Page 1

Official

Publication

of

&

The

M

Australasian

A

T

Vol 37 No 1, February 2012 ISSN 1326-1932

Inside this Issue: 18th ICC 2011 Review University Profile: Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Project Profile: Concrete Mine Thickener Tank Repaired with Hybrid CP Project Profile: Protective Coating of the Gates on the Ord River Diversion Dam Technical Note: Selecting the Right Stainless Steel! Research Note: Corrosion of a Gold Alloy in Saline and Acidic Environments Research Paper: High Temperature Corrosion Problems in Designing Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings Research Paper: Metabolomic Footprinting and MIC within Water Supply Networks

Corrosion

E

Association

R

I

Inc

A

•

www.corrosion.com.au

L

S


Major sponsor:

Proudly presented by:

corrosion & prevention

Corrosion Management for a Sustainable World: Transport, Energy, Mining, Life Extension and Modelling Crown Conference Centre • Melbourne, Victoria, Australia • 11–14 November 2012

First Announcement & Call for Papers Call for Papers

The Destination

Submissions are now welcome on all aspects of corrosion and corrosion control for Corrosion & Prevention 2012. Papers are subject to peer review and if accepted will be published in the Conference Proceedings. Critical dates for acceptance of abstracts and papers are:

Consistently voted one of the world’s most livable cities, Melbourne is a lively and cosmopolitan city that combines a fanatical love for the creative arts and good living with a state-wide sports addiction to make a city like no other. Set around the shores of Port Phillip Bay, the central business district is located on the northern banks of the picturesque Yarra River.

Close of Abstracts: 30th March 2012 Acceptance of Abstracts: 13th April 2012 Receipt of Papers: 29th June 2012

Submit an Abstract Please refer to www.corrosion.com.au to submit a 200-300 word summary of your proposed paper by the close of abstracts (30th March 2012). Waldron Smith Management, a professional conference management company based in Melbourne will be managing the abstract and paper submission process for Corrosion & Prevention 2012.

Guide to Submission Papers submitted to the Corrosion & Prevention 2012 Conference must be unpublished works. It is the responsibility of the author to obtain necessary clearance/permission from their organisation. Copyright of the paper is assigned to the ACA. Abstracts should include the names of all authors, an appropriate title and a brief summary. All authors whose papers are accepted are required to attend the conference to present.

But it is within Melbourne’s hidden laneways where the city truly comes to life, where mainstream culture takes a back seat to allow for one-off boutiques, unique galleries, tiny cafés and hidden bars. With an eclectic dining scene that offers a startling array of the world’s great cuisines, from popular favourites to the truly ground breaking. Although Melbourne is celebrated as Australia’s home to the arts, sport and shopping, just one hour’s drive from the city takes you a world away from the urban frenzy. With destinations like the Yarra Valley, The Great Ocean Road and Victoria’s Goldfields region you can take your pick from 100 local vineyards, rest and relax at award winning day spas, tee off at world class golf courses or even enjoy a swim with the dolphins. Melbourne is a creative, exciting, ever-changing city with extraordinary surprises to be discovered in every basement, rooftop and laneway. The possibilities are endless, so forget what you think you know. Take a chance, lose yourself in Melbourne.


Conference Convenor Technical Topics Papers for the Conference are expected to cover a wide range of topics relating to all aspects of the corrosion industry. This will span the spectrum of fundamental research and science, to large-scale engineering and industrial implementation of corrosion technology. This will include an understanding of corrosion mechanisms, corrosion prevention, and management of corrosion issues, along with computational and modelling aspects. The following topics will be considered: Corrosion Science and Research Corrosion Engineering and Industrial Implementation Corrosion Modelling Case Studies Corrosion in Energy Systems and Distribution Networks Contractor Perspectives Advances in Corrosion Prevention and Cathodic Protection Corrosion Management Protective Coatings

Industry Sectors This conference will have material of value to those working within the following industries: Civil Infrastructure Defence Mining Oil and Gas Energy Transmission Education and Research Power Water Manufacturing Maintenance Government Transport

Ian Godson

Technical Chairs Nick Birbilis Bruce Hinton Neil Campbell

Committee Peter Dove Sarah Furman Dean Ferguson

Sponsorship and Exhibition Sponsorship will enable your company to make a significant contribution towards the success of Corrosion & Prevention 2012. In return, the conference offers strong branding and exposure in a focussed and professional environment. As with every Conference, the exhibition will be an integral part of the activities. It provides an opportunity for organisations to come face to face with the delegates; providing a marketplace to increase your organisation’s visibility and to showcase and demonstrate your products and services. For further information, please contact the Australasian Corrosion Association on +61 (0)3 9890 4833 or conference@corrosion.com.au

Your Hosts The Australasian Corrosion Association Incorporated (ACA) is a not-for-profit, industry association, established in 1955 to service the needs of Australian and New Zealand companies, organisations and individuals involved in the fight against corrosion. The mission of the ACA is to promote the co-operation of academic, industrial, commercial and governmental organisations in relation to corrosion and its mitigation and for disseminating information on all aspects of corrosion and its prevention by promoting lectures, symposia, publications and other activities.

