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The Best Magazine Ever EVERYTHING YOU WANT TO KNOW! SCIENCE. NEWS, TRADITIONS HEALTH, ALL WHAT YOU NEED WE HAVE IT

ALEJANDRO LAW, CAROL CASTILLO , ROBERTO CHANBERLAIN, ELIZABETH ORTEGA, C AMILO GUTIERREZ


Index

       

Happy mother day ___________________________________2 Health section_______________________________________5 Addictions__________________________________________11 Traditions__________________________________________16 Technology_________________________________________21 Sports_____________________________________________23 National news_______________________________________27


This magazine wants to say special thanks to all the mothers in the world. Happy mother’s day. MOTHER ‘S DAY In Costa Rica mother’s day takes place in August 15. It is the day when “ticos” honored theirs mothers, with household celebrations with gifts, flowers, cards, and special dinners. The holiday falls on the same day as The Catholic celebration of The Assumption of The Blessed Virgin Mary. As a national holiday, many banks, schools and offices are closed while most stores and restaurants are opened. I am originally from Cuba where mother’s day takes place on the second Sunday of Mai. The same date mother’s day is celebrated in United States. Maybe to the influence that country had on the past over my country.


Anyway, when it comes to honoring women who brought us into this world, we have wherever we come from, the same reasons. That means we had to show how much are appreciate their sacrifices, their love and patient to raise us through our childhood and adolescent years and to continue being a support during all our lives.

Personally, what I admire the most in my mother is the strength she has to face bad moment and problems we have had as a family during all our life. This way she inspires me to behave as she does in my everyday life. I think that everyone honor his mother on that day according to its possibilities. The most important thing is to give her sincere love. This day I took her place at home and I did my best to make feel her happy and I got it!

Elizabeth Ortega PĂŠrez Bibliography Mothers Day Central. (s.f.). Recuperado el 15 de August de 2012, de http://www.mothersdaycentral.com/about-mothersday/history/


HEALTH ORAL HYGIENE INSTRUCTIONS This essay is about oral hygiene. The main purpose of a good oral hygiene is try to avoid plaque accumulation, which is an important causal factor of two common diseases: cavities and periodontal disease. Therefore, it is essential to eliminate it through good oral hygiene practices such as, keeping the mouth clean and healthy with a good brushing technique, using floss and antiseptic mouthwash. Usually people do not worry about the importance of an adequate oral hygiene. “The 96% of the patients attending dental appointments does not have a proper oral hygiene.� This bad education or lack of knowledge about this topic constitute a real health problem because children since 5 years old already presents gum disease and cavities. To prevent certain diseases related to poor oral hygiene is necessary for the dentist to perform a professional dental cleaning (prophylaxis) every 6 months; in addition,


patients should help themselves brushing their teeth at least 3 times a day with flossing and mouth wash once a day. Also it is important to do x-ray exams every year to prevent any illness. The causes of a poor oral hygiene can be the lack of use of toothbrush, tooth paste, the ignorance about brushing techniques, the lack of motivation, information and interest about this topic. As a result, people start to present some effects such as, bad breath, oral diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis, cavities, plaque, bacteria , etc), tooth loss, gastrointestinal problems, and low self-esteem. The use of mouthwash, dental floss, gum massage, and a good brushing technique is part of a balanced oral health. Hygiene is a fundamental aspect of our daily lives, which benefits in general our body and our entire health, so information, practice and teaching is useful for everyone. Besides a daily oral care, it’s necessary to have regular dental visits, promote oral health, as well as change your toothbrush every 3 months. Elizabeth Ortega PÊrez Bibliography John O. Butler. (s.f.). American Dental Hygienists Association . Recuperado el 13 de julio de 2012, de http://www.adha.org/oralhealth/brushing.htm John O. Butler. (s.f.). American Dental Hygienists Association . Recuperado el 13 de julio

de

2012,

de

http://www.adha.org/oralhealth /flossing.htm

ORAL HYGIENE INSTRUCTIONS This essay is about oral hygiene. The main purpose of a good oral hygiene is try to avoid plaque accumulation, which is an important causal factor of two common diseases: cavities and


