Page 1

Official

Publication

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of

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the

Australasian

A

T

Corrosion

E

Association

R

I

www.corrosion.com.au

A

L

S

Vol 36 No 3, June 2011 ISSN 1326-1932

Inside this Issue: Corrosion throughout WW2 wrecks threaten Micronesian environment Concrete Structures & Buildings Technical Group Report Technical Note: Development in Tank Coating Technologies for Aggressive Storage Technical Note: Corrosion of Fasteners in Treated Timbers – Experimental Findings from Field Exposures Project Profile: Extending the Life of a Wharf Asset for PNG Ports University Profile: Monash University Research Paper: Improving the Corrosion Resistance of Magnesium Alloy AJ62 by a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) Coating Process Professional Practice Paper: Corrosion of Building Assets – Problems and Prevention

1


Accurate as of 27/5/2011

ACA takes this opportunity to acknowledge the following Platinum Members for their ongoing support:

Standard

Jotun blue

Black and white

&

M

A

T

E

R

I

A

L

S

ISSN 1326-1932 Published by the Australasian Corrosion Association Inc. ABN: 66 214 557 257 Publications Director Mohammad Ali – GHD, MAli@ghd.com.au Editor Brian Cherry – Monash University, Brian.Cherry@monash.edu Associate Editors Research: Bruce Hinton – Monash University, bruce.hinton@monash.edu Professional Practice: Willie Mandeno – Opus International Consultants, Willie.Mandeno@opus.co.nz News: Ian Booth – Australasian Corrosion Association, ibooth@corrosion.com.au Reviewers Andy Atrens – University of Queensland Nick Birbilis – Monash University Lex Edmond – Monash University Harvey Flitt – Queensland University of Technology Maria Forsyth – Monash University Rob Francis – Aurecon Australia Warren Green – Vinsi Partners Doug John – Curtin University of Technology Graeme Kelly – Corrotec Services Nick Laycock – STOS Grant McAdam – Defence Science and Technology Organisation David Nicholas – Nicholas Corrosion John Robinson – Mount Townsend Solutions Paul Schweinsburg – Queensland University of Technology Raman Singh – Monash University Graham Sussex – Sussex Material Solutions Tony Trueman – Defence Science and Technology Organisation Geoffrey Will – Queensland University of Technology David Young – University of New South Wales Advertising Sales Wesley Fawaz - wesley.fawaz@corrosion.com.au Ph: 61 3 9890 4833, Fax: 61 3 9890 7866 Subscription Print Version: ISSN 1326-1932 Subscription rates to non members: Within Australia: A$72.60, incl GST, single copies A$16.50, incl GST Outside Australia: A$77, excl GST posted airmail, single copies A$22 incl GST On-Line Version: ISSN 1446-6848 Subscription rates to non members: A$22 incl GST The views expressed in Corrosion & Materials are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily those of the ACA. Publication of advertisements does not imply endorsement by the ACA. Copyright of all published materials is retained by the ACA but it may be quoted with due reference. Australasian Corrosion Association Inc PO Box 112, Kerrimuir Vic 3129, Australia Ph: 61 3 9890 4833, Fax: 61 3 9890 7866 Email: aca@corrosion.com.au Internet: www.corrosion.com.au President: Ian MacLeod Chief Executive Officer: Ian Booth Operations Chairman: John Grapiglia Finance Director: Paul Vince Senior Vice President: Peter Dove Junior Vice President: Allan Sterling Immediate Past President: Roman Dankiw Technical Director: Graham Sussex Education Director: Geoffrey Will Membership Director: Fred Salome Communications Director: Bryan Pike Publications Director: Mohammad Ali Newcastle Representative: Matthew Dafter New Zealand Representative: John Duncan Branches & Divisions Auckland Division: Sean Ryder 64 9 261 1400 61 0 418 854 902 Newcastle: Karen Swain 61 0 404 646 272 New South Wales: Denis Jean-Baptiste 61 7 3821 0202 Queensland: Cathy Sterling 61 8 8267 4744 South Australia: Alex Shepherd 61 0 418 120 550 Tasmania: Grant Weatherburn 64 27 671 2278 Taranaki Division: Ron Berry 64 4 473 3124 Wellington Division: Alistair MacKenzie 61 0 408 413 811 Western Australia: Gary Bennett 61 3 9885 5305 Victoria: John Tanti Technical Groups Cathodic Protection: Bruce Ackland 61 3 9890 3096 Coatings: Stephen Wickham (acting) 61 2 9034 6969 Concrete Structures & Buildings: Frédéric Blin 61 3 9653 8406 61 8 9456 0344 Mining Industry: Peter Farinha Petroleum & Chemical Processing Industry: Fikry Barouky 61 402 684 165 61 3 9905 4919 Research: Nick Birbilis 61 2 9385 4322 Research: David Young 61 419 816 783 Water & Water Teatment: David Mavros 61 3 9495 6566 Welding, Joining & Corrosion: Graham Sussex Young Corrosion Professionals: Erwin Gamboa 61 8 8303 5473 www.corrosion.com.au

4 » President’s Message 6 » Chief Executive Officer’s Message 8 » News 17 » Welding & Water Technical Group Joint Seminar 18 » ACA Branch News 20 » ACA Standards Update 24 » Concrete Structures & Buildings Technical Group Report  echnical Note: Development in Tank Coating Technologies 26 » T for Aggressive Storage 28 » T  echnical Note: Corrosion of Fasteners in Treated Timbers – Experimental Findings from Field Exposures 31 » Coatings Group Member Profile 32 » ACA MIC Symposium: Titanic Researcher to Present 34 » P  roject Profile: Extending the Life of a Wharf Asset for PNG Ports 36 » University Profile: Monash University 38 » R  esearch Paper: Improving the Corrosion Resistance of Magnesium Alloy AJ62 by a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) Coating Process 50 » P  rofessional Practice Paper: Corrosion of Building Assets – Problems and Prevention 57 » Suppliers and Consultants

Front Cover Photo A beam of rock bolts emerging from a hot dip galvanizing bath. Photo Supplied by Industrial Galvanizers.

The ACA is a founder member of the World Corrosion Organization

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

3


Accurate as of 27/5/2011

ACA takes this opportunity to acknowledge the following Platinum Members for their ongoing support:

Standard

Jotun blue

Black and white

&

M

A

T

E

R

I

A

L

S

ISSN 1326-1932 Published by the Australasian Corrosion Association Inc. ABN: 66 214 557 257 Publications Director Mohammad Ali – GHD, MAli@ghd.com.au Editor Brian Cherry – Monash University, Brian.Cherry@monash.edu Associate Editors Research: Bruce Hinton – Monash University, bruce.hinton@monash.edu Professional Practice: Willie Mandeno – Opus International Consultants, Willie.Mandeno@opus.co.nz News: Ian Booth – Australasian Corrosion Association, ibooth@corrosion.com.au Reviewers Andy Atrens – University of Queensland Nick Birbilis – Monash University Lex Edmond – Monash University Harvey Flitt – Queensland University of Technology Maria Forsyth – Monash University Rob Francis – Aurecon Australia Warren Green – Vinsi Partners Doug John – Curtin University of Technology Graeme Kelly – Corrotec Services Nick Laycock – STOS Grant McAdam – Defence Science and Technology Organisation David Nicholas – Nicholas Corrosion John Robinson – Mount Townsend Solutions Paul Schweinsburg – Queensland University of Technology Raman Singh – Monash University Graham Sussex – Sussex Material Solutions Tony Trueman – Defence Science and Technology Organisation Geoffrey Will – Queensland University of Technology David Young – University of New South Wales Advertising Sales Wesley Fawaz - wesley.fawaz@corrosion.com.au Ph: 61 3 9890 4833, Fax: 61 3 9890 7866 Subscription Print Version: ISSN 1326-1932 Subscription rates to non members: Within Australia: A$72.60, incl GST, single copies A$16.50, incl GST Outside Australia: A$77, excl GST posted airmail, single copies A$22 incl GST On-Line Version: ISSN 1446-6848 Subscription rates to non members: A$22 incl GST The views expressed in Corrosion & Materials are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily those of the ACA. Publication of advertisements does not imply endorsement by the ACA. Copyright of all published materials is retained by the ACA but it may be quoted with due reference. Australasian Corrosion Association Inc PO Box 112, Kerrimuir Vic 3129, Australia Ph: 61 3 9890 4833, Fax: 61 3 9890 7866 Email: aca@corrosion.com.au Internet: www.corrosion.com.au President: Ian MacLeod Chief Executive Officer: Ian Booth Operations Chairman: John Grapiglia Finance Director: Paul Vince Senior Vice President: Peter Dove Junior Vice President: Allan Sterling Immediate Past President: Roman Dankiw Technical Director: Graham Sussex Education Director: Geoffrey Will Membership Director: Fred Salome Communications Director: Bryan Pike Publications Director: Mohammad Ali Newcastle Representative: Matthew Dafter New Zealand Representative: John Duncan Branches & Divisions Auckland Division: Sean Ryder 64 9 261 1400 61 0 418 854 902 Newcastle: Karen Swain 61 0 404 646 272 New South Wales: Denis Jean-Baptiste 61 7 3821 0202 Queensland: Cathy Sterling 61 8 8267 4744 South Australia: Alex Shepherd 61 0 418 120 550 Tasmania: Grant Weatherburn 64 27 671 2278 Taranaki Division: Ron Berry 64 4 473 3124 Wellington Division: Alistair MacKenzie 61 0 408 413 811 Western Australia: Gary Bennett 61 3 9885 5305 Victoria: John Tanti Technical Groups Cathodic Protection: Bruce Ackland 61 3 9890 3096 Coatings: Stephen Wickham (acting) 61 2 9034 6969 Concrete Structures & Buildings: Frédéric Blin 61 3 9653 8406 61 8 9456 0344 Mining Industry: Peter Farinha Petroleum & Chemical Processing Industry: Fikry Barouky 61 402 684 165 61 3 9905 4919 Research: Nick Birbilis 61 2 9385 4322 Research: David Young 61 419 816 783 Water & Water Teatment: David Mavros 61 3 9495 6566 Welding, Joining & Corrosion: Graham Sussex Young Corrosion Professionals: Erwin Gamboa 61 8 8303 5473 www.corrosion.com.au

4 » President’s Message 6 » Chief Executive Officer’s Message 8 » News 17 » Welding & Water Technical Group Joint Seminar 18 » ACA Branch News 20 » ACA Standards Update 24 » Concrete Structures & Buildings Technical Group Report  echnical Note: Development in Tank Coating Technologies 26 » T for Aggressive Storage 28 » T  echnical Note: Corrosion of Fasteners in Treated Timbers – Experimental Findings from Field Exposures 31 » Coatings Group Member Profile 32 » ACA MIC Symposium: Titanic Researcher to Present 34 » P  roject Profile: Extending the Life of a Wharf Asset for PNG Ports 36 » University Profile: Monash University 38 » R  esearch Paper: Improving the Corrosion Resistance of Magnesium Alloy AJ62 by a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) Coating Process 50 » P  rofessional Practice Paper: Corrosion of Building Assets – Problems and Prevention 57 » Suppliers and Consultants

Front Cover Photo A beam of rock bolts emerging from a hot dip galvanizing bath. Photo Supplied by Industrial Galvanizers.

The ACA is a founder member of the World Corrosion Organization

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

3


THE AUSTRALASIAN CORROSION ASSOCIATION INC SEMINAR PROUDLY PRESENTED BY:

Greetings Members, Connections between ancient fossilised remains of sabre toothed tigers, woolly mammoths and the ancestors of horses and contemporary corrosion issues may seem somewhat tenuous but since your President has been described as a living fossil it should be easy to demonstrate the linkages. The thoughts are connected by the issues of management of the microenvironment in which structures and systems are operating. The car journey from the Getty Conservation Institute on top of the hill in Brentwood, Los Angeles, down the 405 Freeway took a side route owing to reconstruction activity. Imagine my delight to see bright white shiny metal reinforcing rod going into the new bridge structures that will allow for advanced commuter transit systems in the future. It looked like hot dipped galvanized steel rebar but I could not pull over to inspect the metal as the car took me to see the exciting new developments at the LA County Museum of Natural History right by the site of the old Olympic Stadium. Science and industry have come together and with a mixed bag of private and corporate sponsorship amounting to more than $85 million to enable the museum to develop exciting new galleries of mammals and soon-to-be-opened dinosaur galleries with five actual T-Rex skeletons. Just when curators thought that the collections to come from the

famous La Brea tar pits were all over and done with, a brand new mastodon skeleton was found and is now on exhibition. The new skeletons are held together by coated articulated steel structures that have been wrought with excellence. Perhaps part of the future role of the ACA can be to promote the seamless integration of advances in materials science with changes in government regulations and adoption of new knowledge by the wider community. Museums are also about communicating socially significant issues to the public and so it is perhaps time to use your local museum as a different way to spread the message about corrosion prevention and the way to manage our sustainable future? The team at the ACA Headquarters lead by Wes Fawaz has finished a Herculean task of getting together all the abstracts and proposals for papers into a brilliant and exciting Preliminary Program and Registration Brochure. The review of those hundreds of abstracts has been made easier by the brilliant work of the WA committee which has developed a custom database for sorting them and allocating reviewers. There are sessions on Advanced Materials with papers from Australasia, Europe, Asia and the Middle East. Sessions on anodic and cathodic protection will run for several days as there are nearly 40 presentations to go to. If you are into coatings then you will find more meaty bits of information about old and new technologies and different ways of providing sustainable protection for metal

Concrete Repairs and Reconstruction

Contact Us: Geoff Adlem Mob: 419 464 082 Office: 02 9519 8944 E-mail: info@silverraven.com.au

surfaces in all sorts of aggressive microenvironments in over 50 presentations! There are sessions for the concrete stream dealing with infrastructure construction, maintenance and care. One vital session to attend is that on Corrosion Knowledge Management since it is the communication, or the lack of it, that underpins the human relationships in an operational and industrial environment that can lead to catastrophic failures and very costly outcomes. Without resources to develop proper modelling there is little chance of making major breakthroughs in the advancement of new techniques in corrosion mitigation and this is why there are more than 55 papers in this stream. Even if your work relates to operational issues of keeping ageing plant and infrastructure performing well beyond the formal operational life, thanks to great corrosion prevention and attention to detail, there is heaps to learn from sessions on Failure Analysis, Inhibitors and Integrity Management to name but a few. Rather than list all the creative sessions I urge members and friends to go to the website and download the exciting program and make your bookings to come to the 18th International Corrosion Congress in Perth this November – just go to www.18iccperth2011.com.

Mining; Best Practice Corrosion Management in – Or Is It? Friday 8th July 2011 WMC Conference Centre, Western Australian School of Mines, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia

Asset integrity is an important factor in the efficient operation of mining facilities; particularly when poor water quality (hypersaline conditions), frequent wet/dry cycling, high UV, high temperature and excessive debris collection on exposed surfaces are almost continuous factors promoting corrosion and durability issues to metallic, concrete and non-metallic structures on site. Consequently there are many strategies (simple and not so simple) being employed to ensure that the plant items are operated in a safe, efficient, durable and cost effective manner. These strategies include the use of management systems as well as the physical processes of design,

fabrication and corrosion management methods. All of these strategies are important and are inter-related. The Australasian Corrosion Association’s Mining Industry Technical Group is hosting a seminar to enhance corrosion awareness and to encourage dialogue on the various aspects of efficiently mitigating corrosion, with a special focus on the peculiar demands imposed by mining and mineral processing activities. The seminar will be of value to anyone (Maintenance and Operations related managers, operators, superintendents, supervisors etc.) involved in optimising mining operations to ensure that plant safety and availability is not compromised by corrosion.

Registrations Now Open – see www.corrosion.com.au for details Time

Schedule

8.15 – 8.45

Registration

8.45 – 9.00

Welcome & Symposium Opening

9.00 – 9.40

Peter Farinha, Extrin Consultants Mining and its Processes, a Recipe for Corrosion

9.40 – 10.20

Kevin Macdonald, BHPB, Nickel West The Importance of Managing Integrity at an Operating Mine-site

10.20 – 10.40

Morning Tea

10.40 – 11.20

David Olsen, WGIM Risk Based Inspection and the Cyanide Handling Code

11.20 – 12.00

Ivan Ruefli, Central Systems Innovative Execution of Remedial Solutions for Concrete & Steel Structures

12.00 – 12.40

Frank Papworth, BCRC Reinforced Concrete Durability, a Function of Maintenance

12.40 – 13.40

Lunch

13.40 – 14.20

Ted Riding, Jotun The Problem with Proprietary Coatings

14.20 – 15.00

Terry Mulligan, Longmont Engineering Effective Integration of Australian Standards

• crack injection

15.00 – 15.20

Afternoon Tea

• coatings and linings

15.20 – 16.00

• carbon fibre wraps

Liam Holloway, Savcor Concrete in the Goldfields: the Unique Challenges and Solutions

16.00 – 17.00

Open Floor Discussion and Seminar Close

• Cathodic protection

17.00 – 18.30

Post Seminar Drinks

Yours in corrosion, Ian MacLeod President

• hydro-demolition • shotcreting • formwork

• confined spaces • industrial rope access

There will be opportunity for delegates to participate in an open-floor forum as part of this seminar. Although hot topics generated at the seminar will be given priority, members planning to attend are encouraged to send topics and/or burning issues to be tabled for discussion by 21st June 2011 to kwebber@corrosion.com.au


THE AUSTRALASIAN CORROSION ASSOCIATION INC SEMINAR PROUDLY PRESENTED BY:

Greetings Members, Connections between ancient fossilised remains of sabre toothed tigers, woolly mammoths and the ancestors of horses and contemporary corrosion issues may seem somewhat tenuous but since your President has been described as a living fossil it should be easy to demonstrate the linkages. The thoughts are connected by the issues of management of the microenvironment in which structures and systems are operating. The car journey from the Getty Conservation Institute on top of the hill in Brentwood, Los Angeles, down the 405 Freeway took a side route owing to reconstruction activity. Imagine my delight to see bright white shiny metal reinforcing rod going into the new bridge structures that will allow for advanced commuter transit systems in the future. It looked like hot dipped galvanized steel rebar but I could not pull over to inspect the metal as the car took me to see the exciting new developments at the LA County Museum of Natural History right by the site of the old Olympic Stadium. Science and industry have come together and with a mixed bag of private and corporate sponsorship amounting to more than $85 million to enable the museum to develop exciting new galleries of mammals and soon-to-be-opened dinosaur galleries with five actual T-Rex skeletons. Just when curators thought that the collections to come from the

famous La Brea tar pits were all over and done with, a brand new mastodon skeleton was found and is now on exhibition. The new skeletons are held together by coated articulated steel structures that have been wrought with excellence. Perhaps part of the future role of the ACA can be to promote the seamless integration of advances in materials science with changes in government regulations and adoption of new knowledge by the wider community. Museums are also about communicating socially significant issues to the public and so it is perhaps time to use your local museum as a different way to spread the message about corrosion prevention and the way to manage our sustainable future? The team at the ACA Headquarters lead by Wes Fawaz has finished a Herculean task of getting together all the abstracts and proposals for papers into a brilliant and exciting Preliminary Program and Registration Brochure. The review of those hundreds of abstracts has been made easier by the brilliant work of the WA committee which has developed a custom database for sorting them and allocating reviewers. There are sessions on Advanced Materials with papers from Australasia, Europe, Asia and the Middle East. Sessions on anodic and cathodic protection will run for several days as there are nearly 40 presentations to go to. If you are into coatings then you will find more meaty bits of information about old and new technologies and different ways of providing sustainable protection for metal

Concrete Repairs and Reconstruction

Contact Us: Geoff Adlem Mob: 419 464 082 Office: 02 9519 8944 E-mail: info@silverraven.com.au

surfaces in all sorts of aggressive microenvironments in over 50 presentations! There are sessions for the concrete stream dealing with infrastructure construction, maintenance and care. One vital session to attend is that on Corrosion Knowledge Management since it is the communication, or the lack of it, that underpins the human relationships in an operational and industrial environment that can lead to catastrophic failures and very costly outcomes. Without resources to develop proper modelling there is little chance of making major breakthroughs in the advancement of new techniques in corrosion mitigation and this is why there are more than 55 papers in this stream. Even if your work relates to operational issues of keeping ageing plant and infrastructure performing well beyond the formal operational life, thanks to great corrosion prevention and attention to detail, there is heaps to learn from sessions on Failure Analysis, Inhibitors and Integrity Management to name but a few. Rather than list all the creative sessions I urge members and friends to go to the website and download the exciting program and make your bookings to come to the 18th International Corrosion Congress in Perth this November – just go to www.18iccperth2011.com.

Mining; Best Practice Corrosion Management in – Or Is It? Friday 8th July 2011 WMC Conference Centre, Western Australian School of Mines, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia

Asset integrity is an important factor in the efficient operation of mining facilities; particularly when poor water quality (hypersaline conditions), frequent wet/dry cycling, high UV, high temperature and excessive debris collection on exposed surfaces are almost continuous factors promoting corrosion and durability issues to metallic, concrete and non-metallic structures on site. Consequently there are many strategies (simple and not so simple) being employed to ensure that the plant items are operated in a safe, efficient, durable and cost effective manner. These strategies include the use of management systems as well as the physical processes of design,

fabrication and corrosion management methods. All of these strategies are important and are inter-related. The Australasian Corrosion Association’s Mining Industry Technical Group is hosting a seminar to enhance corrosion awareness and to encourage dialogue on the various aspects of efficiently mitigating corrosion, with a special focus on the peculiar demands imposed by mining and mineral processing activities. The seminar will be of value to anyone (Maintenance and Operations related managers, operators, superintendents, supervisors etc.) involved in optimising mining operations to ensure that plant safety and availability is not compromised by corrosion.

Registrations Now Open – see www.corrosion.com.au for details Time

Schedule

8.15 – 8.45

Registration

8.45 – 9.00

Welcome & Symposium Opening

9.00 – 9.40

Peter Farinha, Extrin Consultants Mining and its Processes, a Recipe for Corrosion

9.40 – 10.20

Kevin Macdonald, BHPB, Nickel West The Importance of Managing Integrity at an Operating Mine-site

10.20 – 10.40

Morning Tea

10.40 – 11.20

David Olsen, WGIM Risk Based Inspection and the Cyanide Handling Code

11.20 – 12.00

Ivan Ruefli, Central Systems Innovative Execution of Remedial Solutions for Concrete & Steel Structures

12.00 – 12.40

Frank Papworth, BCRC Reinforced Concrete Durability, a Function of Maintenance

12.40 – 13.40

Lunch

13.40 – 14.20

Ted Riding, Jotun The Problem with Proprietary Coatings

14.20 – 15.00

Terry Mulligan, Longmont Engineering Effective Integration of Australian Standards

• crack injection

15.00 – 15.20

Afternoon Tea

• coatings and linings

15.20 – 16.00

• carbon fibre wraps

Liam Holloway, Savcor Concrete in the Goldfields: the Unique Challenges and Solutions

16.00 – 17.00

Open Floor Discussion and Seminar Close

• Cathodic protection

17.00 – 18.30

Post Seminar Drinks

Yours in corrosion, Ian MacLeod President

• hydro-demolition • shotcreting • formwork

• confined spaces • industrial rope access

There will be opportunity for delegates to participate in an open-floor forum as part of this seminar. Although hot topics generated at the seminar will be given priority, members planning to attend are encouraged to send topics and/or burning issues to be tabled for discussion by 21st June 2011 to kwebber@corrosion.com.au


THE AUSTRALASIAN CORROSION ASSOCIATION INC SEMINAR

Sometimes the benefits are not obvious

Providing members with the opportunity of presenting to a group of their peers is an often overlook benefit of ACA membership. Personal development activities such as these enable members to face a critical audience and to hone their skills in transferring technical information, sustaining well-reasoned arguments and winning the battle against technical glitches which invariably accompany such events.

At the time of writing, ACA is in the middle of presenting its 12 leg annual roadshow event. The 2011 series of seminars, titled “Corrosion Mitigation & Monitoring” is being offered in all Australian states and in two locations in New Zealand. With more than 50 presenters involved in the seminar series, members and other interested corrosionists get to hear from industry specialists on a diverse range of technologies, research and projects.

ACA is working to bring such opportunities to a larger number of members, especially to those early in their corrosion careers. In conjunction with ACA’s Young Corrosion professionals group, work is now underway to establish a regular annual event which provides a skills-based approach to presentation skills and imparting technical knowledge. The development of an accompanying mentoring scheme is also being

For some, this may be the first time they have presented to industry participants in the format of a full day seminar. Certainly, each seminar presents challenges to the organisers. If it is the first time you present to an audience of this type, then the personal challenge can be great.

considered. Such a development program will therefore provide opportunities for those early in their careers and more experienced members who are willing to pass on their experiences and knowledge for the benefit of the future’s industry leaders. If you are given the opportunity to present at an ACA event including at Branch level, I strongly recommend you seize the opportunity. The benefits of your presentation will not only be gained by the audience. The experience will benefit you and increase your skills and professionalism. Ian Booth Chief Executive Officer ibooth@corrosion.com.au

Inspection and Corrosion Mitigation Strategies in Oil & Gas Operations

PROUDLY PRESENTED BY:

Oil & Gas upstream and downstream operations are subject to corrosion degradation processes. From the initial drilling stage, where the first oxygen contamination is introduced to the producing formations, to the refining processes and the distribution of the light hydrocarbon products, corrosion is the common enemy. The risk and the likelihood of occurrence are the main factors to categorize the processes and prioritize the method and frequency of inspection, corrosion monitoring, and its control for the processing plant. Oil & Gas industries have invested heavily in materials, technology, research and development to face the

increasing demand for oil and gas as the world’s main energy source and petrochemical feedstock. However, the investment in materials and personnel to improve corrosion monitoring and corrosion control is still very limited. Risk directed corrosion monitoring together with proactive corrosion control is the most cost effective and economical approach to win the battle against corrosion. This Seminar aims to share with the audience selected topics to reflect the importance of setting inspection and corrosion management strategies for Oil & Gas operations.

Date: Tuesday 26th July 2011  Location: Melbourne, Victoria Registrations Now Open – see www.corrosion.com.au for details

Global Experience – Local Presence Our advanced coatings provide protection for major Industrial projects worldwide Quality range of blasting grades for your blast cleaning requirements.

GMA NewSteelTM

Time

Schedule

8.15 – 8.45

Registration

8.45 – 9.00

Welcome & Seminar Opening

9.00 – 9.40

NDT Corrosion Surveys, Issues and Economics Gary Martin – ATTAR

9.40 – 10.20

Protection of Pipelines Glenn Brewster – Savcor

10.20 – 10.50

Morning tea

10.50 – 11.30

HIC / SOHIC Cracking of Pressure Equipment & the Importance of Maintaining a Dynamic Inspection Programme Jeff Andrews – Caltex Refining

11.30 – 12.10

Examination and Metallurgical Characterisation of Failure Richard Clegg – Central Queensland University

12.10 – 13.00

Lunch

13.00 – 13.40

Failure Analysis of F03 Trunk Line T-piece Alex Dziouba – ALS Global

13.40 – 14.20

Reduced Corrosion Resistance of Duplex Stainless Steels by Sigma Phase and How To Detect It Iman Maroef – SVT Engineering Consultants

14.20 – 14.50

Afternoon tea

14.50 – 15.30

Material Engineering Challenges in Construction of Hydrocarbon Projects Overview Fikry Barouky – Anti Corrosion Technology

15.30 – 17.00

Open-floor Speakers’ Forum and Seminar Close

New steel, surface with light rust & thin coatings

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Corrosion & Materials

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There will be opportunity for delegates to participate in an open-floor forum as part of this seminar. Although hot topics generated at the seminar will be given priority, members planning to attend are encouraged to send topics and/or burning issues to be tabled for discussion by 1st July 2011 to kwebber@corrosion.com.au

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52393 95 x 125 Industrial Adv Australia.indd 1

01/04/2011 09:49


THE AUSTRALASIAN CORROSION ASSOCIATION INC SEMINAR

Sometimes the benefits are not obvious

Providing members with the opportunity of presenting to a group of their peers is an often overlook benefit of ACA membership. Personal development activities such as these enable members to face a critical audience and to hone their skills in transferring technical information, sustaining well-reasoned arguments and winning the battle against technical glitches which invariably accompany such events.

At the time of writing, ACA is in the middle of presenting its 12 leg annual roadshow event. The 2011 series of seminars, titled “Corrosion Mitigation & Monitoring” is being offered in all Australian states and in two locations in New Zealand. With more than 50 presenters involved in the seminar series, members and other interested corrosionists get to hear from industry specialists on a diverse range of technologies, research and projects.