ACA Centre

Marine Engineering

PO Box 112 Kerrimuir, Victoria, Australia, 3129

Materials Engineering

Ph: +61 3 9890 4833, Fax: +61 3 9890 7866,

Coating Inspection and Surveillance

Email: conference@corrosion.com.au Website: www.corrosion.com.au

Asset Managers, Corrosion Specialists and Consultants


CONTENTS

The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc (ACA) is a non-profit membership based organisation akin to a “learned society”. The ACA was established in 1955 to service the needs of Australian and New Zealand companies, organisations and individuals involved in the fight against corrosion. It is dedicated to ensuring all aspects of corrosion are responsibly managed, protecting the environment and ensuring public safety. ACA members are drawn from a wide cross section of industries united by their common interest – to reduce the impact of corrosion in Australasia.

The ACA is a founder member of the World Corrosion Organization

Front Cover Photo: Casting High Potential Magnesium Anodes. Image supplied by AMAC Corrosion.

&

M

A

T

E

R

I

A

L

S

ISSN 1326-1932 Published by The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc. ABN: 66 214 557 257 Publications Director Mohammad Ali – GHD, MAli@ghd.com.au Editor Brian Cherry – Monash University, brian.cherry@monash.edu Associate Editors Research: Bruce Hinton – Monash University bruce.hinton@monash.edu Professional Practice: Willie Mandeno – Opus International Consultants, willie.mandeno@opus.co.nz News: Ian Booth – The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc, ibooth@corrosion.com.au

6

 President’s Message

7

 2012 ACA Calendar of Events

8

 Chief Executive Officer’s Message

9

2012 ACA Training Calendar

10

2012 ACA Awards Reminder

11

Book Review

12

News

24

ACA Standards Update

30

18th ICC 2011 Review

32

18th ICC 2011 Speakers Review

36

18th ICC 2011 Photos

40

18th ICC 2011 Awards

44

18th ICC 2011 Exhibitor Photos

48

ACA Technical Group Steering Committees

Reviewers Andy Atrens – University of Queensland Nick Birbilis – Monash University Frederic Blin – AECOM Lex Edmond – Monash University Harvey Flitt – Queensland University of Technology Maria Forsyth – Deakin University Rob Francis – Aurecon Australia Warren Green – Vinsi Partners Doug John – Curtin University of Technology Graeme Kelly – Corrotec Services Nick Laycock – Shell Grant McAdam – Defence Science & Technology Organisation David Nicholas – Nicholas Corrosion John Robinson – Mount Townsend Solutions Paul Schweinsburg – Queensland University of Technology Raman Singh – Monash University Graham Sussex – Sussex Material Solutions Tony Trueman – Defence Science & Technology Organisation Geoffrey Will – Queensland University of Technology David Young – University of New South Wales

Advertising Sales Wesley Fawaz – The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc, wesley.fawaz@corrosion.com.au Ph: 61 3 9890 4833, Fax: 61 3 9890 7866 Subscriptions Print Version: ISSN 1326-1932 Subscription rates: Within Australia: AU$72.60, incl GST Outside Australia: AU$77, excl GST posted airmail The views expressed in Corrosion & Materials are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily those of the ACA. Publication of advertisements does not imply endorsement by the ACA. Copyright of all published materials is retained by the ACA but it may be quoted with due reference. The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc PO Box 112, Kerrimuir, Victoria 3129, Australia Ph: 61 3 9890 4833, Fax: 61 3 9890 7866 Email: aca@corrosion.com.au Internet: www.corrosion.com.au


CONTENTS

52

 Project Profile: Concrete Mine Thickener Tank Repaired with Hybrid CP

54

 Project Profile: Protective Coating of the Gates on the Ord River Diversion Dam

57

 Coatings Group Member Profile

58

 University Profile: Queensland University of Technology (QUT)

60

 Technical Note: Selecting the Right Stainless Steel!

62

R  esearch Note: Corrosion of a Gold Alloy in Saline and Acidic Environments

64

 Research Paper: High Temperature Corrosion Problems in Designing Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings

69

 Research Paper: Metabolomic Footprinting and MIC within Water Supply Networks

77

 Suppliers and Consultants

80

 ACA Platinum and Gold Members

ACA Operations Board President: Peter Dove

ACA Branches & Divisions Auckland Division: Sean Ryder

Corrosion & Materials Corrosion & Materials is the official publication of The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc (ACA). Published bi-monthly, Corrosion & Materials has a distribution of 2,500 to ACA members and other interested parties. Each issue features a range of news, information, articles, profiles and peer reviewed technical papers. Corrosion & Materials publishes original, previously unpublished papers under the categories “Research” and “Professional Practice”. All papers are peer reviewed by at least two anonymous referees prior to publication and qualify for inclusion in the list which an author and his or her institution can submit for the ARC “Excellence in Research Australia” list of recognised research publications. Please refer to the Author Guidelines at www.corrosion.com.au before you submit a paper to Wesley Fawaz at wesley.fawaz@corrosion.com.au with a copy to brian.cherry@monash.edu ACA also welcomes short articles (technical notes, practical pieces, project profiles, etc) between 500 – 1,500 words with high resolution photos for editorial review. Please refer to the Article Guidelines at www.corrosion.com.au before you submit a paper to Wesley Fawaz at wesley.fawaz@corrosion.com.au

