Cover Design Olivia Young Cover Photos Lucas Petrakis
ANNUAL The Annual is a yearly publication for Drake University students dedicated to unleashing the creative arts behind relevant issues, while providing thought provoking and significant content from a socially-conscious lens.
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF SENIOR EDITOR
LUCAS PETRAKIS PHOTOGRAPHER
OLIVIA HOCKEY GRAPHIC DESIGNER
KATIE SEGLER GRAPHIC DESIGNER
WRITERS ABBEY FOUTS, KAYLA GARRIGAN, LÃ“RIEN MACENULTY, KATRINA SLETTEN, ELIZABETH WEYERS, GIOVANNA ZAVELL
FACULTY ADVISOR JEFF INMAN Special thanks to The Board of Student Communications, Christian Printers, Catherine Staub, and Drake University.
FIT FRESH FAST
WHAT’S OXIDATION GOT TO DO WITH IT?
We like it spicy
All I do is spin, spin, spin Grab ‘n’ go greens *sips tea* Saddle up
WAIT…YOU WORK WITH DEAD PEOPLE?
FINE, BUT NOT OKAY
WE’RE ALL PILL POPPERS
EXPLORING THE FINAL FRONTIER
DISTILLING CLARITY AMONG WHISKEY
Des Moines’ Broadway business
Six feet under in Syracuse Hearing from the haters
Are you part of the vita-craze? To the Milky Way and beyond
Uncovering emotional bruises Best in bowl
Swill and sip
EDITOR’S LETTER To our readers, I like to eat. And drink. That is definitely reflected on the pages of this issue. This edition of The Annual could not have been made without chips and salsa (page 07) and Pepsi. But hey, balance: we hit the bikes for a workout (page 08) and tried to find healthy meal options (page 10). But I’ll be honest with you: I don’t exercise or eat healthy. I do support those kinds of lifestyle choices, though, and appreciate the writers who have brought that perspective. As we acknowledge the different perspectives that made this publication, we should broaden that view. We exist in a world that has points of view that aren’t always positive. Our cover star Nadia Valentine persists in her field despite overt racism (page 24). Thank you, Nadia, for your frankness. When issues like racism make it hard to see the beauty of our world, we zoom out. Space probes are bringing galactic information back to Earth (page 34), making our universe a little bit smaller. This edition of The Annual encourages you, our readers, to dip your toe into some different worlds—whether it’s the world of musicals (page 17), whiskey (page 46), or even tea (page 12). When you come back, brainstorm. What world should The Annual explore next? I have no clue what the future holds for The Annual. Because a lot can happen in a year.
des moines . cedar rapids . iowa city . kansas city . online
Words Brandi Dye
Design Olivia Hockey Photos Lucas Petrakis
Everybody could use more green in their diet. So we ditched the tomatoes in favor of tomatillos (AKA Mexican husked tomatoes) alongside jalapenos and cilantro. A little bit sweet, a little bit spicy, a whole lotta green.
INGREDIENTS (MAKES 1 CUP) 5 Tomatillos 3 Jalapeños 4 sections of a Garlic Clove 1/3 cup of Cilantro Leaves 1/3 cup of diced White Onion 1 Tsp. of Lime Juice ¼ tsp. of Garlic Powder Dash of Salt
GET TO IT
www.raygunsite.com 505 e grand ave des moines
Peel and half tomatillos, half jalapenos lengthwise.
Turn on oven to broiler setting, highest temperature.
Put tomatillos, jalapeños, and garlic on oiled cookie
sheet. Place cookie sheet in oven for 7 minutes.
Take half of the tomatillos, half of jalapeños and all of
the garlic off of cookie sheet, put the rest back under
broiler for 2 more minutes.
Take seeds out of half of the jalapeños.
Slice jalapenos and tomatillos. Dice garlic.
Put all ingredients in food processor and blend until
ycling, weights, and yoga might not seem like the most traditional combination for a workout class. At Powerlife, in Des Moines, IA, they are combined. Cycle Fusion spins and sculpts your glutes, abs and
arms for a full body workout in only 45 minutes. First timer, Julia Gutsch usually sticks to various yoga classes. She decided it was time to try something new and ended up being surprised by the challenge of Cycle Fusion. “It ended up challenging me a lot more than I thought and it was a lot more cardio than I am used to,” Gutsch says. “I liked how there was an aspect of strength training and yoga built in as well.” The first 20 minutes of the workout is similar to what you might expect at any other cycling class. The instructor guides you through various bike-based exercises to the beat of the music. Each bike is equipped with resistance knobs you manually change as you bike up hills, over mountains and through the forest. Just as your legs start burning out, you move off the bike and onto your yoga mat for 15 minutes of strength training. Here, the focus is on working your upper body. The exercises vary between bicep
CYCLE FUSION A full body workout in less than 45 minutes.
Words Sydney Kava
Design Katie Segler Photos Lucas Petrakis
curls, push ups, sit-ups, and more. Each exercise is done for 60 seconds and works to isolate your arm or ab muscles. The final ten minutes of Cycle Fusion are dedicated to yoga. The variety of yoga poses and stretches ensure that you can still walk tomorrow morning. Don’t worry if you’re a yoga newbie; the instructor walks the class through each pose. “It’s a great workout because it’s a full body workout and also a ton of fun with a great community, high energy and awesome instructors,” Powerlife instructor Gabe Patten says. The upbeat music, fun lights and community feel to this class will push you through the workout and support you when you need help. Neighbors will you give you high fives, and the instructor will toss out encouragement as she spins and sculpts her way
through the class alongside you.
FIT FAST FOOD Words Kayla Garrigan
Design Olivia Hockey Photos Lucas Petrakis
Fast food is going far beyond burgers and fries. There are meal options for every calorie counter and weight watcher-- ready in ten minutes or less.
oes anybody actually have time to eat healthy?
“There are always ways to eat healthy even if it is not fresh
Americans are increasingly hitting the drive
food,” says dietitian Courtney Slater, who has certification in
thrus to save time in their hectic lives. But that conveniencecomes at a cost.
pre-made meals, Slater claims there are two important general
A Harvard University study found that “fast food tends to be
considerations: sodium and fiber contents. For sodium, anything
energy dense, poor in micronutrients, low in fiber, high in
500 milligrams or less is ideal. The more fiber a meal has the
glycemic load and excessive in portion size, causing many to
better the meal will generally be for overall health.
exceed daily energy requirements.” The body doesn’t waste that energy — it stores it...in all the wrong places.
diabetes education. In order to avoid the detrimental effects of
“There are always ways to eat healthy even if it is not fresh food”
Fresh Fit Meals offers a variety of meals made in Urbandale, IA. “Our meals are significantly lower in sodium than any other pre-made meals. That is due to the fact that we don’t freeze our meals,” says Daniel Page, general manager of Fresh Fit Meals, West Des Moines. Dine-in, healthy, fast food is the specialty at Get Fit Grill, a family-owned restaurant in West Des Moines, IA. Get Fit Grill differs from other healthy fast food models by offering fresh,
COURTNEY SLATER Dietitian
made to order meals in less than 10 minutes. They offer tailored meal plans based on individually targeted goals that the staff coach customers through in-store. As far as dietary needs, their
Eat Fit Go provides pre-made frozen meals that are ready in
basic menu and meal plans can be altered to fit vegetarian,
minutes; they believe that America’s health problems are due to
gluten free, or “specialty diets” including Whole30, Keto, and
heavily processed food. “Eat Fit Go’s model of real food with no
Paleo diets. “We are a friendly environment, we’re the only place
“Fast food” restaurants such as Eat Fit Go, Fresh Fit Meals, and Get
added artificial ingredients or preservatives will help create more
that does dine in, and your meal plan option, we make sure it’s
Fit Grill are responding to public health issues facing the U.S. by
options for people to take control of their own health,” says
all fresh and right there,” says Brett Wilkin, general manager. He
offering healthier alternatives to traditional, processed fast foods.