ACA is working to bring such opportunities to a larger number of members, especially to those early in their corrosion careers. In conjunction with ACA’s Young Corrosion professionals group, work is now underway to establish a regular annual event which provides a skills-based approach to presentation skills and imparting technical knowledge. The development of an accompanying mentoring scheme is also being

For some, this may be the first time they have presented to industry participants in the format of a full day seminar. Certainly, each seminar presents challenges to the organisers. If it is the first time you present to an audience of this type, then the personal challenge can be great.

considered. Such a development program will therefore provide opportunities for those early in their careers and more experienced members who are willing to pass on their experiences and knowledge for the benefit of the future’s industry leaders. If you are given the opportunity to present at an ACA event including at Branch level, I strongly recommend you seize the opportunity. The benefits of your presentation will not only be gained by the audience. The experience will benefit you and increase your skills and professionalism. Ian Booth Chief Executive Officer ibooth@corrosion.com.au

Inspection and Corrosion Mitigation Strategies in Oil & Gas Operations

PROUDLY PRESENTED BY:

Oil & Gas upstream and downstream operations are subject to corrosion degradation processes. From the initial drilling stage, where the first oxygen contamination is introduced to the producing formations, to the refining processes and the distribution of the light hydrocarbon products, corrosion is the common enemy. The risk and the likelihood of occurrence are the main factors to categorize the processes and prioritize the method and frequency of inspection, corrosion monitoring, and its control for the processing plant. Oil & Gas industries have invested heavily in materials, technology, research and development to face the

increasing demand for oil and gas as the world’s main energy source and petrochemical feedstock. However, the investment in materials and personnel to improve corrosion monitoring and corrosion control is still very limited. Risk directed corrosion monitoring together with proactive corrosion control is the most cost effective and economical approach to win the battle against corrosion. This Seminar aims to share with the audience selected topics to reflect the importance of setting inspection and corrosion management strategies for Oil & Gas operations.

Date: Tuesday 26th July 2011  Location: Melbourne, Victoria Registrations Now Open – see www.corrosion.com.au for details

Global Experience – Local Presence Our advanced coatings provide protection for major Industrial projects worldwide Quality range of blasting grades for your blast cleaning requirements.

GMA NewSteelTM

Time

Schedule

8.15 – 8.45

Registration

8.45 – 9.00

Welcome & Seminar Opening

9.00 – 9.40

NDT Corrosion Surveys, Issues and Economics Gary Martin – ATTAR

9.40 – 10.20

Protection of Pipelines Glenn Brewster – Savcor

10.20 – 10.50

Morning tea

10.50 – 11.30

HIC / SOHIC Cracking of Pressure Equipment & the Importance of Maintaining a Dynamic Inspection Programme Jeff Andrews – Caltex Refining

11.30 – 12.10

Examination and Metallurgical Characterisation of Failure Richard Clegg – Central Queensland University

12.10 – 13.00

Lunch

13.00 – 13.40

Failure Analysis of F03 Trunk Line T-piece Alex Dziouba – ALS Global

13.40 – 14.20

Reduced Corrosion Resistance of Duplex Stainless Steels by Sigma Phase and How To Detect It Iman Maroef – SVT Engineering Consultants

14.20 – 14.50

Afternoon tea

14.50 – 15.30

Material Engineering Challenges in Construction of Hydrocarbon Projects Overview Fikry Barouky – Anti Corrosion Technology

15.30 – 17.00

Open-floor Speakers’ Forum and Seminar Close

New steel, surface with light rust & thin coatings

GMA SpeedBlastTM General purpose abrasive

GMA PremiumBlastTM Maintenance grade for tough jobs

74 Jotun companies represented in more than 80 countries. 40 production facilities globally. Uniform standard of global service.

For more information, contact us at 08 9287 3250 or email sales@garnetsales.com GMA Garnet Group Level 18, Exchange Plaza, The Esplanade, Perth, WA 6000

www.garnetsales.com

6

Corrosion & Materials

jotun.com

There will be opportunity for delegates to participate in an open-floor forum as part of this seminar. Although hot topics generated at the seminar will be given priority, members planning to attend are encouraged to send topics and/or burning issues to be tabled for discussion by 1st July 2011 to kwebber@corrosion.com.au

Jotun Australia Head Office – 03 9314 0722

52393 95 x 125 Industrial Adv Australia.indd 1

01/04/2011 09:49


ACA – Corrosion & Materials, Best Paper by an Early Researcher Award Corrosion & Materials wishes to attract submissions of papers from younger Australasian academic authors who, in the past have shown a preference to publish in journals that have a high Impact Factor (Corrosion, Corrosion Science, Electrochimica Acta etc.). However Corrosion & Materials is a “local” journal, which can provide a platform for younger academics/research students to present their early results and to try out their ideas with short (say 2–3000 word) papers that would confer the priority of publication and act as a foundation for a more major paper in a High Impact Factor Journal. The current high refereeing standards adopted by the Journal would ensure that such papers are not considered as of a lower standard than those accepted for publication in more prestigious journals, but merely as reporting work at an earlier stage of development. It is hoped that the existence of a worthwhile cash prize for the best paper submitted for publication in the journal by an author with less than three years post graduate research experience at the date of submission, could materially assist the breaking down of the prejudice

8

Corrosion & Materials

felt by research students (or their supervisors) against publishing their early work in Corrosion & Materials. Currently such work is often used as a basis of a conference paper. Because publication in the Journal has to meet different criteria to those in place for acceptance at a Conference, any paper, even if it has already been refereed for a conference must be subjected for independent peer review by two anonymous referees and it is therefore suggested that the incorporation of feedback from the conference to such a paper and of later work into the publication submitted for the award could result in a worthwhile contribution to the literature. An award has therefore been instituted for the best technical paper submitted for publication in Corrosion & Materials during the year ending June 30th preceding each Annual Conference of the ACA, by an Australasian based author who has not had more than three years post graduate research experience at the date of submission of the paper for publication. The author must be designated the “Lead” (first named) author of the paper, but may have co-authors who may include his

or her supervisor. A paper will be regarded as “technical”, if it is acceptable for publication in the Research or Professional Practice sections of Corrosion & Materials. When a candidate for the award is a student or post-graduate research student at any Australian or New Zealand University, the nomination will be accompanied by a written statement by the candidate’s supervisor attesting to the contribution to the work made by the candidate. The award consists of free registration for the annual conference of the ACA and a cheque for AU$1,000 as a contribution to attendance expenses at the conference. The awardee shall be selected by a Panel, consisting of the Editor and the Associate Editors of Corrosion & Materials, who shall take into account the referees’ reports submitted on the paper. In the event that no submitted paper is adjudged worthy of the award, then no awards shall be made. In the event of two papers being adjudged of equal merit then a submission will be made to the ACA Operations Board for an additional award to be made.

ACA members take advantage of Recognition of Prior Learning in Surface Finishing SkillsTech Australia continues to receive enquiries from ACA members and the industry regarding Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) in Surface Finishing. The Certificate III in Engineering – Fabrication Trade - Surface Finishing MEM30305 to date has been awarded to 30 Blasters and Industrial Painters across the State of Queensland with another 30 in progress and with over another 80 enquiries Australia wide. “Those companies whose employees have undertaken and completed the RPL process has found that having skilled tradespeople assists with tendering processes and various insurance legalities” said Mark Arundell of SkillsTech Australia. Apprenticeship training will be introduced by SkillsTech Australia by 2013 by which time SkillsTech Australia hope to have it declared as an apprenticeship. There have been 13 apprentices indentured with different Registered

www.corrosion.com.au

Training Organisations across the State who have signed up under different streams (ie: apprentices working as Surface Finishers who are indentured under the Boilermaker stream). To suit both the needs of the apprentice, the employer and our industry, SkillsTech Australia is looking at how best to pick up and deal with these indentured apprentices who are now seeking alternative training options to cross over to Surface Finishing through the RPL process. Because of the skills shortage in trades across Australia, (Surface Finishing being one of those trades), the Australian government has partial funding for those who wish to apply for RPL. This funding makes it an attractive option for employers and employees who have been working in the industry with no trade qualification seeking formal recognition. The funding can reduce the RPL fees to the applicant by up to 75%.

The funding however is different across each State of Australia. As an example, Western Australia recognise and fund Certificate II in Surface Finishing which translates to a Traineeship in Surface Finishing, compared to the eastern states whereby apprenticeships are trained to a full trade Certificate III (where declared). “To all of those who SkillsTech Australia has spoken to regarding RPL’s in Western Australia, I apologise for not getting over there but my hands were and still are tied with government processes. This is still ongoing and we are trying to reach an amicable engagement” said Mark Arundell. When apprentice training is up and running SkillsTech will be seeking the support from industry to engage in the needs and help increase the high level of training in this industry. If you require more information regarding RPL’s, please contact Mark Arundell at SkillsTech Australia on 0411 653 161.

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

9


ACA – Corrosion & Materials, Best Paper by an Early Researcher Award Corrosion & Materials wishes to attract submissions of papers from younger Australasian academic authors who, in the past have shown a preference to publish in journals that have a high Impact Factor (Corrosion, Corrosion Science, Electrochimica Acta etc.). However Corrosion & Materials is a “local” journal, which can provide a platform for younger academics/research students to present their early results and to try out their ideas with short (say 2–3000 word) papers that would confer the priority of publication and act as a foundation for a more major paper in a High Impact Factor Journal. The current high refereeing standards adopted by the Journal would ensure that such papers are not considered as of a lower standard than those accepted for publication in more prestigious journals, but merely as reporting work at an earlier stage of development. It is hoped that the existence of a worthwhile cash prize for the best paper submitted for publication in the journal by an author with less than three years post graduate research experience at the date of submission, could materially assist the breaking down of the prejudice

8

Corrosion & Materials

felt by research students (or their supervisors) against publishing their early work in Corrosion & Materials. Currently such work is often used as a basis of a conference paper. Because publication in the Journal has to meet different criteria to those in place for acceptance at a Conference, any paper, even if it has already been refereed for a conference must be subjected for independent peer review by two anonymous referees and it is therefore suggested that the incorporation of feedback from the conference to such a paper and of later work into the publication submitted for the award could result in a worthwhile contribution to the literature. An award has therefore been instituted for the best technical paper submitted for publication in Corrosion & Materials during the year ending June 30th preceding each Annual Conference of the ACA, by an Australasian based author who has not had more than three years post graduate research experience at the date of submission of the paper for publication. The author must be designated the “Lead” (first named) author of the paper, but may have co-authors who may include his

or her supervisor. A paper will be regarded as “technical”, if it is acceptable for publication in the Research or Professional Practice sections of Corrosion & Materials. When a candidate for the award is a student or post-graduate research student at any Australian or New Zealand University, the nomination will be accompanied by a written statement by the candidate’s supervisor attesting to the contribution to the work made by the candidate. The award consists of free registration for the annual conference of the ACA and a cheque for AU$1,000 as a contribution to attendance expenses at the conference. The awardee shall be selected by a Panel, consisting of the Editor and the Associate Editors of Corrosion & Materials, who shall take into account the referees’ reports submitted on the paper. In the event that no submitted paper is adjudged worthy of the award, then no awards shall be made. In the event of two papers being adjudged of equal merit then a submission will be made to the ACA Operations Board for an additional award to be made.

ACA members take advantage of Recognition of Prior Learning in Surface Finishing SkillsTech Australia continues to receive enquiries from ACA members and the industry regarding Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) in Surface Finishing. The Certificate III in Engineering – Fabrication Trade - Surface Finishing MEM30305 to date has been awarded to 30 Blasters and Industrial Painters across the State of Queensland with another 30 in progress and with over another 80 enquiries Australia wide. “Those companies whose employees have undertaken and completed the RPL process has found that having skilled tradespeople assists with tendering processes and various insurance legalities” said Mark Arundell of SkillsTech Australia. Apprenticeship training will be introduced by SkillsTech Australia by 2013 by which time SkillsTech Australia hope to have it declared as an apprenticeship. There have been 13 apprentices indentured with different Registered

www.corrosion.com.au

Training Organisations across the State who have signed up under different streams (ie: apprentices working as Surface Finishers who are indentured under the Boilermaker stream). To suit both the needs of the apprentice, the employer and our industry, SkillsTech Australia is looking at how best to pick up and deal with these indentured apprentices who are now seeking alternative training options to cross over to Surface Finishing through the RPL process. Because of the skills shortage in trades across Australia, (Surface Finishing being one of those trades), the Australian government has partial funding for those who wish to apply for RPL. This funding makes it an attractive option for employers and employees who have been working in the industry with no trade qualification seeking formal recognition. The funding can reduce the RPL fees to the applicant by up to 75%.

The funding however is different across each State of Australia. As an example, Western Australia recognise and fund Certificate II in Surface Finishing which translates to a Traineeship in Surface Finishing, compared to the eastern states whereby apprenticeships are trained to a full trade Certificate III (where declared). “To all of those who SkillsTech Australia has spoken to regarding RPL’s in Western Australia, I apologise for not getting over there but my hands were and still are tied with government processes. This is still ongoing and we are trying to reach an amicable engagement” said Mark Arundell. When apprentice training is up and running SkillsTech will be seeking the support from industry to engage in the needs and help increase the high level of training in this industry. If you require more information regarding RPL’s, please contact Mark Arundell at SkillsTech Australia on 0411 653 161.

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

9


NEWS

Hydro Tasmania to begin work on Poatina pipeline Hydro Tasmania recently closed the Poatina power station to undertake a major refurbishment project during winter. The project involves replacing the original anti corrosion lining inside the 46-year-old penstock to maintain the life and operability of the pipeline as this coating is now in a poor condition. An outcome of the new coating will be to reduce the friction in the pipeline, improving the overall efficiency of the scheme and thereby increase electricity generation. As a result of this work, the station will be shut down for five months and the penstock and tunnel dewatered. This will see water flows downstream of the power station affected with periods of lower than

usual flows in Brumby’s Creek and the Macquarie River. In anticipation of the outage, Hydro Tasmania has been working with the local community and stakeholders for the past two years. This has involved meetings, public information sessions as well as a regular newsletter. "The project is vital to the power station and the reliability and life of the pipeline in particular and needs to be done," project manager Tim Cubit said. "But we also recognised right from the start that there would be a significant impact on the local community as a result of shutting down the station for five months. “During the past two years we have been talking to those who will be affected downstream of the station

such as irrigators, local businesses and the local council to understand their needs and concerns. “We wanted to get the timing right and minimise the impact wherever possible while getting this vital project completed.” The penstock refurbishment project will cost about $10 million and employ up to 20 people. Significant maintenance and improvement work will also be carried out at the power station during the outage taking the overall cost of the work at Poatina to over $15 million. Poatina is located in northern Tasmania and is the state’s second largest station with a peak generation of 342 megawatts. It produces about 12 per cent of the State’s energy output.

Cape acquisition of Shoreguard Marine Cape, the industrial services provider of essential, nonmechanical industrial services principally to the energy and mineral resources sectors has continued its expansion in Australia via the acquisition of Shoreguard Marine in Western Australia. The deal was completed in April and adds to several major acquisitions made by Cape in 2007, when it sought to secure a position as a service provider to the resources and construction sectors in WA. Shoreguard Marine operates a specialised corrosion protection business that provides ultra-high pressure water blasting, protective coating, thermal and acoustic insulation, corrosion inspection, and surface preparation services, primarily to the Royal Australian Navy. Shoreguard Marine is head

quartered in Bibra Lake, WA and also has a facility in Sydney, with both locations primarily servicing the local Naval Bases. Cape said the acquisition is structured to provide both Cape and Shoreguard Marine with the resources to further develop the service offering available to clients.

staff to Cape. The combination of Shoreguard Marine’s specialised services with Cape’s geographical and industrial reach will provide significant opportunities for the Group.”

“Strategically the acquisition is expected to provide Cape with significant new opportunities within the offshore oil and gas markets, not only in the Far East/Pacific Rim but elsewhere across the footprint, where it can extend Shoreguard Marine’s specialised services as part of the Group’s valuable bundled services offering,” Cape said in a statement. Martin May, Chief Executive of Cape said “We warmly welcome Shoreguard Marine’s directors and

Carboline has been global leader in the High Performance Coatings industry for over 63 yrs. Specify Carboline - Coatings that deliver: SPEED, COMPLIANCE, PERFORMANCE

10 Corrosion & Materials

www.corrosion.com.au

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

11


NEWS

Hydro Tasmania to begin work on Poatina pipeline Hydro Tasmania recently closed the Poatina power station to undertake a major refurbishment project during winter. The project involves replacing the original anti corrosion lining inside the 46-year-old penstock to maintain the life and operability of the pipeline as this coating is now in a poor condition. An outcome of the new coating will be to reduce the friction in the pipeline, improving the overall efficiency of the scheme and thereby increase electricity generation. As a result of this work, the station will be shut down for five months and the penstock and tunnel dewatered. This will see water flows downstream of the power station affected with periods of lower than

usual flows in Brumby’s Creek and the Macquarie River. In anticipation of the outage, Hydro Tasmania has been working with the local community and stakeholders for the past two years. This has involved meetings, public information sessions as well as a regular newsletter. "The project is vital to the power station and the reliability and life of the pipeline in particular and needs to be done," project manager Tim Cubit said. "But we also recognised right from the start that there would be a significant impact on the local community as a result of shutting down the station for five months. “During the past two years we have been talking to those who will be affected downstream of the station

such as irrigators, local businesses and the local council to understand their needs and concerns. “We wanted to get the timing right and minimise the impact wherever possible while getting this vital project completed.” The penstock refurbishment project will cost about $10 million and employ up to 20 people. Significant maintenance and improvement work will also be carried out at the power station during the outage taking the overall cost of the work at Poatina to over $15 million. Poatina is located in northern Tasmania and is the state’s second largest station with a peak generation of 342 megawatts. It produces about 12 per cent of the State’s energy output.

Cape acquisition of Shoreguard Marine Cape, the industrial services provider of essential, nonmechanical industrial services principally to the energy and mineral resources sectors has continued its expansion in Australia via the acquisition of Shoreguard Marine in Western Australia. The deal was completed in April and adds to several major acquisitions made by Cape in 2007, when it sought to secure a position as a service provider to the resources and construction sectors in WA. Shoreguard Marine operates a specialised corrosion protection business that provides ultra-high pressure water blasting, protective coating, thermal and acoustic insulation, corrosion inspection, and surface preparation services, primarily to the Royal Australian Navy. Shoreguard Marine is head

quartered in Bibra Lake, WA and also has a facility in Sydney, with both locations primarily servicing the local Naval Bases. Cape said the acquisition is structured to provide both Cape and Shoreguard Marine with the resources to further develop the service offering available to clients.

staff to Cape. The combination of Shoreguard Marine’s specialised services with Cape’s geographical and industrial reach will provide significant opportunities for the Group.”

“Strategically the acquisition is expected to provide Cape with significant new opportunities within the offshore oil and gas markets, not only in the Far East/Pacific Rim but elsewhere across the footprint, where it can extend Shoreguard Marine’s specialised services as part of the Group’s valuable bundled services offering,” Cape said in a statement. Martin May, Chief Executive of Cape said “We warmly welcome Shoreguard Marine’s directors and

Carboline has been global leader in the High Performance Coatings industry for over 63 yrs. Specify Carboline - Coatings that deliver: SPEED, COMPLIANCE, PERFORMANCE

10 Corrosion & Materials

www.corrosion.com.au

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

11


NEWS

Whole of life costing at Gold Coast City Council A fresh focus on whole-of-life costing at Gold Coast City Council (GCCC) has led to the specification of stainless steel for long-term structures in the foreshore zone. The philosophy was adopted following the publication of a study by Griffith University and GCCC. GCCC’s co-ordinator of technical governance Paul Conolly said the seed was planted in 1998 when Council’s Technical Services Branch specified stainless steel for a modular toilet structure in a foreshore zone park. The material was deemed at the time to be cost prohibitive on a capital expenditure basis but the process sparked an interest in lifecycle costing. Mr Conolly said Council’s growing interest in lifecycle costing, combined with an expectation among locals and tourists that public facilities showcase a ‘resort style’ finish, had brought the focus back to stainless steel in recent years. “There has been a clear trend towards lighter, more open structures for public facilities and these lend themselves to steel work,” he said. “A lot of our public facilities are in the foreshore zone and some materials weren’t performing as well as we wanted, so we started to look at corrosion issues and how to best manage this. We started using stainless steel for critical elements, such as joint interfaces for concrete works; bolts, brackets and cleats for boardwalks; and for high use facilities such as rubbish bins. “Our observations led us to believe that stainless was the way to go in the foreshore zone, but we had no tangible justification which the designers could use to validate the decision for our asset custodians. We needed clear evidence to prove the initial cost of stainless steel was justified over the life of the structures.”

12 Corrosion & Materials

Griffith University scholarship student Jordan Cocks was called on to research the topic in conjunction with industry affiliate GCCC as partial fulfilment of his Bachelor of Civil Engineering. Mr Cocks investigated multiple structural scenarios from the perspective of what would represent the most cost-effective solution: hot dipped galvanized (HDG) steel, paint systems, duplex systems using both HDG and paint, or stainless steel. The result was a report containing a design guide, a life cycle cost analysis and a life cycle costing spreadsheet for structures in the foreshore zone. The report indicates stainless steel is a viable option based on cost alone for structures with a design life greater than 19 years. Conversely, the study indicates a HDG coating would theoretically have a life span of 14 years, leaving the exposed steel subject to rapid corrosion unless protected by an increasingly costly maintenance regime. Mr Conolly said the report had delivered a workable tool enabling designers to input various parameters, such as current prices and design life, producing a guide for selection of the appropriate material or finishes based around optimising whole-of-life costs. Similar principles were used to shift the specification of a park arbour in Broadbeach towards stainless steel. The material was essential due to the warm, humid environment of the foreshore, regular spraying with water and fertiliser, and the fact that the arbour would have plants growing over it that would take many years to fully establish. The report has now been used to guide material selection for a number of projects, including toilet blocks in Jacobs Well, Miami (pictured) and Burleigh Heads.

“With these projects, we have gone to the asset custodians and our first question was – what is the design life?” Mr Conolly said. “The report has helped reinforce the need for a ‘cradle to grave’ approach to responsible and sustainable asset management encompassing all stakeholders. This includes not just the designer and asset custodian but all the operational and maintenance personnel involved with a structure. “For stainless steel structures, the asset custodians now recognise that to retain an asset over the long-term and to satisfy the whole of life cost advantage there must be regular wash downs as part of the maintenance program. The higher initial construction costs are offset by the lower cost regular wash downs which form the major component in the new maintenance regimes. The buildings are also being designed to be hosed from ceiling to floor. The overall process has really helped improve the relationship between the asset custodians, designers and maintenance staff.” Mr Conolly said the report had also been used to promote the use of stainless steel in playground equipment and shade sail structures. “It is just a matter of making that little leap towards recognising the whole-of-life cost and ensuring delivery of a durable product – it’s not rocket science, just common sense when you think about it.” ASSDA Executive Director Richard Matheson said GCCC’s decision to favour ASSDA Accredited Fabricators and specify stainless steel in the foreshore zone was a welcome one. “I believe we will see this initiative mirrored by other councils and government bodies in the near future,” Mr Matheson said.

the material will offer long-term cost savings and extend the life of the product. This is why ASSDA places so much emphasis on education and technical expertise – Councils and other government bodies need to get it right the first time and ensure value for money for their constituents.” Mr Conolly said for long term structures, stainless steel was becoming the default specification in the foreshore zone and the trend was even moving inland. “We’re asking the question: what will look and perform best from cradle to grave? It’s making people think differently,” he said.

Gold Coast Q1 building riddled with corrosion An article published in the Brisbane Times on April 29, 2011 reported that only six years after its completion, the Gold Coast Q1 building is allegedly riddled with corrosion. According to the article, the body corporate is suing luxury Queensland developer Sunland Group for millions of dollars worth of repairs to the 80-storey tower. Residents claim corrosion has already formed in Q1's conference and function room, entrance lobby, ground-floor canopy and ribbon structure and the tower's crown and 60-metre spire. The article said it is alleged the steel structure's protective coating was never applied correctly. On the outside, paint started peeling from steel beams, leaving them exposed and rusting. The body corporate is suing Sunland Group and its subsidiary Camryville for a "lack of duty of care about the construction of Q1". It is alleged

the companies failed to ensure the tower's steel frame was coated properly to protect it from corrosion. The article quoted a statement from the claim; "Q1 since construction has contained or developed defects in the coating system resulting in the coating breaking down and the subsequent corrosion of the steel surfaces at the top of Q1 and on steel work at ground floor level." The defect findings are based on a report prepared by Corrosion Material Engineering and Testing consultant Robin May, who found that the steel frame was coated twice rather than three times as required. The article reported that Mr May also discovered the coating was not applied properly in areas, "which has facilitated the retention of chlorides and moisture" in the steel structure, according to court documents. And that he also found that the protective coating on the tower's iconic spire has broken down creating an "unacceptable mottled appearance".

The article stated that Sunland managing director Sahba Abedian dismissed the allegations, saying the matter did not go the heart of the structural integrity of the building. "[The matter] goes to the cosmetic and aesthetic appearance. Obviously we are in discussions with the body corporate and the matter will be dealt with," he said. "At the end of the day it's fair to say that Sunland has conformed with the Building Services Authority requirements and accordingly has built a structure that is compliant with building codes and standards in the country”. "It goes to the heart of the aesthetics and obviously with all things in life there's a maintenance regime that needs to be upheld and that's something that will inevitably be dealt with."

“There is no doubt that informed specification and quality fabrication by people who know and understand www.corrosion.com.au

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

13


NEWS

Whole of life costing at Gold Coast City Council A fresh focus on whole-of-life costing at Gold Coast City Council (GCCC) has led to the specification of stainless steel for long-term structures in the foreshore zone. The philosophy was adopted following the publication of a study by Griffith University and GCCC. GCCC’s co-ordinator of technical governance Paul Conolly said the seed was planted in 1998 when Council’s Technical Services Branch specified stainless steel for a modular toilet structure in a foreshore zone park. The material was deemed at the time to be cost prohibitive on a capital expenditure basis but the process sparked an interest in lifecycle costing. Mr Conolly said Council’s growing interest in lifecycle costing, combined with an expectation among locals and tourists that public facilities showcase a ‘resort style’ finish, had brought the focus back to stainless steel in recent years. “There has been a clear trend towards lighter, more open structures for public facilities and these lend themselves to steel work,” he said. “A lot of our public facilities are in the foreshore zone and some materials weren’t performing as well as we wanted, so we started to look at corrosion issues and how to best manage this. We started using stainless steel for critical elements, such as joint interfaces for concrete works; bolts, brackets and cleats for boardwalks; and for high use facilities such as rubbish bins. “Our observations led us to believe that stainless was the way to go in the foreshore zone, but we had no tangible justification which the designers could use to validate the decision for our asset custodians. We needed clear evidence to prove the initial cost of stainless steel was justified over the life of the structures.”

12 Corrosion & Materials

Griffith University scholarship student Jordan Cocks was called on to research the topic in conjunction with industry affiliate GCCC as partial fulfilment of his Bachelor of Civil Engineering. Mr Cocks investigated multiple structural scenarios from the perspective of what would represent the most cost-effective solution: hot dipped galvanized (HDG) steel, paint systems, duplex systems using both HDG and paint, or stainless steel. The result was a report containing a design guide, a life cycle cost analysis and a life cycle costing spreadsheet for structures in the foreshore zone. The report indicates stainless steel is a viable option based on cost alone for structures with a design life greater than 19 years. Conversely, the study indicates a HDG coating would theoretically have a life span of 14 years, leaving the exposed steel subject to rapid corrosion unless protected by an increasingly costly maintenance regime. Mr Conolly said the report had delivered a workable tool enabling designers to input various parameters, such as current prices and design life, producing a guide for selection of the appropriate material or finishes based around optimising whole-of-life costs. Similar principles were used to shift the specification of a park arbour in Broadbeach towards stainless steel. The material was essential due to the warm, humid environment of the foreshore, regular spraying with water and fertiliser, and the fact that the arbour would have plants growing over it that would take many years to fully establish. The report has now been used to guide material selection for a number of projects, including toilet blocks in Jacobs Well, Miami (pictured) and Burleigh Heads.