64 9 261 1400

ACA Technical Groups Cathodic Protection: Bruce Ackland

61 3 9890 3096

Coatings: Matthew O'Keeffe

61 437 935 969

Chief Executive Officer: Ian Booth

Newcastle: Karen Swain

Operations Chairman: Paul Vince

New South Wales: Denis Jean-Baptiste 61 0 404 646 272

Finance Director: Brad Dockrill

Queensland: Cathy Sterling

Senior Vice President: Allan Sterling

South Australia: Alex Shepherd

Junior Vice President: TBA

Tasmania: Grant Weatherburn

61 0 418 120 550

Immediate Past President: Ian McLeod

Taranaki Division: Ron Berry

64 27 671 2278

Research: Nick Birbilis

61 3 9905 4919

Technical Director: Graham Sussex

Victoria: John Tanti

61 3 9885 5305

Research: David Young

61 2 9385 4322

Education Director: Geoffrey Will

Wellington Division: Alistair MacKenzie

Water & Water Teatment: David Mavros

61 419 816 783

Membership Director: Fred Salome

Western Australia: Gary Bennett

Communications Director: Matthew Dafter Publications Director: Mohammad Ali New Zealand Representative: John Duncan Western Australia Representative: David Sloan

61 0 418 854 902

61 7 3821 0202 61 8 8267 4744

64 4 473 3124 61 0 408 413 811

Concrete Structures & Buildings: Frédéric Blin

61 3 9653 8406

Mining Industry: Peter Farinha

61 8 9456 0344

Petroleum & Chemical Processing Industry: Fikry Barouky 61 402 684 165

Welding, Joining & Corrosion: Graham Fry 61 409 698 968 Young Corrosion Professionals: Erwin Gamboa

61 8 8303 5473

*all the above information is accurate at the time of this issue going to press.


PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE

Peter Dove President

The point is, there is corrosion all around us in our everyday lives, some of it is obvious and some is not. The problem is, it can be potentially dangerous.

We have a story to tell. We’re putting back into our community with the announcements by the ACA Foundation at the end of the 18th ICC congress of a number of scholarships to be made available by the foundation each year. The potential total of the awards is near $100,000, for individual study and to advance our understanding of corrosion. A comprehensive list of the scholarships on offer appears in this edition’s news section. In comparison to other corrosion associations around the world we’re punching above our weight in providing these opportunities to our members and community from a base of just over 1500 members. The staff team are expanding our training offer with the introduction of coating applicator training from the SSPC (the Society for Protective Coatings in the USA), with the Abrasive Blasting Program (C7) and Airless Spray Basics (C12), we are broadening the training offered to our members who are, or employ, protective coatings applicators. Other opportunities to complement our offer relevant to protective coating applicators will arise as our relationship with SSPC develops to complement what is already available from NACE. Our own ACA Certified coating inspector certification is under review to make it more relevant to the Australasian market needs and to complement the NACE coating inspector program. There will be more about this as the program develops. As members of the ACA we all know and have some basic understanding of corrosion but there are a lot of people in the community who don’t. Coming back from a pleasant day sailing on Port Phillip Bay we arrived back at the marina where there are issues with stray current corrosion, many yachtsmen know about it but few understand it. A friend plans on sailing around the

p.6  CORROSION & MATERIALS

Pacific for a few years on a recently purchased yacht. Before they can go their insurance company requires the rig to be checked for corrosion. Failure in the middle of the Pacific Ocean is not an option. Walking around the hardstand there are stainless steel bolts holding steel fencing up with corrosion active around the shiny stainless steel bolts. Last year one of the galvanized light poles on the jetty fell over when internal corrosion cut out the welded connection at the base plate. The point is, there is corrosion all around us in our everyday lives, some of it is obvious and some is not. The problem is, it can be potentially dangerous. Insurance companies know this that’s why they wanted an inspection of the rig before they will insure the boat to reduce their exposure to risk. Many industries, especially the high risk ones such as the petrochemical industry, know this too, and actively work to reduce the risk to lives, assets and production. It’s even recognised in many standards and industry codes, but that’s not enough. More corrosion understanding needs to get out there and our communities need to understand that there are ways and means to mitigate many types of corrosion, reduce the risk from corrosion and to reduce the cost of corrosion. How do we do that? It’s not just the ACA’s corporate centre’s responsibility to educate and inform the community of corrosion risks, but all of us involved in the industry to inform and to explain to friends and associates how to mitigate corrosion. It’s not a lot to ask. It’s not a lot to do. It may be only small steps, but they’re steps in the right direction. As William Shakespeare’s Othello said “Keep up your bright swords, for the dew will rust them.”


ACA CALENDAR OF EVENTS The ACA along with the ACA Technical Group committees can confirm the listed events below for 2012. ACA members will receive further details on each event as appropriate throughout 2012, but for now, please include these in your 2012 diary.