periodontal disease. Therefore, it essential to eliminate it through good oral hygiene practices such as, keeping the mouth clean and healthy with a good brushing technique, using floss and antiseptic mouthwash. Usually people do not worry about the importance of on adequate oral hygiene. “The 96% of the patients attending dental appointments does not have a proper oral hygiene.” This bad education or lack of knowledge about this topic constitute a real health problem because children since 5 years old already presents gum disease and cavities. To prevent certain diseases related to poor oral hygiene is necessary for the dentist to perform a professional dental cleaning (prophylaxis) every 6 months; in addition, the patients should help themselves brushing their teeth at least 3 times a day with flossing and mouth wash once a day. Also it is important to do x-ray exams every year to prevent any illness. The causes for a poor oral hygiene can be the lack of use of toothbrush, tooth paste, the ignorance about brushing techniques, the lack motivation, information and interest about this topic. As a result, people start to present some effects such as, bad breath, oral diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis, cavities, plaque, bacterias, etc), tooth loss, gastrointestinal problems, and low self-esteem. The use of mouthwash, dental floss, gum massage, and a good brushing technique is part of a balanced oral health. Hygiene is a fundamental aspect of our daily lives, which benefits in general our body and our entire health, so information, practice and teaching is useful for everyone. Besides a daily oral care, it’s necessary to have regular dental visits, promote oral health, as well as change your toothbrush every 3 months. By: Carol Castillo C. Bibliography John O. Butler. (s.f.) American Dental Hygienists Association . Recuperado el 13 de julio de 2012, de http://www.adha.org/oralhealth/brushing.htm John O. Butler. (s.f.) American Dental Hygienists Association. Recuperado el 13 de julio de 2012, de http://www.adha.org/oralhealth/flossing.htm


The reality of disability in society

The following essay, is about the functional diversity. This is a new topic for the society , because we have lack of conscience and learning of people and doctors in the manner of treat people with a problem of disability; can be congenital or acquired. Nowadays, the topic of functional diversity is not well known, possibly for the ignorance of people that is not educated on something simple and important like in this case “the humane treatment”. Lack of training not only educators, also the government, public and private companies make the society unable to act in front of the existent law (7600) that ensure equal opportunities. Therefore, we don’t care this law how it should be, and this means that many disabled people suffer discrimination in many social ways, for example: transportation, education, communication, construction, information. To respect their rights the author expressed his point about the topic, and it says "Women and men with functional diversity have to do with companies being inherently imperfect, have established a model of perfection to which any individual member of them has access, and defining how to be physical, sensory or psychological, and rules of social functioning". (Romañach J, Lobato M, 2005). Consequently, is very difficult to eliminate that instinct of "superiority" and "normality" in a society that in many years saw the wrong way of these people that are equal to all of us, but they just work in a different way and different areas of us. Finally, people with disabilities have too much to teach us, because they are extraordinarily able, for it, the population have to be able to socialize and communicate without fear with these kind of people, also the institutions and transportation has to meet the requirements access that is dictated by the law.


Carol castillo

Bibliography National Institutes of Health. Practical Oral Care for People With Intellectual Disability. NIH Publication No. 09–5194 Reprinted July 2009. Romañach J, Lobato M (2005). Diversidad funcional, nuevo término para la lucha por la dignidad en La diversidad del ser humano. Foro De vida independiente. Madrid, España. (Spanish)

THE FOLLOWING ARE SOME COMMENTARIES AND POINT OF VIEW FROM OUR WRITERS ABOUT ADDICTIONS

ADDICTIONS AND STRESS Addictions and stress are two issues that have developed over time. This problem has been increasing day by day. We live a age time which people’s lifestyle is very fast, because we have many obligations like homework, exams, jobs, appointments, outings with friends, time with family and when all that becomes an overload the stress appears. We cannot avoid stress because any changes we must do represents stress. An addiction is a sort of dependency to an activity a substance or a person. Because there are the says that the origin of