Paige McNaney, director of brand management.
emphasizes that the Get Fit Grill goal is to help people out.
WHAT’S OXIDATION GOT TO DO WITH IT?
According to William Barclay Hall, co-founder and partner of
“It really depends, you don’t have to make tea any
Charleston Tea Plantation, a tea plant takes five years to grow and
particular way, it is a matter of taste preference,”
mature, before the leaves are harvested. After the plant fully matures
Feller says. The variables that go into every mug include
it can be trimmed every 15-21 days or as the leaves grow back.
the quantity of tea, the temperature of the water, and how long it steeps.
The Charleston Tea Plantation grows three of the six types of tea: black tea, green tea, and oolong tea. Each goes through a different
There are many ways to drink and enjoy a cup of tea.
oxidation process. The oxidation process is what differentiates
Some add honey, sugar or cream, while others prefer a
one tea from another.
purist approach. No matter how you take it, we’re all drinking from the same leaf.
Words Elizabeth Weyers Design Olivia Young
To the mug... the air, thanks to jars of dried leaves atop a wooden
From the plant...
For black tea, the leaves are withered down until 80 percent of
shelf. This is Gong Fu Tea in the East Village of Des
All tea comes from one plant, Camellia sinensis. This plant
percent oxygen until the leaves wilt and turn black. This process
produces the six types of tea in the world, black tea, white tea,
breaks down the cell walls and creates a black film over the leaves
yellow tea, green tea, oolong tea, and pu erh tea. The teas sold at
that extracts the flavors and allows them to remain fresher and
Tea is one of the oldest drinks in the world. “The oldest tea culture
Gong Fu are express shipped directly to Des Moines from where
was actually the Chinese about 5,000 years ago, and then the
they are grown. “We buy a lot of blends from all over the world,
For green tea, the leaves are heated and dried almost immediately
Japanese many years later in 900 AD, and then it spread to India in
from Germany, to China, to Kenya, and Taiwan. We have over 150
after harvest and are not oxidized. This process is similar to
the 1700’s with the opium wars,” says Mike Feller, co-owner of Gong
different blends of tea.” Feller says.
steaming and it kills the enzymes that could make the leaves
he smell of mint, jasmine, and lavender float through
wither and turn black. This is why green tea does not change color
Fu Tea. “The English were trading with the Chinese and made a deal to trade opium for tea. Eventually, it started an epidemic.”
the moisture is out of the leaves. The leaves are oxidized to two
Dried leaves do not magically appear in jars to be sold. Like any
and has a lighter flavor than black tea.
other crop, tea is harvested. After these processes, different herbs are added to create various The Charleston Tea Plantation, in South Carolina, is the nation’s
flavors of tea. An Earl Grey tea is just black tea with herbs added to
only commercial tea plantation. They grow, harvest, and sell to
it and spearmint tea is just black tea with mint added in.
consumers all over the world.
Between the types of tea and their herbal add-ins, it can be hard to know how to prepare each one properly.
Q: Are there any practices or precautions to take to prevent
Q: What are some forms of birth control that you would
these or are they completely natural?
A: They’re not caused by sexual intercourse but they are more
A: The pill is probably the most common just because it’s easy to
common in women that are sexually active. For those types of
administer as long as the patient can remember to take a pill every
infections we recommend just good vaginal hygiene; wiping
day, otherwise there’s a Depo-Provera shot which you have to get
from front to back when you urinate, urinating before and after
every three months. There’s implants called Implanon, and also
intercourse, as well as wearing loose cotton undergarments
IUDs (intrauterine contraceptive devices) and those are more long
so there’s not extra moisture that can be trapped that can also
term, lasting for three to five years. There’s also the NuvaRing that
increase your risk for yeast infections.
you insert once a month.
Q: What are some common misconceptions when it comes to
Q: Does taking a birth control that prevents your period
from coming every month harm your chances of future
’m feeling sexy as ever as I strip down to just my socks and
A: I think it’s kind of gotten out of favor, but people used to
menstruation and pregnancy in any way?
put on my extremely fashionable white hospital gown. The
douche, and think they should douche with vinegar or other
A: Research shows that there’s nothing wrong with those, and it
crinkle and crunch of the wax paper under my bare butt on
products to keep them smelling fresh or keep their vaginal area
shouldn’t affect you after you stop taking it. There can be a delay
the exam table really sets the mood. It’s time to spread ‘em
clean.You have normal flora and normal bacteria in the vaginal
for full fertility to return after you stop taking them, but long term
wide and put my feet in the stirrups—but it’s all worth it to ensure
area, and you want to keep those so they can protect you from
you shouldn’t have trouble.
my vagina is happy and healthy.
infections. When you wash those cells away you can actually be
Words Rachel Wermager
Design Katie Segler
more prone to infections Making sure you know how to keep your vagina in good health
Q: What is your advice on having conversations with significant others about STDs and STIs before becoming
and being aware of what can harm that health is crucial for
Q: What are the most common STDs ( sexually transmitted
sexually active with one another?
women. I sat down with my nurse practitioner Janet Fink (post
diseases) and STIs (sexually transmitted infections) that
A: I would highly recommend that you’re open, honest and
pap smear) to get the low down on the down low.
you see in women, and what are the best ways that you
upfront and talk to your partner before you decide to have
recommend to prevent them?
intercourse. You want to know their sexual history, how many
Q: How often should women get pap smears or vaginal
A: The two most common are gonorrhea and chlamydia and the
partners they’ve had, if they’ve ever been tested or have tested
exams, and at what age should they start getting them?
best prevention is abstinence, obviously, but then also just 100
positive for anything, and I would encourage both partners to be
A: The age that we recommend is 21; women ages 21 to 29 should
percent condom use with oral, anal or vaginal intercourse.
tested before becoming intimate.
have a pap test every three years, while women ages 30 to 65 should have a pap test and an HPV (human papillomavirus virus)
Q: What is HPV?
test every five years.
A: It’s human papillomavirus virus, and it’s a virus that can spread through unprotected sex. But the good news is with the Gardasil
Q: What are some of the most common bacterial infections
vaccine (an HPV vaccine recommended to 11 and 12 year olds),
and others like it, we’ve seen a dramatic reduction in the amount
A: Probably bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common, as well
of cases. Genital HPV is a common virus that’s passed from one
as yeast infections.
person to another through direct skin-to-skin contact during sexual activity. HPV can cause warts, and they’re usually not life threatening, but they also increase your risk for cervical cancer.
OFF STAGE Words Elizabeth Weyers
Design Kayla Ferris
Photos Lucas Petrakis
How Broadway gets to Des Moines
he Des Moines Performing Arts is a nonprofit
Life backstage during a performance is perceived to be stressful,
performing arts center boasting a $16,000,000
taxing, and challenging, but actually it is quite the opposite.
operating budget, 45 full-time employees, and four venues around Des Moines: Temple Theater, Stoner
Theater, Cowles Commons, and the Des Moines Civic Center.
“Backstage we have monitors both on and off stage so that the performers can have a visual of what is happening,” says Brian Schrader, company manager of the traveling production of The
The Civic Center, located downtown, is an established touring
Color Purple, directed by John Doyle. “We also have cue lights to
house. Shows pull up, unload, run the show, and get out.
let a performer know when it is their time to go on. Our backstage
“It’s fast, and furious, organized chaos, like really organized
is very organized to aid in quick changes during the performance.
chaos,” Albanese says.
We are prepared for everything.”
Countdown to Showtime
Carrie Compere in The Color Purple Carrie Compere in The Color Purple Photo Credit: Matthew Murphy Photo Credit: Matthew Murphy
TUESDAY MORNINGS: 8:00 a.m. The trucks, “Vomit into the building,” says Janet Albanese, director of production and building services at the Civic Center. The show’s crew is in a mad dash to unload. The first thing that goes out is anything that flies from the ceiling pulleys or is hung in the air during the performance. That is followed by the stage floor. Then the scenery, props, and costumes. The entire process takes eight to ten hours. 5:00 p.m. Sound check. 7:30 p.m. Show time.