“With these projects, we have gone to the asset custodians and our first question was – what is the design life?” Mr Conolly said. “The report has helped reinforce the need for a ‘cradle to grave’ approach to responsible and sustainable asset management encompassing all stakeholders. This includes not just the designer and asset custodian but all the operational and maintenance personnel involved with a structure. “For stainless steel structures, the asset custodians now recognise that to retain an asset over the long-term and to satisfy the whole of life cost advantage there must be regular wash downs as part of the maintenance program. The higher initial construction costs are offset by the lower cost regular wash downs which form the major component in the new maintenance regimes. The buildings are also being designed to be hosed from ceiling to floor. The overall process has really helped improve the relationship between the asset custodians, designers and maintenance staff.” Mr Conolly said the report had also been used to promote the use of stainless steel in playground equipment and shade sail structures. “It is just a matter of making that little leap towards recognising the whole-of-life cost and ensuring delivery of a durable product – it’s not rocket science, just common sense when you think about it.” ASSDA Executive Director Richard Matheson said GCCC’s decision to favour ASSDA Accredited Fabricators and specify stainless steel in the foreshore zone was a welcome one. “I believe we will see this initiative mirrored by other councils and government bodies in the near future,” Mr Matheson said.

the material will offer long-term cost savings and extend the life of the product. This is why ASSDA places so much emphasis on education and technical expertise – Councils and other government bodies need to get it right the first time and ensure value for money for their constituents.” Mr Conolly said for long term structures, stainless steel was becoming the default specification in the foreshore zone and the trend was even moving inland. “We’re asking the question: what will look and perform best from cradle to grave? It’s making people think differently,” he said.

Gold Coast Q1 building riddled with corrosion An article published in the Brisbane Times on April 29, 2011 reported that only six years after its completion, the Gold Coast Q1 building is allegedly riddled with corrosion. According to the article, the body corporate is suing luxury Queensland developer Sunland Group for millions of dollars worth of repairs to the 80-storey tower. Residents claim corrosion has already formed in Q1's conference and function room, entrance lobby, ground-floor canopy and ribbon structure and the tower's crown and 60-metre spire. The article said it is alleged the steel structure's protective coating was never applied correctly. On the outside, paint started peeling from steel beams, leaving them exposed and rusting. The body corporate is suing Sunland Group and its subsidiary Camryville for a "lack of duty of care about the construction of Q1". It is alleged

the companies failed to ensure the tower's steel frame was coated properly to protect it from corrosion. The article quoted a statement from the claim; "Q1 since construction has contained or developed defects in the coating system resulting in the coating breaking down and the subsequent corrosion of the steel surfaces at the top of Q1 and on steel work at ground floor level." The defect findings are based on a report prepared by Corrosion Material Engineering and Testing consultant Robin May, who found that the steel frame was coated twice rather than three times as required. The article reported that Mr May also discovered the coating was not applied properly in areas, "which has facilitated the retention of chlorides and moisture" in the steel structure, according to court documents. And that he also found that the protective coating on the tower's iconic spire has broken down creating an "unacceptable mottled appearance".

The article stated that Sunland managing director Sahba Abedian dismissed the allegations, saying the matter did not go the heart of the structural integrity of the building. "[The matter] goes to the cosmetic and aesthetic appearance. Obviously we are in discussions with the body corporate and the matter will be dealt with," he said. "At the end of the day it's fair to say that Sunland has conformed with the Building Services Authority requirements and accordingly has built a structure that is compliant with building codes and standards in the country”. "It goes to the heart of the aesthetics and obviously with all things in life there's a maintenance regime that needs to be upheld and that's something that will inevitably be dealt with."

“There is no doubt that informed specification and quality fabrication by people who know and understand www.corrosion.com.au

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

13


NEWS

Corrosion throughout WW2 wrecks threaten Micronesian environment On Tuesday 12th April 2011, ABC’s international current affairs program Foreign Correspondant aired a news story called ‘The Blue and the Black’ which featured ACA’s President Ian MacLeod. To view the full transcript and to watch the story online please refer to www.abc.net.au/foreign/ Below is a summary of the transcript of this story: It was one of the most dramatic and defining moments of a world at war. American fighter aircraft relentlessly strafing and bombing Japan’s naval stronghold in the western Pacific. When it was over – and it was over in a relative flash – 200 thousand tonnes of Japan’s mightiest sea power sat motionless on the bottom of what had been strategic bastion. 1,000 Japanese personnel were killed. The lagoon floor was transformed into a macabre and haunting graveyard of ships, aircraft, trucks and tanks. Over time and as the stark horror of that epic battle and tragic loss gradually subsided, Truk lagoon became a must see for war historians and recreational divers alike. It earned a reputation as the best collection of shipwrecks to dive anywhere in the world. Now, though, epic disaster threatens again. Within the rapidly rusting and deteriorating hulks lurk tonnes upon tonnes of thick black oil. It’s estimated there may be tens of millions of litres down there and according to some of the world’s best scientific knowhow, it’s likely to be disgorged in the next few years. Or even sooner should a storm fierce enough crack the fragile steel shells. “I think it will kill most of everything, because it can spread around the lagoon and kill things living on the

14 Corrosion & Materials

shore, kill anything under the ocean, I think it kill everything. I think my heart will be broken. I think my heart will be devastated.” Gradvin Aisek, Chuuk dive-master. Breaking this important environmental story for Foreign Correspondent, North Asia Correspondent Mark Willacy travelled to Chuuk with bureau cameraman Jun Matsuzono and underwater filming specialist Matt Guest to expose the scale and imminence of the threat and the total lack of action to prevent the disaster.

WILLACY: What America’s bombs despatched to the ocean floor over half a century ago, have transformed and amalgamated into one enormous ticking time bomb. These oily pebbled-sized blobs offer a clue but so far no-one has the answer for what’s quickly shaping as an environmental disaster. IAN MCLEOD: “The issue of the time bomb is essentially the trapped oil. To compare the Exxon Valdez with the wrecks in Chuuk Lagoon is not stretching the bow too far because the Exxon Valdez was basically out

A diver inspecting airplane parts in the hold of the Japanese aircraft transport, Fujikawa Maru.

in an open ocean environment or in an estuary area, Chuuk Lagoon is a coral reef system and to have the release, the sudden release of thousands of tonnes of toxic oil sludge onto these pristine shores would be utterly devastating and would ruin the whole island’s economy for generations to come”. WILLACY: Rusting silently among the wrecks of Chuuk Lagoon, these three massive Japanese tankers could be holding up to 32 million litres of oil. And already they’re slowly bleeding. GOVERNOR OF CHUUK WESLEY SIMINA: “We have about three tankers, that’s over several million gallons of oil capacity so imagine if one of them you know, kind of just split open and all the oil gushing out”. IAN MCLEOD: “If the volume of oil spread out like that in the coral lagoon, it would have a totally devastating effect on the environment. It would be worse than the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill”.

in a steam lance and you basically warm the oil up to the point where it’s mobile and then you suck it out”. SALVAGE EXPERT TONY TURNER: “By doing it with hot tapping it’s like keyhole surgery on your knee or something. It’s not a major incision, it’s just a small hole here, a small hole here and you’re averting a monumental disaster”. WILLACY: But this keyhole surgery comes with a multi-million dollar cost, one that impoverished Chuuk state could never afford. Home to about 57,000 people this Micronesian state would not survive without overseas aid and the trickle of tourist dollars from visiting divers. Chuuk can’t even afford to pump the water out of its potholes, let alone pay for pumping the oil out of its

wrecks and beyond the cost, there’s another major problem for any clean up operation. Technically these ships are a Japanese war grave – meaning they can’t be touched without permission from Tokyo. The Governor thinks both the Japanese and the Americans have a duty to prevent an environmental disaster. In a place where time has loped along at a very leisurely pace, there’s now a growing sense of urgency, that time may now be fast running out and the locals are in no doubt about the devastating consequences. WESLEY SIMINA: “We will not be able to stop it and that’s our worry because it’s not a question of if it will happen, just a question of time when that will happen”.

Reporter Mark Willacy and Chuuk dive master Gradvin Aisek examine the rusting hull

WILLACY: Despite the growing knowledge and the warnings, so far there’s no plan in place to deal with this unfolding drama. Even Japanese veterans of the attack believe action needs to be taken, particularly by their own government. But Japan is dealing with the massive impact of the recent earthquake and tsunami and a solution is certainly beyond the economic wherewithal of the Chuuk administration. WILLACY: The big question is how to get the oil out of the wrecks. There aren’t a lot of options and the one that looks most effective is a process called ‘hot tapping’. It’s also very expensive.

The operating table in the sick bay of the Shinkoku Maru, a Japanese cargo ship sunk during World War II.

IAN MCLEOD: “The problem for Chuuk is it’s a poor country and what they need is a team of experts to come in who are specialists in preservation of shipwrecks and also in hot tapping the oil out of shipwrecks. That’s when you go and drill holes in the vessels and you put www.corrosion.com.au

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

15


NEWS

Corrosion throughout WW2 wrecks threaten Micronesian environment On Tuesday 12th April 2011, ABC’s international current affairs program Foreign Correspondant aired a news story called ‘The Blue and the Black’ which featured ACA’s President Ian MacLeod. To view the full transcript and to watch the story online please refer to www.abc.net.au/foreign/ Below is a summary of the transcript of this story: It was one of the most dramatic and defining moments of a world at war. American fighter aircraft relentlessly strafing and bombing Japan’s naval stronghold in the western Pacific. When it was over – and it was over in a relative flash – 200 thousand tonnes of Japan’s mightiest sea power sat motionless on the bottom of what had been strategic bastion. 1,000 Japanese personnel were killed. The lagoon floor was transformed into a macabre and haunting graveyard of ships, aircraft, trucks and tanks. Over time and as the stark horror of that epic battle and tragic loss gradually subsided, Truk lagoon became a must see for war historians and recreational divers alike. It earned a reputation as the best collection of shipwrecks to dive anywhere in the world. Now, though, epic disaster threatens again. Within the rapidly rusting and deteriorating hulks lurk tonnes upon tonnes of thick black oil. It’s estimated there may be tens of millions of litres down there and according to some of the world’s best scientific knowhow, it’s likely to be disgorged in the next few years. Or even sooner should a storm fierce enough crack the fragile steel shells. “I think it will kill most of everything, because it can spread around the lagoon and kill things living on the

14 Corrosion & Materials

shore, kill anything under the ocean, I think it kill everything. I think my heart will be broken. I think my heart will be devastated.” Gradvin Aisek, Chuuk dive-master. Breaking this important environmental story for Foreign Correspondent, North Asia Correspondent Mark Willacy travelled to Chuuk with bureau cameraman Jun Matsuzono and underwater filming specialist Matt Guest to expose the scale and imminence of the threat and the total lack of action to prevent the disaster.

WILLACY: What America’s bombs despatched to the ocean floor over half a century ago, have transformed and amalgamated into one enormous ticking time bomb. These oily pebbled-sized blobs offer a clue but so far no-one has the answer for what’s quickly shaping as an environmental disaster. IAN MCLEOD: “The issue of the time bomb is essentially the trapped oil. To compare the Exxon Valdez with the wrecks in Chuuk Lagoon is not stretching the bow too far because the Exxon Valdez was basically out

A diver inspecting airplane parts in the hold of the Japanese aircraft transport, Fujikawa Maru.

in an open ocean environment or in an estuary area, Chuuk Lagoon is a coral reef system and to have the release, the sudden release of thousands of tonnes of toxic oil sludge onto these pristine shores would be utterly devastating and would ruin the whole island’s economy for generations to come”. WILLACY: Rusting silently among the wrecks of Chuuk Lagoon, these three massive Japanese tankers could be holding up to 32 million litres of oil. And already they’re slowly bleeding. GOVERNOR OF CHUUK WESLEY SIMINA: “We have about three tankers, that’s over several million gallons of oil capacity so imagine if one of them you know, kind of just split open and all the oil gushing out”. IAN MCLEOD: “If the volume of oil spread out like that in the coral lagoon, it would have a totally devastating effect on the environment. It would be worse than the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill”.

in a steam lance and you basically warm the oil up to the point where it’s mobile and then you suck it out”. SALVAGE EXPERT TONY TURNER: “By doing it with hot tapping it’s like keyhole surgery on your knee or something. It’s not a major incision, it’s just a small hole here, a small hole here and you’re averting a monumental disaster”. WILLACY: But this keyhole surgery comes with a multi-million dollar cost, one that impoverished Chuuk state could never afford. Home to about 57,000 people this Micronesian state would not survive without overseas aid and the trickle of tourist dollars from visiting divers. Chuuk can’t even afford to pump the water out of its potholes, let alone pay for pumping the oil out of its

wrecks and beyond the cost, there’s another major problem for any clean up operation. Technically these ships are a Japanese war grave – meaning they can’t be touched without permission from Tokyo. The Governor thinks both the Japanese and the Americans have a duty to prevent an environmental disaster. In a place where time has loped along at a very leisurely pace, there’s now a growing sense of urgency, that time may now be fast running out and the locals are in no doubt about the devastating consequences. WESLEY SIMINA: “We will not be able to stop it and that’s our worry because it’s not a question of if it will happen, just a question of time when that will happen”.

Reporter Mark Willacy and Chuuk dive master Gradvin Aisek examine the rusting hull

WILLACY: Despite the growing knowledge and the warnings, so far there’s no plan in place to deal with this unfolding drama. Even Japanese veterans of the attack believe action needs to be taken, particularly by their own government. But Japan is dealing with the massive impact of the recent earthquake and tsunami and a solution is certainly beyond the economic wherewithal of the Chuuk administration. WILLACY: The big question is how to get the oil out of the wrecks. There aren’t a lot of options and the one that looks most effective is a process called ‘hot tapping’. It’s also very expensive.

The operating table in the sick bay of the Shinkoku Maru, a Japanese cargo ship sunk during World War II.

IAN MCLEOD: “The problem for Chuuk is it’s a poor country and what they need is a team of experts to come in who are specialists in preservation of shipwrecks and also in hot tapping the oil out of shipwrecks. That’s when you go and drill holes in the vessels and you put www.corrosion.com.au

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

15


ACA Seminar

NEWS

ACA welcomes new members Corporate Members ArmorGalv (www.armorgalv.com.au) ArmorGalv has brought Thermal Diffusion Galvanizing technology to Australia for the first time. The process creates a zinc/iron alloy coating which is almost identical to hot dip galvanizing alloy layers but without the free zinc Eta layer. The first plant began operation in Newcastle last year. Holmes Consulting in NZ (www.holmesgroup.com) Holmes Consulting Group is a specialist structural engineering consultancy with offices in five locations in New Zealand and a sister company in San Francisco. They specialise in earthquake engineering, speciality analysis and structural performance, providing solutions in New Zealand and around the world. Industrial Composite Contractors (www.iccgroup.com.au) ICC uses intelligent composite solutions for structural remediation and strengthening of steel and concrete assets affected by corrosion. ICC has adapted aerospace products and processes for industrial uses in the oil & gas, mining and infrastructure sectors. In most cases the use of composite materials offers distinct benefits; they are corrosion resistant, they are lighter to install and are typically a cost competitive way to tackle corrosion related structural problems. Keppel Prince (www.keppelprince.com.au) Keppel Prince Engineering specialises in the construction, fabrication and maintenance of industrial structures and equipment. From wind farms to plant maintenance, the team of 425 professionals offer new solutions to build and maintain a sustainable future for clients, the environment and the community.

16 Corrosion & Materials

Link Water (www.linkwater.com.au) LinkWater, the Queensland Bulk Water Transport Authority, is the Queensland Government statutory authority responsible for the management, operation and maintenance of potable bulk water pipelines and related infrastructure throughout South East Queensland (SEQ). As the network controller for the SEQ Water Grid, LinkWater’s mission is to move water to where it’s needed most. North Australian Centre for Oil and Gas, Charles Darwin University (www.cdu.edu.au/engit/) Charles Darwin University with the support of the Northern Territory Government, is establishing the North Australian Centre for Oil and Gas. The Centre will be a one-stopshop for the industry, providing training and education programs, together with a tactical and strategic research capability targeted at the specific needs of operation in the region. The Centre will also facilitate community engagement with the industry to encourage training and employment in the industry.

Welding & Water Technical Group joint seminar Valicote (www.valicote.com.au) Valicote provide corrosion control and prevention services to both the local and national heavy engineering, marine, pipeline and structural steel fabrication industries. Valicote is located in Gippsland, Victoria where they own and operate a large modern, all weather, integrated abrasive blast cleaning and coating facility and service which commenced in April 1987.

Individual Members Mark Arundell of SkillsTech Australia Matthew Boyle Mac Brooksbank of High Octane Management Rainier Catubig of Deakin University Tol Chumak of Parlin Mathew Davenport of Neptune Marine Services Scott Donaldson of Bechtel Lisa Maree De Fina of Caltex NSW Thomas Hill of Leighton Contractors Martin Janky of Beca Dominique Juif

An early activity of the Centre will be in the area of corrosion since corrosion is a major issue for any petrochemical plant and its infrastructure. The research will encompass corrosion mitigation and modelling, remaining life assessment, evaluation of newer materials and processing and fabrication techniques to address maintenance of infrastructure.

Marcus Lye of Austpower Engineering

RPG Australia (www.rpgaustralia.com.au) RPG Australia is an Australian owned leading heavy steel processing and manufacturing company that specialises in the delivery of Integrated Steel Solutions within the Mining, Engineering & Infrastructure, Renewable Energy, Oil & Gas, Defence and Manufacturing sectors.

Steve Wilkes of Snr Soda Abrasive & Coating (QLD) Pty Ltd

Pedro Palejko of S & L Steel Mitch Pelling of Acor Consultants David Russell of FLSmidth Chis Scales Nick Sutter of Asset Integrity Australasia Lewis Sutton of Industrial Galvanizers

Student Members Lokesh Kumar Choudhary of Monash University Mahesh B Venkataraman of Monash University

The ACA recently facilitated a joint seminar for its Welding, Joining & Corrosion and Water & Water Treatment Technical Groups entitled Welding and Joining in Water Industry Applications – A Focus on Stainless Steel. Eight speakers plus 41 delegates from four States attended the seminar held in Melbourne on 12th April 2011. Below is a synopsis of each of the presentations. If ACA members would like to purchase the presentation notes, please contact Wesley Fawaz at wesley.fawaz@corrosion.com.au Selecting Stainless Steels for Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants Sarah Furman, Materials and Corrosion Advisor, AECOM Seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants provide a number of challenging exposure environments with respect to durability performance of process and construction materials. Long term durability requirements in these environments can often be met with a selection of appropriate grades of stainless steels. This presentation will outline the materials selection philosophy and the considerations that need to be given to joining and surface finishing to optimise durability. The Traps and Foibles of Using Stainless Steel Roof Support Columns in Large Potable Water Supply Tanks Stuart Smith, Senior Asset Manager, Melbourne Water Melbourne Water has historically used mild steel for the construction of roof supports for its large water tanks. Most of these were built from the late 1960’s to mid 1980’s and are now due for refurbishment. Stainless steel was selected as the replacement material, and the preferred material for any new tanks. The implementation, however, has not been without its issues.

www.corrosion.com.au

Maximising Asset Performance by Astute Management of Welding Activities Paul Vince, Principal Materials Engineer, SA Water In 2004 SA Water commenced a review of their welding specifications and activities. The outcomes resulted in significant changes to the SA Water welding specification and a process of training and education of welding personnel. This presentation provides an insight to the lessons learned on the journey and provides guidance for the welding interests of a large water authority. The Use of Flexible Liners and Covers in the Australian Water Industry Greg Moore, Materials Specialist, Moore Materials Technology Flexible liners and covers are used by the Australian and other water industries to store drinking water. The same technology is also used for the containment of other materials such as landfill and other waste materials but the use in the water industry where lined storages used in conjunction with floating covers brings its own set of performance and operational requirements. A number of cases have emerged where some materials, particularly floating covers, are requiring replacement in 5 – 10 years which is well before their design life. This presentation discusses the liner and cover material types, their performance, modes of failure and some specific water industry issues. Stainless Steel Selection in Atmospheric and Immersed Environments Rob Francis, Corrosion and Coatings Advisor, Aurecon There is a large number of types of stainless steel on the market and correct selection can be difficult. This presentation looks at the main types, their corrosion and mechanical properties and where they can and cannot be used.

Stainless Steel: Some Alternative Grade Options Peter Moore, Technical and Quality Manager, Atlas Steels Some less commonly used grades of stainless steel are discussed as alternatives to the water industry standards of 304, 316 and 2205. Grades specifically discussed are the 20% Cr and 444 ferritics and the emerging lean duplex grades. The martensitic grade 431 and 12% Cr ferritic grades are also mentioned as grades with established niche applications in the water industry. Design & Fabrication for Corrosion Resistance – A Fabricator’s View Tom Mackerras, National Engineering Manager, A&G Engineering This presentation will look at the types and causes of corrosion in fabricated stainless steel tanks and pipes. Key design and fabrication issues are identified and recommendations made to reduce the potential for corrosion to occur. What Welding Does to Stainless Steel - and How to Fix it Graham Sussex, Technical Specialist, ASSDA Stainless steel's corrosion resistance depends on the surface film, its roughness and chemical cleanliness. All these are disturbed by welding and the microstructure may also be degraded by precipitates or segregation. Control of the microstructure requires good weld procedures but the surface can be restored by chemical, mechanical or combined treatments. Smooth and clean is best. The ACA takes this opportunity to thank the presenters and their companies for taking the time to support this ACA event.

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

17


ACA Seminar

NEWS

ACA welcomes new members Corporate Members ArmorGalv (www.armorgalv.com.au) ArmorGalv has brought Thermal Diffusion Galvanizing technology to Australia for the first time. The process creates a zinc/iron alloy coating which is almost identical to hot dip galvanizing alloy layers but without the free zinc Eta layer. The first plant began operation in Newcastle last year. Holmes Consulting in NZ (www.holmesgroup.com) Holmes Consulting Group is a specialist structural engineering consultancy with offices in five locations in New Zealand and a sister company in San Francisco. They specialise in earthquake engineering, speciality analysis and structural performance, providing solutions in New Zealand and around the world. Industrial Composite Contractors (www.iccgroup.com.au) ICC uses intelligent composite solutions for structural remediation and strengthening of steel and concrete assets affected by corrosion. ICC has adapted aerospace products and processes for industrial uses in the oil & gas, mining and infrastructure sectors. In most cases the use of composite materials offers distinct benefits; they are corrosion resistant, they are lighter to install and are typically a cost competitive way to tackle corrosion related structural problems. Keppel Prince (www.keppelprince.com.au) Keppel Prince Engineering specialises in the construction, fabrication and maintenance of industrial structures and equipment. From wind farms to plant maintenance, the team of 425 professionals offer new solutions to build and maintain a sustainable future for clients, the environment and the community.

16 Corrosion & Materials

Link Water (www.linkwater.com.au) LinkWater, the Queensland Bulk Water Transport Authority, is the Queensland Government statutory authority responsible for the management, operation and maintenance of potable bulk water pipelines and related infrastructure throughout South East Queensland (SEQ). As the network controller for the SEQ Water Grid, LinkWater’s mission is to move water to where it’s needed most. North Australian Centre for Oil and Gas, Charles Darwin University (www.cdu.edu.au/engit/) Charles Darwin University with the support of the Northern Territory Government, is establishing the North Australian Centre for Oil and Gas. The Centre will be a one-stopshop for the industry, providing training and education programs, together with a tactical and strategic research capability targeted at the specific needs of operation in the region. The Centre will also facilitate community engagement with the industry to encourage training and employment in the industry.

Welding & Water Technical Group joint seminar Valicote (www.valicote.com.au) Valicote provide corrosion control and prevention services to both the local and national heavy engineering, marine, pipeline and structural steel fabrication industries. Valicote is located in Gippsland, Victoria where they own and operate a large modern, all weather, integrated abrasive blast cleaning and coating facility and service which commenced in April 1987.

Individual Members Mark Arundell of SkillsTech Australia Matthew Boyle Mac Brooksbank of High Octane Management Rainier Catubig of Deakin University Tol Chumak of Parlin Mathew Davenport of Neptune Marine Services Scott Donaldson of Bechtel Lisa Maree De Fina of Caltex NSW Thomas Hill of Leighton Contractors Martin Janky of Beca Dominique Juif

An early activity of the Centre will be in the area of corrosion since corrosion is a major issue for any petrochemical plant and its infrastructure. The research will encompass corrosion mitigation and modelling, remaining life assessment, evaluation of newer materials and processing and fabrication techniques to address maintenance of infrastructure.

Marcus Lye of Austpower Engineering

RPG Australia (www.rpgaustralia.com.au) RPG Australia is an Australian owned leading heavy steel processing and manufacturing company that specialises in the delivery of Integrated Steel Solutions within the Mining, Engineering & Infrastructure, Renewable Energy, Oil & Gas, Defence and Manufacturing sectors.

Steve Wilkes of Snr Soda Abrasive & Coating (QLD) Pty Ltd

Pedro Palejko of S & L Steel Mitch Pelling of Acor Consultants David Russell of FLSmidth Chis Scales Nick Sutter of Asset Integrity Australasia Lewis Sutton of Industrial Galvanizers

Student Members Lokesh Kumar Choudhary of Monash University Mahesh B Venkataraman of Monash University

The ACA recently facilitated a joint seminar for its Welding, Joining & Corrosion and Water & Water Treatment Technical Groups entitled Welding and Joining in Water Industry Applications – A Focus on Stainless Steel. Eight speakers plus 41 delegates from four States attended the seminar held in Melbourne on 12th April 2011. Below is a synopsis of each of the presentations. If ACA members would like to purchase the presentation notes, please contact Wesley Fawaz at wesley.fawaz@corrosion.com.au Selecting Stainless Steels for Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants Sarah Furman, Materials and Corrosion Advisor, AECOM Seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants provide a number of challenging exposure environments with respect to durability performance of process and construction materials. Long term durability requirements in these environments can often be met with a selection of appropriate grades of stainless steels. This presentation will outline the materials selection philosophy and the considerations that need to be given to joining and surface finishing to optimise durability. The Traps and Foibles of Using Stainless Steel Roof Support Columns in Large Potable Water Supply Tanks Stuart Smith, Senior Asset Manager, Melbourne Water Melbourne Water has historically used mild steel for the construction of roof supports for its large water tanks. Most of these were built from the late 1960’s to mid 1980’s and are now due for refurbishment. Stainless steel was selected as the replacement material, and the preferred material for any new tanks. The implementation, however, has not been without its issues.

www.corrosion.com.au

Maximising Asset Performance by Astute Management of Welding Activities Paul Vince, Principal Materials Engineer, SA Water In 2004 SA Water commenced a review of their welding specifications and activities. The outcomes resulted in significant changes to the SA Water welding specification and a process of training and education of welding personnel. This presentation provides an insight to the lessons learned on the journey and provides guidance for the welding interests of a large water authority. The Use of Flexible Liners and Covers in the Australian Water Industry Greg Moore, Materials Specialist, Moore Materials Technology Flexible liners and covers are used by the Australian and other water industries to store drinking water. The same technology is also used for the containment of other materials such as landfill and other waste materials but the use in the water industry where lined storages used in conjunction with floating covers brings its own set of performance and operational requirements. A number of cases have emerged where some materials, particularly floating covers, are requiring replacement in 5 – 10 years which is well before their design life. This presentation discusses the liner and cover material types, their performance, modes of failure and some specific water industry issues. Stainless Steel Selection in Atmospheric and Immersed Environments Rob Francis, Corrosion and Coatings Advisor, Aurecon There is a large number of types of stainless steel on the market and correct selection can be difficult. This presentation looks at the main types, their corrosion and mechanical properties and where they can and cannot be used.

Stainless Steel: Some Alternative Grade Options Peter Moore, Technical and Quality Manager, Atlas Steels Some less commonly used grades of stainless steel are discussed as alternatives to the water industry standards of 304, 316 and 2205. Grades specifically discussed are the 20% Cr and 444 ferritics and the emerging lean duplex grades. The martensitic grade 431 and 12% Cr ferritic grades are also mentioned as grades with established niche applications in the water industry. Design & Fabrication for Corrosion Resistance – A Fabricator’s View Tom Mackerras, National Engineering Manager, A&G Engineering This presentation will look at the types and causes of corrosion in fabricated stainless steel tanks and pipes. Key design and fabrication issues are identified and recommendations made to reduce the potential for corrosion to occur. What Welding Does to Stainless Steel - and How to Fix it Graham Sussex, Technical Specialist, ASSDA Stainless steel's corrosion resistance depends on the surface film, its roughness and chemical cleanliness. All these are disturbed by welding and the microstructure may also be degraded by precipitates or segregation. Control of the microstructure requires good weld procedures but the surface can be restored by chemical, mechanical or combined treatments. Smooth and clean is best. The ACA takes this opportunity to thank the presenters and their companies for taking the time to support this ACA event.

