland West Africa 1839 Identification Cards of Amistad Captives Procedure: West Africa was the center of slave trading in Africa. (African Americans, A Concise History) Among the population that resided in the Galinhas region, what is today’s southeastern Sierra Leone close to the Liberian border, slavery existed for these reasons: Debt-If families owe a debt they would offer their children’s labor or their own to pay off a debt. War-As a result of local warfare families can be raided, punished, and kidnapped. Kidnapping-In general, with the presence of heavy conflict in the region, members of families and children could be targeted or captured in the midst of a conflict they were unaware of. In all of these cases, slavery did not occur because of their skin color and they were able to still communicate with family when they could and were not treated separate from the family they were enslaved by. Enslavement could not be passed down from mother to child. Among the many cultural groups in the region such as Mende, Sherbro, and Vai, the Vai group practiced three forms of slavery: 1. Indentured labor-individuals who labored to pay off a debt. 2. Pawns/pawnship-The head of a family pawns out a child of the family to pay off a debt. 3. Domestic slave-A form of slavery that originated as a pawn or some other form but slipped into being a permanent debt.

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Lesson 2: Slave Trade in Africa Those who were already enslaved for any of those reasons were subject to being traded locally or regionally and removed from their place of birth. The following activity will include some descriptions of captives from the La Amistad slave ship that brought them to the East coast of the United States. This can be done individually or in groups. Hand out the Identification Cards of Amistad Captives to students and have them read each strip about the Amistad Captives’ background. They will use the information given to mark and label the journey of each person represented on the evidence strips using Worksheet # 6. The students will see that the captives came from different areas of the region for different reasons. As a class, using string and pins, mark the journeys of the captives on the large map of Africa. Student Activities by Grade: 6-8: The above activity will be sufficient for their grade levels. 9-12: Have the students research precolonial Africa. There are many ethnicities and eras to focus on once they commence research. They can present their research in the form of a digital presentation, “poster presentation, or essay.

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Lesson 3: Trans-Atlantic Slave trade Grade Level: 6-12

Lesson Time: Two class periods

Vocabulary: Trans-Atlantic slave trade- A triangular trade route that began with the transport of European goods to the West African coast. After those goods were exchanged for enslaved Africans, the second leg of the triangle trade—the Middle Passage—began. Slave ships transported enslaved Africans from the West African coast to the slave ports of the New World. The ships then returned to their European ports of origin with profitable slave-grown crops to sell in Europe. Middle Passage- The second leg of the triangular trade system that involves the transport of enslaved Africans to the Americas. Materials: Pencil Illustration of the Brookes, a slave ship “Meditations in Passage” poem Worksheet # 7: Middle Passage/ “Meditations in Passage” Worksheet # 8: Map of Enslaved Africans to the Americas Worksheet #9: Table of Enslaved Africans Import Procedure: Review the vocabulary words with the students. Post up the illustration of the Brookes for students to view. Go over the following description on the Middle Passage: The slave ship voyage was a crowded, unsanitary environment that often caused disease. There was blood and human fluids that covered the ship floor due to constant shifting, crushing and chafing among the human cargo due to movement of the ship at sea. Slave ship captains purchased foods from the West African coast to feed the Africans because they were not used to European foods. The captives were fed vegetable pulps, porridge, and stews, usually twice a day. The meals were distributed by giving each captive a wooden spoon for dipping into the buckets of food at the beginning of the voyage which were often lost below deck. In such cases, they had to eat from the buckets using their unwashed hands, a practice that spread disease. The food on the slave ship was often too poor and insufficient to prevent malnutrition and caused weakened immune systems among people who were already traumatized by separation from their families and homelands.

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Lesson 3: Trans-Atlantic Slave trade Student Activities by Grade: 6-12: Map Activity: Worksheet #8 Enslaved Africans to Americas Instruct the students to draw a line from the direction of Africa to the destinations using the table provided. Each of the lines should be labeled with the number of estimated Africans imported. Tell the students they are expected to do internet research of the accurate areas of “Danish Caribbean,” “French Caribbean,” or “Spanish America.” The internet search can be at home or in the classroom. Assess the students’ work based on the accuracy of their identifying the appropriate areas and corresponding numbers. 9-12: Have the students do Worksheet #9 Table of Enslaved Africans import. Then have the students participate in a class-wide discussion of their thoughts on the estimated imports.