“Relationships are truly the key for bringing the best theater
Prior to a show, Chelesvig works with booking agents
to central Iowa,” Chelesvig says. “We are also able to bring
representing shows and artists, “Many people are surprised
Traveling shows pack for everything and don't rely on the
the most current productions straight from Broadway
that we truly choose which Broadway shows appear here
venues for anything, “Once during a tour of The Color Purple
because we have loyal audiences that support the art form.”
and that the shows want to play here,” Chelesvig says. “Des
in Colorado the company had to have oxygen tanks off stage
Moines is a very hot market for Broadway.”
because of the high altitude,” Schrader says.
Chelesvig travels to New York every month for meetings
“They are well-oiled machines, prepared for anything and
and to attend Broadway shows. The Des Moines Performing
There are risks involved with being a part of such a large
everything,” Albanese says.
Arts Center’s connections in New York help get Des Moines
operation. “With the exception of the largest multi-week
on the maps of touring Broadway companies. After viewing
productions, we are the buyer of shows and we take the
Jeff Chelesvig, president and CEO of Des Moines Performing
performances Chelesvig meets with the Independent
financial risk on presenting those shows,” Chelesvig says.
Arts, has a personal relationship with many of the touring
Producers Network to decide what shows to invest in on
shows. Chelesvig currently serves as the Chair-Elect of the
behalf of the Des Moines Civic Center.
Independent Presenters Network, a consortium of Broadway
As for the future of the Civic Center, Albanese says they will
presenters from all around the country that collectively
“The performers that come to Des Moines love it. They think of
continue to do renovations to improve the theater to be able
invests in Broadway shows. Chelesvig is also Iowa’s sole voter
Des Moines as an ‘easy dream stop’ on their long list of cities.”
to host and handle the biggest Broadway shows with ease.
for the annual Tony Awards.
Albanese says. “No big city problems but still a lot to do.” “[The show staff] are professionals, they are disciplined and “We love our job, and we have to work like we might lose it,”
I never have to say ‘shhh’ backstage,” Albanese says. “This is a
says Carrie Compere, actress from The Color Purple. “This is
different level, people know their jobs and even though it is
what we love to do, and we are so grateful for our fans.”
live theater, mishaps very rarely happen.”
WAIT, YOU WORK WITH
DEAD PEOPLE? He’s not simply a funeral director; he’s the only funeral director. Words Rachel Wermager
Design Olivia Hockey
The hard parts
The possibility of a family not liking what they see is always
Like most jobs, there are highs and lows—especially in a
in the back of Busekist’s mind. At such an emotional time, a
profession where things go as low as six feet under. At times it
mortician has a big job to do.
does get difficult to care for friends that have passed. And even
“There was a retired funeral director here and I asked him one day, ‘when families come in to see their loved ones for the first time I get so nervous because I want them to look ok, how do you get over that?’” Busekist asked. “And he goes, I’ve
more difficult, “Dealing with families that have lost children,” Busekist says. “Probably the hardest thing I’ve ever done was deal with a family that lost a child.”
Even at the hardest of moments, Busekist knows he gives
this job for 60 years—and I got nervous for 60 years. It’s normal,
comfort to these families and that he wouldn’t want to let
he said, it shows you care for the family.’”
anyone else do it.
And caring for the families is one thing Busekist knows a lot
Sometimes it is to impossible to please everyone though.
about. In such a tight-knit setting Busekist develops a deeper
According to Busekist there have been times when a family is not
understanding of the needs of the families better than if he were
happy with the look of their loved one “Sometimes there’s just
aking care of dead people for a living may be an
There is a lot that goes into getting someone from where they
stranger to them. “I’m from a small enough town that I know
things that you can’t undo,” he says. “There’s so many life saving
unsettling career choice to most, but for Cody
have died, to funeral ready. It is a process that most don’t think
most of the people that pass away,” he says. “So it’s just like
treatments that they do now, which is absolutely wonderful,
Busekist, helping a family at one of their lowest
about, or rather, that most cringe to think about.
taking care of a friend, you want to take care of them the best
but sometimes the effects they have on the body are hard to
remove.” Busekist says that if the person has been through an
points is one of the most rewarding experiences.
Besides, as Busekist says, “It’s just like dressing anybody— except they’re not helping.” Busekist is the sole funeral director/mortician in Syracuse, Nebraska. A city with a population of around 2,000 people, Busekist normally had a relationship with the deceased person he is caring for. Because he’s the only mortician in a town: Busekist does everything, down to writing the obituaries and funeral programs.
“When we [Busekist and his coworkers] get a call, whether it’s
accident that can also be difficult to work with.
day or night, we go out to get them [the deceased],” Busekist
For Busekist, his job is very personal. He decided to become a
says. “If the family wishes embalming, we bring them back and
funeral director because he wanted to help others, especially
Other times it has nothing to do with the work he’s done, or
do the embalming right away.”
during some of the hardest times of their lives. He first knew he
with how their loved one looks. “They’re just upset because
wanted to work in mortuary services when he went to a funeral
their loved one has died, and no matter what we do they’re
of a young girl from his town while he was in high school. It just
never going to look right,” Busekist says. “And we understand
felt right to him; he wanted to help families in that way.
that and try to do everything we can for them.”
Embalming is the process of removing the blood from the body and replacing it with embalming solution to help temporarily preserve the body and prevent decomposition. This way, for an open casket ceremony, the deceased will still look more like
“I always say, the families I get to work with, I become part of
their family for about three or four days,” Busekist says. “And I
“We basically wash their hair and clean them up, and then once
do everything I can for that family.”
the family brings clothes in we get them dressed and do their
“I meet with the family, make the phone calls to line up the
makeup,” Busekist says. “If the person who has deceased is a
funeral [like getting the grave dug], talk to ministers, musicians,
woman, hairdressers come in and do their hair.”
and then I also take care of the person who has deceased. Getting them dressed, casketed, that kind of thing,” Busekist says.
Steps to Prepare a Body for Funeral: •
First the body is either embalmed or cremated
In embalming, the bodily fluids are removed and are replaced with formaldehyde-based chemical solutions
After the body is embalmed, cosmetics are applied to the body and the hair is styled to create a more life-like appearance
Moisturizing lotion is applied to the face, lips and hands
“I become part of their family for about three or four days, and I do everything I can for that family.” CODY BUSEKIST Mortician
In cases where the body suffered from a
to make the person look as alive as possible and cover any
degenerative illness or an injurious accident,
blemishes, discoloration, or marks of illness
cosmetic reconstruction may be necessary. The embalmer will use wax, plaster, cotton and
Powder may be applied in order to keep the body dry and
other materials in an attempt to restore the
absorb any naturally secreted oils
that will delay decomposition •
Makeup will be applied to the face, neck and hands in order
In some cases, fingernails will be painted with polish
The hair is styled for life-like appearance. The hair may
person’s face and body •
Finally the body is dressed and placed in the casket
be washed and set, or simply brushed, depending on the situation
Information from www.everplans.com
On the other hand, talking about dead people is not comfortable for everyone. A lot of people do shy away from it. Busekist wants people to feel comfortable talking to him about the work he does. “I think that people need to understand the process,” he says. “Just to feel better about it when the time comes for them, for a family member, or whatever the case.” What Busekist does is in not easy, but what he gains from helping these families far outweighs the long hours and time away from his own family. He says he wants to continue to be a funeral director/mortician forever, because when a family shows their appreciation for all that he’s done he says it
“The old joke is funeral director never retire—we just die.” CODY BUSEKIST Mortician
means the world to him.
Opening the Conversation When Busekist is out in a social setting and someone discovers what he does for a living, he often gets, “Oh my gosh you work with dead people?” But he says he loves to talk about his job and that a lot of people are curious about it. “Almost everybody can relate to what I do because they’ve lost someone,” he says.