addictions is multifactorial (American Society of Addiction Medicine ASAM 2011), "social, genetic, psychological and biological factors." Keane Scholar said: "Addictions in the 21st century are not the exclusive domain of drugs and alcohol" This means that there are an infinite number of addictions that are affecting people’s lives such as video games, theft, technology, work, internet, telephone and shopping. A person can become addicted, according to the above factors, which must be related to people’s fear, the curiosity in the case of younger ages, the non-acceptance of one seit and the social relations, the insecurity and customs and the way of life of people. An addiction can be detect when people depend of something when we lose contact with our friends, family or loved ones to spend time on the addiction. Sometimes are don’t have something we need and we lose control trying to get it. Addiction becomes a progressive disease, which start using something we abuse until we fall in dependence. Stress is our body's response to threatening situations. As it was mentioned at the beginning of this writing our lifestyle is changing, which is important to have some amount of stress in order to act in life, achieve goals and get results. But everything in excess is bad and when the stress is prolonged it can affect our physical and mental health. Many people find a way to get out of that stress by drugs and alcohol, which is not right, because we can control stress by doing exercises such as jogging, swimming, walking, also reading, go for walks, listening to music , talk, laugh and spend time with friends, family, and other activities. All of these recreational activities helps us to be in peace and live in harmony with our environment and ourselves. When a person is addicted, it is necessary he realizes of the bad situation on which he is the person has to be aware of the dangerous situation involving him and people around him so it is necessary to get the aid of a professional and the people who are not addicted, it is not a question of criticize who are addicted on the contrary are people that have it to help find a better way, giving


advice and make them understand the causes and effects of their addiction. On the country, they need to be encouraged to do a kind of recreational activity. We should support information campaigns about addiction, so we can raise awareness in society to have a better life without addictions and less stress.

Elizabeth Ortega Pérez Bibliography Elias, P. (2003). What's wrong with addiction?. Australian Social Work, 56(3), 283-285. doi:10.1046/j.0312-407x.2003.00089.x Smith, D. E. (2012). Editor's Note: The Process Addictions and the New ASAM Definition of Addiction. Journal Of Psychoactive Drugs, 44(1), 1-4. doi:10.1080/02791072.2012.662105 José Vicente Losada, S. S. (2011). EL ESTRÉS EN LA VIDA Y EN EL TRABAJO. (Spanish). Debates IESA, 16(4), 68-71

Addictions An addiction can be defined as a condition in which a person depends on something to perform any kind of activity. There are two types of addictions, psychological addictions, which are the ones that your body doesn’t ask you to do, or physical addictions, that change things in your system and your body needs that to be find peace and feel calm. The addictions that most people know are the ones that are related with drugs, such as: marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy, heroine and much more… Those ones are considered old addictions. But are those all the addictions we have? Nowadays we have new addictions in our society that are called modern addictions. Modern addictions are nothing related to drugs, and the problem with them is that most people don’t identify them as addictions, when you don’t identify a problem is even more difficult to solve it. Some of these addictions are: technology, gambling, sex, exercise, teeth whitening and tanning.


But why people get addicted to all these things? The main reasons of why people get addicted is to solve other problems or because they are stressed out so they start searching these activities to release this stress thinking that they are going to solve it, but the only thing they are doing is bringing more problems to their life and those problems make them go even more deep into addictions. Some solutions to relieve all this stress is to practice some recreational activities, practice sports, thinking games. Addictions take a lot of good stuff out of our society; instead we should take addictions out of our society and live in a better world.

By Camilo Gutierrez

Addictions of the future Addiction affects all people in the world. People become addicts because they get used to do activities without moderation or limit of time. They can become addicted not only to drugs or alcohol but also to exercising or food. An addiction is a problem that people have to control by themselves. Addictions have changed during the last years. The most common addictions are drugs and alcohol, but with the new technologies people have also become addicted to


cellphones, video games, television, computer and music. There also exist people who are addicted to food, sleeping, exercising or sports and shopping. All these addictions can be caused be depression, not having friends, or simply because the person does not realize that he is addicted to an activity. Other problem that affects people is stress. People become stress out because their body reacts to particular events and prepares it to meet situations of focus and brain strength. People do not know how to react when they are stressed. Some people get angry, but others react as they do not care. There are some activities that can help people to release stress, they are called recreational activities. These activities could be as simply as walk, play soccer or even talk with someone. Recreational activities help people to live in harmony, this means to be in peace with yourself. Addictions and stress are two of the most common problems in people. Addictions can be treated by being conscious of what are you doing and how much time you dedicate to it. Stress can be released by doing recreational activities and talking with people or friends. By Roberto Chamberlain Ferlini

