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THE

AFRICAN SCHOLAR VOLUME 03 JUL-SEP 2012

FULUFHELO NELWAMONDO

How one man changed his destiny through education

EMPOWERING GIRLS AND WOMEN THROUGH EDUCATION Akili Dada

THE QUEST FOR CONFIDENCE Deon Groenewald

JEAN CHAWAPIWA

Giving hope to our youth

STEVEN COHEN Build for Sustainability - Pastel

INSIDE:

RESUME TECHNIQUES | LOVE-LIFE | 5 LIFE HABITS | EXAM TIPS | LAZY GAMER


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From The

I

EDITOR

t is with great honor, passion and immense pride that we welcome you to another mind-opening, life changing edition of African Scholar. Although this is only our third edition, we are nonetheless positive that the information included in these pages will soon be enough to illuminate libraries all over the world with ideas, theories and experiences of today’s big thinkers and tomorrow’s successful graduates. Our commitment to providing students, academics, intellectuals and candidates of all ages with a concise kaleidoscope into the world of a better higher education has not changed. By promoting higher education and career opportunities for our youth of today, we will be able to reduce unemployment for our future generations. Our aim with each new issue of this magazine is to inform Africa of twice as many scholarships, internships, bursaries, the extent of possibilities with higher education, and immense possibilities of overall opportunities. With your support as reader or institute we are optimistic and anticipate a bright future to all by eliminating unemployment in our youth today. Leading from the known to the unknown you have to take one step at a time. Do not build a house with its roof first before casting a sound foundation. Companies can provide the umbrella for the young and upcoming to grow in strength and stature. Career opportunities i.e. Internships, bursaries, graduate programs, In-service training and scholarships are the way to go. In this magazine you will find something for everybody who loves knowledge, business opportunities and success stories – whatever the city, whatever the weather, we will be able to make a change in your life. Anabelle Oosthuizen BA, PgDT, BPhil.

PUBLISHED BY The African Scholar | Office: +27 11 794 414 Fax: +27 086 626 1231 | info@africanscholar.co.za | www.africanscholar.co.za EDITORIAL Anabelle Oosthuizen CONTRIBUTORS Jennifer Kann| Thandiwe McCloy | Chilalo Mumba | Gong Communications DESIGN AND LAYOUT Tawanda S. Hojane | +27 11 051 4487 | +27 78 800 44 87 SALES & ADVERTISING Isaac Ndhlovu | isaacn@africanscholar.co.za CIRCULATION & SUBSCRIPTIONS subscribe@africanscholar.co.za www.africanscholar.co.za

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CONTENTS FEATURES

FEATURES

08

FULUFHELO NELWAMONDO

46

14

FINDING AND DEVELOPING TALENT FOR RIO TINTO

48

21

BUILD FOR SUSTAINABILITY STEVEN COHEN

24

THE QUEST FOR CONFIDENCE DEON GROENEWALD

52

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THINK LOCAL. ACT GLOBAL AMANDA ZHOU

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BLENDED ENTREPRENUERSHIP EDUCATION - ZAZIDA

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MY LIFE, WORK ACHIEVEMENTS & ASPIRATIONS - MUSONDA KAPATAMOYO EMPOWERING GIRLS & WOMEN THROUGH EDUCATION - AKILI DADA GIVING HOPE TO OUR YOUTH JEAN CHAWAPIWA

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STUDY THEN WORK IN AUSTRALIA DIAC

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MY CAREER AS A CHARTERED ACCOUNTANT - PHUMEZA NHANTSI


REGULARS

LIFESTYLE

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LAZY GAMER - GAME REVIEWS

36

MINCE & PASTA BAKE

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PROVEN CV TECHNIQUES FOR NEW GRADUATES

37

STRAWBERRY TART

38

SIMPLE WAYS TO LIVE A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

32 41 54

5 LIFE HABITS EVERY STUDENT SHOULD FORM 10 EXAM TIPS FOR SUCCESS

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DATING POSITIVELY LOVE LIFE

UNDERSTANDING THE BUSINESS WORLD (PART 6 OF 6) - DES SQUIRE

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THE AFRICAN SCHOLAR

JUL-SEP 2012

Fulufhelo Nelwamondo Edited by Anabelle

Oosthuizen, BA, PgDT, BPhil.

F

ulufhelo Nelwamondo Born and bred in Lwamondo, a village in Limpopo Province, Fulufhelo Nelwamondo grew up like most villagers by tending goats and cattle that belonged to the neighbours in Lukau Section of Lwamondo. “It was fun,” he recalls, “and it was just one of many recreational activities.”Being a middle child also played a role later on in his life when he would realise he had to be a role model to his siblings. He began primary school at the Belemu Primary school, which was some 2 villages away from home, and this was considered a normal walking distance. “I was lucky in that my mother was a school teacher at the same school, and I used to do the walking with her. Even today this still is not a taxi route, and someone

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born where I was, would still have to walk the same route to school.” In the village where he was born, there was very little economic activity, and the only role models were the few teachers that one would see in the village. “I struggled to find role models in the village, other than my mother who is an educator, and perhaps this is one reason I wanted to be a teacher. I teach now, and I’m active in knowledge and skills transfer. “I excelled in primary school, and I just enjoyed learning without knowing where the end would be.” Upon completing lower primary school, Nelwamondo then moved to Makwarela Primary School in a town called Sibasa. He later moved to Mbilwi Secondary school in the same town, and this is where he matriculated. “When I began high School, I

changed my mind from wanting to be a teacher, to being an Aeronautical Engineer. While doing matric, I further switched my interest to electrical engineering, my current profession. There were more funding opportunities for Electrical Engineering than Aeronautical Engineering, and that factored into my final decision. My passion for Electrical Engineering grown by the day ever since.” Post matric, Nelwamondo enrolled for Electrical Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand.“As I studied Electrical Engineering, I noticed there were many unanswered questions, and my passion for research grew such that I pursued this career path all the way to a PhD and beyond.” Nelwamondo earned a PhD in Electrical Engineering, with a focus on Computational Intelligence


from the School of Electrical and Information Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand. Nelwamondo joined the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in 2008 as a senior researcher, and later took leave of absence to complete his Postdoctoral Fellowship at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University. Nelwamondo remains the youngest South African to have been awarded the Harvard South Africa fellowship. When he returned to the CSIR, he progressed up the ranks of research to become a Principal Research Scientist, and is currently head of Information Security Research within the Modelling and Digital Science Unit of the CSIR. In this role he oversees approximately 30 researchers doing work in Biometrics, Smart Cards, Network Security and pattern recognition. He is active in the biometrics research where he continues to publish widely. “As a researcher, I conduct research and development, whilst leading teams of researchers and developers in the area of Information Security, which focuses mainly in Biometrics, Smart Cards, Network Security and pattern recognition. The research is then developed into technologies that are demonstrated and packaged for commercialization.” Nelwamondo never thought he would work at the CSIR. “I remember when I was in Matric; I applied for the CSIR bursary and never got a response. Without one, I had to consider my application unsuccessful.”This seems to have changed along the way. “Somehow, when I enrolled for MSc in Electrical engineering, the CSIR offered me a scholarship, which had no service obligation, and this I gladly accepted.”

“Somehow, though, I found myself working for the CSIR,” he says with a smile. “My experience is so lovely, so well-aligned with what my career plans are. CSIR is aimed at improving lives, through directed multidisciplinary research. My interests have been enhanced, and are now more focused towards improving lives. I absolutely love it. I am working with researchers and scientists with diverse backgrounds ranging from computer science to biology in the same group. Lovely.” Nelwamondo also has a number of students at PhD and Masters Level that he is supervising at the University of Johannesburg. The job entails developing researchers and students, an effort aimed at capacity building. True to his enterprising attitude, he lays claim to many national and international research accolades, from organisations such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the South African Institute of Electrical Engineers (SAIEE), and the National Science and Technology Forum (NSTF) amongst others. He is a senior member of the IEEE and a member of many international organizations such as the ACM (Association for Computing Machinery). He is an editor of several journals, including the Journal of Computers; as well as the International Journal of Digital Content and its Application. He has been a part of international committees such as the 2010 World Automation Congress Committee on Intelligent Computing, IASTED technical committee on Artificial Intelligence, and a member of the Local Organizing Committees for the 2014 International Federation of Automatic Control. In South Africa he is the founding member, and an Executive Committee Member of the South African Young Academy

of Science (SAYAS).Nelwamondo has also published over 60 research papers in international journals, books and peer reviews and conferences. His interests are in the exciting and emerging fields of software and technology applications, including Biometrics based Identity Authentication Systems, data mining, modelling of complex systems, machine learning and mechanism design. In promotion of science, Professor Nelwamondo is involved in community work – sponsoring top Maths and Science matriculants in Lwamondo. He sponsors awards for top performing high school learners in Matric that perform in Mathematics and Physical Science, in Lwamondo and in the Limpopo province.

What motivated you to study Electrical Engineering? What was the major influencing factor? I always wanted to participate in solving unanswered problems and questions, and to assist South Africa in gaining strategic independence in areas of national security. I saw this as achievable only if South Africa was able to develop home grown technologies, and hence reduce dependence on foreign technologies to guard our resources and people.

How did your parents/ friends/guardians react to your choice of study? “Most of my friends, and parents never understood electrical engineering, and they always thought I would be wiring houses with electric wires. My parents wanted me to be a doctor.”

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THE AFRICAN SCHOLAR

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Any difficult moments or near-break points?

“Plenty. Upon completing my BSc (Eng), I thought of entering industry to assist in improving conditions at home, but with guidance and mentorship from Professor Marwala (Dean, Faculty of Engineering, University of Johannesburg), I chose to carry on and now I am very happy with where I am.”

Where do you see yourself both professionally and academically in the next 10years? “I would love to see myself as having had an impact in South Africa, through technologies that end up on the shelves of many companies, even beyond the borders of our country.I would like to see better solutions for identity authentication. I would like to have empowered and mobilized many young scientists for the causes of Science, Engineering and Technology, and issues of

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particular interest to a growing South Africa.”

Any wise words for those considering studying Electrical Engineering (especially young people)? “It is worth informing the new generation that there are many opportunities in the field of engineering, and South Africa has a big skills gap in this area. We still import a lot of machinery and technologies as we do not have enough capacity to manufacture them ourselves. Electrical engineering presents a number of opportunities to address many crucial engineering and technological issues facing societies. These issues range from energy, computing and information security to health diagnostics and pattern recognition, and machine learning, just to name a few. To excel in this field, one needs

a very strong mathematics and science background. So if you want to pursue a career in this field, excel in these subjects. Engineering is fascinating, and more importantly, very rewarding. There are a number of institutions in this country that I work with and that produce very good engineers. They are all well-resourced in terms of staff, equipment and will offer a quality experience to anyone that chooses the field. For instance, I have Masters and PhD students at the University of Johannesburg, University of the Witwatersrand, University of KwaZulu-Natal who are thriving in world-class learning environments. As a student, one needs to push for student-to-student interactions, to create scholarly relationships with lecturers, so as to learn from as many intellectuals as possible during the university experience. Learning happens in the classroom, and also in our interactions.” <<


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Sniping games have never been the most successful sub-genre, when it comes to titles that have players focused on shooting all the soldiers from afar. It’s a fine line to cross, when it comes to balancing tense gameplay with believable action, a component that many games have failed at delivering upon, in the past. Sniper Elite V2, however, doesn’t fall into this now stereotypical setback, as it manages to accurately deliver moments of calm with moments of great action and suspense. It’s not purely a Sniping game either, as players can choose from a limited arsenal, that includes a handgun and pistol, with which to deal death or escape from enemy forces. With a third person perspective, that focuses on action, you’d be forgiven for thinking of running through a game with gung-ho approach, blasting all enemies within earshot. That’s the kind of approach to military gameplay that will get a player killed in Sniper Elite. Karl can’t handle too much damage to his frail body, so you’ll have to think your way through levels, using stealth and traps to avoid enemy patrols, while using your sniper rifle advantage to pick off unprepared enemies. Traps, such as trip-mines and grenades under bodies can be set, with which players can lure in soldiers by causing a commotion. It’s this very mechanic that forms the heart of the Sniper Elite approach to gameplay, one that focuses on controlling your theatre of warfare, that makes the game feel fresh and exciting. A few trademark Rebellion game flaws have crept in though, such as movement and camera issues, that makes it feel like less of a feature, and more of an after-thought; Fairburn walks as if he has just sharted himself, with a slow walk that can be unbearable at times, as you traverse across vast hallways and fields, to get to your designated spot.