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

17


ACA Auckland Division - Meeting Report A meeting of the Auckland Division was held on 27th April 2011 at The Landing hotel with the speaker being Mark Sigley, Senior Engineer, Asset Management, Watercare Services Ltd. Mark gave an update and overview of progress made by the NZ Electrolysis Committee (NZEC) since it was established in Auckland in 2010. Over the past year Mark has acted as Chairman of the NZEC Establishment Committee. The presentation commenced with a review of the types of electrolysis likely to be encountered on infrastructure, including DC traction railways, buried pipelines, AC power systems and AC railways. The AC rail issue is of particular importance to Auckland where electrification of the metro-rail is underway. Mark then outlined the purposes of the NZEC,

which is primarily being established as a Forum for owners whose assets are vulnerable to stray current corrosion (electrolysis). The NZEC is to be a network for consultation and discussion of various electrolysis issues between the asset owners. KiwiRail who own and operate the largest NZ rail system are one such large organisation that is being proactive with the new NZEC. The 2nd report of the NZEC Establishment Committee is due out in late May 2011. Mark highlighted some points that will be in the 2nd report, such as election of the permanent NZEC Committee members, holding a General Meeting, membership fees, and financial arrangements (estimates are between $K22-$K100 pa). The Committee has also received a letter

of acknowledgement regarding the NZEC formation from the NZ Government. Mark then described a likely operations structure for the NZEC, which could include an Executive Committee, a CP System Registrar’s Office and one or more Technical Sub-Committees. After one year since the inaugural NZEC Seminar, Mark concluded his presentation with some general observations: There are a number of organisations showing strong interest in the NZEC. There has been good progress made in the first year. The funding and support provided by ACA NZ Branch is appreciated.

Tasmania Branch May Technical Evening In excess of 30 people attended the Tasmanian Branch technical meeting on 11 May 2011 in Launceston. The topic for the meeting was “ALWC Management of Newcastle Port Structures” given by Warren Green of Vinsi Partners. Attendees included structure owners, consultants, suppliers, contractors and a number of students from the Australian Maritime College. Drinks and nibbles preceded the technical presentation and chairing of the evening was undertaken by Dean Wall. Newcastle Port Corporation (NPC) has a number of steel piled wharf, berth and jetty structures in Newcastle Harbour, NSW. The types of steel piles include tubular, H-section and sheet. In the past the rate of corrosion of steel piles

INDEPENDENT CORROSION ENGINEERS

in Newcastle Harbour has been so low that corrosion protection methods have not always been necessary. Some 2 - 3 years ago NPC maintenance staff observed “brightorange” localised corrosion of steel piles at around low water level and within the below water section of some steel piles. The bright orange build-up or “orange bloom” at or near low tide is of the characteristic appearance of accelerated low water corrosion or ALWC. “Orange bloom” has also been observed by divers below water and above the mud line of some steel piles.

the extent of occurrence of ALWC, hypothesised as to why ALWC all of a sudden has started occurring in Newcastle Harbour and outlined the remediation strategies that are being adopted to manage ALWC on NPC wharf, berth and jetty structures. Structural pile repairs have been necessary to one berth structure due to ALWC and details were provided. Prior to the onset of ALWC, the steel piles of one NPC wharf structure were wrapped with a petrolatumbased system. The performance of this system against ALWC was raised. The protective performance of cathodic protection on other steel piled structures in Newcastle Harbour was also discussed.

The presentation outlined the findings of regular inspections and diver surveys of steel piles,

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Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

19


ACA Auckland Division - Meeting Report A meeting of the Auckland Division was held on 27th April 2011 at The Landing hotel with the speaker being Mark Sigley, Senior Engineer, Asset Management, Watercare Services Ltd. Mark gave an update and overview of progress made by the NZ Electrolysis Committee (NZEC) since it was established in Auckland in 2010. Over the past year Mark has acted as Chairman of the NZEC Establishment Committee. The presentation commenced with a review of the types of electrolysis likely to be encountered on infrastructure, including DC traction railways, buried pipelines, AC power systems and AC railways. The AC rail issue is of particular importance to Auckland where electrification of the metro-rail is underway. Mark then outlined the purposes of the NZEC,

which is primarily being established as a Forum for owners whose assets are vulnerable to stray current corrosion (electrolysis). The NZEC is to be a network for consultation and discussion of various electrolysis issues between the asset owners. KiwiRail who own and operate the largest NZ rail system are one such large organisation that is being proactive with the new NZEC. The 2nd report of the NZEC Establishment Committee is due out in late May 2011. Mark highlighted some points that will be in the 2nd report, such as election of the permanent NZEC Committee members, holding a General Meeting, membership fees, and financial arrangements (estimates are between $K22-$K100 pa). The Committee has also received a letter

of acknowledgement regarding the NZEC formation from the NZ Government. Mark then described a likely operations structure for the NZEC, which could include an Executive Committee, a CP System Registrar’s Office and one or more Technical Sub-Committees. After one year since the inaugural NZEC Seminar, Mark concluded his presentation with some general observations: There are a number of organisations showing strong interest in the NZEC. There has been good progress made in the first year. The funding and support provided by ACA NZ Branch is appreciated.

Tasmania Branch May Technical Evening In excess of 30 people attended the Tasmanian Branch technical meeting on 11 May 2011 in Launceston. The topic for the meeting was “ALWC Management of Newcastle Port Structures” given by Warren Green of Vinsi Partners. Attendees included structure owners, consultants, suppliers, contractors and a number of students from the Australian Maritime College. Drinks and nibbles preceded the technical presentation and chairing of the evening was undertaken by Dean Wall. Newcastle Port Corporation (NPC) has a number of steel piled wharf, berth and jetty structures in Newcastle Harbour, NSW. The types of steel piles include tubular, H-section and sheet. In the past the rate of corrosion of steel piles

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in Newcastle Harbour has been so low that corrosion protection methods have not always been necessary. Some 2 - 3 years ago NPC maintenance staff observed “brightorange” localised corrosion of steel piles at around low water level and within the below water section of some steel piles. The bright orange build-up or “orange bloom” at or near low tide is of the characteristic appearance of accelerated low water corrosion or ALWC. “Orange bloom” has also been observed by divers below water and above the mud line of some steel piles.

the extent of occurrence of ALWC, hypothesised as to why ALWC all of a sudden has started occurring in Newcastle Harbour and outlined the remediation strategies that are being adopted to manage ALWC on NPC wharf, berth and jetty structures. Structural pile repairs have been necessary to one berth structure due to ALWC and details were provided. Prior to the onset of ALWC, the steel piles of one NPC wharf structure were wrapped with a petrolatumbased system. The performance of this system against ALWC was raised. The protective performance of cathodic protection on other steel piled structures in Newcastle Harbour was also discussed.

The presentation outlined the findings of regular inspections and diver surveys of steel piles,

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Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

19


ACA Standards Officer Arthur Austin has prepared a schedule of the latest standards developments. This year the report will comprise two parts; a search of SAI GLOBAL Publications at https://infostore.saiglobal.com/ store as previously for new standards, amendments and drafts, and a search for all current publications and standards relating to one of the ACA Technical Groups. This issue will have a focus on the Petroleum & Chemical Processing Industry Technical Group.

key word groups: durability corrosion or corrosivity or corrosive; but not anodizing or anodize(d) paint or coating; but not anodizing or anodize(d) galvanize or galvanized or galvanizing cathode or cathodic

A search of SAI Global for new standards, amendments or drafts published between 24th March to 23rd May 2011 as AS, AS/NZS, EN, ANSI, ASTM, BSI, DIN, ETSI, JSA, NSAI, and standards and amendments for ISO & IEC, was conducted using the key words and

anode or anodic electrochemical or electrolysis or electroplated corrosion and concrete, or concrete and coatings

Through SAIGLOBAL Publications at https://infostore.saiglobal.com/ store there were 21 publications found from SA/SNZ (see Table 1) against a titles search ‘Gas and Corrosion’ and for ‘Petroleum’ in titles and ‘Corrosion’ in the text. A Subject Search on ‘petroleum corrosion’ gave 101 results and on ‘gas corrosion’ gave 154 results (Table 2). There were 146 citations against a search for ‘concrete and corrosion’ with no directly related AS or AS/NZS standards. A total of 47 listings of new standards, drafts and amendments, were found issued from to 24th March 2011 to 23rd May (Table 3). A copy of the full report can be downloaded from the ACA’s website www.corosion.com.au

Table 2. Subject searches by publisher Subject search on “petroleum corrosion” National Standards Authority of Ireland - 9

Osterreichisches Normungsinstitut - 5

Comite Europeen de Normalisation - 8

Standardiserings-Kommissionen I Sverige - 5

International Organization for Standardization - 7

Swiss Standards - 5

British Standards Institution – 6

Asociacion Espanola de Normalizacion – 4

Italian Standards - 6

NACE International – 4

Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut - 6

Interstandard (Russia) - 3

Polish Committee for Standardization - 6

American Society for Testing and Materials - 2

Association Francaise de Normalisation - 5

Standardization Administration of China - 2

Belgian Standards - 5

Bureau of Indian Standard

German Institute for Standardisation (Deutsches Institut für Normung) - 5 Energy Institute (formerly Institute of Petroleum) -1 Norwegian Standards (Norges Standardiseringsforbund) - 5

Ford Motor Company - 1

Subject search on “gas corrosion” National Standards Authority of Ireland - 12

American Society for Testing and Materials – 3

Association Francaise de Normalisation - 9

Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano -3

British Standards Institution - 9

European Committee for Standards - Electrical - 3

Standardiserings-Kommissionen I Sverige – 9

International Electrotechnical Committee - 3

Japanese Standards Association - 8

Society of Automotive Engineers – 3

Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut - 8

Standardization Administration of China - 3

Table 1. Report on SAIGLOBAL Publications at https://infostore.saiglobal.com/store, for all current publications and standards relating to “petroleum or gas and corrosion” for the “Petroleum & Chemical Processing Industry” Technical Group

Osterreichisches Normungsinstitut - 8

US Military Specs/Standards/Handbooks - 2

Belgian Standards - 7

Wirtschafts und Verlagsgesellschaft Gas und Wasser - 2

Key word search for title ‘Gas and Corrosion’; 1 result

Comite Europeen de Normalisation - 7

Brazilian Standards - 1

AS 60068.2.60-2003

German Institute for Standardisation (Deutsches Institut für Normung) - 7 Compressed Gas Association - 1

Environmental testing - Tests - Test Ke: Flowing mixed gas corrosion test

For Search for ‘Petroleum’ in Titles and ‘Corrosion’ in the Text; 20 results

International Organization for Standardization - 7

Engineering Equipment Material Users Association - 1

AS/NZS 1869:1996

Hose and hose assemblies for liquefied petroleum gases (LP Gas), natural gas and town gas

Polish Committee for Standardization - 7

Interstandard (Russia) -1

AS 1960.1- 2005

Motor vehicle brake fluids - Non-petroleum type

Swiss Standards – 7

Standards Australia - 1

AS 2117-1991

Hose and hose assemblies for petroleum and petroleum products - Marine suction and discharge

Italian Standards - 5

UK Ministry of Defence standards - 1

AS 2520-1981

Petroleum measurement tables

NACE International - 5

Verband der Automobilindustrie e.V. -1

AS 2683-2000

Hose and hose assemblies for distribution of petroleum and petroleum products (excepting LPG)

Asociacion Espanola de Normalizacion - 4

Verlag des Vereins Deutscher Ingenieure -1

AS 2885.0-2008 AS 2885.1-2007

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - General requirements

Norwegian Standards (Norges Standardiseringsforbund) – 4

VGB Power Tech Service GmbH - 1

And Amdt 1-2009

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Design and construction

Association Francaise de Normalisation – 12

AS 2885.2-2007

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding

German Institute for Standardisation (Deutsches Institut für Normung) – 12 Swiss Standards – 6

AS 2885.3-2001

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Operation and maintenance

British Standards Institution – 11

American Society for Testing and Materials – 5

AS 2885.4-2010

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Submarine pipeline systems

Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut – 11

Asociacion Espanola de Normalizacion – 5

AS 2885.5-2002

Pipelines-Gas and liquid petroleum - Field pressure testing

Italian Standards – 7

International Organization for Standardization – 5

AS 4621-2004

Regulators for use with liquefied petroleum - Vapour phase

Belgian Standards – 6

Standardization Administration of China – 5

AS 4897-2008

The design, installation and operation of underground petroleum storage systems

Comite Europeen de Normalisation – 6

NACE International – 2

AS 4971-2008

Inspection and integrity monitoring of large steel vertical petroleum storage tanks

National Standards Authority of Ireland – 6

Society of Automotive Engineers – 2

AS 4976-2008

The removal and disposal of underground petroleum storage tanks

Norwegian Standards (Norges Standardiseringsforbund) – 6

Bureau of Indian Standard – 1

DR AS 2885.3

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Part 3: Operation and maintenance

Osterreichisches Normungsinstitut – 6

Interstandard (Russia) – 1

DR AS/NZS 2885.5

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Part 5: Field pressure testing

Polish Committee for Standardization – 6

Standards Australia – 1

NZS 5435:1996 And Amdt 1-1996

Specification for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

To access these publications, go to https://infostore.saiglobal.com/store and type ‘coatings and corrosion’ into the search box and examine the search results.

20 Corrosion & Materials

Subject search on “chemical corrosion”

www.corrosion.com.au

Standardiserings-Kommissionen I Sverige – 6

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

21


ACA Standards Officer Arthur Austin has prepared a schedule of the latest standards developments. This year the report will comprise two parts; a search of SAI GLOBAL Publications at https://infostore.saiglobal.com/ store as previously for new standards, amendments and drafts, and a search for all current publications and standards relating to one of the ACA Technical Groups. This issue will have a focus on the Petroleum & Chemical Processing Industry Technical Group.

key word groups: durability corrosion or corrosivity or corrosive; but not anodizing or anodize(d) paint or coating; but not anodizing or anodize(d) galvanize or galvanized or galvanizing cathode or cathodic

A search of SAI Global for new standards, amendments or drafts published between 24th March to 23rd May 2011 as AS, AS/NZS, EN, ANSI, ASTM, BSI, DIN, ETSI, JSA, NSAI, and standards and amendments for ISO & IEC, was conducted using the key words and

anode or anodic electrochemical or electrolysis or electroplated corrosion and concrete, or concrete and coatings

Through SAIGLOBAL Publications at https://infostore.saiglobal.com/ store there were 21 publications found from SA/SNZ (see Table 1) against a titles search ‘Gas and Corrosion’ and for ‘Petroleum’ in titles and ‘Corrosion’ in the text. A Subject Search on ‘petroleum corrosion’ gave 101 results and on ‘gas corrosion’ gave 154 results (Table 2). There were 146 citations against a search for ‘concrete and corrosion’ with no directly related AS or AS/NZS standards. A total of 47 listings of new standards, drafts and amendments, were found issued from to 24th March 2011 to 23rd May (Table 3). A copy of the full report can be downloaded from the ACA’s website www.corosion.com.au

Table 2. Subject searches by publisher Subject search on “petroleum corrosion” National Standards Authority of Ireland - 9

Osterreichisches Normungsinstitut - 5

Comite Europeen de Normalisation - 8

Standardiserings-Kommissionen I Sverige - 5

International Organization for Standardization - 7

Swiss Standards - 5

British Standards Institution – 6

Asociacion Espanola de Normalizacion – 4

Italian Standards - 6

NACE International – 4

Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut - 6

Interstandard (Russia) - 3

Polish Committee for Standardization - 6

American Society for Testing and Materials - 2

Association Francaise de Normalisation - 5

Standardization Administration of China - 2

Belgian Standards - 5

Bureau of Indian Standard

German Institute for Standardisation (Deutsches Institut für Normung) - 5 Energy Institute (formerly Institute of Petroleum) -1 Norwegian Standards (Norges Standardiseringsforbund) - 5

Ford Motor Company - 1

Subject search on “gas corrosion” National Standards Authority of Ireland - 12

American Society for Testing and Materials – 3

Association Francaise de Normalisation - 9

Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano -3

British Standards Institution - 9

European Committee for Standards - Electrical - 3

Standardiserings-Kommissionen I Sverige – 9

International Electrotechnical Committee - 3

Japanese Standards Association - 8

Society of Automotive Engineers – 3

Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut - 8

Standardization Administration of China - 3

Table 1. Report on SAIGLOBAL Publications at https://infostore.saiglobal.com/store, for all current publications and standards relating to “petroleum or gas and corrosion” for the “Petroleum & Chemical Processing Industry” Technical Group

Osterreichisches Normungsinstitut - 8

US Military Specs/Standards/Handbooks - 2

Belgian Standards - 7

Wirtschafts und Verlagsgesellschaft Gas und Wasser - 2

Key word search for title ‘Gas and Corrosion’; 1 result

Comite Europeen de Normalisation - 7

Brazilian Standards - 1

AS 60068.2.60-2003

German Institute for Standardisation (Deutsches Institut für Normung) - 7 Compressed Gas Association - 1

Environmental testing - Tests - Test Ke: Flowing mixed gas corrosion test

For Search for ‘Petroleum’ in Titles and ‘Corrosion’ in the Text; 20 results

International Organization for Standardization - 7

Engineering Equipment Material Users Association - 1

AS/NZS 1869:1996

Hose and hose assemblies for liquefied petroleum gases (LP Gas), natural gas and town gas

Polish Committee for Standardization - 7

Interstandard (Russia) -1

AS 1960.1- 2005

Motor vehicle brake fluids - Non-petroleum type

Swiss Standards – 7

Standards Australia - 1

AS 2117-1991

Hose and hose assemblies for petroleum and petroleum products - Marine suction and discharge

Italian Standards - 5

UK Ministry of Defence standards - 1

AS 2520-1981

Petroleum measurement tables

NACE International - 5

Verband der Automobilindustrie e.V. -1

AS 2683-2000

Hose and hose assemblies for distribution of petroleum and petroleum products (excepting LPG)

Asociacion Espanola de Normalizacion - 4

Verlag des Vereins Deutscher Ingenieure -1

AS 2885.0-2008 AS 2885.1-2007

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - General requirements

Norwegian Standards (Norges Standardiseringsforbund) – 4

VGB Power Tech Service GmbH - 1

And Amdt 1-2009

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Design and construction

Association Francaise de Normalisation – 12

AS 2885.2-2007

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding

German Institute for Standardisation (Deutsches Institut für Normung) – 12 Swiss Standards – 6

AS 2885.3-2001

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Operation and maintenance

British Standards Institution – 11

American Society for Testing and Materials – 5

AS 2885.4-2010

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Submarine pipeline systems

Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut – 11

Asociacion Espanola de Normalizacion – 5

AS 2885.5-2002

Pipelines-Gas and liquid petroleum - Field pressure testing

Italian Standards – 7

International Organization for Standardization – 5

AS 4621-2004

Regulators for use with liquefied petroleum - Vapour phase

Belgian Standards – 6

Standardization Administration of China – 5

AS 4897-2008

The design, installation and operation of underground petroleum storage systems

Comite Europeen de Normalisation – 6

NACE International – 2

AS 4971-2008

Inspection and integrity monitoring of large steel vertical petroleum storage tanks

National Standards Authority of Ireland – 6

Society of Automotive Engineers – 2

AS 4976-2008

The removal and disposal of underground petroleum storage tanks

Norwegian Standards (Norges Standardiseringsforbund) – 6

Bureau of Indian Standard – 1

DR AS 2885.3

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Part 3: Operation and maintenance

Osterreichisches Normungsinstitut – 6

Interstandard (Russia) – 1

DR AS/NZS 2885.5

Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Part 5: Field pressure testing

Polish Committee for Standardization – 6

Standards Australia – 1

NZS 5435:1996 And Amdt 1-1996

Specification for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

To access these publications, go to https://infostore.saiglobal.com/store and type ‘coatings and corrosion’ into the search box and examine the search results.

20 Corrosion & Materials

Subject search on “chemical corrosion”

www.corrosion.com.au

Standardiserings-Kommissionen I Sverige – 6

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

21


Standards Update

Table 3. New standards, amendments or drafts for AS, AS/NZS, EN, ANSI, ASTM, BSI, DIN, ETSI, JSA, NSAI and standards or amendments for ISO & IEC PUBLISHED between 24 March to 23 May 2011

ISO/DIS 10683

Fasteners - Non-electrolytically applied zinc flake coatings

ISO/DIS 20567-3

Paints and varnishes - Determination of stone-chip resistance of coatings - Part 3: Single-impact test with a free-flying impact body

I.S. EN 15812:2011

Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Determination of Crack Bridging Ability

Key word search on ‘corrosion’ or ‘corrosivity’ or ‘corrosive’; but not ‘anodizing’ or ‘anodize(d)’- 9 citations in all –1 AS/NZS citations but for optics not corrosion related

I.S. EN 15813:2011

Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Determination of Flexibility at low Temperatures

ISO 29601:2011

Paints and varnishes - Corrosion protection by protective paint systems - Assessment of porosity in a dry film

I.S. EN 15815:2011

Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Resistance to Compression

11/30239485 DC BS EN 10025-5.

Hot rolled products of structural steels. Part 5. Technical delivery conditions for structural steels with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance

I.S. EN 15816:2011

Polymer-modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Resistance to Rain

I.S. EN 15817:2011

Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Water Resistance Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Determination of Dimensional Stability at High Temperature

Key word search on ‘durability’.- 1 IEC citations found IEC 60512-9-4 Ed. 1.0 (Bilingual 2011)

Connectors for electronic equipment - Tests and measurements - Part 9-4: Endurance tests - Test 9d: Durability of contact retention system and seals (maintenance, ageing)

BS ISO 5952:2011

Continuously hot-rolled steel sheet of structural quality with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance

I.S. EN 15818:2011

BS 8436:2011

Electric cables. Specification for 300/500 V screened electric cables having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases when affected by fire, for use in walls, partitions and building voids. Multicore cables

I.S. EN 15819:2011

Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Reduction of the Thickness of the Layer When Fully Dried

I.S. EN 15820:2011

Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Determination of Watertightness

BS EN ISO 8994:2011

Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys. Rating system for the evaluation of pitting corrosion. Grid method

I.S. EN ISO 28722:2011

Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Characteristics of Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel Panels Intended for Architecture

JIS G 3125:2010

Superior atmospheric corrosion resisting rolled steels Aerospace series - Bearing spherical plain, metal to metal in corrosion resisting steel - Wide series Dimensions and loads - Inch series; German and English version FprEN 4265:2010

11/30229160 DC BS EN ISO 10683.

Fasteners. Non-electrolytically applied zinc flake coatings

DIN EN 4265 (2011-04) (Draft) DIN EN 4266 (2011-04) (Draft)

Aerospace series - Bearing spherical plain, metal to metal, in corrosion resisting steel, cadmium plated - Wide series - Dimensions and loads - Inch series; German and English version FprEN 4266:2010

11/30240462 DC BS EN 13603.

Copper and copper alloys. Test methods for assessing protective tin coatings on drawn round copper wire for electrical purposes

BS EN ISO 26945:2011

Metallic and other inorganic coatings. Electrodeposited coatings of tin-cobalt alloy

DIN 65309 (2011-05)

Aerospace - Inserts for composite materials, with MJ thread, closed type, screw-locking, corrosionresisting steel; Text in German and English

Key word search on 'paint’ and or ‘coating’; but not ‘anodizing’ or ‘anodize(d)’ or corrosion– 34 Publications found; 3 Drafts; no publications from AS/NZS corrosion related;

Key word search on 'galvanize' or ‘galvanized’ or ‘galvanizing’ – 0 Standard Publications found; Key word search on 'corrosion' and 'concrete' or ‘concrete’ and ‘coatings’ - 0 Standard Publications found. Key word search on ‘cathode’ or 'cathodic' - 0 corrosion related Standard Publications found Key word search on 'anode' or ‘anodes’ or ‘anodic’ – 0 Standard Publications found – None from AS/NZS

ISO 29601:2011

Paints and varnishes - Corrosion protection by protective paint systems - Assessment of porosity in a dry film

Keyword Search on 'electrochemical' or ‘electrolysis’ or ‘electroplated’ - 0 Standard Publications found

ISO/DIS 13632

Binders for paints and varnishes - Rosin - Sampling and sample preparation for colour measurement

Keyword Search on 'anodize' or ‘anodized’ - 3 Publications found

ISO/DIS 15110

Paints and varnishes - Artificial weathering including acidic deposition

BS EN ISO 2106:2011

ISO/DIS 15184

Paints and varnishes - Determination of film hardness by pencil test

Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys. Determination of mass per unit area (surface density) of anodic oxidation coatings. Gravimetric method

ISO/FDIS 6272-1

Paints and varnishes - Rapid-deformation (impact resistance) tests - Part 1: Falling-weight test, large-area indenter

BS EN ISO 8251:2011

Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys. Measurement of abrasion resistance of anodic oxidation coatings

ISO/FDIS 6272-2

Paints and varnishes - Rapid-deformation (impact resistance) tests - Part 2: Falling-weight test, small-area indenter

BS EN ISO 8994:2011

Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys. Rating system for the evaluation of pitting corrosion. Grid method

11/30218002 DC BS EN ISO 13632.

Binders for paints and varnishes. Rosin. Sampling and sample preparation for colour measurement

BS EN ISO 2811-1:2011

Paints and varnishes. Determination of density. Pyknometer method

BS EN ISO 2811-2:2011

Paints and varnishes. Determination of density. Immersed body (plummet) method

BS EN ISO 2811-3:2011

Paints and varnishes. Determination of density. Oscillation method

BS EN ISO 28722:2011

Vitreous and porcelain enamels. Characteristics of enamel coatings applied to steel panels intended for architecture

BS EN 50176:2009

Stationary electrostatic application equipment for ignitable liquid coating material. Safety requirements

BS EN 50177:2009

Stationary electrostatic application equipment for ignitable coating powders. Safety requirements

BS 7371-8:2011

Coatings on metal fasteners. Specification for sherardized coatings

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DIN EN ISO 12690 (2011-04) Metallic and other inorganic coatings - Thermal spray coordination - Tasks and responsibilities (ISO 12690:2010) DIN EN 13113 (2011-05)

Tannery machines - Roller coating machines - Safety requirements (includes Amendment A1:2010)

DIN EN ISO 14921 (2011-04) Thermal spraying - Procedures for the application of thermally sprayed coatings for engineering components (ISO 14921:2010) DIN EN 4473 (2011-05)

22 Corrosion & Materials

Aerospace series - Aluminium pigmented coatings for fasteners - Technical specification; German and English version EN 4473:2010

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23


Standards Update

Table 3. New standards, amendments or drafts for AS, AS/NZS, EN, ANSI, ASTM, BSI, DIN, ETSI, JSA, NSAI and standards or amendments for ISO & IEC PUBLISHED between 24 March to 23 May 2011

ISO/DIS 10683

Fasteners - Non-electrolytically applied zinc flake coatings

ISO/DIS 20567-3

Paints and varnishes - Determination of stone-chip resistance of coatings - Part 3: Single-impact test with a free-flying impact body

I.S. EN 15812:2011

Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Determination of Crack Bridging Ability

Key word search on ‘corrosion’ or ‘corrosivity’ or ‘corrosive’; but not ‘anodizing’ or ‘anodize(d)’- 9 citations in all –1 AS/NZS citations but for optics not corrosion related

I.S. EN 15813:2011

Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Determination of Flexibility at low Temperatures

ISO 29601:2011

Paints and varnishes - Corrosion protection by protective paint systems - Assessment of porosity in a dry film

I.S. EN 15815:2011

Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Resistance to Compression

11/30239485 DC BS EN 10025-5.

Hot rolled products of structural steels. Part 5. Technical delivery conditions for structural steels with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance

I.S. EN 15816:2011

Polymer-modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Resistance to Rain

I.S. EN 15817:2011

Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Water Resistance Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Determination of Dimensional Stability at High Temperature

Key word search on ‘durability’.- 1 IEC citations found IEC 60512-9-4 Ed. 1.0 (Bilingual 2011)

Connectors for electronic equipment - Tests and measurements - Part 9-4: Endurance tests - Test 9d: Durability of contact retention system and seals (maintenance, ageing)

BS ISO 5952:2011

Continuously hot-rolled steel sheet of structural quality with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance

I.S. EN 15818:2011

BS 8436:2011

Electric cables. Specification for 300/500 V screened electric cables having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases when affected by fire, for use in walls, partitions and building voids. Multicore cables

I.S. EN 15819:2011

Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Reduction of the Thickness of the Layer When Fully Dried

I.S. EN 15820:2011

Polymer Modified Bituminous Thick Coatings for Waterproofing - Determination of Watertightness

BS EN ISO 8994:2011

Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys. Rating system for the evaluation of pitting corrosion. Grid method

I.S. EN ISO 28722:2011

Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Characteristics of Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel Panels Intended for Architecture

JIS G 3125:2010

Superior atmospheric corrosion resisting rolled steels Aerospace series - Bearing spherical plain, metal to metal in corrosion resisting steel - Wide series Dimensions and loads - Inch series; German and English version FprEN 4265:2010

11/30229160 DC BS EN ISO 10683.

Fasteners. Non-electrolytically applied zinc flake coatings

DIN EN 4265 (2011-04) (Draft) DIN EN 4266 (2011-04) (Draft)

Aerospace series - Bearing spherical plain, metal to metal, in corrosion resisting steel, cadmium plated - Wide series - Dimensions and loads - Inch series; German and English version FprEN 4266:2010

11/30240462 DC BS EN 13603.