Addictions In this paper I am going to explain and describe the reality we are facing today. Technology and the way we live are making people suffer physical or psychological disorders anxiety, addictions and stress. My purpose is to I believe that addiction is a chronic disease that occurs when people voluntarily practices an activity very often. As time passes, such activity becomes a compulsive desire, but getting to this point, the mind plays an important role with


addiction, because they can result from genetic, psychological, environmental and produce a state of disorder, desire and also damage to the person. The most common addictions of this century are: video games, internet, mobile phones, drugs (alcohol/ snuff), shopping, sex, working, fast food, exercising and gambling. These addiction cause the person to behave differently. This cause satisfaction generally people become addicted because they want to feel pleasure when they want to escape reality and not just control themselves, this makes it possible to detect the problems of addiction because the physical appearance change. Unfortunately when a person has an addiction experiences his physical condition such as stress, that is a horrible feeling and everyone has a different reaction towards it. In conclusion, it is important to know that the world we are living and facing this technological era, we have to make some abstinence to get away from addictions and stress.

By: Carol Castillo C.

Addictions

An addiction is the constant abuse of a substance or a activity ,where the user is affected negativity, the aspects in which people are commonly affected are, familiar, work ,health ,and social interaction.


The definition for addiction has changed due to latest inventions , in the past it was defined as any kind of substance that affects the body. Now the addictions have a more technological point of view , TV addiction, Videogames ,Internet work and shopping

People become addicts because they cannot handle the truth , the reality is worse than the fantasy created by their addictions , it’s a way to handle stress caused by a situation that is overwhelming them. To confront their addiction they can practice recreational activities , not only sports but also those that can be free your mind from daily routine , like practicing yoga, thai chi and ,swimming . those activities can give you harmony or balance in to your life. Experts like Dr. Phil mentions different steps to overcome an addiction . He said “ find courage to determine what you need that you are running from life, behave your way to success, work on yourself on s “even up” basis with the world, stop putting your happiness until tomorrow, if you want to get rid of a bad habit replace it with something positive” I have learned that addictions are not only drugs, and also they can be technological, where our behavior is affected by stress and constant abuse of a activity which gives us pleasure. Addictions should be analyzed by an expert we should also try to be conscious of our own actions ant do something different in order to obtain inner peace.

By Alejandro Law


Stress and its Consequences

The following essay talks about stress, which is either biological, psychological, social, emotional, physical or mental reaction of the organism to internal or external stimulus. The purpose is to help people learn how to manage stress, and reduce the negative reactions and diseases it causes in our body. Today, we live in constant tension due to different social or personal factors: work, study, among others, which is why our body recognizes the burden of excessive strain and begins to protect the health. One important reason is to recognize negative consequences, such as health habits (smoking, drinking too much, insomnia, poor diet, no exercise) also physiological changes ( headaches, muscle, stomach problems, viral) as well as cognitive changes (anxiety, worry, fear, concentration). Therefore, the only way to survive what is by controlling and managing stress, in other words, it refers to people who can control these problems, by physical relaxation activities, balanced diet that helps us feel stronger. My conclusion is to control the stress and the factors that do not make us feel good, to prevent future illnesses that may have solution.

By: Carol Castillo C.

Traditions Chinese Lion Dance


The Chinese Lion Dance is a very important tradition in China. Normally it is practiced during special events like Chinese New Year, weddings and the New Moon Festival. The lion is considered the king of all the animals, and in the chinese tradition it is considered like a pet that can protect you from bad luck and disgrace, but at the same time it brings peace and prosperity. The legend says that during the Chin dynasty, the emperor dreamed of a wild beast, bigger than his dog, that moved in a rarely but beautiful way. The next day the emperor told his dream to his counselors, they told him that the beast was a lion. Later that day, the emperor and his army won an important battle, he thought that a new dance will bring happiness to al the warriors, so he told his assistants to make a costume of the lion he dreamed and prepare a new dance. Also he said to his warriors that this dance will be the new victory dance of his dynasty. The Lion Dance started 2000 years ago during the Chin dynasty, but it became more popular during the Tang dynasty. The Book About Music said that “the Lion Dance was danced by five lions, all of different color. The lions were accompanied with more than one hundred and forty people dancing at the rhythm of a band�. The Lion Dance was only for the people that form part of the empire. There are two different types of lion dance, the north and the south dance. The lion of the south represents strength, intelligence and courage. The dance purpose is to give prosperity and good wishes in new beginnings. The north lion represents his skills and abilities of hunting and protective sense by dancing with stunts. The Chinese Lion Dance combines art and history with kung fu movements. That is why the people that make the dance are kung fu experts. The people who see the


dance think they are looking to the Dragon Dance, but the Dragon Dance is made by more than 6 people while the Lion Dance is made by only two people by lion.