But Not Okay Nadia Valentine is woman of color in the public eye (or ear). So yeah, she deals with racism. Words Brandi Dye
Design Olivia Young
Photos Lucas Petrakis
owa is 91.4 percent white. Nadia Valentine is 50 percent white; specifically Valentine is white, black, and Puerto Rican. She is also a co-host on Des Moinesâ€™ Lazer 103.3â€™s Morning Moose Show. And because she is an outspoken, liberal, woman of color, Valentine has dealt with racism and sexism in her 18 months on the air.
Public perspective Valentine started on the Morning Moose Show when she was still a senior radio/television major at Drake University. “I would get up at 4:30 in the morning. I would drive downtown. I would do the show with the guys,” Valentine says. “I would leave at 10:30 and I would go do class all day until 6 o’clock, 5 o’clock.” That started during the fall of 2016: Election Season. “There was not a worst time to come in to radio,” Valentine says. “Especially because the majority of our listeners are Republicans, or lean that way, or are Trump supporters.” Suffice to say, Valentine’s views lean the other way—and she’s public about them. “Nadia [has] a unique voice and is unafraid,” says Andy “Moose” Warywoda, Valentine’s co-host on the Morning Moose Show. Warywoda, who has been on-air at Lazer for 11 years, gets his own trolls who want him to keep his political views to himself. But as a white male, it’s different than Valentine’s experience. “I was surprised and extremely disappointed when somebody would play the race card when trolling Nadia,” Warywoda says. “It not only surprised me, it enraged me a little bit because I like to think our listeners are, and a majority are, better than that.” Exposing her listeners to her perspective means Valentine can make a difference. “It brings a new, a different voice to the conversation that our audience probably hasn’t heard ever before,” Warywoda says. But some listeners don’t want to hear it. “Moose has had to tell me time and time again is that you can’t fix people in four minutes, because that’s usually the amount of time we have to take calls,” Valentines says. But Valentine doesn’t abandon her listeners after a call. She will give them her email address and keep the lines of communication open. Even in the face of their racism, Valentine empathizes with her audience. “I can understand for a lot of people who haven’t experienced that or haven’t known anyone that’s experienced it, what I say and what I’ve experienced can sound fake,” Valentine says.
Not the first time – or the last
Interacting with listeners can be energizing, but getting trolled
Racists make their voice known, either on the phones
you for the rest of the day,” Valentine says. “Sometimes and the
or online. And it sucks. But Valentine has been a wom-
next day too, because you know you have to get up and do it
an of color for 22 years. “They’re not the first to say it
again.” But she gets up and does it again. “I made it a point to put
and they will not be the last,” Valentine says.
Stephon Clark’s story in the news because we’re one of the only
takes its toll. “If the show was bad or someone said something or if someone did something then it deflates you and it deflates
shows in the area that talks politics.” Valentine says, “And when we “Anytime a person of color is referred to as racist term,
talk politics, I want to bring to light things people wouldn’t have
we might move on from it, but we’re never okay from
to think about and that’s why I do it.”
it,” Valentine says. “You might feel a little bit better, you might be a little less angry but you’re never going to be okay with that or okay from that or okay with the fact
that you can have a great show and someone can pop in
The impact she might have on her listeners is largely why Valen-
your inbox, and call you a ‘nigger’ and dip out.”
tine gets up at 5:05 every morning and is open about her views. “I talked to my sister the other day, too and she said ‘you should just
quit that job and go somewhere with more black people,’” Valen-
Part of Valentine’s co-host duties is choosing the news
listen to the radio.’”
tine says. “I was like ‘yea, but there’s little black kids here now that
stories to discuss on the air. At 6:00, 7:00, and 8:00
WHAT MAKES NADIA SMILE: HER BOYFRIEND:
Lazer listeners hear Valentine’s—and Moose’s—take
Sure, there are racist trolls in Valentine’s inbox. But her job also
“My boyfriend, when he says,
“Chocolate. Ice cream.
on the news of the day. Everyday doesn’t bring hard,
brings her warm and fuzzy moments with her listeners. At a Des
really anything, just him existing
Anything sugary or fat
political news. But some days do. And Valentine
Moines festival, Valentines spoke with a woman who is a Morning
makes me smile.”
will do the trick.”
doesn’t back away from that. Feminism, racism,
Moose listener. “She’s like ‘oh this is my daughter and she wants
and police brutality have all been discussed on the
to be just like you,’” Valentine says.” And she’s a little mixed girl
Morning Moose Show.
and just to know that you have that effect on somebody as young
“I love dogs sosososo much.
“I watch a lot of Cake Wars.
as I was when I first started loving radio is really humbling.”
They make me smile.”
It’s a great show.
When discussing hot topics, Lazer’s right-leaning
Sometimes if the show
listeners get fired up—and they call in to let Valentine
As much as Valentine tries to focus on the positive impact she’s
(Morning Moose) is stressful,
know. “As much as I would love to go off on listeners
having, she identifies as a realist. “People aren’t going to stop be-
I’ll just put it on.”
and say ‘I don’t know why you don’t get this’ or ‘you’re
ing racist,” Valentine says. “It’s learning to realize that [I’ll] have an
racist’ or ‘you’re sexist’ a lot of it is for the sheer fact
impact but it’s not going to change everything and it’s not going
that we’re in Iowa,” Valentine says. “A lot of people
to change over night. And that’s fine.”
haven’t had to learn that before so for me being a person of color and a woman of color on the show is exhausting but it’s also really energizing.”
WEâ€™RE ALL PILL POPPERS But do we actually need vitamins and supplements? Words Abbey Fouts
Design Kayla Ferris
he consumption of multivitamins has been working
This being said, there are certain categories of people deriving
its way into Americans’ morning routine for years.
considerable benefits from these additional supplements. Among these groups include: those on a diet for any of the following
According to Brian Smith, registered dietitian
reasons: allergy, metabolic, or medical.,they should work with a
nutritionist and clinical nutritionist operations manager of
registered dietitian nutritionist to optimize their nutrient intake, as
Vitamin B12 is necessary to carry out daily functions. It is
UnityPoint Health, Des Moines, 50 percent of Americans take
their ability to eat a varied diet is limited. Because individuals diet
primarily found in animal products, and its main function is to
a single vitamin or multivitamin and a total of 14 to 15 billion
for a variety of reasons, there is no suggested universal vitamin.
maintain the health of the body’s nerve and blood cells. The
dollars are spent on vitamins each year.
recommended daily amount of this vitamin varies with age, meaning the older you are, the more vitamin B12 you require.
However, the vast majority of us receive enough nutritional value from the food we eat, as we only require micrograms and milligrams
Vegans and vegetarians are likely to lack B12, as this particular vitamin is not present in plant based foods.
of vitamin compounds each day. “Most of us derive very little benefit from taking a supplement,” Smith says.
VITAMINS: WHAT DO THEY DO? VITAMIN D
MULTIVITAMINS If one is consuming less than 1,200 calories a day, a multivitamin is required,
Vitamin D is a vitamin people living in the Midwest tend to lack, especially during the winter months, as it is derived from exposure to the sun. Because exposure to sunlight is limited during the cold, winter months, many people do not receive enough of this vitamin. Paige
as the individual is most definitely not receiving the recommended daily number of vitamins and minerals. The most common vitamin found on grocery shelves across the country is that of multivitamins. Smith defines multivitamins as a blend of several vitamins, including
Hoyle Hy-Vee registered dietician, says that it only takes 10 minutes
the addition of minerals, that may meet the daily needs of the
outside every day for to receive an adequate amount of vitamin D.
adult population, or a certain group of people. Because our bodies cannot produce vitamins, a multivitamin is crucial for
This vitamin aids muscles in movement and bones in absorbing
our survival. Some brands provide more than the daily needs
calcium. It also is one of the primary vitamins involved
of individuals while others provide less. Generally speaking,
in fighting off bacteria and viruses in the immune system.
there are two types: gummy and traditional pill form. If one
According to the National Institute of Health, too little vitamin D can lead to osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children,
wishes to receive the most benefit from a multivitamin, Hoyle recommends a traditional pill form over a gummy, as tablets contain water soluble fats, released through urination as opposed to staying in with the digestive system. Gummies often are consumed at a greater rate because of their taste, causing possible constipation.
shadowed sphere marbled with swirling storms,
“Another part of it is that the money we spend to explore space is
the only indication of the turbulence beneath,
spent here on Earth,” Dyches says. “We don’t fire a million dollars
emerging from a black and endless void. A rusty
into the Sun, we spend it on technology development and good
desert scape, somewhat like Earth and somewhat
jobs for people right here in the United States, and so what we are
undefinable. Detailed images like these of the objects that
doing is helping to build the scientific and technical expertise base
make up our solar system are constantly streaming in and
here is our own country, which is a good thing.”
being shared. With all the pictures and information available to us, it is easy to ignore how they were obtained.