Enemies can home in on a silhouette of your last known position, while Fairburn can mark soldiers, for future sniping. Soldiers will blunder past you, not noticing the silenced pistol pointed at their jackboots, while duelling with enemy snipers, over the crack of high-calibre rifles, will elicit less than a “achtung” from the oblivious troopers. But once you’re up in your nest, and you do decide to start sniping, the game really picks up. One key feature of the title, is that bullets, when fired, will occasionally trigger a slow-motion video of the damage done to a human body. Blood splatters, bone shatters and organs rupture, as the projectile creates an exit wound. You’d think that after seeing it a hundred times, the visuals would become bland and boring but it never does. This is where the game shines. Not in the meandering stealth sections, or capable online and challenge multiplayer modes, but in the art of firing off round after round from your rifle, using your environment to your advantage, and tagging enemies with new and interesting ways to extinguish life. PC players get a more substantial competitive multiplayer than console owners, while the Overwatch option has two players teaming up as spotters and snipers. It’s clear that the bulk of the graphical budget has gone into the X-Ray kill mechanic, and it shows beautifully, while the sound of the game will benefit audiophile. -Geoffrey Tim

Overall Score 7.5/10 It may not be the greatest war game ever produced, but it certainly is the best sniping game to appear in recent history.

All your gaming news updated daily at www.lazygamer.net.


Follow the story of Finn, an orphan cum apprentice Sorcerer. After his master, Dash, heads off to town to do some shopping, Finn heads off to cause some mischief. His talkative feline friend, Erline, berates him for his action, but accompanies to watch the disaster unfold. Securing a wand and drinking a potion of arcane mastery, Finn is off on an adventure against undead, creatures of nightmare and twisted faeries. Sorcery is all about slinging spells around and combining their effects. Some combinations allow three spells to work together, which normally results in flashy explosions and a lot of dead monsters. Part of the fun is working out which spells combine and the spell system is rather intuitive and quick to switch between spells. Of all the gesture based commands, I found the spell system to be one of the best done. Flick down while holding Move button to activate your earthstrike, flick it side to side while holding said button to wield your lightning spell. Each spell also has two different modes. A normal flick with fire will cause a cone of flame to erupt in front of you. By turning the move wand sideways and flicking horizontally, you will instead have a line of flame just in front of you. Spells are fun and mostly useful, except for the earth spell, which doesn’t mix with anything and is really weak. I never found an enemy or puzzle that required use of the spell. The ‘shield’, while handy at first, becomes pointless except for a few boss fights.

To spice things up a bit, Finn is quite the alchemy prodigy too. By researching the odd reagents that you find in your travels, you will be able to brew up a bunch of handy potions, most of which have permanent effects. From more health to higher damage with your arcane bolts, the trick to staying alive is collecting gold, reagents and uh, empty potion bottles. While I enjoy the focus on alchemy and can appreciate finding out formulas myself, the potion-making minigame is a complete waste of time and energy; it seems it is merely there to allow for even more gesturing with your wand. Shaking potions (they need to be activated before they can be consumed) sometimes takes too long, and often means that by the time you need a health potion in battle, it may be too late. Sadly Sorcery is the kind of game teenagers and younger children will love. After all the hype and delays, I think many gamers are going to be angry and want to throw their Move systems away. This wasn’t the game you bought the Move for, nor is it the game to warrant buying a Move for. But if you have the system, Sorcery is worth the time and wrist strain. -Darryn Bonthuys

Overall Score 6/10 (Add a point if you are Under 18; add another if you dream of being a wizard.) Always wanted to be Harry Potter, but your letter from Hogwarts never arrived? Sorcery is the place to go then if you want to feel like a wizard. Stirring music and likeable characters will suck you (or your kids) into this adventure and turn you into a proper spellslinger. Or give you really bad RSI.


THE AFRICAN SCHOLAR

JUL-SEP 2012

Finding and Developing top talent for Rio Tinto D Ethne (left) and Khanyisile

o you dream of a job opportunity that delivers a fantastic lifestyle with a healthy work-life balance, great compensation, future career and development opportunities?

Our research has revealed that graduates want to work for a company that has a great reputation and organisational stability. Graduates also want to be provided with meaningful work, accountability, diversity of experience and a flexible lifestyle.

Rio Tinto is a leading global mining and metals group, dedicated to the smartest discovery, extraction and processing of the earth’s natural resources. Everything we do is done with the future firmly in mind. So our employees are rewarded with opportunity, an open and diverse culture, and a responsible working environment. All of this is encapsulated in Go Further - Rio Tinto’s new pay-off line for its graduate recruitment programme. Rio Tinto’s passionate and dedicated graduate recruitment and development manager, Ethne Makgasane says: “We believe our success is largely based on our values. We look for people who believe in accountability, respect, teamwork and integrity. We

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are extremely serious about safety, sustainability and social responsibility. This means you will be working for a company of which you can be proud.”

Working for a global giant

Rio Tinto has a long and successful history, an excellent reputation, global reach, a diverse workforce and numerous opportunities for growth and development. Our graduate development programme is crafted to maximise our leadership pipeline and the professional development of our graduate interns. Rio Tinto is a powerful stakeholder in the countries in which we work, and we always aim to be a responsible citizen by putting our weight behind meaningful and substantial development of communities.

We are keen to attract, develop and maintain graduates of the highest calibre to help discover, mine and process a wide range of mineral resources in ways that are the most efficient, environmentally-friendly and cost-effective. Graduates are critical to fill new technical and management positions. Having the best graduates helps Rio Tinto maintain a competitive edge.


Fresh blood is essential to our business, and Rio Tinto provides great career opportunities for outstanding graduates from diverse academic disciplines.”

- Ethne Makgasane, Rio Tinto’s graduate recruitment and development manager

Who are we looking for?

We look for talented school students, graduates and professionals with less than two years’ working experience, especially those that excel in maths and science. Ethne says her department has worked hard to develop a competitive employment value proposition and believe this is the key to attracting new talent as well as improving commitment among current employees. Students can apply for bursaries or scholarships in engineering (mechanical, chemical, mining, process and electrical), metallurgy, geology, geoscience, environmental science, human resources, IT, supply chain management, commercial, accounting, business management, communications, community relations, external relations, law, anthropology, archaeology, health and safety.

Bursaries and scholarships

Graduate attraction and development advisor, Khanyisile Mkhize, is responsible for the identification and recruitment of top students from school level upwards for bursaries and scholarships. “We partner with university feeder schools and sponsor maths and science programmes as well as providing support for vocational training for the mining industry. “Our aim in finding worthy students for bursaries is to

ensure a strong focus on the diversity of the graduate pipeline,” says Khanyisile. Rio Tinto provides scholarships and bursaries to selected students at various southern African universities and this comes along with paid internship and vacation work.

University relations

Rio Tinto is in a process of building strategic partnerships with key universities and nongovernmental organisations to provide core industry programmes and a source of graduates. We also arrange regular school visits and attend career fairs to showcase what we offer. The employee brand was recently overhauled to include new ways of reaching students through media campaigns and road shows.

Our graduate recruitment strategy

Our graduate intake target is 3,5 percent of the global professional population, to be achieved by 2015. This means we will need new people to increase our presence in emerging regions. Adds Ethne: “We offer our new recruits superior opportunities in learning and development, on-thejob training, support in further studies, competitive remuneration packages, job flexibility, diversity of opportunity, global exposure, and a global graduate

Rio Tinto graduate trainees www.africanscholar.co.za

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Our aim in finding worthy students for bursaries is to ensure a strong focus on the diversity of the graduate pipeline.” - Khanyisile Mkhize, graduate attraction and development advisor

community with numerous opportunities to develop professional networks.”

bursary scheme is to ensure a strong focus on the diversity of the graduate pipeline,” says Khanyisile.

Our graduate development programme

All graduates have an annual development plan that includes coaching, mentorship and support in external development opportunities such as technical conferences and eLearning. You will be provided with a personal mentor and a development plan.

We give our future leaders and specialists practical exposure in the field to contextualise their studies. Rio Tinto Africa has developed a three-tier process for qualifying students. This includes scholarships and bursaries for further education, vacation placements and participation in our graduate development programme. Students and under-graduates are selected for vacation work depending on the disciplines required by our mines. Vacation work gives managers the opportunity to identify talent and develop relationships with students while they are completing their studies. “Our aim in finding high-performing students for our

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Our graduate intensive programme provides in-depth training, business simulation exercises and business and personal development skills to selected graduates from our operations in Africa and beyond. It affords an excellent chance to build a strong network within the group. For career opportunities, visit our graduate website on http://www.riotinto.com/careers/21567_southern_ africa_21609.asp <<


YOU CAN CHANGE YOUR WORLD

Visit http://www.africanscholar.co.za or send an email to subscribe@africanscholar.co.za


THE AFRICAN SCHOLAR

JUL-SEP 2012

Proven CV techniques for new graduates

I

s it possible to create an effective resume when you have little or no work experience? Absolutely. As a college senior, this time of the year has great significance for you. Graduation is around the corner and the hunt for your first job is closely behind. Everyone around you is eager to offer advice on everything from interview attire to job search strategies. But before you leap into job hunting mode, make sure you are armed with the right tools. One very important tool will be your professional resume. But is it possible to create an effective resume when you have little or no work experience? Absolutely. While recent college graduates and entry-level jobseekers have unique challenges when it comes to resume development, there are proven techniques that work every time. Decide on job target Like anything else in life, you need to clearly understand where you are heading in order to work on getting there. So before you grab a pencil and paper and begin rehashing every job you held since high school, think carefully about your career objectives. Are you looking to work for a few years and then pursue a

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graduate degree? Are you seeking a position with internal growth? Will any job do as long as it pays the bills? Although it is highly unlikely that your first job after college will last until retirement, it is the job that starts your career, so targeting should be taken seriously. If you are having a hard time determining the right career path, consult a career coach or your college career counselor. Identify relevant skills and qualifications Once you have decided on the types of positions you want to target, it is time to do your research. Visit major general and niche job websites to learn more about the daily responsibilities, academic requirements, technical skills, and other qualifications needed for your target position. Do you need previous work experience or can entry-level candidates apply? Do you have all or most of the skills required to handle the job? Gathering this information is critical for both your resume development and interview preparation.

Develop a professional summary Place this section at the top of

the resume under your contact information. This section allows you to introduce yourself to the reader and include your distinctive qualifications, skills, and talents. Are you are an exceptional organizer or planner? Have you held leadership roles in campus or student organizations? Do you enjoy research? Though you may not have extensive work experience, after four years in college, you should have developed unique strengths that are valuable to any employer. Avoid using superfluous statements like â&#x20AC;&#x153;Excellent interpersonal, analytical, and communications skills.â&#x20AC;? These statements are grossly overused and in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s job market sound very generic.

Emphasize academic qualifications. As a recent college graduate, your education and academic coursework will be your biggest sellers on your resume. Make this section as substantial as you can by including details like your GPA (only list if you have a 3.5 or higher), coursework that is relevant to your target position, special awards and certificates, and honors. For example, an accounting


graduate should list at least six to eight accounting classes to demonstrate his or her preparation in the subject. If you took extra credit classes or advanced assignments, be sure to add the scope of the project, the steps you took in completing the assignment, and your final grade. Keep in mind, you are putting details that will impress an employer; don’t include any grades that do not positively reflect your abilities and potential. For those of you who participated in study abroad programs, since it is part of your educational experience and growth, you can put it under the Education section. Provide an overview of the program and the courses you took.

Maximize your internship experiences During the course of your college experience, you should have taken advantage of both paid and nonpaid internship opportunities. Take the time to think carefully about what you learned and what new skills you developed from your internships. Were you given additional training or classes? Did you substitute for regular full-time employees when the workload was heavy? Simply indicating that you had an internship is not sufficient; give the reader a clear picture of your daily responsibilities and any personal achievements you are proud of.