Copper and copper alloys. Test methods for assessing protective tin coatings on drawn round copper wire for electrical purposes

BS EN ISO 26945:2011

Metallic and other inorganic coatings. Electrodeposited coatings of tin-cobalt alloy

DIN 65309 (2011-05)

Aerospace - Inserts for composite materials, with MJ thread, closed type, screw-locking, corrosionresisting steel; Text in German and English

Key word search on 'paint’ and or ‘coating’; but not ‘anodizing’ or ‘anodize(d)’ or corrosion– 34 Publications found; 3 Drafts; no publications from AS/NZS corrosion related;

Key word search on 'galvanize' or ‘galvanized’ or ‘galvanizing’ – 0 Standard Publications found; Key word search on 'corrosion' and 'concrete' or ‘concrete’ and ‘coatings’ - 0 Standard Publications found. Key word search on ‘cathode’ or 'cathodic' - 0 corrosion related Standard Publications found Key word search on 'anode' or ‘anodes’ or ‘anodic’ – 0 Standard Publications found – None from AS/NZS

ISO 29601:2011

Paints and varnishes - Corrosion protection by protective paint systems - Assessment of porosity in a dry film

Keyword Search on 'electrochemical' or ‘electrolysis’ or ‘electroplated’ - 0 Standard Publications found

ISO/DIS 13632

Binders for paints and varnishes - Rosin - Sampling and sample preparation for colour measurement

Keyword Search on 'anodize' or ‘anodized’ - 3 Publications found

ISO/DIS 15110

Paints and varnishes - Artificial weathering including acidic deposition

BS EN ISO 2106:2011

ISO/DIS 15184

Paints and varnishes - Determination of film hardness by pencil test

Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys. Determination of mass per unit area (surface density) of anodic oxidation coatings. Gravimetric method

ISO/FDIS 6272-1

Paints and varnishes - Rapid-deformation (impact resistance) tests - Part 1: Falling-weight test, large-area indenter

BS EN ISO 8251:2011

Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys. Measurement of abrasion resistance of anodic oxidation coatings

ISO/FDIS 6272-2

Paints and varnishes - Rapid-deformation (impact resistance) tests - Part 2: Falling-weight test, small-area indenter

BS EN ISO 8994:2011

Anodizing of aluminium and its alloys. Rating system for the evaluation of pitting corrosion. Grid method

11/30218002 DC BS EN ISO 13632.

Binders for paints and varnishes. Rosin. Sampling and sample preparation for colour measurement

BS EN ISO 2811-1:2011

Paints and varnishes. Determination of density. Pyknometer method

BS EN ISO 2811-2:2011

Paints and varnishes. Determination of density. Immersed body (plummet) method

BS EN ISO 2811-3:2011

Paints and varnishes. Determination of density. Oscillation method

BS EN ISO 28722:2011

Vitreous and porcelain enamels. Characteristics of enamel coatings applied to steel panels intended for architecture

BS EN 50176:2009

Stationary electrostatic application equipment for ignitable liquid coating material. Safety requirements

BS EN 50177:2009

Stationary electrostatic application equipment for ignitable coating powders. Safety requirements

BS 7371-8:2011

Coatings on metal fasteners. Specification for sherardized coatings

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DIN EN ISO 12690 (2011-04) Metallic and other inorganic coatings - Thermal spray coordination - Tasks and responsibilities (ISO 12690:2010) DIN EN 13113 (2011-05)

Tannery machines - Roller coating machines - Safety requirements (includes Amendment A1:2010)

DIN EN ISO 14921 (2011-04) Thermal spraying - Procedures for the application of thermally sprayed coatings for engineering components (ISO 14921:2010) DIN EN 4473 (2011-05)

22 Corrosion & Materials

Aerospace series - Aluminium pigmented coatings for fasteners - Technical specification; German and English version EN 4473:2010

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24 hours a day / 7 days a week on-call service Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

23


CSB Technical Group Report Concrete activities at Corrosion 2011 conference, Houston, 13-17 March 2011 A number of Australasian ACA members were in attendance at the recent annual NACE International Corrosion Conference. Corrosion 2011 was held this year in Houston, Texas over the period 13-17 March 2011. The number of attendees was 6560. Exhibition booths numbered 600 with exhibitors totalling 371. Some 416 papers were presented. In terms of ‘concrete activities’, these principally took the form of a

Technical Symposium and Technical Committee Meetings. Each year at the NACE corrosion conference technical symposia are sponsored typically by a Task Group (TGs) or Technology Exchange Groups (TEGs). The 2011 ‘Concrete Technical Symposium’ was titled “Corrosion Modelling Theory and Practice in Reinforced Concrete Structures” and was held on Monday 14 March. TEG 053X “Reinforced Concrete:

Design, Evaluation and Remediation” sponsored the symposium. The Symposium Chair was Sylvia Hall from Ameron International Corporation and the Symposium Vice-Chair was Francisco PresuelMoreno from the Florida Atlantic University. Papers and presentations for the symposium were received from the US, UK, Italy, Mexico, Australia and Saudi Arabia. A list of the papers (in order of presentation) is provided below:

Paper No.

Title

Authors

11003

Modelling the Rate of Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete Structures

J. Broomfield, Consulting Corrosion Engineer (UK)

11006

Corrosion Initiation Projection for Reinforced Concrete Exposed to Chlorides Part I: Black Bars

W.H. Hartt, Florida Atlantic University (US)

11009

Corrosion Initiation Projection for Reinforced Concrete Exposed to Chlorides – Part II: Corrosion Resistant Rebars

W.H. Hartt, Florida Atlantic University (US)

11002

Application of Computational Modelling to Predict the Effectiveness of CP on a PCCP Transmission Pipeline

R.A. Adey, J.M.W. Baynham and A. Peratta, CM Beasy Ltd (UK)

11004

Stochastic Modelling of Service Life of Concrete Structures in Chloride-Laden Environments

Y. Liu and X. Shi, Montana State University (US)

11007

An Alternative Approach to Modelling Corrosion

C. Atkins, A. Foster, R. Brueckner and R. Merola, Mott MacDonald (UK)

11008

Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete: Electrochemical Modelling of Initial and Limiting Corrosion Rates

G. Nossoni, Manhattan College; R. Harichandran, S.C. Barton, Michigan State University (US)

11001

Efficiency of Concrete Coatings on Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete Structures

M. Ormellese, F. Bolzoni and A. Brenna, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

11010

Cathodic Behaviour of ~9% Cr Steel Reinforcement in Concrete

M. Akhoondan and A. Sagues, University of South Florida (US)

11005

The Response of Protective Current to Environmental Conditions During Hybrid Anode Concrete Repair Treatments

S. Holmes, Loughborough University; G.K. Glass, Concrete Preservation Technologies; G.D. Wilcox, P.J. Robins, A.C. Roberts, Loughborough University (UK)

11016

An Experimental Approach for Evaluating Marine Exposed Reinforced Concrete Structures

F. Presuel-Moreno and J. Zielske, Florida Atlantic University (US)

11011

Inspection, Diagnosis, Materials, and Processing Methods to Repair the Commercial Deck in Puerto Quetzal, Guatemala

E. Maya, J. Canto, L.M. Martinez de la Escalera Sr., Corrosion y Proteccion Ingenieria; M.V. Morales, Corrosion y Proteccion Guatemala; J.A. Ascencio, L. Martinez-Gomez, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicias; L. De Silva-Munoz, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas

11012

Multi-Zone Cathodic Protection Monitoring for Bridge Applications

J. Hilleary, Elecsys Corporation-Remote Monitor Division (US)

11013

Condition Assessment and Repair of Earthquake and Corrosion Damaged Pre-Cast, Pre-Stressed Concrete Building Support Piles – A Case History

D. Howard, JDH Corrosion Consultants (US)

11014

Case Studies of Concrete Repair and Strengthening of Coal Storage Silos in Eastern Australia

B.J. Dockrill and W.K. Green, Vinsi Partners Consulting Engineers (Australia)

11015

Factors Affecting the Corrosion Rate at Intersection Points of Steel Rebar Mat in Reinforced Concrete Structures

D.R.R. Hussain, A. Alhozaimy, R. Al Zaidf and A. Al Negheimish, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)

24 Corrosion & Materials

The technical committee meetings were meetings of TGs and TEGs under a Specific Technology Group

(STG). The STG for concrete is STG 01 – Reinforced Concrete. Technical committee meeting were held at

various times over the period 13 – 16 March and included the following:

Committee Name

Designation

Reinforced Concrete: Cathodic Protection

TEG 043X

Reinforced Concrete: Test Methods for Cathodic Protection

TG 049

Reinforced Concrete: Inhibitors and Admixtures

TG 050

Reinforced Concrete: Corrosion-Resistant Reinforcement

TG 057

Reinforced Concrete: Sacrificial Cathodic Protection of Reinforced Concrete Elements

TG 047

Reinforced Concrete: Evaluation of Concrete Structures

TG 055

Reinforced Concrete: Steel-Framed Buildings

TG 329

Reinforced Concrete: Stray-Current Induced Corrosion

TG 356

Reinforced Concrete: Corrosion Management

TG 400

Reinforced Concrete

STG 01

Products on display in the exhibition included cathodic protection materials and equipment, coatings and protective treatments. Testing equipment exhibitors were also present. News from your Concrete Structures and Building (CSB) Committee The CSB committee is investigating options to organise a seminar this year, which could be done in conjunction with a state branch. Another possibility being explored is to have a joint seminar with the durability group of the Concrete Institute of Australia (CIA). As per previous year the CSB technical group will hold a forum at the ACA conference in November. The intention is that it will have four 5-10 minute presentations so there is sufficient time for discussion and debate among the audience. ACA members received an email in early April inviting them to participate to the technical forums and nominate topics of discussions. If anyone is interested to not only attend but possibly present at the CSB forum please contact Wesley Fawaz, who will put you in touch with our committee. In terms of topics the idea has been floated to break down the forum into two main technical subjections, e.g. two presentations about new structures (such as durability control during construction www.corrosion.com.au

for instance) and two for existing assets (such as deterioration of pre-stressed reinforced concrete). It would also be worthwhile to have one local and one international presenter at each section taking advantage of the presence of significantly more international delegates this year. Below are some useful links to other related groups where additional information on our industry can be gained: Concrete Institute of Australia : www.concreteinstitute.com.au Australian Concrete Repair Association: www.acrassoc.com.au Cement and Concrete Aggregates Australia: www.concrete.net.au

Concrete Corrosion: www.concretecorrosion.net The corrosion doctors: www.corrosion-doctors.org The National Association of Corrosion Engineers: www.nace.org European Federation of Corrosion: www.efcweb.org The World Corrosion Organization: www.corrosion.org International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures: www.rilem.net Warren Green and Frédéric Blin CSB Secretary & Chair

Materials Australia: www.materialsaustralia.com.au

Corrosion & CP of Concrete Structures Member: $1,010 Non Member: $1,265 Perth: 25th – 26th October 2011

ACA/ACRA Corrosion & Protection of Reinforced Concrete Member: $1,010 Non Member $1,265 Melbourne: 5th – 6th December 2011 Visit www.corrosion.com.au for registration and further details or contact the ACA Training Manager Barry Hodder on +61 3 9890 4833.

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

25


CSB Technical Group Report Concrete activities at Corrosion 2011 conference, Houston, 13-17 March 2011 A number of Australasian ACA members were in attendance at the recent annual NACE International Corrosion Conference. Corrosion 2011 was held this year in Houston, Texas over the period 13-17 March 2011. The number of attendees was 6560. Exhibition booths numbered 600 with exhibitors totalling 371. Some 416 papers were presented. In terms of ‘concrete activities’, these principally took the form of a

Technical Symposium and Technical Committee Meetings. Each year at the NACE corrosion conference technical symposia are sponsored typically by a Task Group (TGs) or Technology Exchange Groups (TEGs). The 2011 ‘Concrete Technical Symposium’ was titled “Corrosion Modelling Theory and Practice in Reinforced Concrete Structures” and was held on Monday 14 March. TEG 053X “Reinforced Concrete:

Design, Evaluation and Remediation” sponsored the symposium. The Symposium Chair was Sylvia Hall from Ameron International Corporation and the Symposium Vice-Chair was Francisco PresuelMoreno from the Florida Atlantic University. Papers and presentations for the symposium were received from the US, UK, Italy, Mexico, Australia and Saudi Arabia. A list of the papers (in order of presentation) is provided below:

Paper No.

Title

Authors

11003

Modelling the Rate of Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete Structures

J. Broomfield, Consulting Corrosion Engineer (UK)

11006

Corrosion Initiation Projection for Reinforced Concrete Exposed to Chlorides Part I: Black Bars

W.H. Hartt, Florida Atlantic University (US)

11009

Corrosion Initiation Projection for Reinforced Concrete Exposed to Chlorides – Part II: Corrosion Resistant Rebars

W.H. Hartt, Florida Atlantic University (US)

11002

Application of Computational Modelling to Predict the Effectiveness of CP on a PCCP Transmission Pipeline

R.A. Adey, J.M.W. Baynham and A. Peratta, CM Beasy Ltd (UK)

11004

Stochastic Modelling of Service Life of Concrete Structures in Chloride-Laden Environments

Y. Liu and X. Shi, Montana State University (US)

11007

An Alternative Approach to Modelling Corrosion

C. Atkins, A. Foster, R. Brueckner and R. Merola, Mott MacDonald (UK)

11008

Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete: Electrochemical Modelling of Initial and Limiting Corrosion Rates

G. Nossoni, Manhattan College; R. Harichandran, S.C. Barton, Michigan State University (US)

11001

Efficiency of Concrete Coatings on Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete Structures

M. Ormellese, F. Bolzoni and A. Brenna, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

11010

Cathodic Behaviour of ~9% Cr Steel Reinforcement in Concrete

M. Akhoondan and A. Sagues, University of South Florida (US)

11005

The Response of Protective Current to Environmental Conditions During Hybrid Anode Concrete Repair Treatments

S. Holmes, Loughborough University; G.K. Glass, Concrete Preservation Technologies; G.D. Wilcox, P.J. Robins, A.C. Roberts, Loughborough University (UK)

11016

An Experimental Approach for Evaluating Marine Exposed Reinforced Concrete Structures

F. Presuel-Moreno and J. Zielske, Florida Atlantic University (US)

11011

Inspection, Diagnosis, Materials, and Processing Methods to Repair the Commercial Deck in Puerto Quetzal, Guatemala

E. Maya, J. Canto, L.M. Martinez de la Escalera Sr., Corrosion y Proteccion Ingenieria; M.V. Morales, Corrosion y Proteccion Guatemala; J.A. Ascencio, L. Martinez-Gomez, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicias; L. De Silva-Munoz, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas

11012

Multi-Zone Cathodic Protection Monitoring for Bridge Applications

J. Hilleary, Elecsys Corporation-Remote Monitor Division (US)

11013

Condition Assessment and Repair of Earthquake and Corrosion Damaged Pre-Cast, Pre-Stressed Concrete Building Support Piles – A Case History

D. Howard, JDH Corrosion Consultants (US)

11014

Case Studies of Concrete Repair and Strengthening of Coal Storage Silos in Eastern Australia

B.J. Dockrill and W.K. Green, Vinsi Partners Consulting Engineers (Australia)

11015

Factors Affecting the Corrosion Rate at Intersection Points of Steel Rebar Mat in Reinforced Concrete Structures

D.R.R. Hussain, A. Alhozaimy, R. Al Zaidf and A. Al Negheimish, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)

24 Corrosion & Materials

The technical committee meetings were meetings of TGs and TEGs under a Specific Technology Group

(STG). The STG for concrete is STG 01 – Reinforced Concrete. Technical committee meeting were held at

various times over the period 13 – 16 March and included the following:

Committee Name

Designation

Reinforced Concrete: Cathodic Protection

TEG 043X

Reinforced Concrete: Test Methods for Cathodic Protection

TG 049

Reinforced Concrete: Inhibitors and Admixtures

TG 050

Reinforced Concrete: Corrosion-Resistant Reinforcement

TG 057

Reinforced Concrete: Sacrificial Cathodic Protection of Reinforced Concrete Elements

TG 047

Reinforced Concrete: Evaluation of Concrete Structures

TG 055

Reinforced Concrete: Steel-Framed Buildings

TG 329

Reinforced Concrete: Stray-Current Induced Corrosion

TG 356

Reinforced Concrete: Corrosion Management

TG 400

Reinforced Concrete

STG 01

Products on display in the exhibition included cathodic protection materials and equipment, coatings and protective treatments. Testing equipment exhibitors were also present. News from your Concrete Structures and Building (CSB) Committee The CSB committee is investigating options to organise a seminar this year, which could be done in conjunction with a state branch. Another possibility being explored is to have a joint seminar with the durability group of the Concrete Institute of Australia (CIA). As per previous year the CSB technical group will hold a forum at the ACA conference in November. The intention is that it will have four 5-10 minute presentations so there is sufficient time for discussion and debate among the audience. ACA members received an email in early April inviting them to participate to the technical forums and nominate topics of discussions. If anyone is interested to not only attend but possibly present at the CSB forum please contact Wesley Fawaz, who will put you in touch with our committee. In terms of topics the idea has been floated to break down the forum into two main technical subjections, e.g. two presentations about new structures (such as durability control during construction www.corrosion.com.au

for instance) and two for existing assets (such as deterioration of pre-stressed reinforced concrete). It would also be worthwhile to have one local and one international presenter at each section taking advantage of the presence of significantly more international delegates this year. Below are some useful links to other related groups where additional information on our industry can be gained: Concrete Institute of Australia : www.concreteinstitute.com.au Australian Concrete Repair Association: www.acrassoc.com.au Cement and Concrete Aggregates Australia: www.concrete.net.au

Concrete Corrosion: www.concretecorrosion.net The corrosion doctors: www.corrosion-doctors.org The National Association of Corrosion Engineers: www.nace.org European Federation of Corrosion: www.efcweb.org The World Corrosion Organization: www.corrosion.org International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures: www.rilem.net Warren Green and Frédéric Blin CSB Secretary & Chair

Materials Australia: www.materialsaustralia.com.au

Corrosion & CP of Concrete Structures Member: $1,010 Non Member: $1,265 Perth: 25th – 26th October 2011

ACA/ACRA Corrosion & Protection of Reinforced Concrete Member: $1,010 Non Member $1,265 Melbourne: 5th – 6th December 2011 Visit www.corrosion.com.au for registration and further details or contact the ACA Training Manager Barry Hodder on +61 3 9890 4833.

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

25


O CH

CH2

CH2 O

CH2

O

CH2

CH

CH2 O

O

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

CH2

0

H

)2 0(CH2H

H

N

H

O O O CH CH CH 0 CH2 2 CH CH2 2

Development in Tank Coating Technologies for Aggressive Storage The ACA ‘Corrosion Mitigation & Monitoring’ seminar series which is currently in progress is sponsored by International Protective Coatings. Their presentation ‘Tank Coating Technologies for Aggressive Storage’ during the series is detailed below. The technology of tank coatings for the storage of aggressive cargoes has evolved through the years to accommodate the increased complexities and demands on the tank lining in vessels used for cargo storage. The two main types of construction materials for storage vessels are steel, (including carbon and stainless) and concrete. There are approximately 2500 different products stored within storage tanks with the top 52 products making up about 80% of the total storage volume. The stored cargoes range from less-aggressive crude oils, petroleum distillates, gasolines, solvents and potable water, stored at or around ambient temperatures to more aggressive chemicals such as concentrated alkalis and mineral acids, blended in-process chemicals, organic acids, high temperature crude oil / water blends and boiling water. The three main factors influencing the selection of the coating technology to be used as the tank lining are; 1) the type and condition of the storage vessel, 2) the type and nature of cargo stored and 3) the costs associated with coating installation and the tank being out-of-service. Other influencing factors of lining selection include: the tank age and design, substrate type and condition, heat resistance properties, pit filling capability, corrosion protection and appropriate coating certification documentation. Throughout the life of the tank, the need for the vessel to store either dedicated, variable or blended cargoes, potentially across a wide range of temperature, influences the technology of the tank lining to be used. When a storage tank is to store variable or blended cargoes, the chemical and temperature resistance will need to be broad enough to withstand the potential extremities in aggressiveness and as such the demand on the technology of the tank lining increases. Through the use of cost benefit analysis (CBA) of coating technologies, the savings in losses to the asset owner / operator can at times greatly outweigh the additional costs associated with higher technology tank coatings. Benefits with technological advancement in tank coatings have afforded improved return-to-service time through the ability of single coat application and reduced time to full cure and thus faster return-to-service (RTS) time.

O O CH2 O CH CH2 CH CH2 CH

CH3 CH3 CH3 C C C CH CH33 CH3

CH2 O CH2 O CH2 O

O O O

CH2 CH2 CH2

CH2

CH2 O CH2 O CH2 O

CH2 CH2 CH2

CH2 CH2 CH2

O O CH O CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2

0 0 0

CH CH22 CH2

O O CH O CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2

Figure 3: Epoxy phenol novolac resin

0 0 0

CH2 CH2 CH2

O O CHO CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2

O

O

NH 0 22 CH CH CH CH CH2 CH2 2

CHO 2

2

2

H2N

CH2

NH2

O

O

NH

NH CH CH 0 2 CH3(CH2)n C

CH2 N

CH

R

NH

CH2

RI

0

CH2

NH2

(CH2CH2NH)x

H2N

(CH2)2

H2NCH2CH2

The availability of different ranges of molecular weight, viscosity and resins NH the epoxy H2N functionality within NH2 allows for NH NH H2N NHof coating NHinclusion NH The 2 specific development of NH NH properties. H2N NH2 NH NH epoxy phenol novolac resins within the coating formulation increases the crosslink density of the cured coating, however, they also can have an associated higher viscosity R and therefore formulation of high solids or solvent free R R RI liquid coatings can be difficult. I

N

0

H

HNC H

N

(NHCH2CH2)x NH2

NH2

H2N

0

CH2 CH2CH2NH2

H 2N

H 2N

R RI (NHCH2CH2)x HNC CNH (CH2CH2NH)x CH2CH2NH2 (NHCHare )x HNC CNH of(CH CHH NH2 2CH2three 2CH2NH)x 2CH there typical types epoxy resins, the 2N 2 (NHCH2CH2)x HNC CNH (CH2CH2NH)x CH CH NH technology of epoxy curing00agents00 is equally important 2 2 2 to develop a range of coatings with 0 0 predictable chemical

H2NCH2CH2 HAlthough 2NCH2CH2 H2NCH2CH2

NH2

and physical properties, and in turn a greater range of chemical resistance2.

CH2CH2NH2

NH2 NH2

Further technological development of epoxy curing agents includes the use of aromatic and aliphatic amines. Aromatic N CH3(CH2)n C amines, such as methylene dianiline (MDA), cured epoxies NH2 (CHsolvent 2 )2 NH2 0 acid H and have very high chemical, resistance and H2N NH2 NH 2 have been used as epoxy H tank N linings for many years. Due to H2N relative slow curing rate at low and ambient temperatures, CH2NH2 (CH2)2 NH2 higher curing is Hessential to achieve fullNH2 NH2 temperature NH2 2N crosslinking. The suspected health effects associated with MDA and other aromatic amines curing agents have led NH2 out. them to be phased CH2NH2

H2N

H2N H2NNH2

NH2

NH2

NH2

Figure 7: Methylene dianiline

NH2

NH2 NH2

CHwww.corrosion.com.au 2NH2

NH2

H2N

NH2 H2N

2

2

2

2

2

2 n

H

(CH 0 2)2H

b) NH2 H

NH2 H N

NH2

NH2

c) N

(CH2)2

(CH2)2

NH2

NH(CH 2 2)2

NH2

H2 N

H2N

NH2

NH2

H2N

NH2

NH2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

b) NH2

NH NH2 2

NH2

H2N

H2N

NH2

NH NH2 2

[2] “ Protective Coatings, Fundamentals of Chemistry and Composition” Clive Hare, Chapter 15, Epoxy systems, p.193-194, 1994.

NH2

[3] “ Field Performance versus Laboratory Testing: A Study of Epoxy Tank and Vessel Linings used in the Canadian Oil Patch”, Mike O’Donoghue, Ron Garrett, Jamie Garret, NH2 Ron Graham, International Protective Coatings V.J. Datta and Linda Gray, Paper 03051, NACE Conference 2003. Shane Jimmink International Protective Coatings

Due to implications of health issues associated with aromatic amine curing agents, cycloaliphatic amines are now the most commonly used curing agent for high solid NH2

2

References [1] “Ask the Coatings Experts – Understanding Epoxies and Where to Use Them” Edited by Lou Vincent, Materials Performance Vol 49, No 5, May 2010.

NH2

NH2 H2N

2

When used as adducts, or blended with other curing agents such as cycloaliphatic curing agents, polycyclamine cured coatings can produce coatings with very good film and curing characteristics. Properties such as rapid curing, fast return-to-service, very good chemical, solvent, acid and temperature resistance have be developed when used to cure epoxy phenol novolac resins. Coatings based on these materials have been reported to show excellent performance in Canadian oil field environments.3

NH2

C N CH3(CH 2)n Epoxy curing agents originally were unmodified aliphatic C N CH3(CH 2)n N CH3(CH2)n Ctriamine amines such as diethylene (DETA), triethylene (CH ) 0 H (CH22)22 0 H tetraamine (TETA) and tetraethylene pentamine (TEPA). (CH2)2 H H0 N N These amine cured epoxiesHprovide high resistance H N ) NH to chemicals and solvents, however (CH without correct (CH22)22 NH22 modification, increased brittleness of the can occur. (CH NH2 2)2 coating

3

2

Figure 9: Examples of polycycloaliphatic polyamine (polycyclamine) curing agents

NH2

Figure 6: Example of amidoamine curing H2N agent

CH2NH2

2 n

2

a)

(CH2CH2NH)x

NH2

2

2

RI 2)2 (CH

0 (CH2)2

2

2

R

CNH

2

Recent advance development of cycloaliphatic technologies has resulted in the introduction of polycycloaliphatic polyamine (shorten to polycyclamine) curing agents. NH2 NH2 NHH22N H2N NH NHNH H2N NH2 NHNH 2 2 2 2 NH 2 NH Polycyclamines consist of NH multiple amine reaction sites NH NH NH across a polycycloaliphatic or partially aromatic polycyclic HN HN NH NH backbone. or adducted polycyclamine cure coatings CH NH Modified CH NH can achieve faster curing and greater chemical, solvent and acid resistance than conventional cycloaliphatic amines. 2

N 0

CH3(CH2)n C

RI

H2 N

H 2N

O

CH

NH2

R

CH2NH2 CH2NH2

2

(CH2)2 CNH HHNC CH 2

(NHCH2CH2)x 0 CH2

NH2

(CH NH 2)222 NH

NH NH (CH 2NH 2)22

Figure 8: Examples of typical cycloaliphatic curing agents a) Isophorine diamine, b) Cyclohexane diamine, c) 4,4–bis(p-aminocyclohexyl) methane

found that monofunctional carboxylic acids can replace C N0 CH3(CH2)0nNH H2N difunctional carboxylic acids, resulting inNH an2 amidoamine NH NH (CH ) 2 2 0 H curing agent. The resulting reduced viscosity polyamide improves the ability to formulate higher solid / lower H N VOCH2coatings. N NH2

NH2

22

0

NH2

NHa) 2

CH2NH2

of2)xdevelopment of polyamide chemistry, H2NCHContinuation (NHCH2CH HNC CNH (CH2CH2NH)x CH2CH2NH2 2CH2

n n n

2

3

0 n R Figure 5: Example of polyamide (CH curing agent NH2 2 )2 RI

O O CH O CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2

2

CH2

H

O O CHO CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2

H2N

26 Corrosion & Materials

O

NH CH

2

O During development of curingOagentsnto improveO coating 0 0 CH2 CH CH2 0 CH2 CH CH2 CH2 CH CH2 film properties such as better water resistance, reduced R brittleness and increased blush resistance, polyamides I R O introduced. O the CH2 CH2are produced from were Polyamides CH CH O CH O CH CH CH H2NCH2CH (NHCH CH )x HNC CNH (CH CH NH)x CHCH 2 2 2 2 2 2NH2 2 2 2 2 2 2CH reaction of aliphatic amines with difunctional carboxylic n NH H2N NH NH 2 acids. PolyamidesNH typically 0 0have reduced resistance to strong solvents and acids, and by virtue of the inherent high viscosity, are also harder to formulate high solids / H2N H2N low VOC coatings.