The probes that venture out to inhabit our solar system... and beyond Words Katrina Sletten
Design Olivia Young
Every planet in our solar system plus, distant moons, asteroids, comets, and even our Sun have been at least briefly visited by one
For decades, humankind has been sending hunks of metal
of Earth’s probes. Their journey often becomes an emotional one
equipped with sensors, solar panels, beacons, and cameras
for those involved in the missions, due to the dedication and time
out into the vastness of space to learn more about our closest
it requires for the probe to complete its voyage.
cosmic neighbors. As the number of missions has grown, it has become harder to keep track of all the little pieces of humanity we have flung into space.
“The exploration that you see done with the spacecraft is sort of like a virtual sailing ship with all these people on board in a virtual sense,” Dyches says. “I always like to say all exploration is
We have gained invaluable data from these space probes, and
human exploration, even when it’s done by robots because there
been able to reach further than we ever dreamed.
are people planning every single move that the robot makes…
“What we learn by exploring other worlds teaches us more about our own planet,” says Preston Dyches, the media
nothing is done without a lot of time and attention and care from real human beings.”
relations coordinator for NASA’s Cassini mission. “We
These probes become ancient relics, spread across our solar system,
learn about fundamental physical processes that affect our
a testament to humanity’s ever-evolving technology, and our need
atmosphere, how our atmosphere works, and about our
to explore. Most probes never return to Earth. That is not their
Earth’s magnetosphere by studying the magnetospheres of
purpose, after all.
Space probes are our way of reaching out into the unknown and
Not only does probe exploration increase our understanding
seeing what we find. What we have found has enlightened and
of our cosmic home, but it also helps to fuel our economy and
grow our intellectual resources.
“The intention behind the exploration of the solar system is an objectively good-spirited undertaking,” Dyches says. “We are just doing it because we want to see what is out there.”
VOYAGER 1 & 2
Launched in 1977, the Voyager probes were sent to
Often a forgotten region of our solar system, the
learn more about the outer planets and interstellar
Dawn probe was sent into the asteroid belt to study
space, and to serve as a beacon of humanity on
Ceres and Vesta, the two biggest objects in that
their journeys beyond our solar system. Through
portion of space. Launched in 2007, this mission was
these missions we have gained information on
the first to visit a dwarf planet and the first to visit
Saturn, Jupiter, Neptune, Uranus, the heliosphere
an asteroid in the main belt. The goal of the probe is
and interstellar space. Both probes are still active,
to learn more about the formation of the early solar
sending back valuable data and will continue to do
system through studying these large bodies. The
so for many years to come. They also contain golden
probe is still active and sending back data.
records that are engraved with instructions and contain sounds of Earth, in case any intelligent life elsewhere in the universe finds them.
NEW HORIZONS Launched in 2006, the New Horizons mission made history as the first probe to explore the Pluto System and the Kuiper Belt near the farther reaches of our solar system. Despite being downgraded to an ice
dwarf planet in 2006, Pluto has helped scientists to
Named after the wife of Jupiter in Roman mythology,
formation of our solar system. After completing its
the Juno probe was fittingly sent to our largest gas
journey to Pluto, the probe helped the United States
giant to study, among other things, itâ€™s atmosphere,
become the first nation to explore all our major
magnetic and gravity fields, magnetosphere and
planets, including the one that lost its title.
understand objects like it and what they mean for the
overall evolution. It was launched in 2011 and is
continuing its data collection of the planet.
There have been a number of missions to Mars, including many famous rovers that have helped make the red planet seem closer than ever. One of these
celebrated rovers is Curiosity, who is part of the
The Cassini probe was sent out to explore Saturn
mission is to see if the planet has or had microbial
and its moons in detail.. The mission began in 1997,
life. The rover was launched in 2011 and has been
and ended in 2017 as Cassini intentionally dove to
trekking across Mars ever since giving us views of the
its end into the planet it studied. This probe helped
landscape and sending back data that help us learn
us to discover six new moons, learn more about the
more about the Red Planet.
Mars Science Laboratory mission. Curiosityâ€™s main
known ones, gather data on the ring system and Saturn itself.
Ulysses (orbiter, 1990-2009)
Mariner 4 (flyby, 1964-1967)
DS1 (aka Deep Space 1, flyby, 1998-2001)
Stardust-NExT (flyby, 1999-2011)
Genesis (orbiter, 2001-2004)
Mariner 6 (flyby, 1969)
Hayabusa (orbiter, 2003-2010)
MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta, orbiter,
Mariner 7 (flyby, 1969)
Dawn (orbiter, 2007-present)
Mariner 9 (aka Mariner I, orbiter, 1971-1972)
NEOWISE (aka Near Earth Orbit Wide-
Deep Impact- EPOXI (flyby, 2005-20011)
Viking 1 (lander/rover and orbiter, 1975-1976)
Field Infrared Survey Explorer, orbiter,
Viking 2 (lander/rover and orbiter, 1975-1976)
Mars Observer (orbiter, 1992-1993)
ARRM (aka Asteroid Redirect Robotic
Mars Global Surveyor (orbiter, 1996-2006)
Mission, lander/rover and flyby, future)
Mariner 2 (flyby, 1962-1963)
Mariner 5 (flyby, 1967)
Mars Climate Orbiter (orbiter, 1998-1999)
Magellan (orbiter, 1989-1994)
Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2 (lander/rover, 1999)
MERCURY Mariner 10 (flyby, 1973-1975)
Mars Pathfinder/Sojourner Rover (lander/rover,
Mars Odyssey (orbiter, 2001-present)
EARTH There are a lot of satellites that orbit our home planet to better understand theworld we live in!
MER (aka Mars Exploration Rover- Spirit and Opportunity lander/rover, Spirit 2003-2011, Opportunity 2003-present) MRO (aka Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, orbiter, 2005-present) Phoenix (lander/rover, 2007-2008) MSL (aka Mars Science Laboratory â€“ Curiosity Rover,
Pioneer 4 (flyby, 1959)
Mars 2020 (lander/rover, future)
Ranger 7 (lander/rover, 1964)
Mars Sample Return (aka MSR, lander/rover, future)
Surveyor 1 (lander/rover, 1966-1967) Surveyor 3 (lander/rover, 1967) Surveyor 5 (lander/rover, 1967) Surveyor 6 (lander/rover, 1967) Surveyor 7 (lander/rover, 1968) M3 (aka Moon Mineralogy Mapper, instrument, 2008-2009)
InSight (lander/rover, future)
MILKY WAY GALAXY +INTERGALACTIC SPACE Hubble Space Telescope (orbiter, 1990-present)
JUPITER & MOONS
Spitzer Space Telescope (orbiter, 2003-present)
Galileo (orbiter, 1989-2003)
Juno (orbiter, 2011-present)
Planck (orbiter, 2009-present)
Voyager 1 (flyby, 1977-present)
James Webb Space Telescope (orbiter, future)
Voyager 2 (flyby, 1977-present)
Europa Clipper (orbiter, future)
SATURN Cassini (aka Cassini-Huygens, orbiter and flyby 1997-2017) Voyager 1 (flyby, 1977-present)
Herschel Space Observatory (orbiter and
Kepler (orbiter, 2009-present) WFIRST (aka Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope, orbiter and instrument, future) FINESSE (aka Fast Infrared Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey Explorer, orbiter, future)
Voyager 2 (flyby, 1977-present)
WIRE (aka Wide-Field Infrared Explorer, orbiter, 1999-2011)
Voyager 2 (flyby, 1977-present)
NuSTAR (aka Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array,
Galaxy Evolution Explorer (orbiter, 2003-2013) orbiter, 2012-present)
NEPTUNE Voyager 2 (flyby, 1977-present)
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES DRS (aka Disturbance Reduction System, 2015-present)
DLRE (aka Diviner Lunar Radiometer, 2009-present) GRAIL (aka Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, orbiter, 2011-2012)
PLUTO & MOONS Kuiper Belt objects â€“ New Horizons (flyby,
SKY SURVEY IRAS (aka Infrared Astronomical Satellite, orbiter, 1983)
wasn’t aware I was in an emotionally abusive relationship
Looking back at who I was in my previous relationship, I did feel
until it was too late. I was too far gone in the relationship
crazy, and thought everything I did was wrong.