Event Title

Event Type

2012 Date

Location

Future Leaders Forum

Young Corrosion Group Forum

23 - 24 February

Sydney

Corrosion and Risk Management

Road Show Seminar

1 May

Darwin

Corrosion and Risk Management

Road Show Seminar

3 May

Gladstone

Corrosion and Risk Management

Road Show Seminar

8 May

Newcastle

Corrosion and Risk Management

Road Show Seminar

10 May

Wollongong

Corrosion and Risk Management

Road Show Seminar

15 May

Tasmania

Corrosion and Risk Management

Road Show Seminar

17 May

Melbourne

Corrosion and Risk Management

Road Show Seminar

22 May

Adelaide

Corrosion and Risk Management

Road Show Seminar

24 May

Perth

Corrosion and Risk Management in the Marine Environment

Seminar

29 May

Auckland

Corrosion and Risk Management in the Marine Environment

Seminar

31 May

Wellington

Rust: Exploding the Myths! Exploring the Truth.

Petroleum & Chemical Process Industries Technical Group / Oil & Gas Industry Mid-Year Meeting

30 - 31 May

Brisbane

Corrosion Prevention and Coating Durability

Coatings Technical Group Mid-Year Event

6 - 7 June

Sydney

Concrete Repair and Protection: Some Contemporary Issues

Concrete Structures & Buildings Technical Group Mid-Year Event

21 June

Newcastle

Corrosion Issues, Prevention and Asset Rehabilitation in the Water and Waste Water Industry

Water & Water Treatment Technical Group Mid-Year Event

26 June

Adelaide

ACA Research Matters

Research Technical Group 1/2 Day Meeting 5 July

Sydney

Meeting of the Australian Electrolysis Committee

Cathodic Protection / Australian Electrolysis Committee Meeting

19 July

Adelaide

Corrosion and Infrastructure Sustainability in the Mining Industry

Mining Industry Technical Group Mid-Year Event

27 July

Mackay

Corrosion and Infrastructure Sustainability in the Mining Industry

Mining Industry Technical Group Mid-Year Event

17 August

Singleton / Muswellbrook

Welding & Corrosion Mitigation in the Petroleum & Chemical Processing Industry

Petroleum & Chemical Process Industries / Welding, Joining & Corrosion Technical Groups Mid-Year Event

28 August

Perth

Corrosion & Prevention 2012

ACA Conference

11 - 14 November

Melbourne

Branch Events

Each of the eight ACA Branches will conduct regular technical events throughout 2012. To enquire, you may contact your local Branch at the following email addresses: New South Wales: nsw@corrosion.com.au New Zealand: nz@corrosion.com.au Newcastle: ncl@corrosion.com.au Queensland: qld@corrosion.com.au

South Australia: sa@corrosion.com.au Tasmania: tas@corrosion.com.au Victoria: vic@corrosion.com.au Western Australia: wa@corrosion.com.au

Please refer to www.corrosion.com.au for up to date details on all ACA activities.

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.7


CEO’S MESSAGE

2012 to see further development for ACA The appointment in December 2011 of a member of staff dedicated to supporting Branches in their delivery of services to members will see ACA continue to develop member benefits. Branches are an integral part of the ACA structure and any improvement on what happens at a local level is of benefit to the association as a whole. There will be further improvements to ACA’s web site at www.corrosion.com.au. The recent addition of a database of conference papers has proven to be well received by members. The number and source of papers will expand over time so that this benefit to members can be as comprehensive as we can make it. A corrosion resources section will also be added which will be an easily accessible source of a wide range of quality information. In 2011 a review of ACA’s certification scheme for corrosion technicians and technologists was undertaken and necessary changes have been implemented to improve the operation of the scheme. ACA’s coatings inspector certification

p.8  CORROSION & MATERIALS

scheme has also been reviewed. Subject to Board approval, the revised scheme will be expanded, refreshing will be easier and simpler, and refresher courses will be offered in a number of formats including home study and on-line. With a number of major standards up for review, members will be able to participate in processes which will set the standards for the industries for the future. Members should be ready to respond when the call for input is made. Future editions of Corrosion & Materials will include more content focussed on industry sectors and industry issues. Additional editorial support has recently been contracted and the first of the new series of articles will be seen from the next edition. Technical group activity is showing the benefits of the structure which was implemented in 2010 and developed in 2011. There are nine events to be presented by ACA technical groups during 2012 in addition to 10 legs of the Corrosion & Risk Management roadshow.

New training programs are nearing the end of their development phase and a number of existing programs are under review. In addition to making new training and development opportunities available, ACA will also need to increase its staff resources in this area. Importantly 2012 will see the introduction of a new strategic plan for ACA. The Board has completed substantial work on this significant “guiding” document. It is expected that ACA will continue to refine the focus of its operations by following the plan and expand on member benefits. Paul Vince as chairman will be steering ACA’s Board as we continue to develop ACA. Paul will be ably assisted by an enthusiastic team of directors and staff. Ian Booth Chief Executive Officer ibooth@corrosion.com.au