Figure 2: Bisphenol F based epoxy resin

0 0 0

0 CCH2

CH

H2NCH2CH2

O O O

CH2

CH2

0

CH2 CH2 CH2

CH CH CH22 NH O

CH

NH

(CH2)2

NCH CH H free NCH (NHCH CH CH )x(NHCH HNC CH )x linings. HNC CNH (CH CH CNHNH)x (CH CH CH NH)x NH CH NH andHsolvent epoxy tank The development ofCHthe cycloaliphatic amine technology, the chemical 0 0 0 improved 0 H N NH 2 2 H2 N H2 N NH2 NH2 resistance of the coating similar to that of aromatic amines, whilst also improving the cure speed at ambient and lower temperatures. Similar to aliphatic amines, cycloaliphatic (CH ) CCH (CH N ) C N amines can have aCHtendency to ‘amine blush’.

3 Figure 4: Tetraethylene pentamine

Figure 1. Bisphenol A based epoxy resin O O CH2 O CH CH2 CH CH2 CH

3

O

O

H2N0

n

N

RI

the epoxy resin andCHcuring O CH CH 2 2 n agent, aliphatic amines, can potentially exhibit problems such as ‘amine bloom’ or ‘blush’ caused by reaction with O O moisture and the atmosphere, particularly in high humidity CH CH O CH O CH CH CH2 CH 2 2 2 2 and low temperature conditions. CH

The main generic types of liquid tank lining systems used are epoxy, polyurethane/polyurea, vinyl/polyester and inorganic zinc silicates. Epoxy resin based coatings have been used as tank lining within tanks and vessels for many years. The advancement in epoxy technology has afforded suitability for storage of cargos such as hydrocarbons, water immersion, alkalis and mineral acids1. Epoxy coating formulations are typically based on three types of epoxy resin: 1) bisphenol A, 2) bisphenol F and 3) epoxy phenol novolac resins or combinations thereof.

N H

R

O

CH2 between CH2

N

0 (CH H 2)2

NH NH )2 NH (CH2NH

H2N NH

CH3 O CH2 Known CH CH2 O CH2 incompatibility

CH2

n

H2N

CH3 CH3 O C CH CH2

CH2

CH

CH2

O

C

O

O CH2 CH CH2 O 0 0 CH2 CH CH2

CH2

CH3

O

Technical Note

CH2

(CH2)Nn C 3C C 3(CH N 2)CH CH3(CH2)n CH n

O

NH2 NH2

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

27

NH2


O CH

CH2

CH2 O

CH2

O

CH2

CH

CH2 O

O

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

CH2

0

H

)2 0(CH2H

H

N

H

O O O CH CH CH 0 CH2 2 CH CH2 2

Development in Tank Coating Technologies for Aggressive Storage The ACA ‘Corrosion Mitigation & Monitoring’ seminar series which is currently in progress is sponsored by International Protective Coatings. Their presentation ‘Tank Coating Technologies for Aggressive Storage’ during the series is detailed below. The technology of tank coatings for the storage of aggressive cargoes has evolved through the years to accommodate the increased complexities and demands on the tank lining in vessels used for cargo storage. The two main types of construction materials for storage vessels are steel, (including carbon and stainless) and concrete. There are approximately 2500 different products stored within storage tanks with the top 52 products making up about 80% of the total storage volume. The stored cargoes range from less-aggressive crude oils, petroleum distillates, gasolines, solvents and potable water, stored at or around ambient temperatures to more aggressive chemicals such as concentrated alkalis and mineral acids, blended in-process chemicals, organic acids, high temperature crude oil / water blends and boiling water. The three main factors influencing the selection of the coating technology to be used as the tank lining are; 1) the type and condition of the storage vessel, 2) the type and nature of cargo stored and 3) the costs associated with coating installation and the tank being out-of-service. Other influencing factors of lining selection include: the tank age and design, substrate type and condition, heat resistance properties, pit filling capability, corrosion protection and appropriate coating certification documentation. Throughout the life of the tank, the need for the vessel to store either dedicated, variable or blended cargoes, potentially across a wide range of temperature, influences the technology of the tank lining to be used. When a storage tank is to store variable or blended cargoes, the chemical and temperature resistance will need to be broad enough to withstand the potential extremities in aggressiveness and as such the demand on the technology of the tank lining increases. Through the use of cost benefit analysis (CBA) of coating technologies, the savings in losses to the asset owner / operator can at times greatly outweigh the additional costs associated with higher technology tank coatings. Benefits with technological advancement in tank coatings have afforded improved return-to-service time through the ability of single coat application and reduced time to full cure and thus faster return-to-service (RTS) time.

O O CH2 O CH CH2 CH CH2 CH

CH3 CH3 CH3 C C C CH CH33 CH3

CH2 O CH2 O CH2 O

O O O

CH2 CH2 CH2

CH2

CH2 O CH2 O CH2 O

CH2 CH2 CH2

CH2 CH2 CH2

O O CH O CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2

0 0 0

CH CH22 CH2

O O CH O CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2

Figure 3: Epoxy phenol novolac resin

0 0 0

CH2 CH2 CH2

O O CHO CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2

O

O

NH 0 22 CH CH CH CH CH2 CH2 2

CHO 2

2

2

H2N

CH2

NH2

O

O

NH

NH CH CH 0 2 CH3(CH2)n C

CH2 N

CH

R

NH

CH2

RI

0

CH2

NH2

(CH2CH2NH)x

H2N

(CH2)2

H2NCH2CH2

The availability of different ranges of molecular weight, viscosity and resins NH the epoxy H2N functionality within NH2 allows for NH NH H2N NHof coating NHinclusion NH The 2 specific development of NH NH properties. H2N NH2 NH NH epoxy phenol novolac resins within the coating formulation increases the crosslink density of the cured coating, however, they also can have an associated higher viscosity R and therefore formulation of high solids or solvent free R R RI liquid coatings can be difficult. I

N

0

H

HNC H

N

(NHCH2CH2)x NH2

NH2

H2N

0

CH2 CH2CH2NH2

H 2N

H 2N

R RI (NHCH2CH2)x HNC CNH (CH2CH2NH)x CH2CH2NH2 (NHCHare )x HNC CNH of(CH CHH NH2 2CH2three 2CH2NH)x 2CH there typical types epoxy resins, the 2N 2 (NHCH2CH2)x HNC CNH (CH2CH2NH)x CH CH NH technology of epoxy curing00agents00 is equally important 2 2 2 to develop a range of coatings with 0 0 predictable chemical

H2NCH2CH2 HAlthough 2NCH2CH2 H2NCH2CH2

NH2

and physical properties, and in turn a greater range of chemical resistance2.

CH2CH2NH2

NH2 NH2

Further technological development of epoxy curing agents includes the use of aromatic and aliphatic amines. Aromatic N CH3(CH2)n C amines, such as methylene dianiline (MDA), cured epoxies NH2 (CHsolvent 2 )2 NH2 0 acid H and have very high chemical, resistance and H2N NH2 NH 2 have been used as epoxy H tank N linings for many years. Due to H2N relative slow curing rate at low and ambient temperatures, CH2NH2 (CH2)2 NH2 higher curing is Hessential to achieve fullNH2 NH2 temperature NH2 2N crosslinking. The suspected health effects associated with MDA and other aromatic amines curing agents have led NH2 out. them to be phased CH2NH2

H2N

H2N H2NNH2

NH2

NH2

NH2

Figure 7: Methylene dianiline

NH2

NH2 NH2

CHwww.corrosion.com.au 2NH2

NH2

H2N

NH2 H2N

2

2

2

2

2

2 n

H

(CH 0 2)2H

b) NH2 H

NH2 H N

NH2

NH2

c) N

(CH2)2

(CH2)2

NH2

NH(CH 2 2)2

NH2

H2 N

H2N

NH2

NH2

H2N

NH2

NH2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

b) NH2

NH NH2 2

NH2

H2N

H2N

NH2

NH NH2 2

[2] “ Protective Coatings, Fundamentals of Chemistry and Composition” Clive Hare, Chapter 15, Epoxy systems, p.193-194, 1994.

NH2

[3] “ Field Performance versus Laboratory Testing: A Study of Epoxy Tank and Vessel Linings used in the Canadian Oil Patch”, Mike O’Donoghue, Ron Garrett, Jamie Garret, NH2 Ron Graham, International Protective Coatings V.J. Datta and Linda Gray, Paper 03051, NACE Conference 2003. Shane Jimmink International Protective Coatings

Due to implications of health issues associated with aromatic amine curing agents, cycloaliphatic amines are now the most commonly used curing agent for high solid NH2

2

References [1] “Ask the Coatings Experts – Understanding Epoxies and Where to Use Them” Edited by Lou Vincent, Materials Performance Vol 49, No 5, May 2010.

NH2

NH2 H2N

2

When used as adducts, or blended with other curing agents such as cycloaliphatic curing agents, polycyclamine cured coatings can produce coatings with very good film and curing characteristics. Properties such as rapid curing, fast return-to-service, very good chemical, solvent, acid and temperature resistance have be developed when used to cure epoxy phenol novolac resins. Coatings based on these materials have been reported to show excellent performance in Canadian oil field environments.3

NH2

C N CH3(CH 2)n Epoxy curing agents originally were unmodified aliphatic C N CH3(CH 2)n N CH3(CH2)n Ctriamine amines such as diethylene (DETA), triethylene (CH ) 0 H (CH22)22 0 H tetraamine (TETA) and tetraethylene pentamine (TEPA). (CH2)2 H H0 N N These amine cured epoxiesHprovide high resistance H N ) NH to chemicals and solvents, however (CH without correct (CH22)22 NH22 modification, increased brittleness of the can occur. (CH NH2 2)2 coating

3

2

Figure 9: Examples of polycycloaliphatic polyamine (polycyclamine) curing agents

NH2

Figure 6: Example of amidoamine curing H2N agent

CH2NH2

2 n

2

a)

(CH2CH2NH)x

NH2

2

2

RI 2)2 (CH

0 (CH2)2

2

2

R

CNH

2

Recent advance development of cycloaliphatic technologies has resulted in the introduction of polycycloaliphatic polyamine (shorten to polycyclamine) curing agents. NH2 NH2 NHH22N H2N NH NHNH H2N NH2 NHNH 2 2 2 2 NH 2 NH Polycyclamines consist of NH multiple amine reaction sites NH NH NH across a polycycloaliphatic or partially aromatic polycyclic HN HN NH NH backbone. or adducted polycyclamine cure coatings CH NH Modified CH NH can achieve faster curing and greater chemical, solvent and acid resistance than conventional cycloaliphatic amines. 2

N 0

CH3(CH2)n C

RI

H2 N

H 2N

O

CH

NH2

R

CH2NH2 CH2NH2

2

(CH2)2 CNH HHNC CH 2

(NHCH2CH2)x 0 CH2

NH2

(CH NH 2)222 NH

NH NH (CH 2NH 2)22

Figure 8: Examples of typical cycloaliphatic curing agents a) Isophorine diamine, b) Cyclohexane diamine, c) 4,4–bis(p-aminocyclohexyl) methane

found that monofunctional carboxylic acids can replace C N0 CH3(CH2)0nNH H2N difunctional carboxylic acids, resulting inNH an2 amidoamine NH NH (CH ) 2 2 0 H curing agent. The resulting reduced viscosity polyamide improves the ability to formulate higher solid / lower H N VOCH2coatings. N NH2

NH2

22

0

NH2

NHa) 2

CH2NH2

of2)xdevelopment of polyamide chemistry, H2NCHContinuation (NHCH2CH HNC CNH (CH2CH2NH)x CH2CH2NH2 2CH2

n n n

2

3

0 n R Figure 5: Example of polyamide (CH curing agent NH2 2 )2 RI

O O CH O CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2

2

CH2

H

O O CHO CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2

H2N

26 Corrosion & Materials

O

NH CH

2

O During development of curingOagentsnto improveO coating 0 0 CH2 CH CH2 0 CH2 CH CH2 CH2 CH CH2 film properties such as better water resistance, reduced R brittleness and increased blush resistance, polyamides I R O introduced. O the CH2 CH2are produced from were Polyamides CH CH O CH O CH CH CH H2NCH2CH (NHCH CH )x HNC CNH (CH CH NH)x CHCH 2 2 2 2 2 2NH2 2 2 2 2 2 2CH reaction of aliphatic amines with difunctional carboxylic n NH H2N NH NH 2 acids. PolyamidesNH typically 0 0have reduced resistance to strong solvents and acids, and by virtue of the inherent high viscosity, are also harder to formulate high solids / H2N H2N low VOC coatings.

Figure 2: Bisphenol F based epoxy resin

0 0 0

0 CCH2

CH

H2NCH2CH2

O O O

CH2

CH2

0

CH2 CH2 CH2

CH CH CH22 NH O

CH

NH

(CH2)2

NCH CH H free NCH (NHCH CH CH )x(NHCH HNC CH )x linings. HNC CNH (CH CH CNHNH)x (CH CH CH NH)x NH CH NH andHsolvent epoxy tank The development ofCHthe cycloaliphatic amine technology, the chemical 0 0 0 improved 0 H N NH 2 2 H2 N H2 N NH2 NH2 resistance of the coating similar to that of aromatic amines, whilst also improving the cure speed at ambient and lower temperatures. Similar to aliphatic amines, cycloaliphatic (CH ) CCH (CH N ) C N amines can have aCHtendency to ‘amine blush’.

3 Figure 4: Tetraethylene pentamine

Figure 1. Bisphenol A based epoxy resin O O CH2 O CH CH2 CH CH2 CH

3

O

O

H2N0

n

N

RI

the epoxy resin andCHcuring O CH CH 2 2 n agent, aliphatic amines, can potentially exhibit problems such as ‘amine bloom’ or ‘blush’ caused by reaction with O O moisture and the atmosphere, particularly in high humidity CH CH O CH O CH CH CH2 CH 2 2 2 2 and low temperature conditions. CH

The main generic types of liquid tank lining systems used are epoxy, polyurethane/polyurea, vinyl/polyester and inorganic zinc silicates. Epoxy resin based coatings have been used as tank lining within tanks and vessels for many years. The advancement in epoxy technology has afforded suitability for storage of cargos such as hydrocarbons, water immersion, alkalis and mineral acids1. Epoxy coating formulations are typically based on three types of epoxy resin: 1) bisphenol A, 2) bisphenol F and 3) epoxy phenol novolac resins or combinations thereof.

N H

R

O

CH2 between CH2

N

0 (CH H 2)2

NH NH )2 NH (CH2NH

H2N NH

CH3 O CH2 Known CH CH2 O CH2 incompatibility

CH2

n

H2N

CH3 CH3 O C CH CH2

CH2

CH

CH2

O

C

O

O CH2 CH CH2 O 0 0 CH2 CH CH2

CH2

CH3

O

Technical Note

CH2

(CH2)Nn C 3C C 3(CH N 2)CH CH3(CH2)n CH n

O

NH2 NH2

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

27

NH2


Past research by BRANZ has found that under laboratory conditions timber treatments using alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) and copper azole (CuAz) preservatives cause more corrosion of mild steel and/or hot dip galvanized (HDG) fasteners than copper chrome arsenate (CCA) treatments [6-8]. However, the testing conditions were not necessarily representative of atmospheric exposure. Therefore, BRANZ has undertaken long-term field performance testing of typical fasteners (mild steel, galvanized steel and stainless steel nails and screws). These fasteners have been embedded in timbers treated with CCA (oxide), CuAz (CA-B containing tebuconazole) and ACQ (ACQ-B containing didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) for H3.2 and ACQ-C containing alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) for H4) to provide reliable corrosion data. Morphological Observations After one year of exposure at BRANZ’s site mild steel fasteners suffered relatively uniform corrosive attack across all of their surfaces. However, fasteners in contact with untreated and CCA treated timbers were in very much better condition than those removed from ACQ and CuAz treated timbers (see Figure 1). No obvious corrosion failures were observed on the head of hot dip galvanized nails. Instead corrosion, manifesting as white and/or redbrown products, was mainly localised on the shaft area. Coating degradation on the mechanically plated screws was more severe and their spiral sections appeared to be the most susceptible. Screws in ACQ and CuAz treated timbers,

28 Corrosion & Materials

a)

b)

c)

d)

Figure 1. Surface morphology of mild steel fasteners embedded into timbers exposed at Judgeford, NZ for one year. (a) Untreated, (b) H3 CCA, (c) H3 CuAz and (d) H3 ACQ.

a)

b)

c)

d)

Figure 2. Surface morphology of zinc coated and stainless steel fasteners embedded into timbers exposed at Judgeford, NZ for one year. (a) H4 CCA, (b) H4 CuAz, (c) H4 ACQ and (d) stainless steel in H4 ACQ.

Corrosion Rates Consistent with morphological findings, corrosion rates of fasteners in CCA (H3.2 & H4) treated timbers were relatively low and did not differ greatly from that of those embedded in untreated timbers. In contrast, CuAz and ACQ treatments promoted markedly increased corrosion rates (see Figures 3 and 4). For example, the mild steel nails had a corrosion rate of 6.63×10-2 mm/year in H4 ACQ treated timber, while the equivalent corrosion rates in H4 CCA and untreated timbers were 1.87×10-2 mm/year and 2.66×10-2 mm/year, respectively. Corrosion acceleration by CuAz and ACQ treatments was more obvious for the zinc coated fasteners. For instance, the corrosion rates of HDG nails in H4 CuAz and H4 ACQ treated timbers were 6.2 and 7.4 times greater, respectively, than that of the nails in H4 CCA. The mass losses of stainless steel fasteners were extremely limited and very close to, or lower than the value of the error associated with the measurement technique. Hence, it was impossible to determine the potential influence of timber preservation treatment on their performance.

H4 AC Q

H3 AC Q

H3 Cu Az H4 Cu Az

H4 CC A

H3 CC A

Un tre ate d

Nail Screw

Figure 3. Corrosion rates of mild steel fasteners in timbers exposed at Judgeford, NZ for one year.

H4 AC Q

H3 AC Q

Nail Screw

H3 Cu Az H4 Cu Az

0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0

H3 CC A H4 CC A

Introduction The components of any timber structure need to be held together using fasteners. Hence, the compatibility of the timber and the metal will largely determine their mechanical stability and durability. Unfortunately, most timbers are naturally corrosive towards susceptible metals due to the hydrolysis of acetyl radicals to acetic acid in the presence of moisture [1-3]. Waterborne preservatives, commonly applied to increase timber’s resistance to biological, chemical, mechanical, photochemical and thermal attack, can also be a potential corrosion hazard [4-5].

even at the H3.2 preservative level, were extensively rusted on their bodies (see Figure 2). Some screws embedded into the H4 ACQ timbers were, in fact, so corroded that they could not be extracted intact. Stainless steel fasteners performed very well in all combinations of preservative type and hazard class. No signs of corrosion were observed on their body sections. Occasionally very limited iron-rich rust could be observed on heads (see Figure 2). This was likely the result of partial damage to the passive film and/or iron contamination from the hammer when the fastener was driven into the timber.

0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0

Un tre ate d

A three year field exposure test on the corrosion performance of various metallic fasteners embedded into treated timbers has been completed at BRANZ’s site in Judgeford near Wellington, New Zealand [12]. Assessments confirmed that CuAz and ACQ treated timbers have an increased aggressivity towards metals in comparison with CCA treated timbers. The results after the first year of exposure are reported here.

Corrosion rate (mm/year)

Corrosion of Fasteners in Treated Timbers – Experimental Findings from Field Exposures

Corrosion rate (mm/year)

Technical Note

Figure 4. Corrosion rates of galvanized fasteners in timbers exposed at Judgeford, NZ for one year.

Timber’s Aggressivity vs. Copper Retention The correlation between the retained copper content in the treated timber and the experimentally-measured corrosion rate of fasteners was investigated in this study. It can be seen that: 1) T  he corrosion rates of mild steel fasteners in H3 & H4 CCA treated timbers are approximately equal despite the retained copper in H4 being virtually double that in the H3.2 grade. 2) F  asteners in CuAz and ACQ treated timbers have a higher corrosion rate than those in CCA treated timber. On average, CuAz and ACQ treated timbers have a higher copper content than CCA treated timber [9]. The copper retention ratio of H4 CCA, CuAz and ACQ is 1:2.05:3.32 while the corrosion rate ratios are 1:2.07:3.55 for mild steel nail and 1:6.24:7.40 for HDG nails. 3) A  n increase of copper retention in CuAz and, particularly, in ACQ treated timbers will increase corrosion rate. The copper content in H4 ACQ treated timber is about 3 times as high as the content in H3 ACQ treated timber, however the corrosion rate in H4 ACQ treated timber is only about 1.6 times as high as the rate in H3 ACQ treated timber. These observations imply that copper retention has a degree of correlation with corrosion rate and copper ion reduction is likely to be the cathodic reaction of the corrosion process [10]. However, it is unlikely to be the only mechanism actively responsible for the enhanced corrosion rates seen. It must be realised that the chemistries of these three treatments i.e. CCA, CuAz and ACQ, are quite www.corrosion.com.au

different in terms of ionic compositions. For example, CCA has hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in its composition, which potentially acts as a corrosion inhibitor for steel, and the arsenic may also confer corrosion resistance [11]. On the other hand, some formulations of ACQ contain chloride salts that are an obvious risk for increasing the corrosion rate due to the raised conductivity of the timber and the possibility of chloride ion attack. Conclusion Morphological characterisation and corrosion rate measurements demonstrated that corrosion was more extensively developed for fasteners embedded in the CuAz and ACQ treated timbers, particularly, at the H4 treatment level. Mean corrosion rates of mild steel and zinc coated fasteners measured could be three to eight times higher in timber treated with ACQ or CuAz preservatives than CCA. The use of either AISI 304/316 grades of stainless steel or durable equivalents such as silicon bronze is recommended for timber structures that require long-term durability and would frequently get wet during service. Acknowledgement This work was supported by New Zealand Building Research Levy. References

[1] A  .J. Baker, Corrosion of Metal in Wood Products, in Durability of Building Materials and Components: ASTM STP 691, Eds P.J. Sereda and G.G. Litvan, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, pp.981-993, 1980.  . Talbot and J. Talbot, Corrosion Science and Technology, CRC Press LLC, [2] D Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 1998.  .G. Cole and M.J. Schofield, The Corrosion of Metals by Wood, in Corrosion, [3] H Eds L.L. Shreir, R.A. Jarman and G.T. Burstein, Butterworth-Heinemann, Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, Great Britain, 2000. [4] A  .J. Baker, Corrosion of Metals in Preservative-treated Wood, in Wood Protection Techniques and the Use of Treated Wood in Construction: Proceedings 47358. Ed H. Margaret, 28-30 October 1987, Memphis, TN, USA, pp.99-101. [5] S  .L. Zelinka, R.J. Sichel and D.S. Stone, Exposure Testing of Fasteners in Preservative Treated Wood: Gravimetric Corrosion Rates and Corrosion Product Analyses, Corrosion Science, 52 (2010) 3943-3948. [6] G  . Kear, M.S. Jones and P. Haberecht, Corrosion of Mild Steel, HDG Steel and 316 Stainless Steel in CCA, CuAz and ACQ Treated Pinus Radiata, in Proceedings of the 16th International Corrosion Congress, Beijing, China, 19-24 September 2005. [7] G  . Kear, The Influence of Timber Treatment Preservative Systems on the Performance of Commercial Resistance-based Moisture Meters, BRANZ Study Report 161. BRANZ Ltd, Judgeford, New Zealand, 2006. [8] G  . Kear, H.Z. Wu and M.S.Jones, Weight Loss Studies of Fastener Materials Corrosion in Contact with Timbers Treated with Copper Azole and Alkaline Copper Quaternary Compounds, Corrosion Science, 51 (2009) 252-262. [9] S  tandards New Zealand, NZS 3640: Chemical Preservation of Round and Sawn Timber, Wellington, New Zealand, 2003. [10] S.L. Zelinka and D.S. Stone, Corrosion of Metals in Wood: Comparing the Results of a Rapid Test Method with Long-term Exposure Tests Across Six Wood Treatments, Corrosion Science, 53 (2011) 1708-1714. [11] R. Murphy, Chromium in Timber Preservation, The Chromium File, No.5, 1998. http://www.icdachromium.com. [12] Z.W. Li, N.J. Marston and M.S. Jones, Corrosion of Fasteners in Treated Timber, BRANZ Study Report SR241 & SR241A, BRANZ Ltd, Judgeford, New Zealand, 2011.

Authors: Zhengwei Li, Nick Marston & Mark Jones of BRANZ Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

29


Past research by BRANZ has found that under laboratory conditions timber treatments using alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) and copper azole (CuAz) preservatives cause more corrosion of mild steel and/or hot dip galvanized (HDG) fasteners than copper chrome arsenate (CCA) treatments [6-8]. However, the testing conditions were not necessarily representative of atmospheric exposure. Therefore, BRANZ has undertaken long-term field performance testing of typical fasteners (mild steel, galvanized steel and stainless steel nails and screws). These fasteners have been embedded in timbers treated with CCA (oxide), CuAz (CA-B containing tebuconazole) and ACQ (ACQ-B containing didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) for H3.2 and ACQ-C containing alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) for H4) to provide reliable corrosion data. Morphological Observations After one year of exposure at BRANZ’s site mild steel fasteners suffered relatively uniform corrosive attack across all of their surfaces. However, fasteners in contact with untreated and CCA treated timbers were in very much better condition than those removed from ACQ and CuAz treated timbers (see Figure 1). No obvious corrosion failures were observed on the head of hot dip galvanized nails. Instead corrosion, manifesting as white and/or redbrown products, was mainly localised on the shaft area. Coating degradation on the mechanically plated screws was more severe and their spiral sections appeared to be the most susceptible. Screws in ACQ and CuAz treated timbers,

28 Corrosion & Materials

a)

b)

c)

d)

Figure 1. Surface morphology of mild steel fasteners embedded into timbers exposed at Judgeford, NZ for one year. (a) Untreated, (b) H3 CCA, (c) H3 CuAz and (d) H3 ACQ.

a)

b)

c)

d)

Figure 2. Surface morphology of zinc coated and stainless steel fasteners embedded into timbers exposed at Judgeford, NZ for one year. (a) H4 CCA, (b) H4 CuAz, (c) H4 ACQ and (d) stainless steel in H4 ACQ.

Corrosion Rates Consistent with morphological findings, corrosion rates of fasteners in CCA (H3.2 & H4) treated timbers were relatively low and did not differ greatly from that of those embedded in untreated timbers. In contrast, CuAz and ACQ treatments promoted markedly increased corrosion rates (see Figures 3 and 4). For example, the mild steel nails had a corrosion rate of 6.63×10-2 mm/year in H4 ACQ treated timber, while the equivalent corrosion rates in H4 CCA and untreated timbers were 1.87×10-2 mm/year and 2.66×10-2 mm/year, respectively. Corrosion acceleration by CuAz and ACQ treatments was more obvious for the zinc coated fasteners. For instance, the corrosion rates of HDG nails in H4 CuAz and H4 ACQ treated timbers were 6.2 and 7.4 times greater, respectively, than that of the nails in H4 CCA. The mass losses of stainless steel fasteners were extremely limited and very close to, or lower than the value of the error associated with the measurement technique. Hence, it was impossible to determine the potential influence of timber preservation treatment on their performance.

H4 AC Q

H3 AC Q

H3 Cu Az H4 Cu Az

H4 CC A

H3 CC A

Un tre ate d

Nail Screw

Figure 3. Corrosion rates of mild steel fasteners in timbers exposed at Judgeford, NZ for one year.

H4 AC Q

H3 AC Q

Nail Screw

H3 Cu Az H4 Cu Az

0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0

H3 CC A H4 CC A

Introduction The components of any timber structure need to be held together using fasteners. Hence, the compatibility of the timber and the metal will largely determine their mechanical stability and durability. Unfortunately, most timbers are naturally corrosive towards susceptible metals due to the hydrolysis of acetyl radicals to acetic acid in the presence of moisture [1-3]. Waterborne preservatives, commonly applied to increase timber’s resistance to biological, chemical, mechanical, photochemical and thermal attack, can also be a potential corrosion hazard [4-5].

even at the H3.2 preservative level, were extensively rusted on their bodies (see Figure 2). Some screws embedded into the H4 ACQ timbers were, in fact, so corroded that they could not be extracted intact. Stainless steel fasteners performed very well in all combinations of preservative type and hazard class. No signs of corrosion were observed on their body sections. Occasionally very limited iron-rich rust could be observed on heads (see Figure 2). This was likely the result of partial damage to the passive film and/or iron contamination from the hammer when the fastener was driven into the timber.

0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0

Un tre ate d

A three year field exposure test on the corrosion performance of various metallic fasteners embedded into treated timbers has been completed at BRANZ’s site in Judgeford near Wellington, New Zealand [12]. Assessments confirmed that CuAz and ACQ treated timbers have an increased aggressivity towards metals in comparison with CCA treated timbers. The results after the first year of exposure are reported here.

Corrosion rate (mm/year)

Corrosion of Fasteners in Treated Timbers – Experimental Findings from Field Exposures

Corrosion rate (mm/year)

Technical Note

Figure 4. Corrosion rates of galvanized fasteners in timbers exposed at Judgeford, NZ for one year.