Don’t underestimate your volunteer and extracurricular work If you are concerned about not having enough jobs to list on your resume, take a closer look at your volunteer experience. Just because you offered your time as a volunteer, do not undervalue the amount of effort and talent you put into the assignment. Think of a title that would be suitable or appropriate

for the same assignment if you were being paid. Employing this technique is very effective for college graduate who have only volunteer work to put on their resumes. While you will still need to indicate in the general description that you were a volunteer, it can still be included under a section called “Professional Experience” rather than “Work or Employment Experience”

Demonstrate your ability to multi-task Graduating at the top of your class and getting all A’s will impress any employer, but they also want to see students who are wellrounded. If you were active in one or more student or campus run organizations, list them under a section called “Student Memberships” or “Campus Affiliations”. Indicate whether you held a leadership position or served on the board. You don’t have to list every organizational event you ever attended, however if you helped any major events, it is acceptable to include those on your resume for that position.

One page or two?

Probably one of the most hotly debated aspects of resume development is its length. While it is recommended that new college graduates limit their resume to one page, each situation should vary according to the individual’s background and experience. For example, a candidate who worked full-time while attending college may have significant work experience to justify two pages. On the other hand, a full-time college student may have several valuable internships and special projects that cannot be squeezed onto one page. More importantly, you want your final resume to be an effective, dynamic personal document, so two pages of irrelevant part-time

jobs would obviously not work in your favor. When deciding what information to put on the resume, let your target position be your guide. Only incorporate the relevant experiences, coursework, and activities that would increase your chances of getting an interview.

Finally, the best approach to assembling your entire resume is to work on each section one at a time.

Start with your contact information, including your name, address, telephone numbers (home and cellular), and your email address. Please get a professional email address with your full name only the cutesy ones you use with friends will not work in your job search environment. Develop the rest of your resume in the following order: Professional Summary, Education, Work or Professional Experience, Student Affiliations. Overall, your resume will require a lot of work and commitment on your part. Be prepared to spend at least five to six hours creating your resume and when you are finished, get several people to read it and give you constructive feedback. Last but not least, proofread, proofread, and proofread. Remember that the ultimate goal for your resume is to land your first job. <<

Abby Locke of Premier Writing Solutions (www.premierwriting. com) is a master resume writer and executive career marketing architect who helps global executives who struggle with self-marketing to strengthen their brand reputation and become sought after leaders so that they can earn higher salaries and achieve their career goals.

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Build for Sustainability Q & A with Steven

Cohen, Managing director of Softline Pastel. Words by Jennifer Kann

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ntrepreneur, Chartered Accountant, motor-bike enthusiast and techie at heart, Steven Cohen is more than the man that has enabled over 200 000 businesses to manage their books, he is blazing a trail for the entrepreneur. As co-founder and now managing director of Softline Pastel, South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading developer of accounting and business software, he was behind the development of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first comprehensive, online accounting application for

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SMEs, My Business Online. In 1989, Softline Pastel started out in a tiny office in Johannesburg with three founders and two staff. It now employs over 400 people, is part of the London listed Sage Group plc, and supplies software in 52 countries. Cohen believes that procrastination is the enemy of progress, and constantly works to develop products that will make a compelling difference to how businesses, especially SMEs, operate. As a big supporter of entrepreneurial activity he shares


his advice and passion readily. So, for those of you who have a business or are considering starting one, Steven Cohen shares some valuable insights into how to turn your idea into a successful business.

To what do you attribute your company’s success? Most people comment that my partners and I had the right mindset to get where we did - a truly entrepreneurial mindset - and while I agree that we are successful entrepreneurs, we had what many entrepreneurs don’t, a good understanding of management and leadership. You can have the best idea in the world but if you don’t know how to build it into a sustainable business, you have nothing! Entrepreneurship is a real alternative for the youth to generate wealth. However, business sustainability in Africa is a challenge – with the continent having the highest proportion of start-up micro enterprises in the world but the lowest proportion of those that grow into profitable SMEs. There are many external reasons for this but if you focus on developing sound management and leadership skills, it will go a long way to longevity and growth.

Describe Pastel’s beginnings Our beginnings were extremely humble. It really was back-of-the-garage stuff and we had no grand fancy offices or equipment. We did not pay ourselves a salary for six months and lived from hand to mouth – you must be prepared to make sacrifices. We each had money put away to pay the rent and only bought furniture in the first few months, everything was very well planned.

How did you grow the business? One of our biggest leadership decisions was how we were going to take the business forward. Firstly, we opted to begin growing the business from within - as we needed more people so the offices became too small, we moved, and it snowballed. Everything was well thought out and we took it carefully at first although we were ambitious. This kind of organic growth is slower than buying out similar businesses through acquisitive expansion but is less risky in the long term because the management team can form strategic goals from which to guide the enterprise’s direction. This method also gave us a chance to test our business model. Once we were listed we grew acquisitively as well. Purchasing other businesses has its merits, particularly in terms of gaining new customers and revenue quickly but it can come with challenges, including shareholders that you don’t want in the long run. Integrating two businesses also involves streamlining different cultures,

systems and work ethics into one entity with common values and goals – not always an easy task.

What were your biggest challenges during the growth phase? This was generally a very anxious time, we were constantly worrying about our competitor’s next move, increasing sales, gaining new customers, managing our overheads, etc but it’s imperative not to let this strangle your ideas. But by far, what I found the most difficult: finding the right people and keeping them motivated and their expectations realistic. When it comes to hiring employees, I believe that it’s better to pay more money for a good person with the right overall fit for the organisation, including the appropriate work ethic, rather than a person who has the “right credentials”. Many businesses may be tempted to pay less for a mediocre person who they believe can be taught the right stuff on the job – not me; this way, as we grew we were able to become hands-off but not uninvolved, entrusting our management issues with the right people.

Describe your management and leadership styles? Well firstly, they aren’t the same thing. To me, management is the efficient day-to-day running of the business; making sure you have an IT infrastructure that never falls over, an accounts department that sends invoices on time, paying your suppliers and rent, etc. Managing all these elements in a well-thought out plan is essential to sustaining a business. Leadership is about creating a vision for the business and ensuring that everything you do takes the business a step closer to that future reality. It’s about creating a space where your staff feel fulfilled and inspired and it’s about being connected enough to both the market and customers to create products that they want to keep buying. I always lead by example. This way it gives me credibility and new employees know exactly what is expected from them. I’m not scared to chat to anyone face to face if they aren’t meeting my expectations; an unmotivated employee or business partner will only slow your business down. Of course, I also take the time to recognise the ones who go the extra mile. I think that it’s important not to paralyse employees by hurting them when they make mistakes. Rather let them operate in a supportive environment where they learn from their mistakes. If you don’t, you will suffocate your business in the pursuit of perfection. At the end of the day a leader needs to create a workplace that people love coming to and do the best possible job while they are there.

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Where do you see Pastel in the next ten years? So, what does the future hold for us? Well, we’re investing for the long term because the business needs to outlive its founders! We have to keep on moving forward as procrastination is the enemy of progress, so we continue to keep tabs on our competitors and we’re constantly keeping our eye on industry trends. Some important new trends have emerged, particularly in the online space and we’re developing products that will change the way people work – really! This isn’t hype; we’re developing technology that will make a compelling difference to how businesses operate.

What is your best advice to maintain a healthy business? Maybe it’s because I’m a chartered accountant by profession but I say this all the time - finances are the heart of a business! Track your cash flow and financial position constantly, even if you set 15 minutes aside for this at the end of each day. For business owners who don’t have a finance back ground, it’s imperative to know your financial terminology to ensure that you understand the nitty gritty of your business. One of the worst mistakes entrepreneurs make is to become so absorbed in their business ideas that they forget to monitor day to day

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finances. And apart from balancing the books, I really recommend the use of information systems to help you track and report your daily operations – this just gives such insight into the overall state of your business. In addition, work hard on developing your emotional intelligence to treat your mistakes as learning opportunities. Learn to forgive yourself. At the end of the day you’re an entrepreneur because of your willingness to take risks and naturally there will be mistakes along the way. It’s also vital to acknowledge what you’ve done right in order to replicate it. In our start up phase there were a number of things that I can say were right. We managed to sell our value proposition confidently and always remained ahead of our competitors and the industry challenges. We understood our landscape clearly and always kept a lookout for the latest industry trends. We drew our own conclusions and then shared this information with employees. And we continue to do this - we have a monthly staff meeting and there are no sacred cows!

What final words do you have for those considering a future as an entrepreneur? Building a business is tough but it is an enormous amount of fun! We’ve had some mind-blowing exciting times and some really low and depressing periods too but mostly it’s been a case of taking one step after the next. <<


Scholarships to Study at The University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia The Australian African Awards (AAA) provide scholarships to eligible South African students for postgraduate study at The University of New South Wales (UNSW). The AAA is an initiative of the Australian Government, and is a pan-African program of development scholarships and fellowships that offers 1,000 postgraduate scholarships each year to eligible African professionals. The 2014 AAA applications opened on September 1. The University of New South Wales (UNSW) is one of the top 50 universities in the world (2011 QS World University Rankings) and is the first Australian university to receive the prestigious QS Five Star Plus rating in the areas of graduate employability, teaching, learning environment, facilities, culture, internationalization, innovation, engagement and research. As one of Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading international universities, UNSW attracts outstanding scholars and students from around the world. More than 52,000 students study at UNSW from over

120 countries around the world. In 2012, UNSW is celebrating 60 years of welcoming international students. More than 150 African students are currently enrolled at UNSW across various faculties and programs. UNSW is a founding member of the Group of Eight top research intensive universities in Australia and an active member of the Universitas 21 group of international universities. UNSW students are connected to an international network of partner universities and alumni and our graduates benefit from the highest median starting salaries in Australia (2011 Australian Graduate Survey). The AAA scholarships are offered in five priority fields: Agriculture/Food Security; Education (including further education and training); Health (including HIV/AIDS and maternal and child health); Natural Resource Management (including mining) and Public Policy (including urban and local government management). UNSW has nine

faculties that offer postgraduate coursework degrees in the five priority fields. Previous applicants have undertaken studies in the Master of Public Health, Master of International Health, Master of Environmental Management, Master of Mining Engineering, Master of Policy Studies and many other more. For a full listing of UNSW postgraduate programs, visit www.international.unsw. edu.au To apply for the AAA and view the full list of requirements, visit www.adsafrica.com.au For further information contact: Jorge Baron UNSW â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Africa Representative Email:Jorge@destinationaustralia.co.za


THE AFRICAN SCHOLAR

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The quest for Confidence

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any questions have been asked by wise men on how we can achieve confidence. Even if you’re extremely skilled and talented, a lack of self-confidence can prevent you from performing at your best in pressure situations. For example, if you work in sales, it’s one thing to read a book and learn and understand some new sales techniques, but it’s a very different challenge to actually go out and apply those techniques when faceto-face with a prospect. The major limiting factor often isn’t a lack of

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knowledge or practice but rather the limiting belief that you can’t expect to perform well the first few times — a self-fulfilling prophecy. Public speaking is a great example. Many people have the knowledge and skill to write a speech that an audience would enjoy, and when practiced in private, they may even do a decent job. But put them in front of an audience — or even just suggest the idea — and they quickly succumb to feelings of self-doubt and worry. However, if you take such people to a stage hypnosis show and they’re hypnotized, they’ll get up on stage

and perform wonderfully with no fear at all, even with no rehearsal or prepared material. Being under hypnosis doesn’t magically bestow any new skills, but it can put people into a state where they have full and unrestricted access to their best internal resources. What new endeavors might you be able to take on if you were hypnotized to believe with absolute certainty that you would succeed at them? You may currently believe that confidence is the result of a history of success. While a history of success can certainly increase your confidence, you don’t actually need