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Lesson 4: Chattel Grade Level: 6-12

Lesson Time: Two class periods

Vocabulary: Chattel- A form of slavery that involves reducing human beings to property on the level of livestock. Parson- A permanent or appointed member of the church in which property and income are provided in service to the church. Mulatto-A person of mixed African and European ancestry. Materials: Pencil Worksheet # 10: Life of James Mars Worksheet # 11: Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl-Childhood Worksheet #12: Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl-The Jealous Mistress Student Handout # 3: Laws Regarding Slavery Procedure: Have the students read the three slave narratives and answer the questions from the corresponding worksheets. Each student should be given a different slave narrative so that all three narratives are alternated among the students. 6-8: The above activity would be sufficient for their grade level. 9-12: These are additional activities to include for these grade levels. Student Handout # 2: Laws Regarding Slavery Activity Have the students complete the evidence strips activity sheet. Activity extension: Have the student compare and contrast laws regarding slavery with laws regarding citizenship. Guiding questions: Who was qualified to be a citizen? Who was not included in the laws regarding citizenship? What were the benefits of being a citizen?

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Lesson 4: Chattel Topics for Individual or Group Research Have the students research aspects of slavery they are interested in such as, African American women during enslavement, African American children during enslavement, African American men during enslavement, the African-American family during enslavement, or the economics of the slave trad

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Lesson 5: Rebellion Grade Level: 6-12

Lesson Time: Two class periods

Vocabulary: Revolt- A rise in rebellion. Materials: Video Link: “The Voyage of La Amistad�- 70 minutes Pencil Worksheet # 13: Voyage of La Amistad Worksheet # 3: Written Document Analysis Cinque to Lewis Tappan Amistad Captives to John Quincy Adams John Quincy Adams to Simeon Jocelyn, Joshua Leavitt and Lewis Tappan Procedure: Explain to the students that rebellion was something that the enslaved Africans and those who became African Americans had always engaged in. Whether it was small scale, like breaking tools or working slow, or large scale, like running away to form an armed community in the forests and swamps (maroons) or running away to a nonslaveholding state using a secret network of helpers (Underground railroad). Wherever there was injustice, there was resistance. As an example, in 1811, a slave revolt took place in Louisiana in the parishes of St. John the Baptist and St. Charles. The revolt was led by a man named Charles from the Deslondes plantation. Charles was originally born in the Caribbean island called Santo Domingo, what is now Haiti, and was brought to Louisiana after the Haitian Revolution in 1793. Since he had experienced the first successful slave revolt in the Americas, he secretly taught his fellow enslaved laborers how it was done. For many years, Charles recruited a group of leaders, and they met in the woods to draw up a plan. On the evening of January 8, 1811, Charles and his lieutenants began the revolt. The Andry Plantation (near what is now the town of LaPlace, Louisiana) was the starting point. They then marched down the River Road southward towards New Orleans. They were able to march a total of 15 miles (the distance between the Louisiana towns of LaPlace and Destrehan) and were stopped just before the Destrehan plantation by U.S. troops and local militias (police force) who were called upon by the slaveowners of the areas. By January 11, the freedom fighters were defeated and many of the leaders and participants were killed. Another example is the Amistad revolt that took place during the Middle Passage. Show the students the video and have them complete Worksheet # 13: Voyage of La Amistad while viewing.

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Lesson 5: Rebellion Student Activities by Grade: 6-12: Put the students in groups and handout the Worksheet #3: Document Analysis for each group to complete. 9-12: This activity is an additional suggestion for the grade levels. Topics for Individual or Group Research Have the students research any of the following: the Haitian Revolution, maroons, maroon societies, or slave revolts. They can present their research in the form of a group presentation, a written research paper, a poster presentation, a creative cartoon or comic strip chronicling the event. Teacher Resource: Slave Trade timeline Louisiana towns of Laplace and Destrehan) and were stopped just before the Destrehan plantation by U.S. troops and local militias (police force) who were called upon by the slaveowners of the areas. By January 11, the freedom fighters were defeated and many of the leaders and participants were killed. Another example is the Amistad revolt that took place during the Middle Passage. Show the students the video and have them complete Worksheet # 13: Voyage of La Amistad while viewing. Student Activities by Grade: 6-12: Put the students in groups and handout the Worksheet #3: Document Analysis for each group to complete. 9-12: This activity is an additional suggestion for the grade levels. Topics for Individual or Group Research Have the students research any of the following: the Haitian Revolution, maroons, maroon societies, or slave revolts. They can present their research in the form of a group presentation, a written research paper, a poster presentation, a creative cartoon or comic strip chronicling the event.