Timber’s Aggressivity vs. Copper Retention The correlation between the retained copper content in the treated timber and the experimentally-measured corrosion rate of fasteners was investigated in this study. It can be seen that: 1) T  he corrosion rates of mild steel fasteners in H3 & H4 CCA treated timbers are approximately equal despite the retained copper in H4 being virtually double that in the H3.2 grade. 2) F  asteners in CuAz and ACQ treated timbers have a higher corrosion rate than those in CCA treated timber. On average, CuAz and ACQ treated timbers have a higher copper content than CCA treated timber [9]. The copper retention ratio of H4 CCA, CuAz and ACQ is 1:2.05:3.32 while the corrosion rate ratios are 1:2.07:3.55 for mild steel nail and 1:6.24:7.40 for HDG nails. 3) A  n increase of copper retention in CuAz and, particularly, in ACQ treated timbers will increase corrosion rate. The copper content in H4 ACQ treated timber is about 3 times as high as the content in H3 ACQ treated timber, however the corrosion rate in H4 ACQ treated timber is only about 1.6 times as high as the rate in H3 ACQ treated timber. These observations imply that copper retention has a degree of correlation with corrosion rate and copper ion reduction is likely to be the cathodic reaction of the corrosion process [10]. However, it is unlikely to be the only mechanism actively responsible for the enhanced corrosion rates seen. It must be realised that the chemistries of these three treatments i.e. CCA, CuAz and ACQ, are quite www.corrosion.com.au

different in terms of ionic compositions. For example, CCA has hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in its composition, which potentially acts as a corrosion inhibitor for steel, and the arsenic may also confer corrosion resistance [11]. On the other hand, some formulations of ACQ contain chloride salts that are an obvious risk for increasing the corrosion rate due to the raised conductivity of the timber and the possibility of chloride ion attack. Conclusion Morphological characterisation and corrosion rate measurements demonstrated that corrosion was more extensively developed for fasteners embedded in the CuAz and ACQ treated timbers, particularly, at the H4 treatment level. Mean corrosion rates of mild steel and zinc coated fasteners measured could be three to eight times higher in timber treated with ACQ or CuAz preservatives than CCA. The use of either AISI 304/316 grades of stainless steel or durable equivalents such as silicon bronze is recommended for timber structures that require long-term durability and would frequently get wet during service. Acknowledgement This work was supported by New Zealand Building Research Levy. References

[1] A  .J. Baker, Corrosion of Metal in Wood Products, in Durability of Building Materials and Components: ASTM STP 691, Eds P.J. Sereda and G.G. Litvan, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, pp.981-993, 1980.  . Talbot and J. Talbot, Corrosion Science and Technology, CRC Press LLC, [2] D Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 1998.  .G. Cole and M.J. Schofield, The Corrosion of Metals by Wood, in Corrosion, [3] H Eds L.L. Shreir, R.A. Jarman and G.T. Burstein, Butterworth-Heinemann, Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, Great Britain, 2000. [4] A  .J. Baker, Corrosion of Metals in Preservative-treated Wood, in Wood Protection Techniques and the Use of Treated Wood in Construction: Proceedings 47358. Ed H. Margaret, 28-30 October 1987, Memphis, TN, USA, pp.99-101. [5] S  .L. Zelinka, R.J. Sichel and D.S. Stone, Exposure Testing of Fasteners in Preservative Treated Wood: Gravimetric Corrosion Rates and Corrosion Product Analyses, Corrosion Science, 52 (2010) 3943-3948. [6] G  . Kear, M.S. Jones and P. Haberecht, Corrosion of Mild Steel, HDG Steel and 316 Stainless Steel in CCA, CuAz and ACQ Treated Pinus Radiata, in Proceedings of the 16th International Corrosion Congress, Beijing, China, 19-24 September 2005. [7] G  . Kear, The Influence of Timber Treatment Preservative Systems on the Performance of Commercial Resistance-based Moisture Meters, BRANZ Study Report 161. BRANZ Ltd, Judgeford, New Zealand, 2006. [8] G  . Kear, H.Z. Wu and M.S.Jones, Weight Loss Studies of Fastener Materials Corrosion in Contact with Timbers Treated with Copper Azole and Alkaline Copper Quaternary Compounds, Corrosion Science, 51 (2009) 252-262. [9] S  tandards New Zealand, NZS 3640: Chemical Preservation of Round and Sawn Timber, Wellington, New Zealand, 2003. [10] S.L. Zelinka and D.S. Stone, Corrosion of Metals in Wood: Comparing the Results of a Rapid Test Method with Long-term Exposure Tests Across Six Wood Treatments, Corrosion Science, 53 (2011) 1708-1714. [11] R. Murphy, Chromium in Timber Preservation, The Chromium File, No.5, 1998. http://www.icdachromium.com. [12] Z.W. Li, N.J. Marston and M.S. Jones, Corrosion of Fasteners in Treated Timber, BRANZ Study Report SR241 & SR241A, BRANZ Ltd, Judgeford, New Zealand, 2011.

Authors: Zhengwei Li, Nick Marston & Mark Jones of BRANZ Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

29


KISR requires:

RESEARCH SCIENTIST

Engineered Surface Preparation Pty Ltd

Major duties:

In what year was your company established?

Corrosion Researcher with Metallurgy or Materials Science Background

November 2009.

To supervise the establishment of a multiphase flow system. To conduct research using an oil well tubular at high temperatures and pressures in presence of CO2, H2S, and sand particles.

How many employees did you employ when you first started the business?

To conduct research on erosion corrosion and oilfield chemicals.

Five.

To carry out research on wet H2S cracking as well as stress corrosion cracking.

Qualifications: Applicants should have a Ph.D. in Corrosion with Metallurgy or Materials Science background with proven R&D experience in the required type of work. Strong leadership, ability to attract research funding, project management and staff training are highly desirable.

RESEARCH SCIENTIST Major duties: Fracture Mechanics Researcher with Metallurgy or Materials Science Background To supervise the establishment of mechanical testing facility, including fracture toughness and creep testing. To conduct research on fracture toughness and creep of refinery alloys with remaining life assessments. To carry out research on mechanical behavior of refinery alloys in relation to alloy structure and long-term refinery service.

Qualifications: Applicants should have a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering with Metallurgy or Materials science background with proven R&D experience in the required type of work. Strong leadership, ability to attract research funding, project management and staff training are highly desirable.

How many do you currently employ? 16.

Our business has 3 business modules, Blast & Paint Facility, On Site Services and Enviropeel. We have equipment to service all areas of corrosion protection and coatings systems this alos includes the equipment necessary for the preparation. What markets do you cover with your products or services? eg: oil & gas, marine, chemical process, general fabrication, tank lining, offshore etc. We cover Mining, Sugar and Process Industries.

Both.

Corrosion Researcher with Metallurgy or Materials Science background To carry out high temperature corrosion research work (sulfidation, oxidation, hydrogen attack, carburization, decarburization, etc.)

What is your monthly capacity or tonnage that you can blast and prime?

To establish the inter-relationship between degradation of material properties and degree of high temperature attack.

50 tonnes.

Strong leadership, ability to attract research funding, project management and staff training are highly desirable. KISR offers attractive tax free salaries commensurate with qualifications and experience that include: gratuity, free furnished accommodation, school tuition fees for children, six weeks annual paid vacation, air tickets and life insurance. Interested applicants are requested to send their Curriculum Vitae with supporting information not later than one month from the date of this publication, to: Personnel Manager Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research P.O. Box 24885 13109 Safat, Kuwait e-mail:employment@kisr.edu.kw Fax: (00965) 24989389 For further information, please visit our web site: www.kisr.edu.kw

We out source training and we are currently looking at courses with ACA.

What is your core business? (e.g. blasting and painting, rubber lining, waterjetting, laminating, insulation, flooring etc.)

Major duties:

Applicants should have a Ph.D. in Metallurgy and/or Materials Science with Corrosion background and proven R&D experience in the required type of work.

Do you have an internal training scheme or do you outsource training for your employees?

We have a blast and paint facility in Mackay Paget and we have also site crews who work at various sites in QLD.

Is the business yard based, site based or both?

Qualifications:

To insure that when making critical decisions that there has been some engineering and thought put into the decision that has been made.

Do you operate from a number of locations in your home state or in other states of Australia?

RESEARCH SCIENTIST

To conduct failure investigations that are metallurgically-induced in nature.

What positive advice can you pass on to the Coatings Group from that satisfying project or job?

Do you offer any specialty services outside your core business? (eg. primary yard based but will do site touch up etc.)

Before and after Enviropeel process of shaft and pinion

We offer Enviropeel Technology which is used for long term storage of components and equipment. And we also have specialized concrete preparation equipment for the small project right through to the very large project where we use Schibeci Concrete Preparation equipment. What is the most satisfying project that you have completed in the past two years and why? We would all agree that the installation of our blast and paint booth has been the most satisfying project.

www.corrosion.com.au

Contact Details: Peter Costigan Industrial Sales/Manager

205 Boundary Rd Paget, Qld 4740

Ph: (07) 4952-2401 Mob: 0458 440 785

E: peter@espqld.com.au Web: www.espqld.com.au

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

31


KISR requires:

RESEARCH SCIENTIST

Engineered Surface Preparation Pty Ltd

Major duties:

In what year was your company established?

Corrosion Researcher with Metallurgy or Materials Science Background

November 2009.

To supervise the establishment of a multiphase flow system. To conduct research using an oil well tubular at high temperatures and pressures in presence of CO2, H2S, and sand particles.

How many employees did you employ when you first started the business?

To conduct research on erosion corrosion and oilfield chemicals.

Five.

To carry out research on wet H2S cracking as well as stress corrosion cracking.

Qualifications: Applicants should have a Ph.D. in Corrosion with Metallurgy or Materials Science background with proven R&D experience in the required type of work. Strong leadership, ability to attract research funding, project management and staff training are highly desirable.

RESEARCH SCIENTIST Major duties: Fracture Mechanics Researcher with Metallurgy or Materials Science Background To supervise the establishment of mechanical testing facility, including fracture toughness and creep testing. To conduct research on fracture toughness and creep of refinery alloys with remaining life assessments. To carry out research on mechanical behavior of refinery alloys in relation to alloy structure and long-term refinery service.

Qualifications: Applicants should have a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering with Metallurgy or Materials science background with proven R&D experience in the required type of work. Strong leadership, ability to attract research funding, project management and staff training are highly desirable.

How many do you currently employ? 16.

Our business has 3 business modules, Blast & Paint Facility, On Site Services and Enviropeel. We have equipment to service all areas of corrosion protection and coatings systems this alos includes the equipment necessary for the preparation. What markets do you cover with your products or services? eg: oil & gas, marine, chemical process, general fabrication, tank lining, offshore etc. We cover Mining, Sugar and Process Industries.

Both.

Corrosion Researcher with Metallurgy or Materials Science background To carry out high temperature corrosion research work (sulfidation, oxidation, hydrogen attack, carburization, decarburization, etc.)

What is your monthly capacity or tonnage that you can blast and prime?

To establish the inter-relationship between degradation of material properties and degree of high temperature attack.

50 tonnes.

Strong leadership, ability to attract research funding, project management and staff training are highly desirable. KISR offers attractive tax free salaries commensurate with qualifications and experience that include: gratuity, free furnished accommodation, school tuition fees for children, six weeks annual paid vacation, air tickets and life insurance. Interested applicants are requested to send their Curriculum Vitae with supporting information not later than one month from the date of this publication, to: Personnel Manager Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research P.O. Box 24885 13109 Safat, Kuwait e-mail:employment@kisr.edu.kw Fax: (00965) 24989389 For further information, please visit our web site: www.kisr.edu.kw

We out source training and we are currently looking at courses with ACA.

What is your core business? (e.g. blasting and painting, rubber lining, waterjetting, laminating, insulation, flooring etc.)

Major duties:

Applicants should have a Ph.D. in Metallurgy and/or Materials Science with Corrosion background and proven R&D experience in the required type of work.

Do you have an internal training scheme or do you outsource training for your employees?

We have a blast and paint facility in Mackay Paget and we have also site crews who work at various sites in QLD.

Is the business yard based, site based or both?

Qualifications:

To insure that when making critical decisions that there has been some engineering and thought put into the decision that has been made.

Do you operate from a number of locations in your home state or in other states of Australia?

RESEARCH SCIENTIST

To conduct failure investigations that are metallurgically-induced in nature.

What positive advice can you pass on to the Coatings Group from that satisfying project or job?

Do you offer any specialty services outside your core business? (eg. primary yard based but will do site touch up etc.)

Before and after Enviropeel process of shaft and pinion

We offer Enviropeel Technology which is used for long term storage of components and equipment. And we also have specialized concrete preparation equipment for the small project right through to the very large project where we use Schibeci Concrete Preparation equipment. What is the most satisfying project that you have completed in the past two years and why? We would all agree that the installation of our blast and paint booth has been the most satisfying project.

www.corrosion.com.au

Contact Details: Peter Costigan Industrial Sales/Manager

205 Boundary Rd Paget, Qld 4740

Ph: (07) 4952-2401 Mob: 0458 440 785

E: peter@espqld.com.au Web: www.espqld.com.au

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

31


ACA MIC Symposium Titanic researcher to present at ACA’s MIC Symposium The ACA welcomes Canadian Roy Cullimore as an invited speaker at the Symposium of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion on the 10th – 11th August 2011 in Melbourne. Roy has been involved with deep ocean microbiological research which includes the only steel corrosion experiments allowed to be placed on the RMS Titanic. The longest experiment (platform C) has now been at the site for thirteen years. Roy Cullimore Roy Cullimore is an entrepreneurial applied microbial ecologist who has had eleven patents with two of those commercialised. His career was mostly academic when he performed the role of noxious maverick until retirement in 2001. Roy however formed his own company in 1986 and leased a building from the University of Regina to establish Droycon Bioconcepts Inc. In 2001 with the sailing from academic shores Roy established a production, research and development building in Regina. In the 1980’s Roy gained a reputation for working on microbiologically influenced biofouling and has since published two bestsellers with CRC Press along with other books relating to groundwater biofouling. Roy obtained a Doctorate from the University of Nottingham in agricultural microbiology in 1962. Roy found the Mendelian based genetic links for fat synthesis in yeast in 1959 (published in Nature) and received the UK patent on a biologically based soil fertility test method (which does work) in 1963. He moved from the University of Surrey in the UK to University of Regina in Canada in 1968. Given the lack of interest in soil microbiology within Canadian agricultural world, Roy moved to the microbiology of water and particularly groundwater along with the biofouling of wells. Today Droycon Bioconcepts

32 Corrosion & Materials

Inc manufactures the BART testers and exports globally (including to Australia). Titanic Research Roy was asked by the Discovery Channel in 1996 to investigate the potential of microbial causes for deterioration of RMS Titanic. This request was associated with production of the 1997 documentary, Titanic, Anatomy of a Disaster, which focused on scientific interpretation of the cause of sinking and the present condition of RMS Titanic on the ocean floor. Roy discovered that on the Titanic's hull and other locations on the vessel were in fact the homes of complex communities of bacteria and fungi. These microbes work cooperatively in forming and maintaining their homes and are termed ‘rusticles’. The microbial communities within the rusticles are consuming iron and to a lesser degree, other elements from the steel that forms RMS Titanic. Based on the results of these experiments, Roy and other scientists from Droycon Bioconcepts, Inc. have been able to make preliminary estimates for the loss of iron from the steel bow section of RMS Titanic. The 1996 experiments and related survey of the site indicated "there was approximately 650 tons (dry weight) of rusticles on the outside of the bow section of the wreck. From this, it can be extrapolated that a daily loss of iron, as red dust and yellow biocolloids, of between 0.13 and 0.20 tons per day could be occurring from the wreck. Further extrapolation reveals that iron in the bow section, assuming 20,000 tons of iron, and that the rusticles were removing the iron at a constant rate, could be totally exported into the environment as red dust and biocolloids in approximately 280 to 420 years.”

Milestones of Roy’s Titanic Research 1996: Dove to the Titanic and placed four short term experiments on bridge deck 1998: Dove to Titanic and placed several short term experiments on and around the ship along with four long term steel test platforms 2001: Business partner Lori Johnston went with Jim Cameron on dives to shoot the ship in 3D associated with the block buster film “Titanic” 2003: Dove to Titanic and recovered two test platforms (A and B) and also conducted more short term scientific tests 2004: Recovered platform A and placed more steel test platforms around the ship 2005: Placed more tests down at site 2010: Prepared thirteen experimental sets to deploy and also bring back some platforms but hurricanes caused cancellation on Droycon’s part in the expedition.

Roy laying on the viewing “cot” and looking out of the starboard viewing porthole in the MIR while coming in on the bow section of RMS Titanic, 2003.

2003 dive to the Titanic (showing the MIR submarine clearly in the upper part of the photo) .

Investigations of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) of Submerged Steel and Wooden Ship Wrecks and the Role that Bio-Concretions Play in These Degenerative Processes Roy’s presentation at the ACA’s MIC Symposium in Melbourne 10-11 August 2011 will cut across many boundaries to observe corrosion related events in various domains. There will be an emphasis on the manners in which microorganisms influence the forms of corrosion (structural embarrassment) and the mechanisms that could be the key to explaining these occurrences. In this presentation

MIR is shown descending down into the North Atlantic over RMS Titanic on one of those rare calm days (what a picture!!).

there would be three fundamental components: identification of the microbial communities involved; measurement of localised activity levels; and environmental factors that would influence shifts in the dominant activities associable with both biomass generation and corrosive processes. Emphasis would be placed on the RASI-MIDI “fingerprinting” of the fatty acid methyl esters to identify the (stable) communities; the use of digital image interpretation to determine the activities of various bacterial communities using BART time lapse technologies; and using biological high energy storage (primarily in adenosine triphosphate, ATP)

Both platforms together (2004 we were bringing back steel platform A from the stern and replacing her with a mark II).

monitored by a third generation enhanced technique generating E-tATP commonly in picograms. In the last five years the whole concept of microbiologically influenced corrosion is maturing. For example the role of sulfate reducing bacteria in corrosion needs to be revisited. Work here reveals that the better target should be the sulfide producing bacteria. In some systems it has been found that acid producing bacteria active under reductive conditions can also generate corrosive processes. Functionally the role of geo-magnetic forces in microbiologically driven is in urgent need of exploring.

SYMPOSIUM ON MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION 10th–11th August 2011 Melbourne Marriott Hotel, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia PROUDLY PRESENTED BY:

SPONSORED BY:

SUPPORTED BY:

Visit www.corrosion.com.au for registration and further details. There will be opportunity for delegates to participate in an open-floor forum as part of this seminar. Although hot topics generated at the seminar will be given priority, members planning to attend are encouraged to send topics and/or burning issues to be tabled for discussion to kwebber@corrosion.com.au by 15th July 2011.

Roy (2010) ravaging through a rusticle on the reflectance microscope. www.corrosion.com.au

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

33


ACA MIC Symposium Titanic researcher to present at ACA’s MIC Symposium The ACA welcomes Canadian Roy Cullimore as an invited speaker at the Symposium of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion on the 10th – 11th August 2011 in Melbourne. Roy has been involved with deep ocean microbiological research which includes the only steel corrosion experiments allowed to be placed on the RMS Titanic. The longest experiment (platform C) has now been at the site for thirteen years. Roy Cullimore Roy Cullimore is an entrepreneurial applied microbial ecologist who has had eleven patents with two of those commercialised. His career was mostly academic when he performed the role of noxious maverick until retirement in 2001. Roy however formed his own company in 1986 and leased a building from the University of Regina to establish Droycon Bioconcepts Inc. In 2001 with the sailing from academic shores Roy established a production, research and development building in Regina. In the 1980’s Roy gained a reputation for working on microbiologically influenced biofouling and has since published two bestsellers with CRC Press along with other books relating to groundwater biofouling. Roy obtained a Doctorate from the University of Nottingham in agricultural microbiology in 1962. Roy found the Mendelian based genetic links for fat synthesis in yeast in 1959 (published in Nature) and received the UK patent on a biologically based soil fertility test method (which does work) in 1963. He moved from the University of Surrey in the UK to University of Regina in Canada in 1968. Given the lack of interest in soil microbiology within Canadian agricultural world, Roy moved to the microbiology of water and particularly groundwater along with the biofouling of wells. Today Droycon Bioconcepts

32 Corrosion & Materials

Inc manufactures the BART testers and exports globally (including to Australia). Titanic Research Roy was asked by the Discovery Channel in 1996 to investigate the potential of microbial causes for deterioration of RMS Titanic. This request was associated with production of the 1997 documentary, Titanic, Anatomy of a Disaster, which focused on scientific interpretation of the cause of sinking and the present condition of RMS Titanic on the ocean floor. Roy discovered that on the Titanic's hull and other locations on the vessel were in fact the homes of complex communities of bacteria and fungi. These microbes work cooperatively in forming and maintaining their homes and are termed ‘rusticles’. The microbial communities within the rusticles are consuming iron and to a lesser degree, other elements from the steel that forms RMS Titanic. Based on the results of these experiments, Roy and other scientists from Droycon Bioconcepts, Inc. have been able to make preliminary estimates for the loss of iron from the steel bow section of RMS Titanic. The 1996 experiments and related survey of the site indicated "there was approximately 650 tons (dry weight) of rusticles on the outside of the bow section of the wreck. From this, it can be extrapolated that a daily loss of iron, as red dust and yellow biocolloids, of between 0.13 and 0.20 tons per day could be occurring from the wreck. Further extrapolation reveals that iron in the bow section, assuming 20,000 tons of iron, and that the rusticles were removing the iron at a constant rate, could be totally exported into the environment as red dust and biocolloids in approximately 280 to 420 years.”

Milestones of Roy’s Titanic Research 1996: Dove to the Titanic and placed four short term experiments on bridge deck 1998: Dove to Titanic and placed several short term experiments on and around the ship along with four long term steel test platforms 2001: Business partner Lori Johnston went with Jim Cameron on dives to shoot the ship in 3D associated with the block buster film “Titanic” 2003: Dove to Titanic and recovered two test platforms (A and B) and also conducted more short term scientific tests 2004: Recovered platform A and placed more steel test platforms around the ship 2005: Placed more tests down at site 2010: Prepared thirteen experimental sets to deploy and also bring back some platforms but hurricanes caused cancellation on Droycon’s part in the expedition.

Roy laying on the viewing “cot” and looking out of the starboard viewing porthole in the MIR while coming in on the bow section of RMS Titanic, 2003.

2003 dive to the Titanic (showing the MIR submarine clearly in the upper part of the photo) .

Investigations of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) of Submerged Steel and Wooden Ship Wrecks and the Role that Bio-Concretions Play in These Degenerative Processes Roy’s presentation at the ACA’s MIC Symposium in Melbourne 10-11 August 2011 will cut across many boundaries to observe corrosion related events in various domains. There will be an emphasis on the manners in which microorganisms influence the forms of corrosion (structural embarrassment) and the mechanisms that could be the key to explaining these occurrences. In this presentation

MIR is shown descending down into the North Atlantic over RMS Titanic on one of those rare calm days (what a picture!!).

there would be three fundamental components: identification of the microbial communities involved; measurement of localised activity levels; and environmental factors that would influence shifts in the dominant activities associable with both biomass generation and corrosive processes. Emphasis would be placed on the RASI-MIDI “fingerprinting” of the fatty acid methyl esters to identify the (stable) communities; the use of digital image interpretation to determine the activities of various bacterial communities using BART time lapse technologies; and using biological high energy storage (primarily in adenosine triphosphate, ATP)

Both platforms together (2004 we were bringing back steel platform A from the stern and replacing her with a mark II).

monitored by a third generation enhanced technique generating E-tATP commonly in picograms. In the last five years the whole concept of microbiologically influenced corrosion is maturing. For example the role of sulfate reducing bacteria in corrosion needs to be revisited. Work here reveals that the better target should be the sulfide producing bacteria. In some systems it has been found that acid producing bacteria active under reductive conditions can also generate corrosive processes. Functionally the role of geo-magnetic forces in microbiologically driven is in urgent need of exploring.

SYMPOSIUM ON MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION 10th–11th August 2011 Melbourne Marriott Hotel, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia PROUDLY PRESENTED BY:

SPONSORED BY:

SUPPORTED BY:

Visit www.corrosion.com.au for registration and further details. There will be opportunity for delegates to participate in an open-floor forum as part of this seminar. Although hot topics generated at the seminar will be given priority, members planning to attend are encouraged to send topics and/or burning issues to be tabled for discussion to kwebber@corrosion.com.au by 15th July 2011.

Roy (2010) ravaging through a rusticle on the reflectance microscope. www.corrosion.com.au

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

33


Extending the Life of a Wharf Asset for PNG Ports Extending asset life can make a real difference to the bottom line. Using state-of-the-art technology and innovative solutions means Advanced Materials and Strategic Asset Management specialists can extend the life of existing assets and find ways to add years to the life of new ones. AECOM recently developed an asset management strategy providing an extra 30 years service life to a vital berth servicing approximately 50 percent of container movements among Pacific Island nations. “PNG Ports needed a significant extension to the service life of reinforced concrete and steel elements at Lae Berth 3. To determine the most effective approach to achieve this outcome we combined a detailed condition assessment with service modelling data and outputs from our structural analysis. This enabled us to understand not only the remediation requirements now but what additional maintenance and upgrade works

Lae Berth 3

34 Corrosion & Materials

would be required over the duration of the requested service life,” said Phil Vimpani, AECOM’s Advanced Materials Manager for Victoria and South Australia. A specification for remediation works was developed including: concrete repair and cathodic protection of the reinforced concrete silane application for undamaged concrete areas pile protection and strengthening using reinforced concrete encasements, steel plates and wrapping system above mid tide cathodic protection of steel piles below mid tide. During construction AECOM provided assistance and training to the resident engineer, and verified that the contractor’s works complied with the technical specifications. This involved regular site visits to provide

advice, training, supervision of works and audits. To ensure best practice, an extensive Quality Assurance system was used to manage the training requirements of the Papua New Guinea Ports Corporation engineers and resident contractors, and audits were undertaken at key stages. Lae Berth 3 was designed by the Commonwealth of Australia’s Department of Works in 1971 and constructed the following year. As there are no roads linking the Lae region to the south of PNG, this port is of vital importance to the economy of Lae and PNG. The berth operates at capacity for the majority of the year and is therefore a major strategic asset for PNG Ports Corporation. When AECOM assessed the wharf it was found to be in a poor to very poor condition with significant deterioration of key structural elements. Major technical and logistical challenges needed to be overcome to deliver a project of this type in PNG.

Lae Berth 3

Based on the testing and service life modelling, remedial works included the use of concrete repairs together with cathodic protection and corrosion inhibitors. To manage risks, PNG Ports Corporation and AECOM teamed up with Savcor ART. AECOM and Savcor workshopped technical solutions following the condition assessment, and again following the development of the draft revision of the technical specification. This was to ensure the proposed design could provide PNG Ports Corporation with the best value engineering solution that also achieved all durability requirements. All parties worked together to develop and implement a comprehensive process where PNG nationals with no previous experience in wharf remediation entered a site-based training and accreditation program to ensure knowledge was imparted and transferred to all team members.

The application of this specialist work to a project in PNG additionally required specialist supervision. AECOM worked very closely with a PNG Ports appointed engineer and trained him in key technical aspects of wharf remediation and cathodic protection. The extensive Quality Assurance system was developed to specifically manage training requirements of PNG Ports’ engineers as well as the PNG nationals working on the Savcor ART team to ensure that best practices were achieved. All repairs and related activities were undertaken in a sequence that prevented any disruption to port operations. It was PNG Port Corporations’ requirements that the berth was to be kept fully operational at all times. By enabling this wharf to achieve an additional 30 year service life, PNG Ports Corporation has been able to continue using extremely important, existing infrastructure and port facilities and avoided the need to

Access was required to the soffit of the wharf

www.corrosion.com.au

demolish and rebuild with all the logistical difficulties and disruption to the local community that would have entailed. Savcor supported the local community during the project by constructing additional school facilities at a local school. Construction of the school classroom used surplus 44 gallon drums (which were flattened to make a roof) and timber from pallets was used to make walls and a floor. AECOM helped by collecting games and educational materials which was donated to this and other schools in Lae and also assisted by donating a significant quantity of surplus books, stationery, clothing and umbrellas from its offices all over Australasia. The remediation has set a high benchmark for undertaking difficult wharf remediation projects in remote locations where there is no existing local skill base but where it is vital that a high degree of quality, durability, constructability and safety is achieved.