and found myself making excuses and defending my
-Emotional abuse can often fly under the radar, as many who are
partner’s extremely unacceptable behavior. I saw our
in this situation are unaware of what is really going on. This is
way-too-often arguments as “just normal couple things.” I didn’t
true for both the victim and the abuser. Emotional abuse comes
realize relationships with my family members and friends were
in a number of different forms, some of the most common being
deteriorating because I was constantly putting my boyfriend first.
verbal assaults, humiliation and intimidation. These are usually
But they all saw it. My family and friends noticed a change in my
delivered in a blunt manner or very subtly. Regardless of how they
behavior and how closed off I became. They knew I was being
are delivered, the victim will feel self-doubt, and attacked.
emotionally abused well before I could even bring myself to say
When my boyfriend got mad at me for going out to dinner with my
friends, it wasn’t because he missed me. He was trying to control who I interacted with, based on whether he liked them or not.
What is emotional abuse? “Emotional abuse comes in many forms but is an attempt to control the other person by pulling emotional strings either directly or indirectly,” says Carrie Leaf, a licensed marriage and family therapist. “Emotional abuse tends to tear a person down in the sense of how they perceive themselves. It attacks at the person’s self-worth. It can often make the victim feel crazy.”
To be clear, emotional abuse is not only in romantic relationships. Emotional abuse can be seen in friendships, among peers and even family members. “Emotional abuse often comes out in the forms of bullying, neglect as a child, abandonment (physical and emotional) as a child, psychological abuse, exposure or experiencing domestic violence and other traumatizing events,” says Joe Nixon, a licensed independent social worker. Emotional abuse can even rear its ugly head in the workplace.
What emotional abuse looks like. Words Giovanna Zavell
Design Kayla Ferris
How to spot an abuser There are a lot of misconceptions as to what emotional abuse is, in regards to romantic relationships. It is not breaking up with a partner, having an argument with a partner or being hurt by something a partner does. And, it especially is not emotional abuse to speak your mind honestly.
as well to help with the pain of shame and/or emotional abuse
Nixon offers three steps to helping a survivor. “The first goal
“They likely have some strong insecurities and lack coping skills,
such as food abuse, gambling, sexual acting, etc..”
would be to get the person in a safe and secure place physically if
emotion regulation, communication, and/or problem-solving skills,”
Coping takes on different forms for different people. There is no
necessary,” he says. “The second goal would be to help the person
Leaf says. “Personality characteristics of an abuser likely include
wrong or right way to cope, though some are more dangerous
feel safe being around people physically. And the third goal would
being self-centered, lacking empathy, and being unforgiving. There
than others. This circles back to the idea of emotional abuse
be to help the person trust in people and relationships again.”
are also cases in which the abuser suffers from medical conditions,
making the victim feel crazy. The victim becomes a masked version
Though it can be hard to ask, help is out there. It takes time to work
usually being different levels of personality disorders.”
of their real self.
up the courage to seek assistance in finding yourself and recovery
from an emotionally abusive relationship. But it is possible.
“Emotional abuse is cyclic in nature just like physical abuse,” Leaf
Nixon finds that those who engage in emotional abuse need to
says. “There is often a cycle of abuse, guilt, excuses, and then back
control their relationships. My ex checks off that box. And often
Getting out and getting help
to the status quo with a possible phase of very loving or charming
come from traumatic backgrounds. Add another check. Those who
I can’t count how many times my ex and I “broke up” and “got
behaviors.” I know this cycle all too well. My ex and I fought,
engage in emotional abuse generally also have current and past
back together” over arguments and disagreements. We did have
didn’t speak for a few days, and then suddenly he was loving
experience with insecure relationships and/or lack of attachments
two significant breakups; one at the start of his college career and
and caring again. I constantly felt as if I was walking on eggshells
in their relationships. Check, check, and check.
one after getting officially back together, for the second time. I am proud to say that last break up was the final one, in which there is
around him, never knowing what might make him crack. There were times I would try to talk to him about the way he was
Leaf explains that an abuser rarely takes accountability for his or her abuse, and if there is, it most likely is not genuine. The cycle can and will repeat itself. Abusers want to control and dominate their partner, and there is a high chance they have been abused in their life in some way, shape or form.
Calls you names
Insults and constantly criticizes you
Refuses to trust you
Hindsight is 20/20. My ex really only cared for himself. I feel as if I was only there when he wanted or needed me to be.
get there. A road that took almost four years to complete.
Recognizing a victim of emotional abuse
“The personality of a victim may be that of the martyr, caretaker, or
Acts jealous and/or possessive
people pleaser which will make it difficult for them to leave or set
Tries to isolate you from family and friends
Monitors where you go and who you call
Demands to know where you are at every minute
crave the feeling of being ‘needed.’” If a victim has experienced
Traps you inside your home and prevents you from leaving
trauma or abuse in the past, this also makes it difficult for them to
Threatens you and/or those who are close to you
Punishes you by refusing affection
Damages your property when angry
Accuses you of cheating
Blaming you for their behavior
Cheating on you intentionally to hurt your feelings
recovering from an abusive relationship. The survivor needs time to
Cheating to prove they are more desired by others
find him or herself again. The survivor needs time to overcome fear
Attempting to control your appearance
and feel safe again. ”
Repressing or disregarding your feelings
Repressing or disregarding your opinions
Like many, I didn’t realize exactly what was being done to me at the time. I knew things were not as great as they could have been in my relationship, but I refused to admit there was a real problem. I did change; my personality, my irritability and my self-confidence was the lowest it had ever been in my entire life. I
“I constantly felt as if I was walking on eggshells around him, never knowing what might make him crack. ”
allowed my abusers words to attach themselves to my insides and
or drug abuse to help them cope with emotional abuse and/or
no turning back ever again. But there was a long, winding road to
acting, but it was almost impossible to have a civil conversation if he was already agitated. This should have been a red flag.
Signs your partner might be emotionally abusive:
stay there like a parasite I couldn’t shake. “A victim of emotional abuse may have very low self-esteem or start to show personality changes,” Leaf says. “Those changes include becoming withdrawn, depressed, anxious or having suicidal thoughts.” “Some folks will engage in abusive behaviors such as alcohol feelings of shame,” Nixon says. “You can see abuse in other areas
boundaries,” Leaf says. “A victim may feel guilty, blame themselves, or have so much empathy for the abuser that they feel they can’t abandon that person. They may struggle with co-dependence and
leave their current situation. For this type of person, the situation has become comfortable or normal, therefore it is difficult to recognize the issues at hand. But there is always a way to get out of an emotionally abusive relationship and many people willing to help. Nixon and Leaf both agree that therapy is a beneficial tool in
DOGGIE DIETS Striking a balance for pups
Words Sydney Kava
Design Kayla Ferris
Photos Lucas Petraikis
ou are what you eat. But when it comes to our dogs,
perfect food. Bell decided on Taste of the Wild, because it is grain free
the food and ultimately makes the kibble similar to us eating processed
for both owners and pets because more than 40 nutrients need to be
humans often pick the prettiest bag off the shelf and feed
and it helps keep extra “fluff ” off of her bulldog.
foods for every meal.
included in order to have a balanced diet. Morris suggests talking with a
it to their companions without another thought.
pet nutritionist before switching a pet’s food to gain knowledge. “Quality food reduces vet expenses. This is especially true with
Veterinarian, Dr. Farr owns Natural Solutions for Pets in Des Moines, IA.