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Lesson 5: Rebellion Teacher Resource: Slave Trade timeline

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Lesson 6: Free People of Color Grade Level: 6-12

Lesson Time: Three class periods

Vocabulary: Free People of Color- English translation of, les gens de couleur libre, the descendants of the French Louisiana three-tier hierarchy system that included Euro-descended people at the top of the social system (whites), free people of color (inter-racial mixing of African, Indian, Latin and European origins) in the middle, and the enslaved Africans at the bottom of the social tier. Freedmen and women- Former enslaved persons of African descent. Free Blacks/African Americans- population of African descendants who were free during the time when slavery was legal. Materials: Ruffin Family Booklet Free People of Color Booklet Pencil Worksheet # 3: Written Document Analysis Procedure: Explain to the students that there were populations of Africans, and those who became African Americans, that were never enslaved. Throughout the enslavement period there were different types of free African American populations that developed. In 1619, twenty Africans arrived on the shores of Jamestown, Virginia. These Africans were the founding group of free African Americans. Albeit, the trans-Atlantic slave trade brought in the remaining 500,000 Africans who would later become African America. This free population became such a group through working out the terms of servitude (indentured servants), purchasing their freedom, or by having mothers who were free. After the American Revolution, large populations of free African Americans appeared in the North, Upper South, rural Lower South, South Carolina and Louisiana in cities such as Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Port (Rhode Island), Richmond, Norfolk (Virginia), New York, Charleston, Savannah, New Orleans, and Boston. Although the vast majority of free African Americans were hardworking, poor, and uneducated, those who were educated became the leaders of those communities advocating for freedom and better living conditions. Those leaders formed various institutions specifically for African Americans because they had limited or no access to similar organizations in the larger society among Euro-Americans. Secondly, they valued the African heritage that was passed down over generations in slavery. They wanted institutions

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Lesson 6: Free People of Color that reflected that. The earliest institutions were mutual aid societies that provided members medical and burial expenses, helped support widows and children, and insisted that their members maintain a Christian moral character. As such, these institutions also worked to protect escaped fugitive slaves and free African Americans from slave-trading kidnappers. Another major institution were churches. These churches provided the spiritual needs of free African Americans and housed schools, social organizations, and antislavery meetings. In Louisiana, free people of color or les gens de couleur libre, also emerged out of the interracial relationships between free women of color and French or Spanish men in colonial and antebellum Louisiana. The informal arrangements between free women of color and French or Spanish men afforded these women property and rights that came with the status of their partners in the three-tier French system in Louisiana. Introduce and review the vocabulary terms then transition to the activity. Student Activities by Grade: 6-8: Put the students into groups and hand out Worksheet # 3: written document analysis. Hand out the Ruffin Family booklet and the Free People of Color booklet to each group. Assign some groups to analyze the items in the Ruffin Family booklet and some to analyze the items in the Free People of Color booklet so that every other group has a different set of documents. After they conduct a document analysis have them engage in a class-wide discussion of their findings. 9-12: Put the students into groups and hand out Worksheet #3: written document analysis. Handout the Ruffin Family booklet and Free People of Color booklet to each group. Assign some groups to analyze the items in the Ruffin Family booklet and some to analyze the items in the Free People of Color booklet so that every other group has a different set of documents. After they conduct a document analysis have them engage in a class-wide discussion of their findings. Topics for Individual or Group Research Have the students research any of the following: free people of color and/or creole people. They can present their research in the form of a group presentation, a written research paper, a poster presentation, or in digital format.

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Lesson 6: Free People of Color Teacher Resource: Free African American Population Table

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Lesson 7: Abolition Grade Level: 6-12

Lesson Time: Two class periods

Vocabulary: Abolition- The movement to end slavery as a legal system. Abolitionists- People who favored doing away with or abolishing slavery in their respective states throughout the country. Quaker- A member of the Religious Society of Friends, a Christian movement founded by George Fox around 1650. Underground Railroad- Refers to several loosely organized secret networks of African American and Euro-American abolitionists that helped slaves escape from the border South to the North and Canada. Materials: Pencil Slave Narratives booklet Worksheet #14: Underground Railroad Worksheet #15: Jim Bowlegs Letter to Mrs. Ruffin from William Lloyd Garrison – January 21, 1875 Worksheet # 3: Written Document Analysis Harper’s Weekly—October 4, 1862 Procedure: Introduce the following information to the students: Since the 1820s, two antislavery movements gained traction and continued to exist until the end of the Civil War. The first movement existed in the South among the enslaved population with the help of free African Americans and a few sympathetic Euro-Americans. Since the 1600s, Africans and those who became African Americans, individually and in groups, continuously sought their freedom. The second antislavery movement consisted of African American and Euro-American abolitionists in the North with outposts in the upper South. The antislavery movement in the North began in the 1730s when EuroAmerican Quakers in New Jersey and Pennsylvania became convinced that slaveholding contradicted their belief in spiritual equality. From there, they advocated for the abolition of slavery among their fellow Quakers and in their home states. While African Americans could not openly participate in antislavery organizations in the upper South,

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Lesson 7: Abolition

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they managed to secretly cooperate with Euro-American abolitionists. Northern abolitionists were comprised largely of Euro-American-controlled antislavery organizations that were led by African Americans in direct action and influences in the North. •

Review the vocabulary above with the students.