WHENEVER YOU HAVE TO PERFORM UNDER PRESSURE IS A GOOD TIME TO PUT YOURSELF INTO A STATE OF CONFIDENCE: A SPEECH, A SALES CALL, AN AUDITION, AN INTERVIEW, AN EXAM, ETC” - DEON GROENEWALD

that history to feel confident. Confidence is a feeling of certainty, a natural inner resource that can be summoned whenever you want it. The key to feeling confident lies in a quote from Albert Einstein: “Imagination is more powerful than knowledge.” Even when your knowledge tells you to expect failure, you have the ability to consciously direct your imagination to override that impulse and feel certain of success anyway. Most people let their imaginations run on autopilot, so they sometimes see themselves succeeding but they also worry about failure. This is like trying to drive a car by pushing the accelerator and the brake at the same time. To feel confident you must focus your mind to see only one outcome, the one of you performing at your very best. If you catch yourself worrying (aka mentally rehearsing failure), you need to immediately take your foot off that brake and focus on the accelerator. No matter how many times you catch yourself worrying or contemplating failure, just keep refocusing your mind on the image of success. In order to avoid the problem of overconfidence, let your decision to condition a state of confidence be subservient to your logic, reason, and common sense. If you feel confident that you will perform well on a big new project and use this as an excuse to underprepare, that’s a mistaken application of confidence. But there are times when you’ve done all you can intellectually, and now you need to get yourself into the most emotionally resourceful state possible. Whenever you have to perform under pressure is a good time to put yourself into a state of confidence: a speech, a

sales call, an audition, an interview, an exam, etc. So on the one hand, be careful not to over-rely on confidence to save you by using it as an excuse to procrastinate on preparation. But on the other hand, it’s “CONFIDENCE IS NOT A amazing just how far confidence alone can get you. PANACEA. BUT BEING ABLE Confidence is not a panacea. But being TO MAKE YOURSELF FEEL able to make yourself feel certain of CERTAIN OF SUCCESS CAN success can give you a massive edge GIVE YOU A MASSIVE EDGE in many endeavors. Confidence is often IN MANY ENDEAVORS.” the deciding factor in making a sale, - DEON GROENEWALD closing a deal, acing a test, nailing an audition, getting a date, being hired or promoted, or making the team. And a lack of confidence can put you into the decrepit state where even though you have the intellectual resources to succeed, you don’t even make the attempt — you fail to ask for the sale, the raise, the date, etc. Sometimes just summoning the confidence to ask is all it takes to achieve a successful result. What more could you accomplish if you added the tool of confidence to your arsenal of skills, consciously directing your imagination away from visualizing negative outcomes and 100% on creating a feeling of certainty of success? <<

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Think Local. Act Global. Amanda Zhou - “Education is the best investment you can ever give your children because no one can take it away

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from them”.

modest young lady, Amanda Zhou is one of the fortunate Zimbabweans that have travelled the world in search of quality education. Astute in her quest for success, she still is a benevolent individual that has the continent at large in her heart. Chilalo Mumba talks to her about her life story, graduate studies at University of Manchester, ambitions, and her opinion of the African continent.

Who is Amanda Rutendo Zhou in a nutshell? I am an assertive and ambitious young lady, ready to take on the world and make a difference in my community and the African continent as a whole. I always strive to excel in all that I do and in any situation I am in. I am passionate about positive change and empowering people, particularly young women, to have a chance to live their dreams.

Where are you from and where did you grow up? Zimbabwe is where I was born. I am the first of three children. I spent the earlier part of my childhood in Harare, Zimbabwe’s capital city. However, my family moved to Botswana when I was 7 years old, and that is where I was raised and spent most of my youth before heading off to university.

Can you briefly describe your primary and secondary days? Hmm, those days were quite interesting actually, full

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of all sorts of activities and adventure. Primary school days were fun – I engaged in all sorts of activities such as chess and drama class. It was also quite competitive in the classroom as we strived to achieve great results. I went to boarding school in Zimbabwe for a few years before heading back home in Botswana where I completed my final year of high school. I was an all-rounder person – both active in the field and in the classroom. I really enjoyed my art classes and was pretty good at it too. I engaged in quite a number of sporting activities such as basketball and swimming.

You pursued your tertiary education in Australia? What did you study, and why Australia? Australia was never one of those places I ever thought I would end up going to study. When I was in high school, my heart was set on Rhodes University in South Africa, but I guess God had other plans. I studied a Bachelor of Commerce degree with a major in Marketing.

What are some of the challenges you faced as an international student in a foreign country? Being in a foreign country on your own far away from family was a real challenge in the beginning, although it got easier with time as I met some awesome people who I am still friends with today. Because there were not many of us from Africa at the time, we kept to ourselves – in familiar territory, i.e. similar language, culture and all. However, this changed with time and I began to interact with people not only from Africa but Australians as well.


Another challenge was the perception some Australians had of African students – the disbelieve at how well we could speak English, or having the notion that Africans live in the bush in mud houses with wild animals running around. It was not easy but we prevailed.

After your undergraduate degree you worked for The Brand Union SA. It was your first corporate job what was the experience like? Working at The Brand Union was a great learning experience for both my career and personal life. In spite of some of the challenges I faced along the way, I learnt a lot. I also had the opportunity to work and interact with some great minds as well as work on some of Africa’s biggest brands.

The Brand Union is one of the leading brand agencies, what inspired you to work for them and what is the most important lesson you learnt after your 3 years stint with them? Before I started working for The Brand Union (then Enterprise IG), I didn’t know anything about the company, especially since I had just got back to Africa after completing my undergraduate degree in Australia. I was offered a position at The Brand Union as an intern and after working for 6 months they offered me a permanent position. I was with them for three years before I left to go and study. The most important lesson I learnt was to always work hard and persevere. Hard work always pays off in the end.

You are currently studying your MSc in Globalization & Development at University of Manchester. What made you opt for Manchester? I applied to quite a few universities in the UK which offered similar development courses I was interested in studying, however, Manchester University stood out the most because of its unprecedented excellence in research and academics. It is quite a change from marketing, why the change? Well, marketing is great and I really enjoy it, however, it is not my passion. I have always been interested in developmental issues and I felt it was time to move in that direction when I was thinking of pursuing a Master’s degree. Recently

you visited Jamaica on a field trip just to see what’s taking place in developing countries. What role do you think the world at large can play to help these developing countries? Although the ‘world at large’ has contributed to the development of less developed countries through aid, for example, I believe it is not enough. The present global economic structure does not give developing countries a fair platform to trade and/or do business with developed countries. Trade Agreements, for example, do not really pave the way for developing countries to benefit from it. Thus said, developed countries should invest, trade and promote democracy and good governance in Africa. Africa as a continent has achieved enormous growth in the past few years, yet the poverty levels & unemployment

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JUL-SEP 2012 rates still remain high and there hasn’t been much translation of growth into development. What words of advice do you have for our leaders? Africa has serious underlying problems relating to governance and leadership which need to be dealt with. It’s imperative that, our African leaders practice good governance, implement sound policies, have strong financial management and put the needs of their people first. If these problems are not resolved, the continent will continue to experience high levels of unemployment, and poverty will continue to be prevalent.

Do you plan on returning to Africa after your Master’s degree, and how do you intend to use your Master’s degree for the benefit of the continent am sure you live by this adage ‘Think Global Act Local’? Yes, I definitely intend on coming back to Africa! I believe that as Africans, we need to go out there, learn as much as we can, and return to the motherland with all the knowledge we have gained and use it to expand and grow our economies, healthcare systems,

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education, technology and so forth. Upon completion I believe the course will pave a way for me to network and partner with other people who share the same vision as I do in bringing about change, a positive change, in Africa and for Africans.

Do you have any recommendations for students planning on going to grad school? When you decide to go and study for a post-graduate course, make sure it is a course you really want to study and one that will open doors for you after you have completed your course. Look for reputable institutions that are experts in your interested field of study. Start planning early and gather all the information required – checking on certain prerequisites ahead of time. Go for it; you cannot go wrong with education!

What inspires and drives you? I have a passion for people, my country Zimbabwe, and the African continent as a whole. Empowering and making a difference in peoples’ lives is what I am all about. I do not want to live a life just for self; I believe


we are all here on earth to serve a purpose, to live a life of meaning outside our own, and I do not want to leave this earth without having have done anything to make a positive change in someone’s life; my community and country as a whole; especially when I know I had the opportunity to do so.

What are your aspirations, and where do you see yourself in the next 10 years? Once I have completed my Master’s degree, I intend to return to the motherland, Africa, and work for a development agency (not-for-profit) whose focus is primarily on either education or HIV/AIDS. I believe this is a stepping stone in the direction I need to go – hoping in the next few years I will be able to empower young people in Southern Africa through education, whether academic or technical. By giving young people a good education, you are providing them with the platform to go out there and either join the workforce or become entrepreneurs. We do not want to see tomorrow’s generation disappear before our very own eyes.

Which African inspires you, and why? Dambisa Moyo, a Zambian Economist and author. She is a highly educated and one of the most influential women in Africa. Among many degrees she has attained over the years, she holds a PhD in Economics from Oxford University; she is one of Africa’s most vocal advocates for the abolition of foreign aid. Dambisa Moyo inspires me because she’s achieved so much regardless of coming from a modest background. It shows it is possible for African women to do great in a ‘man’s world’.

What advice can you render to young African Scholars on the importance of education, and what part can they play towards developing our continent? Education is the key to the development of our continent as it keeps us up to date on current technologies/ sciences/ diplomacies etc. It also helps us to be frontrunners among other nations and world leaders. Education allows us to have a platform to advance ourselves forward. Being equipped with quality education is indubitably fundamental for the development of our continent.

What’s your favourite quote on Education? “Education is the best investment you can ever give your children because no one can take it away from them”. Dr. & Mrs. Zhou (Parents)

African scholar is dedicated to promoting quality higher education & career opportunities on the continent? What role can Governments and private players play to improve education and reduce youth unemployment on our continent? Governments and the private sector need to create more awareness on the benefits of education and encourage people to further their education beyond high school. They should also team up to build universities, technikons, and colleges that are of international and reputable standards. It’s essential that they also find ways of providing more grants and scholarships to people who would like to enhance their studies but cannot afford to do so. <<

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5 Life Habits Every Student Should Form Words by Nate

Desmond - Future Business Leader

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ollege is a time of learning and growth, but it is also a time of change. As the transition time between childhood and adulthood, you will likely be changing substantially during your college years. Because of this, college is the perfect time to form good habits that you might not already have. While the knowledge you gain in college will be important to your career, forming these habits will be just as crucial to your career and to your life in general.

#1 DO IT TODAY Procrastination keeps great people mediocre. If you can conquer your desire to put things off, you will be able to accomplish much more than most people while maintaining a much more stress-free schedule. Because you have a bit more freedom on your assignment times

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in college than you had in high school, this is the perfect time to learn self-discipline and get things done early. Don’t do it tomorrow.

#2 BE PUNCTUAL There may well be a great divide between college and the real world, but this is one of the principles that bridges the gap. No one – not your professors and not your fellow student athletes – want you to show up late to your engagements. Learn to respect the time of those around you, and you will have done much to jumpstart your career.

#3 WORK HARD As important as punctuality is, good old fashioned hard work contributes even more to a successful education…


and career. Grades are important, but don’t simply settle for good grades. Instead, aim for great grades and – even more important – a thorough working understanding. Your grades might be useful in landing a job, but your real learning – not your all-night cramming session – will help you keep it and move higher.

#4 INVEST WISELY During high school, time can seem almost unlimited. As you move into college, however, a greater number of activities will converge to fill your time. Not only will your actual school be more difficult and require more time, but you might have a job on the side to balance with extracurricular sports and student clubs. If you are used to saying “yes”, you just might find yourself overwhelmed and needing at least seven more hours in a day. Make a

continual effort to keep your plate just underfilled. You will be better off doing a few things well, than growing stressed while being mediocre at many things.

#5 LEARN TO ENJOY LEARNING During the first eighteen years of our life, learning was a requirement of living. During at least four years of college, learning will still be a requirement. Once you finish your degree, however, you will no longer have a teacher or professor breathing down your neck with an assignment deadline. Will you continue learning for learning’s sake, or will you happily enjoy the extended summer vacation? Rather than simply “getting through” college, cultivate a love of learning that will help you grow your entire life. What habits are you forming? <<

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Join us on 9-11 November for the Careers in Africa Recruitment Summits inâ&#x20AC;Ś

Meet Business leaders and senior decision-makers from over 30 multi-national companies

Connect Network with other high-calibre African professionals and recent graduates

Interview More than 600 face-to-face interviews held over two days

Companies attending include:


One application, for a continent full of opportunities Hundreds of jobs available throughout Africa

Johannesburg & Cape Town Over 6,500 people have already found a job with Careers in Africa “I was keen to build my career in Africa. I was invited to interview at the Careers in Africa Summit and fortunately, I was invited to attend further interviews with Diageo and Unilever. I progressed to interviews at senior level with Unilever resulting in a job offer. I accepted and am now back in Africa.”