AECOM and PNG Ports engineers working in partnership for the management of remediation works

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

35


Extending the Life of a Wharf Asset for PNG Ports Extending asset life can make a real difference to the bottom line. Using state-of-the-art technology and innovative solutions means Advanced Materials and Strategic Asset Management specialists can extend the life of existing assets and find ways to add years to the life of new ones. AECOM recently developed an asset management strategy providing an extra 30 years service life to a vital berth servicing approximately 50 percent of container movements among Pacific Island nations. “PNG Ports needed a significant extension to the service life of reinforced concrete and steel elements at Lae Berth 3. To determine the most effective approach to achieve this outcome we combined a detailed condition assessment with service modelling data and outputs from our structural analysis. This enabled us to understand not only the remediation requirements now but what additional maintenance and upgrade works

Lae Berth 3

34 Corrosion & Materials

would be required over the duration of the requested service life,” said Phil Vimpani, AECOM’s Advanced Materials Manager for Victoria and South Australia. A specification for remediation works was developed including: concrete repair and cathodic protection of the reinforced concrete silane application for undamaged concrete areas pile protection and strengthening using reinforced concrete encasements, steel plates and wrapping system above mid tide cathodic protection of steel piles below mid tide. During construction AECOM provided assistance and training to the resident engineer, and verified that the contractor’s works complied with the technical specifications. This involved regular site visits to provide

advice, training, supervision of works and audits. To ensure best practice, an extensive Quality Assurance system was used to manage the training requirements of the Papua New Guinea Ports Corporation engineers and resident contractors, and audits were undertaken at key stages. Lae Berth 3 was designed by the Commonwealth of Australia’s Department of Works in 1971 and constructed the following year. As there are no roads linking the Lae region to the south of PNG, this port is of vital importance to the economy of Lae and PNG. The berth operates at capacity for the majority of the year and is therefore a major strategic asset for PNG Ports Corporation. When AECOM assessed the wharf it was found to be in a poor to very poor condition with significant deterioration of key structural elements. Major technical and logistical challenges needed to be overcome to deliver a project of this type in PNG.

Lae Berth 3

Based on the testing and service life modelling, remedial works included the use of concrete repairs together with cathodic protection and corrosion inhibitors. To manage risks, PNG Ports Corporation and AECOM teamed up with Savcor ART. AECOM and Savcor workshopped technical solutions following the condition assessment, and again following the development of the draft revision of the technical specification. This was to ensure the proposed design could provide PNG Ports Corporation with the best value engineering solution that also achieved all durability requirements. All parties worked together to develop and implement a comprehensive process where PNG nationals with no previous experience in wharf remediation entered a site-based training and accreditation program to ensure knowledge was imparted and transferred to all team members.

The application of this specialist work to a project in PNG additionally required specialist supervision. AECOM worked very closely with a PNG Ports appointed engineer and trained him in key technical aspects of wharf remediation and cathodic protection. The extensive Quality Assurance system was developed to specifically manage training requirements of PNG Ports’ engineers as well as the PNG nationals working on the Savcor ART team to ensure that best practices were achieved. All repairs and related activities were undertaken in a sequence that prevented any disruption to port operations. It was PNG Port Corporations’ requirements that the berth was to be kept fully operational at all times. By enabling this wharf to achieve an additional 30 year service life, PNG Ports Corporation has been able to continue using extremely important, existing infrastructure and port facilities and avoided the need to

Access was required to the soffit of the wharf

www.corrosion.com.au

demolish and rebuild with all the logistical difficulties and disruption to the local community that would have entailed. Savcor supported the local community during the project by constructing additional school facilities at a local school. Construction of the school classroom used surplus 44 gallon drums (which were flattened to make a roof) and timber from pallets was used to make walls and a floor. AECOM helped by collecting games and educational materials which was donated to this and other schools in Lae and also assisted by donating a significant quantity of surplus books, stationery, clothing and umbrellas from its offices all over Australasia. The remediation has set a high benchmark for undertaking difficult wharf remediation projects in remote locations where there is no existing local skill base but where it is vital that a high degree of quality, durability, constructability and safety is achieved.

AECOM and PNG Ports engineers working in partnership for the management of remediation works

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

35


University Profile Monash University Corrosion activity at Monash University For many decades now, corrosion activity at Monash University has been identified as an important component of the University's function, and an area of intense research. This is commensurate with the vigorous corrosion activity in the Melbourne area (CSIRO, DSTO, Consulting organisations) which has also been hand-in-hand with the Australasian Corrosion Association since its roots. Whilst originally centred around the activities of the Department of Materials Engineering – where Prof. Brian Cherry still resides – nowadays the many departments within the Faculty of Engineering now research corrosion in one form or another and in cooperation between them. Monash has a long history of educating (at the undergraduate and postgraduate level) many of the nation’s corrosion personalities. Be it academics (past and present), consultants, pipeline engineers, defence scientists, managers or policy makers – the majority of Australia’s corrosion family has in one form or another been involved with Monash. To this day, aspects of corrosion are taught in the many engineering departments, and important research into corrosion not only continues, but has continued to grow. The various ‘rust busters’ at Monash University are supported by a variety of sources that include ARC funding, Cooperative Research Centres, Linkage funding, and direct industrial support (local and international). In addition, there are strong collaborations with the CSIRO, DSTO and other universities (nationally and internationally); including corrosion activity in IITB-Monash Research Academy.

36 Corrosion & Materials

At present, the combined corrosion group at Monash University is amongst the largest in the world with approximately 50 people working either at the staff, research fellow, postgraduate or honours level over four Monash engineering departments: Chemical, Civil, Materials, Mechanical & Aerospace – with total combined funding in the vicinity of several millions per year. This unique resource is also one of the very few to have the expertise and infrastructure for investigations from the practical to the atomic lengthscale, for a range of environments, and for any of the several forms of corrosion. Some areas of research include: Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) testing facility SCC, the premature and often catastrophic fracture caused due to the synergistic action of corrosion and tensile stress, is also believed to the most dangerous form of corrosion-assisted failure. Electrochemical Corrosion Testing Facility Monash is very well equipped for electrochemical testing of metals in various electrolytes including a range of temperatures and pressures via custom cells. With about 30 potentiostats in total – many studies can be done simultaneously, including those on the road (or on a boat!) High Temperature Gaseous Corrosion Testing Facility Rapid degradation due to corrosive gases at high temperatures can compromise mechanical integrity in several industrial components, such as power plant steam generators/ boilers, steel processing, aircraft turbines. This phenomenon is often the life limiting factor and

a particular concern for the aged welded components operating at elevated temperatures. Monash has a testing facility for this purpose. Under Vic Govt’s ETIS program of Victorian Power companies, Monash and HRL Technology, a unique testing facility has been established. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) Testing Microorganisms such as certain bacteria can influence/accelerate corrosion. MIC degradation of pipelines due to sulphate reducing and oxidising bacteria has been long been recognised. However, MIC is a truly interdisciplinary field. Monash is one of the few universities in the world to have expertise and infrastructure in the component areas of MIC studies, i.e., microbiological isolation, culturing, microscopy and MIC testing. Corrosion mitigation Monash University has a strong reputation in the mitigation of corrosion by various means. Some of the key strengths in this area include: Conversion coatings for light metals

Advanced and Standard Corrosion Characterisation Facilities Besides being the home of the Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy (MCEM, which houses numerous SEMs, TEMs and analytical characterisation tools), facilities that are critical to the area of corrosion research include Metallography facilities, Sample preparation facilities, Environment Testing / Salt Spray Chamber, Processing facilities, Alloy melting, casting, processing, Conversion coating and plating (electro and electroless) facility, Autoclaves, Optical Profilometry, Atomic Force Microscopy (including in-situ / liquid cell / electrochemical), Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, Incubators and biocorrosion test facilities, Advanced computing and data analysis capability. Corrosion research is also carried out under the banners of the: ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals CAST CRC

ACA Vic Branch. He has a group of about 25 people and manages several corrosion laboratories and responsible for the 3rd and 4th year teaching of corrosion at Monash University in Materials Engineering. He is presently the Associate Editor for Electrochimica Acta and on the editorial board for Corrosion (NACE), amongst other journals. Dr. Frank Collins +61 (0) 3 990 55989, frank.collins@monash.edu

Franks’s research is in Civil Engineering materials, namely cementitious materials and their durability, and the durability (and monitoring and modelling) of the steel within them. Prof. Raman Singh +61(0)3 9905 3671, raman.singh@monash.edu

Victorian Facility for Light Metals Surface Technology

Raman’s group has three separate laboratories (one each for research in SCC / HTC, MIC and electrochemical corrosion and coatings) and ~20 researchers. Raman is responsible for teaching of materials and corrosion at 2nd, 3rd and 4th levels at both Chemical and Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering departments. His professional responsibilities include leadership (as co-chairman) of an international conference series and membership of editorial/ review boards of a few journals. His research has attracted very high quality students from different disciplines (Mechanical, Chemical, Materials, Mining Engineering & Science) as well as from different cultural backgrounds (Australian, Middle-Eastern, Chinese, Malaysian, Sub-continental, African & Israeli). Honorary Academics and Senior Researchers include: Prof. Brian Cherry Prof. Bruce Hinton Dr. Xiaobo Chen (coatings) Dr. Marie Clancy (electrochemical engineering)

Energy Pipelines CRC Dr. Rajeev Gupta (Al alloys and alloy design)

The corrosion team includes: Corrosion inhibitors Rehabilitation of the corrosion of steel in concrete – including concrete technology

Assoc. Prof. Nick Birbilis, +61 (0) 3 990 54919, nick.birbilis@monash.edu

Surface engineering including chemical and structural surface modification Novel surface coating technologies (sol-gel, nanocomposites, etc.) Stainless alloy development Cathodic protection

Raman’s expertise includes Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC), Alloy Nano/Microstructure-Corrosion Relationship, Corrosion/SCC of Biomaterials, Corrosion Mitigation by Advanced and Environmentally Friendly Coating, High Temperature Corrosion HTC), Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC).

Dr. Nicholas Kirkland (Mg alloys and biocorrosion) Mr. Chris Panter (microbiologically influenced corrosion) Dr. Kevin Ralston (light metals)

Nick’s research is principally focused on electrochemistry, light metals, and alloy design. Nick is an ARC Australian Research Fellow and the current President of the

www.corrosion.com.au

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

37


University Profile Monash University Corrosion activity at Monash University For many decades now, corrosion activity at Monash University has been identified as an important component of the University's function, and an area of intense research. This is commensurate with the vigorous corrosion activity in the Melbourne area (CSIRO, DSTO, Consulting organisations) which has also been hand-in-hand with the Australasian Corrosion Association since its roots. Whilst originally centred around the activities of the Department of Materials Engineering – where Prof. Brian Cherry still resides – nowadays the many departments within the Faculty of Engineering now research corrosion in one form or another and in cooperation between them. Monash has a long history of educating (at the undergraduate and postgraduate level) many of the nation’s corrosion personalities. Be it academics (past and present), consultants, pipeline engineers, defence scientists, managers or policy makers – the majority of Australia’s corrosion family has in one form or another been involved with Monash. To this day, aspects of corrosion are taught in the many engineering departments, and important research into corrosion not only continues, but has continued to grow. The various ‘rust busters’ at Monash University are supported by a variety of sources that include ARC funding, Cooperative Research Centres, Linkage funding, and direct industrial support (local and international). In addition, there are strong collaborations with the CSIRO, DSTO and other universities (nationally and internationally); including corrosion activity in IITB-Monash Research Academy.

36 Corrosion & Materials

At present, the combined corrosion group at Monash University is amongst the largest in the world with approximately 50 people working either at the staff, research fellow, postgraduate or honours level over four Monash engineering departments: Chemical, Civil, Materials, Mechanical & Aerospace – with total combined funding in the vicinity of several millions per year. This unique resource is also one of the very few to have the expertise and infrastructure for investigations from the practical to the atomic lengthscale, for a range of environments, and for any of the several forms of corrosion. Some areas of research include: Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) testing facility SCC, the premature and often catastrophic fracture caused due to the synergistic action of corrosion and tensile stress, is also believed to the most dangerous form of corrosion-assisted failure. Electrochemical Corrosion Testing Facility Monash is very well equipped for electrochemical testing of metals in various electrolytes including a range of temperatures and pressures via custom cells. With about 30 potentiostats in total – many studies can be done simultaneously, including those on the road (or on a boat!) High Temperature Gaseous Corrosion Testing Facility Rapid degradation due to corrosive gases at high temperatures can compromise mechanical integrity in several industrial components, such as power plant steam generators/ boilers, steel processing, aircraft turbines. This phenomenon is often the life limiting factor and

a particular concern for the aged welded components operating at elevated temperatures. Monash has a testing facility for this purpose. Under Vic Govt’s ETIS program of Victorian Power companies, Monash and HRL Technology, a unique testing facility has been established. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) Testing Microorganisms such as certain bacteria can influence/accelerate corrosion. MIC degradation of pipelines due to sulphate reducing and oxidising bacteria has been long been recognised. However, MIC is a truly interdisciplinary field. Monash is one of the few universities in the world to have expertise and infrastructure in the component areas of MIC studies, i.e., microbiological isolation, culturing, microscopy and MIC testing. Corrosion mitigation Monash University has a strong reputation in the mitigation of corrosion by various means. Some of the key strengths in this area include: Conversion coatings for light metals

Advanced and Standard Corrosion Characterisation Facilities Besides being the home of the Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy (MCEM, which houses numerous SEMs, TEMs and analytical characterisation tools), facilities that are critical to the area of corrosion research include Metallography facilities, Sample preparation facilities, Environment Testing / Salt Spray Chamber, Processing facilities, Alloy melting, casting, processing, Conversion coating and plating (electro and electroless) facility, Autoclaves, Optical Profilometry, Atomic Force Microscopy (including in-situ / liquid cell / electrochemical), Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, Incubators and biocorrosion test facilities, Advanced computing and data analysis capability. Corrosion research is also carried out under the banners of the: ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals CAST CRC

ACA Vic Branch. He has a group of about 25 people and manages several corrosion laboratories and responsible for the 3rd and 4th year teaching of corrosion at Monash University in Materials Engineering. He is presently the Associate Editor for Electrochimica Acta and on the editorial board for Corrosion (NACE), amongst other journals. Dr. Frank Collins +61 (0) 3 990 55989, frank.collins@monash.edu

Franks’s research is in Civil Engineering materials, namely cementitious materials and their durability, and the durability (and monitoring and modelling) of the steel within them. Prof. Raman Singh +61(0)3 9905 3671, raman.singh@monash.edu

Victorian Facility for Light Metals Surface Technology

Raman’s group has three separate laboratories (one each for research in SCC / HTC, MIC and electrochemical corrosion and coatings) and ~20 researchers. Raman is responsible for teaching of materials and corrosion at 2nd, 3rd and 4th levels at both Chemical and Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering departments. His professional responsibilities include leadership (as co-chairman) of an international conference series and membership of editorial/ review boards of a few journals. His research has attracted very high quality students from different disciplines (Mechanical, Chemical, Materials, Mining Engineering & Science) as well as from different cultural backgrounds (Australian, Middle-Eastern, Chinese, Malaysian, Sub-continental, African & Israeli). Honorary Academics and Senior Researchers include: Prof. Brian Cherry Prof. Bruce Hinton Dr. Xiaobo Chen (coatings) Dr. Marie Clancy (electrochemical engineering)

Energy Pipelines CRC Dr. Rajeev Gupta (Al alloys and alloy design)

The corrosion team includes: Corrosion inhibitors Rehabilitation of the corrosion of steel in concrete – including concrete technology

Assoc. Prof. Nick Birbilis, +61 (0) 3 990 54919, nick.birbilis@monash.edu

Surface engineering including chemical and structural surface modification Novel surface coating technologies (sol-gel, nanocomposites, etc.) Stainless alloy development Cathodic protection

Raman’s expertise includes Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC), Alloy Nano/Microstructure-Corrosion Relationship, Corrosion/SCC of Biomaterials, Corrosion Mitigation by Advanced and Environmentally Friendly Coating, High Temperature Corrosion HTC), Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC).

Dr. Nicholas Kirkland (Mg alloys and biocorrosion) Mr. Chris Panter (microbiologically influenced corrosion) Dr. Kevin Ralston (light metals)

Nick’s research is principally focused on electrochemistry, light metals, and alloy design. Nick is an ARC Australian Research Fellow and the current President of the

www.corrosion.com.au

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

37


David Pocock

SICK OF RUST EATING YOUR ASSETS? THEN USE RUST CONQUEROR .........................TO BEAT RUST!

MANAGER

22 Irvine Street Bayswater WA 6053 T: 08 9721 2265 F: 08 9271 2235 M: 0409 112 010 E: david@tfgpumpline.com.au www.pumpline.com.au

M: 0413 806 232 michal@atlasaccess.com.au www.atlasaccess.com.au P: 61-2-9700 0812 F: 61-2-9700 0813 9/41 – 43 GREEN ST BOTANY NSW 2019 IRATA

-

LEEA

-

AINDT

-

WITH A 20+ YEAR HISTORY, THIS PROVEN, COST EFFECTIVE, ORGANIC BASED, SIMPLE & SAFE TO USE PRODUCT, REALLY WORKS! Available Australia wide! www.xtrollglobal.com.au Email: sales@xtrollglobal.com.au Phone 07 3865 1077 Xtroll offers a wide range of excellent products that work.

-

ACA

-

David Dawson National Sales & Operations Manager

Phone: 1800-RENT-DH (736 834) Mobile: 0450 008 259 Fax: (02) 8525 8850 ddawson@rentdh.com www.rentdh.com

David May Welding Supervision Welding Inspection NDT Specialist Coating Inspection Inservice Inspection

DeHumidification Technologies PTY LTD 113 Bonds Road Riverwood NSW 2210 Australia

Manufacturing anodes since 1984 Queensland (Head Office)

Phone: +61 7 5476 9788 Fax: +61 7 5476 8268

Melbourne

Phone: +61 3 9755 3770 Email: sales@cathodicdiecasting.com.au

Specialist Infrastructure and durability consultants

SuPPLying inSPection & teSting equiPment

Cathodic Diecating - small advert 3-2-10.indd 1

SYDNEY t: 02 9545 4433 F: 02 9545 4218 rfs@rfsales.com.au www.rfsales.com.au

3/3/10 10:51:21 AM

CATHODIC PROTECTION

N I C H O L A S C O R R O S I O N P T Y LT D

Agent for:

Dr David Nicholas

LIDA® – Mixed Metal Oxide Anodes

Ph.D, B.Sc (Hons), FIE Aust, CP Eng

• Ultrasonic Thickness Gauges • Holiday Detectors • Coating Thickness Gauges • Pit Gauges • Borescopes & Magnifiers • Surface Replication products

ABN: 93 821 370 828

www.cathodicdiecasting.com.au

Ph: 1300 763 319 | www.bcrc.com.au

CICIND

Russell Fraser Sales Pty Ltd

Geelong Office: 193 Station Street, Corio, Victoria 3214 Australia Postal Address: P.O. Box 1080, Corio, Victoria 3214 Australia Tel: +61 3 5275 3339 Fax: +61 3 5275 0585 Mob: 0412 520 699 Email: dmay@drmay.com.au

Cathodic Diecasting

Industrial Chimney Services Windshield / Flue / Lining Crown Dams / Bridges / Jetties Silos / Towers / Buildings Concrete Surveys Remedial Repairs Protective Coating Industrial Rope Access & Suspended Platforms Confined Space Entry & Standby Rescue Height Safety System NATA

D R MAY Inspections

• Strip, Rod, Tubular, Ribbon, Disk and Wire

Principal Consultant

• Sacrificial Anodes • Silicon Iron Anodes • Transformer Rectifiers • Reference Electrodes

Tel: 02 4952 6593 Int: (+612) Mob: 0421 745 059 8 Bambara Close, Lambton, NSW 2299, Australia Email: david@nicholascorrosion.com.au

D E NORA

–Zinc, Aluminium and Magnesium • Calcined Petroleum Backfill • Surge Protection, Insulation –Copper, Zinc and Silver

Prevent corrosion on your:-

PIPELINES, TANKS, BRIDGES, WHARVES, OFFSHORE PLATFORMS

Materials and Corrosion Consultancy to the Water Industry

Tel: +61 (03) 94672520 or 0413 201562

Email: robertcox@pipecorr.com.au • www.pipecorr.com.au Committed to Professional Service, Competitive Pricing and Customer Satisfaction

PREMIUM PROTECTION

Providing proven, tested & superior spray applied elastomeric protective coating solutions against Impact, Abrasion, Corrosion, Chemical Attack & Containment issues. Rhino Linings Australasia Pty Ltd

501-505 Olsen Avenue, Molendinar Qld 4214

Ph: +61 7 5585 7000 Fax: +61 7 5539 6399

info@rhinolinings.com.au

Front

www.rhinolinings.com.au

RESPONSIVE SERVICE EXPERTISE INDEPENDENCE

A.B.N. 82 101 032 788 1300 723 924

www.industrialpainter.com.au

• Anti Graffiti • Sign Writing • Line Marking • Pressure Cleaning • PCCP/NACE Accredited • • Protective Coatings • All Related Services • Building Maintenance •

MR JUSTIN RIGBY

Business Development Manager

Specialist Manufacturer of DIMET Aluminium & Zinc Anodes (Cathodic Protection.) ICCP design and commissioning are also available by NACE certified CP Engineers.

Corrosion and Coating Failure Investigations Coating Specification and Review Fitness for Purpose and Remnant Life Assessment Expert Witness and Litigation Support Corrosion, Materials & Mechanical Engineers Applied Scientists, Metallurgists, Coating Inspectors NDT Technicians

MASTERCOTE PTFE Coated, and other special fasteners. ZINGA Film Galvanizing System.

Factory 5, 227 Wells Rd Chelsea Heights 3196 jrigby@industrialpainter.com.au • www.industrialpainter.com.au 1300 723 924 • Fax 9773 3522 • 0417 338 773

58 Corrosion & Materials

Australia Wide

www.corrosion.com.au

Phone: +61 7 3718 0300

Gareth van Loggerenberg TITANUM ELECTRODE PRODUCTS

t: +61 (0) 8 9256 4499 f: +61 (0) 8 9256 4599 m: +61 (0) 408 931 072 e: gareth@telpro.com.au w: www.telpro.com.au Unit 2, 26 Baile Road Canning Vale Western Australia 6155

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

59


David Pocock

SICK OF RUST EATING YOUR ASSETS? THEN USE RUST CONQUEROR .........................TO BEAT RUST!

MANAGER

22 Irvine Street Bayswater WA 6053 T: 08 9721 2265 F: 08 9271 2235 M: 0409 112 010 E: david@tfgpumpline.com.au www.pumpline.com.au

M: 0413 806 232 michal@atlasaccess.com.au www.atlasaccess.com.au P: 61-2-9700 0812 F: 61-2-9700 0813 9/41 – 43 GREEN ST BOTANY NSW 2019 IRATA

-

LEEA

-

AINDT

-

WITH A 20+ YEAR HISTORY, THIS PROVEN, COST EFFECTIVE, ORGANIC BASED, SIMPLE & SAFE TO USE PRODUCT, REALLY WORKS! Available Australia wide! www.xtrollglobal.com.au Email: sales@xtrollglobal.com.au Phone 07 3865 1077 Xtroll offers a wide range of excellent products that work.

-

ACA

-

David Dawson National Sales & Operations Manager

Phone: 1800-RENT-DH (736 834) Mobile: 0450 008 259 Fax: (02) 8525 8850 ddawson@rentdh.com www.rentdh.com

David May Welding Supervision Welding Inspection NDT Specialist Coating Inspection Inservice Inspection

DeHumidification Technologies PTY LTD 113 Bonds Road Riverwood NSW 2210 Australia

Manufacturing anodes since 1984 Queensland (Head Office)

Phone: +61 7 5476 9788 Fax: +61 7 5476 8268

Melbourne

Phone: +61 3 9755 3770 Email: sales@cathodicdiecasting.com.au

Specialist Infrastructure and durability consultants

SuPPLying inSPection & teSting equiPment

Cathodic Diecating - small advert 3-2-10.indd 1

SYDNEY t: 02 9545 4433 F: 02 9545 4218 rfs@rfsales.com.au www.rfsales.com.au

3/3/10 10:51:21 AM

CATHODIC PROTECTION

N I C H O L A S C O R R O S I O N P T Y LT D

Agent for:

Dr David Nicholas

LIDA® – Mixed Metal Oxide Anodes

Ph.D, B.Sc (Hons), FIE Aust, CP Eng

• Ultrasonic Thickness Gauges • Holiday Detectors • Coating Thickness Gauges • Pit Gauges • Borescopes & Magnifiers • Surface Replication products

ABN: 93 821 370 828

www.cathodicdiecasting.com.au

Ph: 1300 763 319 | www.bcrc.com.au

CICIND

Russell Fraser Sales Pty Ltd

Geelong Office: 193 Station Street, Corio, Victoria 3214 Australia Postal Address: P.O. Box 1080, Corio, Victoria 3214 Australia Tel: +61 3 5275 3339 Fax: +61 3 5275 0585 Mob: 0412 520 699 Email: dmay@drmay.com.au

Cathodic Diecasting

Industrial Chimney Services Windshield / Flue / Lining Crown Dams / Bridges / Jetties Silos / Towers / Buildings Concrete Surveys Remedial Repairs Protective Coating Industrial Rope Access & Suspended Platforms Confined Space Entry & Standby Rescue Height Safety System NATA

D R MAY Inspections

• Strip, Rod, Tubular, Ribbon, Disk and Wire

Principal Consultant

• Sacrificial Anodes • Silicon Iron Anodes • Transformer Rectifiers • Reference Electrodes

Tel: 02 4952 6593 Int: (+612) Mob: 0421 745 059 8 Bambara Close, Lambton, NSW 2299, Australia Email: david@nicholascorrosion.com.au

D E NORA

–Zinc, Aluminium and Magnesium • Calcined Petroleum Backfill • Surge Protection, Insulation –Copper, Zinc and Silver

Prevent corrosion on your:-

PIPELINES, TANKS, BRIDGES, WHARVES, OFFSHORE PLATFORMS

Materials and Corrosion Consultancy to the Water Industry

Tel: +61 (03) 94672520 or 0413 201562

Email: robertcox@pipecorr.com.au • www.pipecorr.com.au Committed to Professional Service, Competitive Pricing and Customer Satisfaction

PREMIUM PROTECTION

Providing proven, tested & superior spray applied elastomeric protective coating solutions against Impact, Abrasion, Corrosion, Chemical Attack & Containment issues. Rhino Linings Australasia Pty Ltd

501-505 Olsen Avenue, Molendinar Qld 4214

Ph: +61 7 5585 7000 Fax: +61 7 5539 6399

info@rhinolinings.com.au

Front

www.rhinolinings.com.au

RESPONSIVE SERVICE EXPERTISE INDEPENDENCE

A.B.N. 82 101 032 788 1300 723 924

www.industrialpainter.com.au

• Anti Graffiti • Sign Writing • Line Marking • Pressure Cleaning • PCCP/NACE Accredited • • Protective Coatings • All Related Services • Building Maintenance •

MR JUSTIN RIGBY

Business Development Manager

Specialist Manufacturer of DIMET Aluminium & Zinc Anodes (Cathodic Protection.) ICCP design and commissioning are also available by NACE certified CP Engineers.

Corrosion and Coating Failure Investigations Coating Specification and Review Fitness for Purpose and Remnant Life Assessment Expert Witness and Litigation Support Corrosion, Materials & Mechanical Engineers Applied Scientists, Metallurgists, Coating Inspectors NDT Technicians

MASTERCOTE PTFE Coated, and other special fasteners. ZINGA Film Galvanizing System.

Factory 5, 227 Wells Rd Chelsea Heights 3196 jrigby@industrialpainter.com.au • www.industrialpainter.com.au 1300 723 924 • Fax 9773 3522 • 0417 338 773

58 Corrosion & Materials

Australia Wide

www.corrosion.com.au

Phone: +61 7 3718 0300

Gareth van Loggerenberg TITANUM ELECTRODE PRODUCTS

t: +61 (0) 8 9256 4499 f: +61 (0) 8 9256 4599 m: +61 (0) 408 931 072 e: gareth@telpro.com.au w: www.telpro.com.au Unit 2, 26 Baile Road Canning Vale Western Australia 6155

Vol 36 No 3 June 2011

59


ORON320028

Delivering Integrity

orontide.com.au

à UHP/HP Water Jetting Originating in Western Australia, ORONTIDE Industrial Services is a privately owned and operated company providing services to the Oil & Gas, Mining, Naval Defence and Commercial Marine Industries.

à Protective Coatings Application and Remediation à NACE Inspections à Abrasive Blasting (Wet/Dry/Pliable) à Passive Fire Protection à Application and Removal of Thermally Sprayed Coatings

8 AS 4

ORONTIDE Industrial Services 14 Sparks Road Henderson WA 6166 T 08 9437 3055 E industrial.services@orontide.com.au

01

Corrosion & Materials June 2011  

Corrosion & Materials June 2011

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