ACA TRAINING CALENDAR 2012

Corrosion Technology Certificate Member Status Fee GST AU Member $1922.73 $192.27 AU Non Member $2254.55 $225.45 NZ Member* $1925.00 NZ Non Member Perth July 16th – 20th New Zealand October 1st – 5th Sydney December 03rd – 07th Introduction to Protective Coatings Member Status Fee GST AU Member $500.00 $50.00 AU Non Member $618.18 $61.82 NZ Member* $455.00 NZ Non Member Melbourne May 01st New Zealand November 30th Protective Coatings Quality Member Status Fee AU Member $1286.36 AU Non Member $1568.18 NZ Member* $1285.00 Adelaide February Newcastle June New Zealand July Melbourne November

Control GST $128.64 $156.82 NZ Non Member 20th – 22nd 13th – 15th 25th – 27th 26th – 28th

Coatings Selection and Specifications Member Status Fee GST AU Member $1286.36 $128.64 AU Non Member $1568.18 $156.82 NZ Member* $1285.00 NZ Non Member Perth July 18th – 20th Melbourne November 08th – 10th Coatings Inspection Refresher Member Status Fee GST AU Member $500.00 $50.00 AU Non Member $618.18 $61.82 NZ Member* $455.00 NZ Non Member Melbourne November 10th New Zealand November 29th Introduction to Member Status AU Member AU Non Member NZ Member* Brisbane

Cathodic Protection Fee GST $500.00 $50.00 $618.18 $61.82 $455.00 NZ Non Member February 06th

Cathodic Protection Monitoring Member Status Fee GST AU Member $1286.36 $128.64 AU Non Member $1568.18 $156.82 NZ Member* $1285.00 NZ Non Member Tasmania March 19th – 21st Sydney May 21st – 23rd Adelaide October 22nd – 24th Cathodic Protection Advanced Member Status Fee GST AU Member $1922.73 $192.27 AU Non Member $2254.55 $225.45 NZ Member* $1925.00 NZ Non Member Sydney May 28th – 01st Perth August 06th – 10th

Total Fee $2115.00 $2480.00 $2255.00

Total Fee $550.00 $680.00 $620.00

Total Fee $1415.00 $1725.00 $1570.00

Total Fee $1415.00 $1725.00 $1570.00

Total Fee $550.00 $680.00 $620.00

Total Fee $550.00 $680.00 $620.00

Total Fee $1415.00 $1725.00 $1570.00

Total Fee $2115.00 $2480.00 $2255.00

Corrosion & CP Member Status AU Member AU Non Member NZ Member* Sydney

of Concrete Fee $918.18 $1150.00 $920.00 August

Structures GST $91.82 $115.00 NZ Non Member 21st – 22nd

Total Fee $1010.00 $1265.00 $1150.00

ACA/ACRA Corrosion & Protection of Concrete Structures Member Status Fee GST Total Fee AU Member $918.18 $91.82 $1010.00 AU Non Member $1150.00 $115.00 $1265.00 NZ Member* $920.00 NZ Non Member $1150.00 Wollongong April 02nd – 03rd Tasmania October 03rd – 04th NACE - Coatings Inspection Member Status Fee AU Member $3236.36 AU Non Member $3700.00 NZ Member* $3235.00 Sydney (full) March Darwin April Adelaide May Newcastle June Perth August Tasmania September New Zealand October Melbourne Oct/Nov Perth December

Program CIP Level 1 GST Total Fee $323.64 $3560.00 $370.00 $4070.00 NZ Non Member $3715.00 19th – 24th 16th – 21st 07th – 12th 18th – 23rd 13th – 18th 03rd – 08th 08th – 13th 29th – 03rd 03rd – 08th

NACE - Coatings Inspection Member Status Fee AU Member $3236.36 AU Non Member $3700.00 NZ Member* $3235.00 Brisbane February Sydney March Adelaide May Melbourne July Perth August New Zealand October Melbourne November Perth December

Program CIP Level 2 GST Total Fee $323.64 $3560.00 $370.00 $4070.00 NZ Non Member $3715.00 06th – 11th 26th – 31st 14th – 19th 02nd – 07th 20th – 25th 15th – 20th 05th – 10th 10th – 15th

NACE – Peer Review CIP Level 3 Member Status Fee GST AU Member $1271.82 $127.18 AU Non Member $1493.64 $149.36 NZ Member* $1272.00 NZ Non Member Melbourne November 11th – 13th

Total Fee $1399.00 $1643.00 $1494.00

Resits NACE – Coating Inspector Program Level 1 & 2 Member Status Fee GST Total Fee AU Member $863.64 $86.36 $950.00 AU Non Member $1090.91 $109.09 $1200.00 NZ Member* $865.00 NZ Non Member $1110.00 Examination Tests will be conducted to coincide with scheduled programs – contact ACA for details To check the currency of this information please view the latest information at www.corrosion.com.au * All NZ courses are GST free