“The Summit was a great first experience for me. I met so many fellow Africans from countries stretching from up north to down south. I was really impressed with how helpful the team was.”

Gerrie Kapfidze, Country Manager Unilever, South Africa “I am thankful for the professionalism of the GCC staff who made sure they knew my career objectives, skills and committed themselves to finding a good match for both me and MultiChoice Angola.”

“When planning to come back home you should do so with something already in your hands, meaning that you should have a job offer already, which I found through Careers in Africa and their great team, who were able to advise me to prepare myself online beforehand to ensure I was well equipped for my interview and test.”

Maria Abreu, Marketing Manager MultiChoice, Angola

Marcos Alfredo, ROV Cost Accountant Oceaneering, Angola.

Apply Now! www.careersinafrica.com

John Avberhota, HR Director - G4S, Nigeria.


THE AFRICAN SCHOLAR

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Mince & Pasta Bake This mince and pasta dish is full of flavour and a popular family meal. Serves 8 Preparation Time: 15 mins Cooking Time: 45 mins

Ingredients:

• 2 sachets Knorr Pasta & Sauce - Mushroom & Sour cream • 250 ml milk • 1 onion, chopped • 650 g mince • 1 x 420 g tin cream style sweetcorn • Crisp green salad and Italian bread to serve • 60 ml Stork margarine • 750 ml water • 5 ml garlic • 15 ml oil • 125 ml grated Cheddar cheese

Cooking instructions:

1. Cook the pasta & sauce according to instructions

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

on the sachet, using the Stork margarine, milk and water Fry the onion and mince together in heated cooking oil until mince is browned and onion soft Stir in sweetcorn Place prepared pasta & sauce in a greased ovenproof baking dish Top with the mince mixture and then sprinkle with grated cheese Bake at 180C for 20-25 min until cheese has melted Serve with a crisp green salad and Italian bread <<


Strawberry Tart Ingredients: • • • • • • • • • •

1 1/4 cups all-purpose flour 3 tablespoons sugar 1/2 teaspoon kosher salt 6 tablespoons (3/4 stick) cold unsalted butter, diced 2 tablespoons cold shortening (recommended: Crisco) 1/4 cup ice water 2 cups Pastry Cream, recipe follows 2 pints whole strawberries, hulled and halved 1/3 cup apricot jelly 3 tablespoons shelled pistachios, halved, optional

Directions:

Combine the flour, sugar, and salt in a small bowl and place in the freezer for 30 minutes. Put the flour mixture in the bowl of a food processor fitted with a steel blade. Add the butter and shortening and pulseabout 10 times, or until the butter is in the size of peas. Add the ice water and process until the dough comes together. Dump on a well-floured board and form into a disk. Wrap in plastic and chill for at least 30 minutes. Meanwhile, preheat the oven to 375 degrees F. Roll out the dough and fit into 4 (4 1/2-inch) tart pans with removable sides. Don’t stretch the dough when placing it in the pans or it will shrink during baking. Cut off the excess by rolling the pin across the top of each pan. Line the tart shells with a piece of buttered aluminum foil, butter side down, and fill them with dried beans or rice. Bake for 10 minutes. Remove the beans and foil, prick the bottom of the shells all over with a fork, and bake for another 15 to 20 minutes until lightly

browned. Set aside to cool.

Before serving, fill the tart shells with the pastry cream. Arrange the berries decoratively on top of the cream. Melt the apricot jelly with 1 teaspoon of water and brush the top of the tarts. Sprinkle with pistachios, if using, and serve. Pastry Cream: 5 extra-large egg yolks, room temperature 3/4 cup sugar 3 tablespoons cornstarch 1 1/2 cups scalded milk 1/2 teaspoon pure vanilla extract 1 teaspoon Cognac 1 tablespoon unsalted butter 1 tablespoon heavy cream In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, beat the egg yolks and sugar on mediumhigh speed for 4 minutes, or until very thick. Reduce to low speed, and add the cornstarch. With the mixer still on low, slowly pour the hot milk into the egg mixture. Pour the mixture into a medium saucepan and cook over low heat, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon, until the mixture thickens, 5 to 7 minutes. Don’t be alarmed when the custard comes to a boil and appears to curdle; switch to a whisk and beat vigorously. Cook, whisking constantly, for another 2 minutes; the custard will come together and become very thick, like pudding. Stir in the vanilla, Cognac, butter, and heavy cream. Pour the custard through a sieve into a bowl. Place plastic wrap directly on the custard and refrigerate until cold. Yields 2 cups <<

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Simple Ways To Live Y

ou hear a lot about living a healthy lifestyle, but what does that mean? In general, a healthy person doesn't smoke, is at a healthy weight, eats healthy and exercises. Sounds simple, doesn't it? The trick to healthy living is making small changes... taking more steps, adding fruit to your cereal, having an extra glass of water...these are just a few ways you can start living healthy without drastic changes. Exercise. One of the biggest problems in peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lives today is lack of activity. We know it's good for us but avoid it like the plague either because we're used to being sedentary or afraid that exercise has to be vigorous to be worth our time. The truth is, movement is movement and the more you do, the healthier you'll be. Even moderate activities like chores, gardening and walking can make a difference. Just adding a little movement to your life can: -Reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes -Improve joint stability -Increase and improve range of movement -Help maintain flexibility as you age -Maintain bone mass -Prevent osteoporosis and fractures -Improve mood and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression -Enhance self esteem

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-Improve memory in elderly people -Reduce stress So, even if you opt for small changes and a more modest weight loss, you can see the benefits are still pretty good. One study has found that just a 10% weight reduction helped obese patients reduce blood pressure, cholesterol and increase longevity. Simple Ways to Move Your Body You can start the process of weight loss now by adding a little more activity to your life. If you're not ready for a structured program, start small. Every little bit counts and it all adds up to burning more calories. Turn off the TV. Once a week, turn off the TV and do something a little more physical with your family. Play games, take a walk...almost anything will be more active than sitting on the couch. Walk more. Look for small ways to walk more. Take a walk around the block, or walk on the treadmill for 5 minutes before getting ready for class or work. Do some chores. Sweeping the floor...these kinds of activities may not be 'vigorous' exercise, but they can keep you moving while getting your house in order. Pace while you talk. When you're on the phone, pace around or even do some cleaning while gabbing. This is a great way to stay moving while doing something you enjoy.


A Healthy Lifestyle Be aware. Make a list of all the physical activities you do on a typical day. If you find that the bulk of your time is spent sitting, make another list of all the ways you could move more--getting up each hour to stretch or walk, walk the stairs at work or at school, etc. Eating Well. Eating a healthy diet is another part of the healthy lifestyle. Not only can a clean diet help with weight management, it can also improve your health and quality of life as you get older. You can use MyPlate to determine how many calories you need and what food groups you should focus on or, if you're looking for smaller changes, you can use these tips for simple ways to change how you eat. Eat more fruit. Add it to your cereal, your salads or even your dinners Sneak in more veggies. Add them wherever you can--a tomato on your sandwich, peppers on your pizza, or extra veggies in your pasta sauce. Keep pre-cut or canned/frozen veggies ready for quick snacks. Switch your salad dressing. If you eat full-fat dressing, switch to something lighter and you'll automatically eat less calories.

Eat low-fat or fat-free dairy. Switching to skim milk or fat free yogurt is another simple way to eat less calories without having to change too much in your diet. Make some substitutes. Look through your cabinets or fridge and pick 3 foods you eat every day. Write down the nutritional content and, the next time you're at the store, find lower-calorie substitutes for just those 3 items. Creating a healthy lifestyle doesn't have to mean drastic changes. In fact, drastic changes almost always lead to failure. Making small changes in how you live each day can lead to big rewards, so figure out what you can to be healthy today. Sources: Fentem, P H. ABC of Sports Medicine: Benefits of exercise in health and disease. Goldstein DJ. Beneficial health effects of modest weight loss. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, McLanahan SM, Kirkeeide RL, Brand RJ, Gould KL. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet.

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Old Mutual Graduate Accelerated Programme

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10 Exam Tips For Success

T

ests and exams are a regular part of the school environment. It is important that exams be kept in proportion - they are important, but not the end of the world. Some things can be done to make exams a more valuable, worthwhile and less threatening experience for students.

can only be marked on the answers you give.

Have all necessary material with you

Do not spend too long on multiple choice questions.

You can't borrow items such as pens, pencils, rulers or special equipment while in an examination.

Never leave the room early. If you have time at the end, go over your work, add information (e.g. in the margin). You can't return if you suddenly remember a fact after you have left.

Have an early night, and try to have a healthy breakfast.

With multiple choice questions it is best to cover the answers and work out your own before looking at the choices on paper. If you can't answer the question come back to it later - have a guess.

Read the entire paper.

Never omit an entire question.

Where you have choices, decide which ones you plan to answer.

Spend some time drafting a plan for the questions you choose to answer.

No matter how well you answer other questions, you must leave time for all questions - a perfect answer can still only earn a certain number of marks. If you write nothing, you can't receive any marks and you have lost all your marks for a particular question. Write something it may at least give you a few points.

Jot down ideas as they come to you.

Maintain a stable energy level.

While you are answering one question, information about another may suddenly occur to you. Jot it down somewhere because when you come to that question perhaps an hour later, you may have forgotten it.

Eating foods such as chocolate bars before an exam might give you an energy boost to begin with but your blood sugar levels will drop within an hour and your energy will plunge dramatically, making it hard for you to concentrate. <<

Have a relaxing night before your exams

Plan your time.

Don't leave any questions unanswered. If you are short of time, use note form. Remember, you

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Dating Positively If you’re HIV +, you may be worried about asking a girl or guy out on a date. Here are answers to niggling questions you may have, to put your mind at ease.

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ust because you’ve been diagnosed with HIV doesn’t mean you can’t have a girl or boyfriend. If you’re HIV +, you can still enjoy all the joys of dating, such as having someone special with whom you can share your challenges, deepest thoughts, feelings and dreams. Not to mention, having a really close companion with whom you can party, chill and check out a movie with. But while enjoying your relationship, it’s important to use a condom each and every time you have sex to avoid infecting your partner with HIV. It’s also vital for you to live a positive lifestyle by eating nutritious meals, keeping a positive mindset and exercising regularly so as to stay as healthy as possible for as long as possible. It’s best for you and your partner to do healthy activities together, whether it be playing sport or cooking delicious, wholesome dishes. This way, you’re more motivated to stick to a positive lifestyle. Here are some questions and answers to queries on dating and HIV.

WILL PEOPLE STILL WANT TO GO OUT WITH ME NOW THAT I HAVE HIV? Being HIV + won’t prevent other people from caring about you, although dating/relationships may be difficult in ways you aren’t used to. Many HIV + people are in long-term relationships, both with HIV + and HIV – people. It’s important to find someone who accepts you as you are. HIV will probably just be another factor to consider in your relationship.

WHEN SHOULD I TELL SOMEONE THAT I AM HIV POSITIVE? You need to be honest with the person you care about; however, that doesn’t mean you have to tell someone immediately. Informing someone you’re interested in that you’re HIV + is hard and should be done when you

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feel most comfortable and at the time you think is best. It should definitely be before you have sex with your partner.

CAN I STILL HAVE SEX? Yes, you can still have sex, but it’s important to discuss your status with your partner or potential partner and always use condoms during any and every sexual act.

WHAT ARE SOME OF THE LOWER RISK THINGS MY PARTNER AND I CAN DO TO FEEL GOOD? Abstinence from sex is the surest way to avoid unwanted pregnancy, re-infection with other strains of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Many HIV + young people choose activities other than full-on sex such as hugging, kissing, talking, massage and intimate touching and stimulation. If you choose to have sex, be responsible and protect yourself and your partner. You should use a latex (or polyurethane condoms, if you’re allergic to latex) barrier EVERY TIME there is potential exchange of body fluids.

strain of HIV on to you. If this happens, then your medications may not work for you anymore and there may be fewer possible drug combinations for you to try. In addition to these HIV-related issues, there are so many other STIs out there that you hopefully don’t have. You need to keep using protection, especially now that you have HIV because your immune system is weakened and you are even more susceptible to other infections including STIs. Having to fight another unnecessary infection is definitely not what your body needs, and it would impair your health in general. Basically, whether you are HIV positive or not, it’s always better to be safe and protect yourself. << For information on loveLife, HIV or any sexual health related issue, contact talk@lovelife.org.za

HOW DO I MAINTAIN A HEALTHY RELATIONSHIP? A healthy relationship basically means that both partners feel supported and feel good about the emotional and physical aspects of the relationship. Communication is key to keeping a good relationship, not only in terms of physical health and negotiating protection if the relationship is sexual, but also in terms of knowing how your partner is feeling about everything that’s going on in your relationship. Depending on your partner for certain things is OK, but it’s probably not a good sign if you feel like she or he is all you have and everything in your life is dependent upon what they say, do or think. It’s important that if you don’t feel like you’re in a safe or healthy relationship, you have friends and/or family to turn to so you can get out of the situation and not have to cope with everything on your own.