By. Roberto Chambelain The Qingming Festival

When somebody dies , every culture has a special tradition to shows their respect to the death. Many cultures have a special day to mourn and honor their ancestors, the death, and for the Chinese that day is the Qingming Festival. The Qingming Festival “pure clarity� is celebrated the day 104 after the winter solstice (April 4th the 6th), is a legal holiday and people cannot


work or attend lessons on this day it is a very old tradition since it id over 2500 years .On this day people pray inclined to the tombstone and remember their ancestors and friends who have died. In this celebration , young and old family members, usually pray for the ancestors , sweep the tombs, offer food, wine, and flowers, for the tourist they may see a combination this celebration like a sad and joyful one. Kids will play with kites at night forming a long chain with lanterns attached to the kite making it look like a bright star called “ god of the headlights”. In this day , cemeteries and tombstone are full of people who take this day seriously not only in China In other countries like in southeast Asian nations, such as Singapore and Malaysia they follow this tradition faithfully. This celebration can be compared to the Costarican celebration: Día de los muertos” which catholic people, honor their ancestors , give them flowers, and pay them respect.

By: Carol Castillo C. and Alejandro Law

La Tomatina

This Spanish tradition named La Tomatina is celebrated in the Valencian town of Buñol, located 30 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea. Each year that, this festival becomes more famous around the world. It is celebrated on the last Wednesday of August. This tradition is considered the world's largest vegetable fight. It began in the year of 1945. The theory that describes how La Tomatina started says that two young men wanted to organize an event in La Plaza del Pueblo. There was a vegetable stand nearby, and they picked up some tomatoes and used them as weapons against the people on the stage. Police took control over the situation making them pay for all the caused damage. However, the next year all young people brought their own tomatoes from home to start the same kind of fight.


The goal of the parade is for all villagers to laugh and have fun until it lasts. Around 10 a.m. the tradition starts by the activity named “palo jabón”. This introductory activity consists of a greasy pole with a ham at the top, and people’s goal is to climb it and drop the ham while the other participants sing and dance around the pole. When the ham is dropped it’s the official signal to begin the tomato fight. That is when several trucks throw tomatoes to all participants. These tomatos are taken from Extremadura, where they are cheaper and with less taste. The estimated number of tomatoes used in this festival is more than 190.000 pounds. The fight lasts around an hour, until the second shot of the gun which is the signal of the ending of the fight. Some rules that must be accomplished are first of all the tomatoes must be smashed before the fight start this is to avoid injuries. The second rule is that no other projectiles are allowed except tomatoes. The third doesn’t allow participants to ripping off t-shirts. The fourth rule is that after the second shot that indicates the end of the fight no tomatoes can be thrown. After the fight, people go to an specific pool named “Los Peñones” in order to wash themselves or to the downtown river. Also the streets are completely cleaned up by the villagers. This event attracts more tourism around the world each time it happens.

By: Camilo Gutierrez


Technology The universe

The universe has many galaxies, but the human being do not know where

are

them.

The

NASA

scientist discover a new group of galaxies called Fenix. This group of galaxies are the most resent discovery of the scientist. Fenix is bigger than our galaxy. Nasa scientist reported that Fenix is the brightest group of galaxies in the universe. It is located 5.7 million light years away from our galaxy. It has more than a billion of different galaxies inside it. It also has more than 2500 billion of mass than the milky way. The most important galaxy in the Fenix produces more than 750 new stars per year. Meanwhile the milky way produces 2 or 3 new star per year. The most interesting part of this discovery is that the Fenix group of galaxies is hotter than our sun with more than 100 million kelvin degrees. This temperature makes it difficult to produce new stars, because to produce new stars the gas inside the galaxy has to became cold and dense. Scientist do not understand how the Fenix group produce more stars than the milky way, so they will keep investigating about this process.