Olivia Berry is the owner of Jasmine, a Whippet mix who is allergic to
According to the American Veterinary Association, more than 36 percent
bulldogs,” Bell says. ”It’s just like humans - what you feed them greatly
Here, she focuses on creating an environment where holistic medicine
wheat, soy, dairy and poultry. Because Berry is on a budget, she feeds
of American households own a dog as a companion animal. So pet food
affects their health. So even if you spend a little more on food, you’ll
is the center of her practice. For more than 30 years Farr has seen the
Jasmine both dry and raw food. For dry food, Berry feeds Merrick dog
is a pretty big business.
almost definitely end up spending less on vet bills.”
benefits of feeding animals either a raw or homemade diet.
food because of the different options that cater to Jasmine’s allergies. She also feeds her Instinct Raw dog food.
But when you Google a healthy diet for pets, there are numerous
Package marketing plays a large part in deceiving consumers when
Farr explains dog food in a hierarchically. At the bottom, is kibble dog
suggestions. From homemade diets, to kibble dog food, and raw, pet
looking for the best pet food for your dog to consume. Packages show
foods,like Purina; then there’s higher quality foods, like Fromm that has
“When I was feeding her ( Jasmine) lower brand kibble, she was sick all
owners can be overwhelmed with the variety of options and exactly
dog foods as “moist and meaty,” but this is not always the case.
higher quality proteins. At the top of the hierarchy are less processed
the time, she was puking and didn’t have a lot of energy,” Berry said.
diets. A popular diet is frozen raw, which includes meat, vegetables and
“Once I switched her over she did not get sick at all.”
what to feed their pets to help them maintain a healthy lifestyle. Most kibbles are made up of various ingredients, but pet owners are
fruits. “This is in a form that is way more common to what a dog would
Dogs evolved from wolves. Dr. Cheryl Morris, pet nutritionist and
often deceived by the ingredient list on the back of the package. The
eat naturally,” Farr says.
vice president of conservation at Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo says that
Association of American Feed Control Officials (AFFCO) regulates pet
although wolves are strict carnivores, this is not the case for our furry
food on the state level. The definitions of ingredients are determined by
The last type of diet is a homemade diet. Farr suggest homemade diets
friends. Because dogs have evolved alongside humans, they have the
AAFCO. Pet food companies are supposed to list ingredients in order of
because you know exactly where the ingredients are coming from.
ability to digest more than just meat today.
wet weight starting with the highest.
When making a homemade dog diet, Farr suggests 60 percent meat, 40
If raw or lightly cooked diets don’t work, both Morris and Farr encourage pet owners to rotate high quality kibbles and foods from the kitchen such as cooked chicken and veggies top. Just like humans, doggie diets are all about balance.
percent vegetables, salt, canola oil and a calcium supplement. “This is very good news for pet owners because commercial kibble pet
“You might see chicken, potatoes, turkey, potato protein, peas, pea
foods are approximately 35-50 percent carbohydrates,” Morris says.
protein... etc.” Morris says. “This looks great because it starts with
“It makes their digestive [system] healthier and it makes their skin
“Even the grain-free products include this level of carbohydrate,”
chicken. The issue is the company has ‘split’ the carbohydrates so they
healthier. If you get your pet on a better diet they will feel better and
didn’t have to be listed first. In reality, this product’s ingredient list
have more energy, because you get your energy from food,” Farr says.
Erin Bell, owner of Griff, Drake University’s mascot didn’t land on the
might actually be: potatoes, peas, chicken, turkey…etc.”
Although raw and lightly cooked diets are the best, they can be tricky
perfect dog food the first time. Griff is a bulldog and prone to grain
Another problem with kibble is the intense pressure and heat that it
allergies. Because of this, Bell worked with a pet food store to find the
undergoes when being processed. This process alters the nutrients in
DISTILLING CLARITY AMONG
WHISKEYS Words Lรณrien MacEnulty
Design Katie Segler
Photos Lรณrien MacEnulty
What makes a whiskey a whiskey? Or a bourbon? Or a scotch?
Grain to beer, beer to whiskey Different whiskeys are made with varying percentages and types of
dioxide bubbles out, hence the foam, so you can put an anti-foam
grain, such as corn, malted barley, malted rye, or wheat.
in there to keep it from foaming. Three days later, you don’t have sugars. You have alcohol. It’s basically beer at that point.”
y hipster is showing. I’m wearing a bowtie, and in the last five minutes the words ‘wood shavings’
Malted grains undergo germination before a miller pulverizes
and ‘peppery undertones’ managed to leak from
them to a fine consistency. A maltster soaks the raw grains in water
Quint says the distillery produces 2,000 gallons of “beer” a day.
my now-burning esophagus.
for a few days, after which the grains aerate in warm conditions.
The “wash,” as it’s called, is distilled into whiskey through two
The grains take advantage of the climate control and begin to
I am ashamed.
sprout. Just before they use all their sugar in sprouting, the maltster dries the grain at high temperatures.
Water evaporates at 100 degrees Celsius, as opposed to 78 degrees for ethanol. The still heats the wash to 80 degrees Celsius and
The pretentiousness is somewhat inevitable during whiskey tastings—no argument there. What other alcohols require their
Depending on how these temperatures are achieved, with
the ethanol separates from the water and brew. It is then forced
tasters to maneuver an eyedropper tool filled with tepid water to
standard wood or otherwise, the grain—and thereby the whiskey—
through a cool condenser, whereupon the ethanol gas condenses
‘open up the hidden aromas?’ The same alcohol that requires me to
will adopt certain flavors.
back to a liquid state of 90 to 95-proof. This process is repeated once more to clean up the alcohol.
unsheathe my wallet and pay $9.00 for a singular ounce of ethanol. Jeff Quint is the master distiller and founder of Cedar Ridge Yet unlike other liquors, whiskey encompasses a diverse array of
Winery and Distillery, the first legal distillery in Iowa. About 10
“We break the distillate that it produces into three fractions: the
beverages tailored to any palette and any atmosphere. Are you
miles south of Cedar Rapids, whiskey enthusiasts or novices alike
head, the heart and the tails,” Quint says. “Maybe the heads is
swinging on an airy porch late one August evening? Grab a lowball
can stop by the distillery for an afternoon tour and peruse through
five percent, maybe the tails is 15 percent. The 80 percent in the
with a young bourbon on the rocks. Chatting with strangers in a
the warehouses racking 2,200 barrels of alcohol on site.
middle is the heart and that’s the good stuff. We don’t want the heads or the tails in the finished product.”
musky English pub amidst a snowstorm? Hit up a Glencairn glass cradling a smoky, viscous scotch. ‘Whiskey’ is an umbrella term
Cedar Ridge gets its grain from their family farm. Thousands of
referring to any spirit distilled from fermented grain mash. Yet,
pounds of finely ground grain are loaded via truck into one of
The second distillation yields unaged whiskey, or distillate, which
the intricacies of the distillation process and the subjectivity of
three towering hoppers that rise stoically above the warehouse.
must then serve time in a cask. Cedar Ridge bourbon spends more
the human senses make for a unique experience no matter what
To kick-off the distillation process, brewers usher the milled grain
than four years in new, charred oak barrels from Kentucky-based
whiskey you have in your hand.
into an apparatus called a mash ton, along with hot water and
Independent Staves Co.
enzymes that convert the starchy grains into about 17 percent So, engage in a bit of experimentation. Find out what suits both
sugar. A network of pipes propels the mash to one of three 20-foot
“In our single malt company, we do a lot of different finishing casks,”
your palette and your wallet, be it whiskey, bourbon or scotch.
high fermenters equipped with an army of microscopic fungi:
Quint says. “We just got in eight Olerosa Cherry Barrels from Spain.