WHY DO I STILL NEED TO USE LATEX CONDOMS IF MY PARTNER IS HIV+ TOO? Always use latex condoms to protect yourself and your partner during sex (vaginal, oral, or anal), even if you have both tested HIV positive. There are different strains of the virus and one of you could end up getting more sick if you are infected with a strain that was not already in your body. That complicates the body’s fight against HIV. Repeated infections can speed up progression from HIV infection to full-blown Aids. If your partner has become resistant to certain medications (meaning there are drugs that his/her body doesn’t respond to) she/he can pass that resistant

loveLife Call Centre (service only available in South Africa): 0800-121-900. You can also send a Plz Cal Me to 083-323-1023 and a counsellor will call you back as soon as one is available. Website: www.lovelife.org.za Facebook: www.facebook.com/loveLifeNGO Twitter: @loveLifeNGO

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Blended Entrepreneurship Education Jabu Stone, Magri Genovese, and Vincent Joyner

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ome times in life getting it right the first time is more important than others, for example making a mess of kissing the apple of your eye as a teenager might be embarrassing but won’t destroy your life. Making a mess of your first entrepreneurial venture could cost you, and perhaps your family, an entire life’s savings plus leave you in debt. Sometimes, it is better to learn from other people’s mistakes, gain insight from theoretical frameworks and benefit from practice guided by experts. Traditional tertiary level education in entrepreneurship has been an academic pursuit; consequently novice entrepreneurs have not

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been adequately equipped with the practical skills that are critical in starting up and operating a small business. Fortunately, aspiring entrepreneurs no longer have to experience that gap, as the Zazida Institute of Entrepreneurship is the first institute of higher education that is solely dedicated to entrepreneurship development. It has conceived a programme that perfectly balances theory and practice. CEO and founder of Zazida Institute of Entrepreneurship, Vincent Joyner explains ‘the solution to developing successful businesses in reality is developing well rounded and properly prepared entrepreneurs. A holistic and intensive learning

programme that incorporates new frameworks and theories, proven processes and hands on experience will almost guarantee successful entrepreneurs’. The Zazida Institute of Entrepreneurship has developed a wide range of opportunities for entrepreneurs to study, ranging from a one year ‘evenings only’ higher certificate programme in entrepreneurship to the vast offering of short courses, seminars and workshops. This is complemented by the Zazida Entrepreneurship Network that provides support, on-going education and networking opportunities for entrepreneurs at different stages of development.


So wherever you are on the entrepreneurial journey, whether you have an idea yet or not, or are already running a fulltime business Zazida has something to offer you. Benefits of studying at Zazida. Theory & practice Zazida is an accredited institute of higher education that delivers top quality programmes. It employs contemporary cutting edge research tactics to ensure that entrepreneurs have access to the latest theoretical ‘know how’ that is both relevant and contextual to the South African landscape. Throughout the Certificate Programme aspiring entrepreneurs study whilst at the same time, adapt, adjust and perfect their business concepts and rollout; a blended approach that brings life to the business idea from the word go! Meet other entrepreneurs What could be more motivating than spending time with entrepreneurs that are hardworking, motivated, and passionate? Who knows perhaps some of your classmates may become your business partners or even senior employees. Velicia Hammond while studying at Zazida, found two partners for her new entrepreneurial venture. ‘Working alone as an entrepreneur can be daunting however sharing the responsibilities with partners can have a great sense of relief and offer an immense amount of support. I found like-minded, driven people with different skill sets and decided to combine forces rather than operate as a ‘one man band’. Instead of having sleepless nights trying to put the pieces of the puzzle together, I now sleep two thirds of the night knowing that my partners share not only the load but the passion, desire and responsibility for the business’. Moral support The journey of an entrepreneur is a stressful one. Being consciously aware of one’s strengths and

Above: Jabu Stone and Taurai Nyakunu weaknesses enables an individual to navigate through various critical aspects like matching the right business with one’s temperament. Zazida facilitates this journey of self-discovery, through role play scenarios and sessions, covering topics such as resilience building, leadership and by improving and enhancing participants with the appropriate business calculation and communication skills. Alfred Rakgoale, a current Zazida student and African fashion entrepreneur shares his experience of the benefits of having friends that have similar interests, ‘I like working with fellow entrepreneurs, as it keeps my clock ticking! One day I am on top of the world but the very next day, it takes a colleague to pick me up from the doldrums of disappointment or frustration. In these moments you need someone who has conquered that phase to walk side by side with you ’. Accessing expert advice Zazida’s faculty are or have been entrepreneurs, as well as being subject matter experts. Having access to someone who has, ‘been there and done that’, provides entrepreneurs with several benefits, inclusive of avoiding typical costly

mistakes, maximising synergies of experience and contacts, as well as ultimately learning what the experts would do when faced with different challenges. Entrepreneurship heroes In addition to internal support structures mentioned above, entrepreneurs at Zazida get to meet and greet both national and globally successful icons who pop in time to time to share insights on their journey. This forms part of the exposure, diverse thinking patterns as well as approaches that are needed by contemporary entrepreneurs to stimulate creative thinking and action. ‘Time out' to work on the business The institute’s experiential learning edge enables individuals to fast track development by simultaneously facilitating personal growth and advancing step by step commercialisation of ideas into a real business in the shortest and most effective manner. At Zazida, the goal is to get that high growth, successful business on the road from day one. Contact Zazida today for more information on courses available on info@zazida.org, or log on to www.zazida.co.za to see the latest offerings. <<

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My Life, Work achievements & Inspirations Ph.D., Ohio University, Athens, OH; M.A., Ohio University, OH; B.A., University of Zambia

I

was born in Kitwe, Zambia as one of 7 children – 5 sisters and 1 brother. I am second born, followed by my brother. I attended several primary schools in Kawambwa, Mansa, Kabwe and KapiriMposhi before going to boarding school at St. Paul’s Secondary school where I graduated in 1989. I attended the University of Zambia, graduating with a bachelor’s degree in Political Science and Development Studies. My aim in life then was to be a development practitioner. As a young man I was influenced by influential critical Pedagogy theorists such as Paulo Freire. I followed my dream and passion by working for Lutheran World Federation (LWF) in Eastern Province of Zambia. Later on I worked for Plan International in Southern Province and Lusaka. In both organizations, I organized rural communities for development. I managed construction of schools, clinics and water wells.

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Nothing made me happier than to see a project transform from a community’s desire to an actual product. Following the Information and Communication Technology Revolution, I became excited in the role of ICT for Development. I studied and implemented ICT systems in my work. I also started an Internet company in Mazabuka, called First Fone. The idea was to provide Internet access to people for a payper-hour café. I sold my equipment when I moved to the US with my wife in 2000. The reason for my departure from Zambia was because I wanted to study ICT at their core. I studied ICT for my Masters and PhD at Ohio University. My focus was on how the technology works. I am interested in the design, the software, the uses and the factors for diffusion of a technology. To this end, I am competent in many softwares and applications. My current work and research involves design of

multiplatform and cloud computing, device independent and dynamic websites as well as designs of Apps for the App store and Android markets. I also own a technology business specializing in database and user experience design, web design, app design and social media interactions (www.atemicorp.com). As an academic, I continue to research and produce scholarships to benefit Zambia and the rest of the world. My video presentations can be found online. My current research projects include the following: 1) Investigating the effect of Mobile technologies in Africa on Social Interactions. 2) Investigating use of Smart Phone apps for teaching. I love teaching. I have been a professor at Southern Illinois University


Edwardsville since 2007. During this time, I collaborated with colleagues at Mulungushi University in Zambia for Pedagogy. In my teaching career, I have relied on the following principles to guide my occupation. Communication: Our students are expected to achieve proficiency and understanding in various forms of communications. I use writing assignments to teach students about grammar and mechanics of the English language. In my skills classes students are expected to develop, design and distribute creative works. I encourage them to think broadly and incorporate ideas from their lived experiences. In all instances, I design assignments that make students gather information, organize that information and report it in a format that is easily understood. Critical Thinking: This is one of the most important results of my teaching. In seeking a balance and learning the value of instinct and intuition, I inform my students, from the start of the semester, to reach for new information beyond what they are taught in class. This involves some form of skepticism about my sources, and helps them process differently than I do. I also do not penalize anyone for advancing ideas that are different from my own. Universities aim to produce independent (or autonomous) learners. I believe that independent learners are self-directed learners who are able to set their own learning goals and plan how to achieve those goals. My job is to help them work towards realizing those goals, either on their own or with others; and reflect on their learning processes and outcomes and in turn learning by that process of reflection. Problem Framing and Solving: In my judgment, problem identification is about halfway towards finding a solution. Iexpose my students to a multiplicity of real life situations. I, therefore, encourage them to process issues using various tools and skills set; and analyze those problems from different angles before settling

on a desired result. For example, when they design websites or smart phone Apps, I teach them to start with a simple wire frame or sketch of the pages, including color schemes, table widths, font sizes and so forth. Once that is achieved, the actual construction of a site or App is simplified. Knowledge: Using constructivist approaches, my students are cocreators of their learning experience. I am able to achieve this through assignments, hands-on teaching, as well as goal-oriented design. For goal-oriented designs, the student and I agree on an appropriate project for them to do that matches their skill level. The process of achieving that goal will involve my constant supervision while allowing the students to explore different ways to complete that project. The student learns how to interrogate aspects of the project that they hitherto had no idea about. In the end the student will gain the needed skills, and independence. I believe that through this approach real knowledge is created and applied in the processes of socialization; and a combination of externalization and internalization. I see my role as follows: a knowledge broker, knowledge co-creator, mentor, coordinator and facilitator of the learning experience. Integration and Application of Knowledge: Skills acquisition is only half the goals in my classes. The students are encouraged to draw parallels between lived experiences, and what assignment they are tasked to complete. I believe that learning is not a mechanical or static linear process. It can only be as a very human, dynamic and complex flow that resembles an organic structure. As a result my approach teaches students to become conscious of the associations linking other disciplines, people or events and how these associations inform local and international activities or trends. Self-Development: Since students come with different strengths and

learning styles, I ensure that early on, I assess their particular needs. I do this on the first day with a survey asking what strengths they possess, and see gaps in those strengths with regards to the course objectives. For example, in my design classes, students may already know particular software really well. I, therefore, aim to build on that skill level to challenge the student. Citizenship: Being from Zambia, I have unique experiences, which are an asset to many students who are often interacting with a foreigner for the first time. Especially as their teacher, this is one of the cornerstones of my teaching. I do not impose my beliefs of any kind, but encourage all students to participate in class discussions to the best of their ability. Discussions are more fruitful when students know that I support their right to hold an opinion, and I make sure I communicate that to them on the first day. As a result students realize their actions have impacts on others and on society as a whole. Lifelong Learning: I believe this is one of the main purposes of any form of education. To this end, I ensure that students learn enough about technologies that are used to make Websites, smart phone Apps or other platforms, without caring too much about the brand name of that software, because in real life one can use a whole range of different brands apart from what was taught in classes. My aim is to make students discern similarities between these provisions. Lifelong Learning incorporates both knowledge and social skills that have to be continuously improved upon because we learn in order to perform better. With this in mind, I encourage students to integrate the gained knowledge in their daily work to solve all manner of problems and achieve the desired end result. A desired outcome is to create innovative knowledge and better ideas that lead to more success as they share their own knowledge with others. <<

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Empowering African Girls & Women through Education The work & vision of Akili Dada by Jennifer

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Emick


A

kili Dada, an awardwinning international non-profit organization based in Nairobi was founded in 2005 by Dr. Wanjiru Kamau-Rutenberg, a Kenyan activist and political science professor, currently on leave from the University of San Francisco in California. Akili Dada is a leadership incubator working to empower high-achieving young women from underprivileged backgrounds who are passionate about social change. Through a holistic approach combining scholarships, mentoring, and leadership training, Akili Dada is helping nurture the next generation of African women leaders.