Scientist believe than inside the most important galaxy in the Fenix cumulus exist a black hole that helps the galaxy to produce so much stars per years. It seems that if this black hole exist it would be the biggest one in the universe with a mass of 10 billion times the mass of our sun. Nasa scientist are very happy with this discovery because it shows the people in the earth that we do not know all the things that occur in the universe, and that we will find new things if we keep trying to discover something. By Roberto chamberlain

The Microchip Law For years, humans have wanted to control masses, which means to have absolute control of all the population and people in the world; an idea that sounds very good for some people and sinister for others. It also sounds difficult and very sophisticated, and futurist. What if I tell you that is about to become real with the called Microchip Law? This law wants to introduce a microchip under the skin of all citizens to keep record of everything about them, which will include: health, criminal, labor and economic records. It also will contain basic information like: name, last name, age, date of birth, passport, ID number, and the most controversial issue, it can be located by radiofrequency. The microchip law wants to be implemented in the year 2013 in the United States. The main issue with this new law is that a lot of people don’t support it. People are aware of the benefits that it could bring to the country, but they are also worried about their privacy. The government will know where you work, if you are working or not, you specific location, practically anything they want to know about a person; Religion is also against it. This law violates the rights of the human body in many ways. Also the bible says apocalypses starts with something very similar to this.


It is true that the main role of the government is to veil for the safety of the

country and its habitants. It seems that this time is more about control and power and its going too far.

By Camilo GuitierrezIn the folowing section the reader shall learn something about s

Sports The Olympic Games are the most important competitions in the world. All athletes aspire to participate in them. The London 2012 Olympic Games are around the corner, and the organizers promise that these games will be the best ones. The Olympic Games exist since 776 b.c. When the Greeks started playing games to worship their gods. The winner received free food for the rest of his life. But the history of the Olympic Games is divided in two: the ancient Greece Olympic Games and the modern Olympic Games. The modern games began in 1900 in Paris.


During the games, many sports are practiced, the most popular sports are swimming and running. On the other hand there are sports, like target shooting, that are not very popular, because people associates guns with killing people and they think that this sport is about killing animals. But target shooting consists on shooting 60 bullets toa bullseye at 50 meters in prone, kneeling and stand up position. Believe it or not, it is one

of the older sports in the world. Costa Rica had participated in target shooting in the Munich 1972 Olympic Games. The shooter Hugo Chamberlain got a position between the 30 best shooters in the world. All athletes in the world want to represent their country in at least one Olympic Games. They had trained all their lives for an event like this one. The new athletes that are watching the games by television get inspired and began to train more to participate in the Olympic Games. But other benefits of the Olympic Games are that the country

were the games are happening gets more tourist


and visitors and increase their economy.

And these money they receive helps

improvements in their territory. The Olympic Games are the world’s biggest tradition and they will always exist.

By Roberto Chamberlain

Tennis (The Sport) Tennis is a sport usually played between two players (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a racket that is strung to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over a net into the opponent's court. The object of the game is to play the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a good return. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society at all ages. The sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racket, including people in wheelchairs. While the modern game of tennis originated in late 19th century England, most historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand. Louis X of France was a keen player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis, and became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis out of doors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first tennis player known by name. It was not until the 16th century that rackets came into use, and the game began to be called "tennis", from the Old French term tenez. Nowadays is one of the most popular sports in the world and is practiced in almost all the countries of the world. It is practice by men women and the institution of that is in charged to regulate this sport around the world is the ATP (Association of Tennis Professional). There are 4 main tournaments in the year are called Grand Slams and are: Australian Open in (Australia), Roland Garros (France), Wimbledon (England)


and US Open (United States). The best players of the world are the ones who play these tournaments. Some of the best players in the world are: Roger Federer, who has won more Grand Slams in history and has most of the records, Rafael Nadal, Novak Djokovick and Andy Murray who are the top 4 players in the men ranking. Tennis is one of the most complete sports because it combines ability, concentration and physical condition. Is gaining more popularity each day, and helps you to stay healthy physically and mentally no matter if you practice it competitively or just as for fun.

By Camilo Guitierrez

Sport Reduces violence on kids

There are many reasons for a kid to be violent, some of them is that the kid received no attention what so ever, he reacts later with violence to gain some attention from any paternal figure. other example. is mimic of any violence seen on their environment, or the simply because they are mistreated by an adult at home, sport can be the solution for all this problems that the kid need to solve. It has been seen on many jails an kid reformals that any kind of activity like a hobby or a recreational game can minimize the aggressive behavior and sport is the best that can be use for that. not only it reduces stress, but it enhances kids social interaction and work on group with the team. people just don't know it but sport helps all people with aggressive behavior, not only for kids or teenagers with this people should know that not only that but enhances social interaction and physical movement By Alejandro Law


Here we want to Inform the reader of some situation that concern us and people will find interesting

NATIONAL NEWS

ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE IN COSTA RICA

It is known that any country to carry out the economic and social progress requires a developed road infrastructure. In Costa Rica efforts to ensure a smooth operation of its road network have been so far insufficient, even worse there is a traffic chaos.