I think they’re beautiful. You’ll see some cognac finishes, we’ve got some Madeira casks, then we use ex-rum casks, ex-port casks…an
“When you take a sugar molecule and break it down with yeast, you
empty port barrel really makes a nice enhanced whiskey product.”
convert it to ethanol and carbon dioxide,” Quint says. “The carbon
BOURBON WHISKEY: Porch sippers GENERALIZED FLAVOR PROFILE FOR BOURBON:
The casks don’t necessarily move while their contents age, but they do take active roles in determining the flavor of the whiskey they hold. Barrels breathe. They expand and contract with changes in temperature, allowing the whiskey to soak into the wood and
evaporate into the air. What starts off as 53 gallons will in two years drop to 45, a natural taxation dubbed “the angels’ share.”
Made in Kentucky
Minimum 51 percent corn
This year, Quint will crack open the casks sealed more than three
Aged > 4 years
years ago, bottle the contents and ship Cedar Ridge whiskey to
Distilled at < 160-proof
various corners of the world.
Barreled at < 125-proof
Made at one distillery during one distillation season
W. L. Weller | $10.00 (per 2 oz.) | light, sweet, buttery, peppery, bold
Colonel E. H. Taylor | $12.00 | viscous, creamy, brown sugar, spice
Stagg Jr. | $15.00 | dark, spicy, damp wood, light smoke, lingering
Bourbon at Bubba Two of Cedar Ridge’s four whiskeys sit side-by-side on a mirrored, glass shelf at Bubba, a downtown Des Moines restaurant specializing in southern fare that boasts 44 different types of bourbon. Bubba’s owner, Chris Deibel, is a bubba himself and a bourbon
SCOTCH WHISKY: Campfire to the face GENERALIZED FLAVOR PROFILE: FUN FACT:
As we emphasize technicalities, scotch whisky is spelled with no ‘e,’
whereas all other whiskeys end with ‘ey.’
Distilled from malted barley
Barrelled in used oak casks
Made at one distillery
Aged > 3 years
Made in Scotland
Macallan 12 Year | $9.75 (per 1.5 oz) | dried wine, woody, negligible peat
Glenfiddich 12 Year | $8.00 | lingering dusty, monotonous, smooth
Laphroaig 10 Year | $8.75 | strong peaty, smoked meat, medicinal
enthusiast. He sits on a tufted-leather couch in his restaurant lounge sipping a 20-year-old bourbon, Barterhouse, that goes for $29 a shot. “Everybody can be a bubba. Every big brother’s a bubba,” Diebel says. “So, I thought it was a fun contradiction to have this term that’s sort of playful and not necessarily thought of as sophisticated, mixed with floor-to-ceiling velvet curtains and giant chandeliers and tufted leather couches and wingbacks. That juxtaposition is evident throughout the south.” Bourbon is the United States’ whiskey. It originated in Kentucky in the early 1800s and has since found itself swaddled in quality control law due to corrupt distillation practices. Distillers were using contaminants like turpentine, iodine, and food coloring to cut corners. In 1897, the government passed the Bottled-in-Bond act, which identified certain criterion whiskey must meet in order to be considered bourbon.
“Because people are getting more and more creative with
I want to keep some of those flavor profiles.” Diebel says. “But in
distillation requirement. A scotch must, by definition, hail
whiskeys, some would argue that this rule is less important today,”
the summer if it’s hot, and I’m on the porch, throw this over ice
from Scotland and age a minimum of four years in a used
Product of circumstance
Diebel says. “If I’m making whiskey in Des Moines, Iowa, and
and this can be a porch sipper for sure.”
oak cask. Traditional scotches derive from six regions of
Whiskey is multifaceted, in the simplest of terms. It absorbs so
using certain methods, and it’s 51 percent corn, well isn’t it a
Scotland; the highlands, lowlands, speyside, Islay, the islands
much of its surroundings; everything from the malt kindling to the
bourbon? Technically, yes. It’s just not Bottled-in-Bond.”
and Campbeltown. Whiskies adopt certain traits from the
cask absorption to the very air quality.
Campfire to the Face
environment in which they are distilled. In this way, whiskeys are products of their circumstance. Whiskey
With Diebel on the inside of Bubba’s marble bar and I a guest on
Unlike Wellers bourbon, Cedar Ridge’s Silver Label single malt
the outside, we engage in a bourbon tasting. He instructs me to
is potent. One sip coats my nose and throat in dusty, medicinal
“Every still is its own beast, so the stills the distillery uses
can embody in a single sip an entire lifetime of experience. Bottles
acknowledge a variety of characteristics when tasting whiskey,
smokiness, a flavor profile known as “peaty.” The flavor is almost
will give different flavors to it; their process is different, the
and corks don’t just preserve a beverage; they preserve a piece of
such as viscosity, odor, influence on the nose, throat and tongue.
exclusively associated with scotch whisky, or in whiskies that
equipment they use is all different,” Cook says. “You can detect
evolutionary history, a liquid that has endured and adapted to years
would be scotch had they been made in Scotland.
most of these with taste…Professional tasters, it’s their job to
We started with W. L. Wellers, the lightest of the whiskeys, the
know the taste in scotch. They can see that speyside sits next to the sea, and they can taste the salty air in the scotch.”
Apparently, I’m quite the philosopher when I drink.
the kilns that dehydrate the malted barley used to distill scotch.
For a beginner whiskey enthusiast like myself, detecting and
Or perhaps whiskey is just whiskey.
I noted that Wellers smelled but did not taste of butter. Diebel
The grains absorb the peat smoke, attributing the scotch it will
describing the subtle discrepancies outside of generalized terms
agreed with my choice of word: buttery. But he added that the
eventually produce with its signature flavor.
like “sweet,” “spicy,” “yummy” and “disgusting” is a challenge.
Whatever the case, there exists something to be said for the
The 90 single malt scotches and 50 whiskeys lining the Royal
subjectivity of taste. In the words of Bubba’s Diebel: “I mean
Mile’s shelves are intimidating from my lowly barstool.
ultimately, you like what you like and you buy what you like, or you
cheapest, and the youngest. Diebel assured me, however, that
Peat is a type of turf found in bogs and wetlands. It’s an acidic soil
bourbon quality is not necessarily correlated with price and age.
comprised of decaying organic matter and when dried, it fuels
back of the nose hosts a hint of petroleum. Scotch aficionado Jay Cook, bar manager at English pub, Royal
should. You’re right. There are always perceived experts out there
“I get white pepper upfront, and then it mellows out as it hits the
Mile, describes peatiness as an “overwhelming smokiness,
back palate into a very sweet finish and my guess is that you will
kind of like a campfire hitting you in the face.” The peatiness
“The standards that control how it’s made give it that aura of
that will throw out terms and people just assume that they’re right,
is overbearingly evident in scotches from the Islay region of
pretentiousness, but at the end of the day, you’re drinking
but who’s to say that they’re right? It’s what you taste.”
Scotland, such as Laphroaig (pronounced laff-roy-g) and Ardbeg.
fermented grain that has gone through a process,” Cook said.
Diebel’s words trailed off as he added four drops of tepid tap water to my glass.
“It’s a few steps more than beer.” “Those two, they market it as in-your-face peaty, smoky, intense flavors,” Cook said. “So those ones are a little bit rougher.”
“It takes a little bit of that peppery bite from the front note off just
Not all scotches are peaty, however; at least it’s not a strict
subtly but you still have a lot of flavor there,” Diebel said. “This is one that in the winter I might not add rocks to at all, just because