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.9


ACA AWARDS

2012 ACA Awards It is now a good time to remind authors as well as potential authors that several ACA Awards are open for applications. Please refer to the ACA website for further details on all of the awards below. C&M Best Paper by an Early Researcher Award (closes 30th June 2012) The C&M “Early Researcher Best Paper Award” remains open until June 30th 2012 for those potential authors with less than three years post-graduate research experience. This award has been instituted by the ACA for the best Technical paper submitted for publication in Corrosion & Materials during the year and very often authors can take advantage of the comments and discussion which have arisen as a result of their presentation at the conference to modify and hopefully improve the papers so that they can be submitted as original papers for publication in the Research section of Corrosion & Materials. Papers accepted (after going through the standard refereeing process) for the Research Section qualify for inclusion in the list which an author or his or her institution can submit for the A.R.C. “Excellence in Research Australia” list of recognised research publications. The ERA Identification Designation for Corrosion & Materials is 123306 and the normal “Field of Research” is 0912 Materials Engineering, but 0913 Mechanical Engineering and 0306 Physical Chemistry are also accepted by the ARC. The competition is not restricted to papers that have been modified after presentation at the Annual Conference. Any paper, by an “early researcher”, that is submitted and accepted for publication in the Research or Professional Practice sections of Corrosion & Materials

p.10  CORROSION & MATERIALS

is eligible for the award which consists of free registration for the annual conference of the ACA and AU$1,000 as a contribution to the expenses of attending the conference. The author must be designated as the “Lead” (first named) author of the paper, but may have co-authors who may include his or her supervisor.

conference proceedings, with view to it being presented. The successful applicant will receive AU$2,500 with the intention that the Award be used to meet attendance costs at the annual ACA Conference of that same year. Applications and submission of the full paper must be made by 30th June 2012.

AC Kennett Award (closes 31st August 2012) The ACA grants the AC Kennett Memorial Award (which consists of AU$1,000) to the best paper written on non-metallic corrosion and presented at any technical meeting, conference or symposium held under the auspices of the ACA or published in Corrosion & Materials. While a degree of discretion is allowed, the key aspects of “corrosion” and “nonmetallic materials” must dominate for a paper to be considered.

Young Corrosion Professional Award (closes 30th April 2012) This award subsidises attendance at the annual ACA conference to a value of up to AU$3,500 for a ‘young corrosion professional’ either working or studying in a corrosion related field within Australia or New Zealand. Funded by the ACA Newcastle Branch, the award is open to undergraduate students, post-graduate students and those working in the corrosion industry from across the ACA membership that meet the criteria of young professional status (under the age of 35) in the ACA.

Applications must be received by no later than the 31st of August 2012 and must be accompanied by a statement of 100-150 words in support of the application as well as the complete text of the paper. Please refer to the ACA website for details. ACA Student Research Award (closes 30th June 2012) The ACA Student Research Award is presented to full time post graduate students in recognition for work on fundamental or applied research in any branch of corrosion during the course of a higher degree in Science, Engineering or a related discipline. The award is judged upon significance of the work to the community, originality and soundness of the research. To be eligible, applicants must submit and have accepted a full manuscript into the 2012

Applicants are required to submit an application outlining their technical background and including a short abstract of their research or area of interest. This may be based on (but is not limited to) a research or field project, item of particular local or historical relevance or industrial case study. Selected applicants will be invited to present their work to the judging panel (15 - 20 minutes) from the ACA Newcastle Branch committee. Applications will be open during February - April 2012 and the Newcastle Branch will advise those applicants invited to speak to the Newcastle judging panel during May - August 2012. 


BOOK REVIEW

Book Review Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion - An Engineering Insight Author: Reza Javaherdashti Publisher: Springer-Verlag London Limited. Published: 2010. Not many technical books are particularly readable. But this one is. The author has produced a modest volume (164 pages in total) that explains the fundamentals of abiotic corrosion and corrosion prevention, talks about managerial issues in managing corrosion and outlines the basics of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) and what drives it. He also gives some examples of which systems and materials are prone to it. Repeatedly he comes back to the point that management is the key to prevention and reduction of MIC, and that this often lies outside the realm of engineers and corrosion specialists but in the lap of those with managerial responsibility and financial accountability. That said, we are reminded that while corrosion in general accounts for some 4% of GDP, MIC has been estimated at about one-fifth of that. Throughout the book the writing style is breezy and cheerful and the technical content exploratory and questioning rather than definitive and dogmatic. After all, despite its long history, there is still much that is not fully understood about the mechanisms involved in MIC. In a relatively brief but clear style, the author has tried to convey this to prospective readers. In a sense the book is more like an extensive overview of the scientific and engineering

literature than a detailed scientific discussion. Importantly, it usually mentions current divisions in thought and ideas about MIC and some of the research work that remains to be done. To be sure, this reflects nothing else but the changing current opinions about MIC. To a researcher deeply involved in a particular aspect of MIC some of the exposition may be superficial. Equally, it is important to remember that there is no such thing as an MIC specialist - this is truly an interdisciplinary subject. It draws on corrosion scientists, corrosion experimentalists, microbiologists, chemists, and engineers and also specialists in analytical techniques such as molecular biology and DNA analysis or those accustomed to dealing with ESEM, ETEM and a host of other ‘toys’. That these different specialists even manage to talk with one another about the common problem and its understanding is a pleasant surprise in itself. One example is the European Marie Curie project ‘BIOCOR’. It draws together many young scientists and engineers with quite diverse backgrounds for various aspects of MIC research at more than 16 European research centres and industry partners. It also has links to experienced US and Australian researchers.