We often see on the news that a construction of a new road has been completed and a few days later we hear that there are problems in that road. It is the same with maintenance or repairs of roads. Considering the facts: The road to Caldera had to be closed a month after its completion because of the landslides; the road between Sabana and EscazĂş.


One of the most critical is the “platina” on the bridge over the river Virilla on the General Cañas highway. There are more than two years that it has been fixing, the seventh time was in the last february and it is still in trouble. The most recent problem occurred in a newly repaired section of the General Cañas highway where it appeared a huge hole that blocked traffic for two days.

Everybody wonders why this happens; the explanation is that this happens due to poor planning, design errors, poor quality of materials used, especially corruption and poor management. We believe that the last one is the most important of all because good governance would eliminate all other causes. The most regrettable thing is to see how the corruption is present. The most recent example is the infamous trail along San Juan river, which news have been released numerous acts of corruption.

The massive collapse in the General Cañas highway puts us in front of our unfortunate reality: poor road infrastructure in Costa Rica. How can a hollow paralyze a country? Well, yes, General Cañas Highway is a key channel for the passage of students, workers, tourists and especially for economic development. It is estimated that "more than 200 companies in Cartago and San José transports their goods by the General Cañas". All of them are threatened by the dependence on this road and although you can take alternate routes these are in chaos because they cannot accommodate all those people.

It is time the problems in the deteriorating national infrastructure stops. Time is over for the bad news. Costa Rica requires a solution that ensures efficient use of roads, Costa


Ricans needs to be confidents on them. It is time to invest money and find solutions that not consists in setting Bailey bridges, please build new roads well made, fix and give proper maintenance to existent roads, otherwise Costa Rica will remain a country of traffic jams and unsolved problems

Elizabeth Ortega Pérez Bibliography Alvarado, Y. (Intérprete). (2012). Producción de más de 200 empresas está amenazada por hundimiento en la General Cañas. [T. 7, Dirección] Alajuela , Costa Rica . Fuentes, F. (26 de junio de 2012). Tramo recién reparado en la General Cañas está cerrado por hundimiento. La Nación . VILLALOBOS, F. (29 de junio de 2012). Populismo vial. La Nación . Lovell, A. (2012). AGRUPACIONES ALTERNATIVAS DE TRANSPORTES EN COSTA RICA. (Spanish). Revista De Ciencias Sociales EBSCO (


The truth about pedigree dogs

A pedigree dog is a puppy with the desired characteristics of the desired from the Kennel club in Britain. In 1850 people used to have dog contest which awarded the most beautiful dog in Britain. When these contest got out of control they needed an organization that could administrate it. As a result the Kennel club was created. The Kennel club is in charge of breed regulations and dogs certificates, dog breeding and the highly known “Cruft competition�. The Kennel club is often criticize because to maintain a type of dog breed they practice dog inbreeding, in other words, mating one dog with their direct relative. This causes several diseases in dogs, and physical deformations, for example the Charles Cavalier has a serious issue which his brain grows bigger that the skull causing neurological issues and extreme pain, the boxer suffer, from heart diseases, brain tumor , epilepsy and cancer, there are more dog breeds with health problems, like the Pugs, Cocker, Labrador, Springer Spaniel, Golden Retriever. Another cause for dog diseases is the dog competitions, like Crufts. In order to enter these contest the dogs must have the characteristics according to the pedigree regulations. Breeders often sacrifice a healthy dog just because they do not want certain characteristics in a dog. The painful genetic procedure has caused extreme physical deformation in dogs. Breeders are aware of this situation , but they do not react at all, because according to the Kennel Club these dogs are perfectly healthy. The Kennel club has inbreeded out of control dogs, causing different diseases and deformation .People must be aware of this hard reality. It causes so much death, and pain, in people and in dogs. What they are doing is animal cruelty. Letting people know about this situation on pedigree dogs will maybe on the future decreased this inhuman practices. BY Alejandro Law Bibliography BBC. (2008). Pedigree exposed. Britain: channel BBC one.


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