The Challenge

Despite great advancements in women’s rights over the past century, gender inequality persists in most regions of the world, especially in the Global South. While many factors contribute to this stubborn reality, lack of access to education and institutional bias against girls and women are two of the main obstacles that continue to impede the realization of universal gender equality. These issues are particularly acute in SubSaharan Africa, where girls remain disproportionately affected by the many barriers to achieving a quality education. It is important to acknowledge that far too many children in SubSaharan Africa – both boys and girls (primarily poor ones) – are denied the right to the education they need to improve their lives and contribute fully to society. The right to education is a fundamental human right. This injustice leaves many millions of individuals mired in life-long poverty and functions as a brake on the economic, social, and political potential of the subcontinent. It is equally important to acknowledge that girls make up the larger percentage of these children missing from the educational

system. While much of the world has now achieved gender parity in both primary and secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa, 10% fewer girls than boys attend primary school, and 20% fewer girls attend secondary school. The trends are improving in some countries with higher growth and investment rates. However, statistics in most of the other countries in the region are far less encouraging. The gap widens at the tertiary level, where in SubSaharan Africa overall 27% fewer females than males are enrolled. Studies have attributed the persistent gender gap in school enrollment and retention to an array of cultural, environmental and socio-economic factors, with cost as the leading barrier. In particular, impoverished families faced with the relatively high costs associated with secondary school, often prioritize the education of their sons (who are expected to provide for their parents in old age) over their daughters’ schooling. Additional barriers include early forced marriage, high rates of teenage pregnancy, gender discrimination, domestic obligations, sexual harassment and abuse, health issues (such as HIV and malaria), and a lack of role models and selfesteem. All these challenges further narrow the funnel for women’s participation in society, particularly in the workplace. Along with lower levels of participation in the formal labor force, African women remain vastly underrepresented in leadership and decision-making roles across all sectors – with few exceptions. It is in this context that Akili Dada’s ambitious work takes place. In addition to supporting high quality education for underprivileged, academically gifted girls, Akili Dada seeks to address the wider range of challenges facing young women through a holistic set of programs aimed at empowering a new generation of African women

leaders. In doing so, we regard our work as complementary to – not a substitute for – the crucial role of government in providing education for all and reducing the many barriers facing disadvantaged children. While Akili Dada is not an advocacy organization, we believe that government has the primary responsibility for ensuring that all its country’s citizens are educated by providing sufficient resources to public schools - both urban and rural - establishing and enforcing policies to provide access for the most marginalized students, and working to improve the quality of education and to close the gender gap at all levels of education. As public primary schooling is now free in nearly all countries, some practical steps that governments can take are: - subsidizing secondary education for needy students (which has boosted Kenyan secondary enrolment in recent years) - hiring more female secondary school teachers and principals - promoting more women up the ladder of the educational system, and - making a much greater commitment to ending gender discrimination through policies that are strictly enforced in schools and other public institutions.

The Importance of Girls’ Education In the past few years, girls’ education has become one of the hottest topics in development circles and on the global agenda, with extraordinary levels of both hope and hype prevailing. These discussions tend to focus on the numerous studies documenting the economic impact of investing in girls’ education. One such study states that each percentage increase in the number of females with a secondary education generates 0.3% in per capita

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JUL-SEP 2012 income growth in that country. In other research, women’s income has been shown to increase on average as much as 20 percent for every year of education completed beyond the fourth grade. On average, educated women have been found, more likely to marry later and have smaller, healthier families – one study estimates 3.9 children per woman rather than the average 5.3 children for a woman without a secondary education. They are also likelier to educate their children and have lower risks for sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases. These and other such findings have led many economists and world leaders to proclaim that girls’ education is the single best investment that can be

we understand that it is not a panacea for all the challenges of the developing world. Our position is simple: girls deserve a quality education - not because it will yield high societal dividends, but because it is their basic human right. As the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has stated: “Education is both a human right in itself and an indispensable means of realizing other rights… it is the primary vehicle by which economically and socially marginalized adults and children can lift themselves out of poverty and obtain the means to participate fully in their communities.”

Ramdas acknowledges the many economic benefits of girls’ education but makes the crucial point that “girls deserve the right to be educated, even in the absence of such results, simply because they are human beings and because women’s rights are human rights”. She further states: “It is important to remember that although education brings with it many benefits for girls and the women they grow to be, it is not a magic bullet. It is not the solution to the pressing and interlinked problems of climate change and population growth. High levels of education for girls and women in high-income levels can coexist with stubborn structural gender inequality, as is the case in Saudi Arabia and Japan.” Within this broader perspective, Akili Dada has developed a theory of change based on the advancement of women’s rights and social justice rather than merely on economic returns for the young women and communities we serve. It is this theory of change that underpins all of our work.

Akili Dada’s Vision, Theory of Change, and Impact

made in a developing country. At Akili Dada, we recognize the appeal of such data but remain committed to keeping the issue of girls’ education in perspective and viewing it through the larger lens of women’s rights. While we strongly believe in the value and importance of girls’ education both for individuals and society,

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The argument for viewing girls’ education through a human rights lens is perhaps best articulated by Kavita Ramdas, the former longtime head of the Global Fund for Women, and a highly respected women’s rights advocate currently with the Ford Foundation in India. In a recent article in the Stanford Social Innovation Review, Ms.

Akili Dada seeks to diversify the voices of those involved in leadership and policy-making processes across the African continent and beyond. We believe that justice is best served and society greatly enriched by such diversity. In particular, we seek the inclusion of educated women from disadvantaged backgrounds who have a deep understanding based on personal experience of the challenges facing their communities and countries. To this end, Akili Dada strategically invests in high-achieving young women from underprivileged backgrounds in secondary school and university who have demonstrated leadership potential and a keen interest in social change. Our methodology combines comprehensive scholarships


for four years of high-quality secondary education, a multifaceted mentorship program that includes both individual and group mentoring platforms, and a pioneering leadership program that develops skills both by classroombased training and by experiential learning through community service projects. We partner with several top-ranked high schools in Kenya, with a number of civil society organizations that share our goals, and with Zawadi Africa, a program that helps African women from underprivileged backgrounds access top-quality university education in the U.S. We also recruit professional women from a wide range of sectors to serve as mentors to our scholars. The Swahili words ‘Akili’ and ‘Dada’ signify the organization’s unifying theme of an egalitarian sisterhood that is committed to excellence. In this spirit, Akili Dada offers scholars and alumnae frequent networking opportunities throughout the year to exchange ideas, reflections and best practices. Major events include 3-day Leadership Training Academy sessions three times yearly, and an annual conference which provides young women the chance to meet together with their mentors and parents and learn from prominent African women leaders and role models. For example, a featured speaker at our 2012 annual conference was Atsango Chesoni, the head of the Kenya Human Rights Commission and one of the drafters of Kenya’s new constitution. By creating a platform for collaboration among women from different generations, professions, geographies, ethnic backgrounds, and social and economic circumstances, Akili Dada functions as a leadership incubator for aspiring young African women who embrace diversity as a shared value and a social good. Our experiential leadership curriculum ensures that our scholars remain rooted in their home communities

by leading service projects that meet local needs throughout their high school years. Once the young women complete secondary school, they remain involved as mentors to future ‘Dadas’. They also continue to participate in community services and benefit from mentorship while at university. In this way, Akili Dada nurtures young women in a continuous cycle and supports their transformation into confident leaders that are committed to driving positive social change in their communities and their country. For Akili Dada scholars, the impact of our programs has been tremendous. To date, 100% of the scholars who have graduated from high school have earned full scholarships to universities in Kenya and abroad (including two in the U.S.), where they are pursuing studies as diverse as architecture, medicine, graphic design, and business. The peers and school communities of current high school scholars benefit from the leadership roles they take on and the community service and mentoring clubs they organize in their schools. Akili Dada’s programs also impact thousands of people served by projects led by scholars in dozens of communities across Kenya from which our scholars are drawn, and where they return during extended school holidays. Even after graduation, Akili Dada alumnae remains leaders in their communities as well as integral members of the Akili Dada sisterhood, mentoring current scholars, interviewing potential new scholars, organizing group community service, and creating new initiatives to address larger social needs. In the seven years since our founding, the impact and effectiveness of Akili Dada’s work has garnered widespread recognition, including prestigious honors from the United Nations and the Obama White House. These

and other high-profile awards have created many opportunities for us to share our successes and to learn from others who are working to empower young women. The support we have gained has enabled us to broaden Akili Dada’s reach to ensure that more promising young Kenyan women attain a secondary education and move on to become university students, mentors, and change agents. Our ultimate vision is to expand our work to other African countries, to build a network of committed “Dadas” who are giving back to society, and to facilitate other networks of women and organizations working toward shared goals across the continent and around the world. The explosion of interest in Akili Dada’s programs from young women across Africa and beyond demonstrates the pressing need for these kinds of opportunities on a much larger scale. With Akili Dada’s investment, young women who faced exclusion from school are now studying to be doctors, lawyers and engineers. They are designing innovative service projects that address local needs and drive social change. They are serving as mentors to other young women who are facing similar hurdles. They are instilling hope in younger girls in their home and school communities who look up to them as role models. In the process, they are shaping a better future for themselves, their families, and their society. Investing in the education and empowerment of young women is a key step toward the realization of universal human rights. And as Akili Dada’s work demonstrates, it is truly an investment in a brighter future for all. <<

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Giving hope to our Youth Interview with Jean

Chawapiwa, vice president of External Affairs and Communications, Rio Tinto

Who is Jean Chawapiwa?

I am vice-president of External Affairs and Communications (EA&C) in Africa for global mining company Rio Tinto. I joined Rio Tinto in 2007 as General Manager EA&C and became vice-president in March 2009. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m also the first woman to be appointed to the council of the Chamber of Mines; the council now has two other women also appointed by the industry. Before joining Rio Tinto, I worked for the gold producer, Placer Dome, and later for Barrick Gold after it took over Placer Dome. So I have been fortunate to garner experience in three global mining companies over a period of nine years.

HR, communications and finance; but a growing number of women are also entering and succeeding in science-based professions including environmental science, geology and engineering. There is global pressure for women to be given senior opportunities and this I think has helped a number of us. I am hard working and focus on giving value and being a team player. I believe people will give you a chance and when they see you contribute to their success opportunities open.

You are one of the few women executives of a mining firm in Africa. How did you achieve this?

I didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t set out to work in this sector. Born in Zimbabwe and raised in UK (from the age of eight years), I studied marketing and business studies in the UK, and then started working with British Telecom (BT) in marketing. I was fortunate and got extensive communication and events management experience with BT. After moving to South Africa I got a job with the CSIR in marketing and communication, which led to my being appointed managing director of communications. While at CSIR, I worked for its Miningtek division, so developed an insight into the mining industry and some of its stakeholders. So when the job at Placer Dome came up, I was a ready candidate.

What have been some of the challenges you have faced in this male-dominated industry and how did you overcome these?

There are an increasing number of women entering the profession. Rio Tinto has a large number of female managing directors, presidents and vice presidents working in a variety of executive roles throughout the world. Many women work in support services such as IT,

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Jean Chawapiwa, vice president of External Affairs and Communications, Rio Tinto


What’s your advice to female students taking up careers in engineering and science fields?

Go for it! There is a big shortage of graduates in the engineering and science-based professions, so these skills are highly sought after. Rio Tinto is active in recruiting and supporting talented students in these fields and offers bursaries and vacation work while you are completing your degrees. We offer excellent graduate programmes and internships at all of our African operations. You will receive varied work experience, active mentorship from top professionals and support in your post-graduate studies. These qualifications truly open up a world of possibilities once you have an engineering qualification.

In your opinion, what are the challenges and opportunities facing our generation? And how can we, the youth turn our continent into a world-class continent?