will be minor, if any. Several times I thought I had spotted something overlooked, only to find it later in a different setting, briefly explained. Certainly, if one is looking for a detailed expose of MIC, the research backgrounds and various laboratory and field experimental aspects, or for details about microbiology or molecular biology relevant to the subject, this is not the book for that purpose. Others such as the now older, somewhat theoretical book by Borenstein (Woodhead), or the more recent volume by Lee and Little (Wiley) are more suited to that purpose. And for practitioners there is the older Practical Manual on MIC by Stocker et al. (NACE) that is full of colorful photographs and case studies and much practical insight. But the present book is appropriate for its intended audience and that is well summarized by its subtitle ‘ An engineering insight ‘. Reviewer: Rob Melchers

The author’s aim was ‘... to write a book that would have a rather wide audience, ranging from academics ... to industry specialists.’ And he says ‘This goal may seem very enthusiastic to put it politely.’ Certainly when a consultant writes a book that he hopes academics will read he is unlikely to escape criticism, but I would suggest that in this case it

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.11


NEWS

ACA board elected for 2012 The ACA Council was convened on Sunday, 20 November 2011 in conjunction with the 18th International Corrosion Congress in Perth. Elections and appointments for the 2012 ACA Operations Board were finalised and will comprise of: President: Peter Dove (Victoria) Immediate Past President: Ian MacLeod (Western Australia) Senior Vice President: Allan Sterling (Queensland)

Junior Vice President: TBA (Tasmania)

Membership: Fred Salome (New South Wales)

Operations Board Chairman: Paul Vince (South Australia)

Communications: Matthew Dafter (Newcastle)

Directors: Finance: Brad Dockrill (Newcastle)

Publications: Mohammad Ali (New South Wales)

Technical: Graham Sussex (Victoria)

New Zealand Representative: John Duncan Western Australia Representative: David Sloan

Education: Geoffrey Will (Queensland)

ACA and SSPC sign off on training agreement During the 18th ICC in Perth, representatives of ACA and SSPC finalised an agreement which will allow ACA to offer operator level education and certification programs on a licensee basis from SSPC. The signing of the agreement follows from a memorandum of understanding concluded earlier in 2011 between the two associations. Bill Shoup, executive director of SSPC and Ian Booth, chief executive officer of ACA signed the agreement on behalf of their respective organisations. ACA staff will have completed observation of two SSPC courses by early February 2012. Whilst in

p.12  CORROSION & MATERIALS

attendance at the SSPC programs final preparations for selecting lecturers, modification of course content for local conditions and equipment requirements will be completed. ACA is aiming to conduct the first of the SSPC certified training in Australasia before the end of June 2012. Whilst there is a way to go in bedding down arrangements, by working with the contractors ACA is confident that it will be well placed to offer an expanded range of quality educational products for the sector. Further information is available from Barry Hodder at the ACA office

in Melbourne or by email to bhodder@corrosion.com.au


NEWS

ACA Foundation to make major contribution to industry education in 2012 At the closing session of the 18th ICC in Perth, a significant announcement was made by ACA Foundation Ltd concerning scholarship funding opportunities which it will make available in 2012. In total, $100,000 has been promised by ACA Foundation Ltd to fund a range of scholarships which will benefit all sectors of the industry. Included in the schedule of are: 2 international travel scholarships  international conference 3 scholarships  post-doctoral ACA conference 5 scholarships  0 Future Leaders Forum 2 scholarships

3 post graduate scholarships 1 post graduate/PhD bursary  0 ACA corrosion course 1 scholarships In addition, ACA Foundation funds will be made available to sponsor an internationally recognised corrosion expert from Europe, Asia or the Americas to conduct a lecture tour in Australasia. Following on from the announcement, ACA Foundation Ltd chairman Dean Wall said “this is the largest ever financial commitment made to furthering professional development and academic education in our industry. The Foundation has been restructured and is now well placed to make this sort of commitment not only for 2012 but well into the future.”

Administrative support for ACA Foundation Ltd is provided by ACA. The terms and conditions for each of the scholarships and associated activities are almost ready to be released and the Foundation expects there to be stiff competition for all activities to be funded. All 20 scholarships for the Future Leaders Forum have been allocated and that two day event will take place in Sydney towards the end of February 2012. Further information on the range of scholarship activities to be funded by ACA Foundation Ltd is available from Ian Booth at ACA – ibooth@corrosion.com.au

PCCP future more certain During 2011 there was uncertainty over the future of the Painting Contractors Certification Program (PCCP) which is administered by CSIRO. ACA made it known to both CSIRO and the responsible government department during early 2011 that it was prepared to show industry leadership and if necessary take over the administration of the scheme.

CSIRO has now decided that all of its Industrial Research Services (IRS) which includes both the PCCP and APAS schemes is to remain as part of CSIRO’s Materials Science and Engineering Division. According to Ken Lofhelm, executive officer of both PCCP and APAS “the decision has now provided a level of certainty that

will enable the schemes to move forward confidently.” ACA is a member of the PCCP Technical committee. Further information on the operation of both schemes is available from Ken Lofhelm kenneth.lofhelm@csiro.au

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.13


NEWS

Future Leaders Forum attendees announced The ACA received an encouraging number of applications from future leaders of the corrosion industry to attend its inaugural Future Leaders Forum in Sydney on the 23-24 February 2012.

present technical papers, chair technical sessions, conduct group discussions and develop the art of expressiveness and communication in a professional and friendly environment.