Explain to the students that they are about to read some excerpts by those who participated in the Underground Railroad: William Still, Chairman of the Philadelphia Branch of the Underground Railroad, and Jim Bowlegs, an escaped enslaved person helped by the Underground Railroad route.

Student Activities by Grade: 6-8: •

Divide the students into groups.

Handout the slave narratives booklets for the students to read excerpts from William Still’s Underground Rail Road Records and have them answer the corresponding questions. Assign some groups to read Jim Bowlegs and some to read the preface to Still’s Underground Rail Road Records so that every other group is reading a different excerpt.

After the activity have the students participate in a class-wide discussion using the following questions: •

For those of you who had the preface to the Underground Rail Road Records, if you were a free African American at the time of enslavement, would you have dedicated your life to helping those enslaved? Why or why not?

Open the above question up for everyone to respond.

For those that read the Jim Bowlegs excerpt, do you believe everything that was documented about his life? What would motivate someone to make up stories about their life?

9-12: •

Divide the students into groups or individually. Assign some groups or individuals to analyze Harper’s Weekly and some to analyze Letter from William Lloyd Garrison to Nancy Ruffin so that every other group or individual is analyzing a different excerpt.

Distribute copies of the Ruffin letter and Harper’s Weekly.

Have the students fill out the Worksheet #3: Document Analysis with the documents they receive.

Remind the students they can use the Amistad finding aid for the Heslip-Ruffin Family Papers to help them fill out the document analysis worksheet.

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References Barber, John W. A History of the Amistad Captives: Being Circumstantial Account of the Captives of the Capture of the Spanish Schooner by the Africans on Board; Their Voyage and Capture near Long Island, New York; With Biographical Sketches of Each of the Surviving Africans; Also, An Account of the Trials had on their Case, Before the District and Circuit Courts of the United States for the District of Connecticut. New Haven, CT: E.L. & J.W. Barber, 1840. Gehman, Mary. The Free People of Color of New Orleans: An Introduction, 5th ed. Donaldsonville, LA: Margaret Media, Inc., 2009. Hine, Darlene Clark, William C. Hine, and Stanley Harrold. African Americans: A Concise History, 2nd ed. New Jersey: Pearson, 2006. Hine, Darlene Clark, William C. Hine, and Stanley Harrold. African Americans: A Concise History, 5th ed. New Jersey: Pearson, 2014. Hine, Darlene Clark, William C. Hine, and Stanley Harrold. African-American Odyssey, 6th ed. New Jersey: Pearson, 2014. Lawrance, Benjamin Nicholas. Amistad’s Orphans: An Atlantic Story of Children, Slavery, and Smuggling. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015. Oxford Dictionaries. Colour Oxford Dictionary & Thesaurus. Online: Oxford Univ Press, 2011. Painter, Nell I. Creating Black Americans: African-American History and Its Meanings, 1619 to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Stroud, George M. A Sketch of the Laws Relating to Slavery in the Several States of the United States of America, 1st ed. Philadelphia: Kimber and Sharpless, 1827. Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1999. Thrasher, Albert. On To New Orleans! The Slave Uprising in St. John the Baptist and St. Charles Parish, 1811. New Orleans: Albert Thrasher, 1994.

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The Amistad Research Center’s History The Amistad Research Center was established by the United Church Board for Homeland Ministries at Fisk University in 1966 to house the historical records of the American Missionary Association. In 1969, Amistad became an independent non-profit organization, and the following year, it relocated to New Orleans. The Center was housed at various institutions before finding its permanent location on the campus of Tulane University, where the Center has resided since 1987. From its beginnings as the first archives documenting the modern civil rights movement, Amistad has experienced considerable expansion and its mission continues to evolve. The history of slavery, race relations, ethnic communities, and the social justice movements have received new and thoughtprovoking interpretations as the result of scholarly and community research using Amistad’s resources. The holdings include the papers of artists, educators, authors, business leaders, clergy, lawyers, factory workers, farmers and musicians. At Amistad, you will find more than 800 collections, including 15 million original manuscripts and rare documents, 250,000 photographs, 25,000+ books, periodicals, and newspapers; 8000+ sound recordings and moving images, and 400 works of art.

Mission The Amistad Research Center is committed to collecting, preserving, and providing open access to original materials that reference the social and cultural importance of America’s ethnic and racial history, the African Diaspora, human relations, and civil rights.

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Amistad Research Center Tilton Hall | Tulane University 6823 St. Charles Avenue | New Orleans, LA 70118 (504) 862-3222 Email: education@amistadresearchcenter.org Website: www.amistadresearchcenter.org

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