The continent is facing many challenges, some that we still don’t understand. The global economy is in turmoil, we are threatened with increasing environmental degradation, growing youth unemployment, lack of skills and experience, problems with health, education, and poverty. Despite these challenges there are many opportunities – the African youth must excel and find innovative ways to understand and bring new solutions to these challenges. Youth’s smart approach to health, education, entrepreneurialism, technology, leadership and African vision can turn this continent around and make it a self-reliant global leader.

designed to broaden and enhance their capabilities. Right from the start, we involve graduates in meaningful work and treat them like professionals. They learn from experienced peers, and enjoy exposure to tremendous opportunities and global expertise.

African scholar seeks to promote quality higher education and career opportunities on the continent. What is Rio Tinto’s commitment to education on our continent?

Education is a core value for Rio Tinto. As part of our commitment to sustainable development, we have a proud history in bolstering education spending millions of rands on providing infrastructure, establishing libraries, setting up skills centres and building schools. Many of our operations run programmes that help our people and our communities improve their maths and science skills. We offer scholarships that are designed to promote diversity and excellence, and that are open to historically disadvantaged students.

What role can African governments play to create a favorable environment for Rio Tinto to achieve most of its goals towards education?

Rio Tinto Africa is one of the few groups that has a solid graduate and internship programme in southern Africa. What calibre of graduates do you look for?

In Africa, there are still huge challenges in providing adequate education. In South Africa, the government has put structures in place to incentivise businesses to find and support young talent from matriculation to postgraduation. Much has been done to pave the way for job creation. And businesses are able to access funding through the various government instruments such as the SETAs, the National Skills Fund, the DTI, and the Job Fund. Many sectors of business including the mining industry have for many years been involved in projects that provide education, bursaries, teacher training, work experience, etc. The partnerships between government, business and education need to be strengthened to ensure improved delivery of desired outcomes that benefit the country. It is not just a moral obligation, it is essential for ensuring an economically and socially viable future for all.

What makes Rio Tinto distinctive compared to other mining firms that are seeking to attract graduates?

Lastly a word of advice to African scholars seeking to make a mark on the continent?

Rio Tinto is keen to attract, develop and maintain top graduates. And once we’ve found a great graduate, we work hard to keep them. It is therefore important for us to actively participate in the development of talent to ensure success and sustainability of our projects in a continent where mining is growing more rapidly than ever before.

Our graduate programme provides a fantastic range of experiences, as well as formal learning and development initiatives. Once selected for the programme, graduates are awarded a position and provided with a development plan, an experienced mentor, technical training, exposure to senior management, and assignments

Aim to be the best, work hard, learn to see opportunities and grab them with both hands. Never stop learning and improving your skills. And for those who are entrepreneurial, follow your dreams because we need more people to create jobs, innovate and build businesses. Enjoy life - it’s a gift. <<

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THE AFRICAN SCHOLAR

JUL-SEP 2012

Understanding the Business World C Part 6 of 6 - A series designed to assist all school leavers as they embark on the journey of life ongratulations, you have now joined the world of business. You have made your decision and have accepted employment. So where do you go from here? What do you know about the business world?

The majority of young people never really give this any consideration. You are not alone. Most young people enter the business world and drift along - they go with the flow. Ultimately they learn about the business they are involved in but the learning experience will be restricted to the information they pick up as they go about their daily duties. Occasionally they will attend training courses where additional information about the nature of the business is shared with them.

Some companies do not see the need to share with employee's information about the workings of the business. Unfortunately information is shared on a "need to know" basis. This is shortsighted of employers, as the employees can be so much more effective if they know what the company is all about and how it functions on a day to day basis. My personal belief is employers should share with their employees the aims and objectives of the company. They should discuss how they intend making profits each year and what role each division or individual within the business can play to help achieve these objectives. Employees should be made aware of how profits can be made and what influences the company's ability to make these profits.

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In order for you to be a conscientious employee, you should spend some time in trying to understand such issues and then applying this knowledge in your new career. While you are at the starting point of your career, learn all you can about the company and how it operates. Keep your eyes and ears open and learn as much as possible. Politely ask questions and seek clarification on areas you feel a need. Show an interest in what is happening in other areas of the company and do not just restrict your knowledge to your own area of work.

This information will assist you in the future and will ensure you do not remain at the bottom of the ladder of success. Take your time and do not become impatient. Learn slowly but thoroughly. Progress and development takes time and you should exercise patience in this regard.

How does a business survive?

The most important thing to remember is that a business survives on people and profit. The people are the employees who work every day to ensure the smooth running of the business and that profits are made. Without profit a business cannot succeed, cannot pay wages and cannot keep people employed. What expenses does a business have? The expenses a business might have will depend on the nature of the business. Some of the more common expenses are:


• Salaries, wages and/or commission payments • Water lights and rates • Equipment purchases or rentals • Vehicle purchases or rentals • Stock purchases • Stationary requirements • Delivery costs • Repairs and maintenance costs • Telephone, fax and computer costs • Staff development and training costs • Allowance for breakage's, loss and theft • Furniture and fittings • Security costs • Taxes These are standard costs in most companies and these may vary slightly depending on the nature of the business. In order to be able to meet these expenses a business must be making money. Poor workmanship, poor service, bad attitudes lack of interest can all lead to a loss of confidence by the customer and ultimately the loss of the customer. This will result in loss of income to the business and could lead to loss of jobs. If you value your job, you should take pride in the work you do and always do it to the best of your ability. Maintain a high standard in everything you do.

How does a business make profit?

Many people believe that when a business sells a product or delivers a service the money made is all profit. This is not the case. Profit is what remains after all the expenses and overheads of the business have been paid. It is important to remember that in order for a business to grow it is necessary to put some of the profit aside into a growth fund. The money put aside can be used at a later stage to expand the business, to create more jobs or to improve or purchase new equipment. That is why it is important for a business to remain profitable. You can play an important role in assisting your company remains profitable, by being a productive employee. The quality of the work, reduction in breakages, no stock loss or theft, doing a fair days work, reducing absenteeism, realistic salary increase demands, no strikes, no misuse of telephones and respect for the property and equipment of the business are just some of the ways. Strive therefore to do your best to keep your job, by helping to keep the business in which you are working profitable. Each one of us has this responsibility. © Des Squire (Managing Member) AMSI and ASSOCIATES cc des@amsiandassociates.co.za

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THE AFRICAN SCHOLAR

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Study then work in Australia T

New Post-Study Work Visa May Allow International Students in Australia To Work After Finishing Their Studies

he Australian Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) has proposed the introduction in early 2013 of post-study work visa for international students. The new post-study work arrangements will be available to certain graduates of Australian Bachelor degrees, Masters by coursework degree, Master by research degree or Doctoral degrees. To be eligible for the post-study work visa, students must have completed their studies in Australia while on a student visa. Graduates will also need to meet other requirement - including completing the qualification six months before applying, study for at least 92 weeks (2 years) full-time, study and must meet English language, health and character and security requirements. For a full listing of requirements, visit www.immi.gov.au. Graduates who have completed a Bachelor degree

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or Masters by coursework degree in Australia will be eligible to apply for a two year post-study work visa. Graduates who have completed a Masters by research degree or Doctoral degree in Australia will be eligible to apply for a post-study work visa for three or four years respectively, according to DIAC. The Australian Government hopes that such an initiative will make Australia more attractive to international students – who want to take advantage of the high quality of education as well as the employment opportunities. The unemployment rate in Australia has remained low compared to other developed economies at 5.3 percent as of July 2012. “This is a very positive initiative for African students who wish to study in Australia – and wish to gain work experience in their fields of study,” said Jorge Baron, representative of TAFE NSW – Western Sydney Institute for Africa.


TAFE NSW – Western Sydney Institute provides high quality, internationally recognized qualifications at an affordable rate. Some of TAFE NSW’s degrees will be eligible for the post-study work visa. “Western Sydney Institute is offering a Bachelor of Early Childhood for students seeking a career in early childhood education. This program incorporates the Diploma of Children Services – so students obtain two qualifications for the price of one. TAFE qualifications provide with experience in the workplace so our graduates are work ready. Early childhood teachers are in demand in Australia and in many African countries – with the proposed post-work study visa, African students will be able to gain some experience in Australia,” said Baron. TAFE NSW – Western Sydney Institute also offers a range of certificate and diploma courses in areas such as Accounting, Aged Care, Business, Hospitality,

Information Technology, Management, Engineering, Nursing and many more. The proposed post-study work arrangements will be finalised in early 2013. For more information, refer to www.immi.gov.au. For information on apply to study at TAFE NSW – Western Sydney Institute, visit wsiinternational.tafensw.edu.au or email Jorge@ destinationaustralia.co.za. << For further information contact: Jorge Baron TAFE NSW – Western Sydney Institute Telephone: +27 21 465 7777 Mobile: +27 76 37 62755 Email:Jorge@destinationaustralia.co.za Images courtersy of TAFE

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THE AFRICAN SCHOLAR

JUL-SEP 2012

My Career as a Chartered Accountant Why did you choose Chartered Accountancy as a profession? As a black person, specifically a black female, the shortage of black people in the profession resounded with me. I wanted to see a change; most importantly I wanted to be a part of that change. The perks that come with being a CA were another major attraction.

Phumeza Nhantsi, CA (SA) is the Director - Assurance at Sizwe Ntsaluba Gobodo

How long have you been at the firm, and why did you decide to join SizweNtsalubaGobodo? I joined SNG in 2004, and became a qualified Chartered Accountant in 2007. I saw the firm as a true reflection of how I saw myself, unapologetically black, and providing a professional service in an environment where I could feel comfortable in my own skin. Tell us about the type of training that you received at the firm? During the three years of my training I gained vast experience in different industries like telecommunications, power and energy, defense and security, infrastructure, etc. The training helped me become an exceptional accountant and instilled in me the core principles of integrity, accountability, respect and professionalism. Adhering to these ideals, individually and corporately, enables me to deliver quality services to our clients. At SNG we pride ourselves with the quality that we deliver to our clients. What are some of the highlights of your career? Qualifying as a Chartered Accountant, the ability to gain enough respect from my bosses to an extent of being considered as a director of the firm where I started off doing my articles, and most importantly, being one of the first African black females to be ushered into the SNG office as a director. Being a Chartered Accountant has given me the rare opportunity to interact with top leaders of various organizations e.g. board members,

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audit committee members, CEO’s, CFO’s etc. Why should future CA’s join SNG? It is the place to be if one is looking for a place that will allow you growth without stifling “brand YOU”. It allows you ample space to express yourself whilst not defining for who you should be. We are all on a first name basis and we promote a very open door policy so no-one is out of reach. SNG is a young dynamic firm which opens up opportunities for growth to all interested parties. How has becoming a CA changed your life? I have watched dreams come to life. I have seen doors open to me that I never knew existed. It has been an experience and continues to be. With all this, which can be often overwhelming, I remember the teachings of my father to stay humble and be approachable, never becoming better than my humbling origins, I hope to have the impact I need to and still stay true to this. What advice can you give to our aspiring CAs? It is rewarding, both financially and otherwise. It is also a test of endurance in that; it is not easy to become a CA, even more challenging is what to do with your qualification after you are a CA. We get to learn an important lesson, life isn’t about the destination, but about the little-big victories you gain along the way. The truly inspiring thing about qualifying as a Chartered Accountant is not so much about being granted the designation but about overcoming the journey, there will be speed humps, huddles, stop signs and red robots. It is the will to carry on that is a true test of character. To be an accomplished CA, it helps to be intelligent, and have the ability to think conceptually. To accomplish your goals you need a certain level of ambition; take pleasure in analyzing problems, solving problems and making strategic decisions. <<


Want to join a firm that is making waves in the financial industry?

SizwentsalubaGobodo is the fifth largest audit firm and the largest black auditing firm in South Africa. We value talent & always look for ambitious, intelligent & innovative graduates to join our dynamic team. Our commitment to our vision â&#x20AC;&#x153;To be the leading assurance and advisory partner of choiceâ&#x20AC;? can only be achieved by dedicating our resources to creating world class Chartered Accountants. Give us an opportunity to nurture your talent through the extensive graduate programmes we offer.

Enhance your skills by joining one of these disciplines;

Assurance (External audit), Internal Auditing, IT Audit, Forensics, and Tax. We are currently recruiting graduates for our Assurance and IT programmes.

Bursaries

We offer bursaries to B Comm. (Accounting) students at various levels of study. Bursaries are offered to financially deserving students on merit.

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