The two day personal and professional development forum will focus on developing competencies in how to

Limited to 20 attendees, the ACA has chosen the following list of future leaders to attend the 2012 forum.

The forum is an ACA funded initiative with all flights, accommodation, etc to be covered by the ACA. A report of the forum will be published in the April issue of Corrosion & Materials.

Name

Organisation

State

Rob Baker

Hempel

Western Australia

Thomas Button

Robayne Distributors

Tasmania

Jinny Collet

SVT Engineering

Western Australia

Christine Crawshaw

AECOM

Victoria

Andrew Czerwinski

HRL Technology

Victoria

Hugo Duque

Australian Maritime Systems

Queensland

Rana Everett

Equi-Librium

Northern Territory

Dean Ferguson

GHD

Victoria

Jonathan Gilfillan

Savcor Finn

Western Australia

Giles Harrison

Extrin Consultants

Western Australia

Owen Harvey

GHD

New South Wales

Monika Ko

Quest Integrity

New Zealand

Blane McGuiness

Savcor ART

New South Wales

Don Macisaac

ALS Industrial

Queensland

David Mavros

SA Water

South Australia

Dimitri Ross

Savcor ART

Victoria

Ann Sheehan

Galvanizers Association of Australia

Victoria

Luke Thompson

Infracorr Consulting

Victoria

Dhana Dissanayake

ITW Buildex

Victoria

James Wu

Jemena

New South Wales

p.14  CORROSION & MATERIALS


NEWS

Conference proceedings online – 4000+ papers In the December 2011 edition of Corrosion & Materials ACA announced that as part of the updating of its website an online facility had been created which enables ACA members to fully search the past 15 years of papers presented at Corrosion & Prevention conferences. In addition to papers from ACA conferences, through its membership of the European Corrosion Federation, ACA members are now also able to fully

INDUSTRIAL

COATINGS

search conference papers presented at EUROCORR conferences. All up the databases contain more than 4,000 papers which will greatly enhance access to research information for members. ACA is negotiating with other organisations from around the world in order to further expand the sources of conference papers which can be added to this growing repository of corrosion knowledge.

Simple Solutions to Complex Problems

GMA GARNET GROUP when your abrasive matters!

DTM985

Quality range of blasting grades for your blast cleaning requirements.

High solids, surface tolerant maintenance epoxy • Long term corrosion protection

• Atmospheric and immersion applications

• Direct to metal application

• Full AS2700 colour offer

• Rapid curing properties

• Approved to APAS 2793

GMA NewSteelTM New steel, surface with light rust & thin coatings

GMA SpeedBlastTM General purpose abrasive

GMA PremiumBlastTM Maintenance grade for tough jobs

For more information, contact us at 08 9287 3250 or email sales@garnetsales.com ADE IN

A

US

For more information on Wattyl Epinamel high performance epoxies contact Wattyl Customer Service on 132 101 or visit us at www.wattyl.com.au I

A

M

TRAL

GMA Garnet Group Level 18, Exchange Plaza, The Esplanade, Perth, WA 6000

Wattyl® and Epinamel® are registered trademarks of Wattyl Australia Pty Limited A.B.N. 40 000 035 914

GMA Garnet 2012.indd 1

www.garnetsales.com

23/01/2012 2:00:05 PM

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.15


NEWS

Standards up for review Standards Australia has announced that two standards important for the corrosion related industries are now scheduled for review. ACA submitted a proposal to review and update AS/NZS 2312:2002 Guide to the protection of structural steel against atmospheric corrosion by the use of protective coatings. ACA supported a proposal to review and update AS 2832.1:2004 Cathodic protection of metals, Part 1: Pipes and cables. The review process will be managed by Standards Australia. Final timetabling has not been

completed however Standards Australia has agreed to fund both review processes for a period of two years. Consequently, it is important that the relevant industries respond so that the necessary work can be completed on schedule. Otherwise alternate sources will need to be found to complete the tasks. ACA has an established structure through which it participates in standards development activities. In addition to ACA’s nominated representative to a standards committee, members are able to support the standards development process by participating in a reference group. The reference

Carboline has been global leader in the High Performance Coatings industry for over 63 yrs. For corrosion solutions and coating systems that are cost effective, talk to the Protective Coatings Professionals. Whether it be protective coatings, tank linings or fire-proofing, Carboline’s team of dedicated and trained professionals can assist you in choosing the right solution for your next project.

p.16  CORROSION & MATERIALS

group structure ensures that ACA’s representatives to standards committees are aware of the broad views of the industries. Active reference groups ensure ACA’s representatives can present a whole of association view as opposed to a personal or sectoral interest. Caitlin Granowski at ACA is available to respond to member enquiries regarding standards development processes. Caitlin may be reached at ACA’s office in Melbourne or by email to cgranowski@corrosion.com.au


NEWS

Dulux 2011 award winners A series of internal awards are presented each year at Dulux to acknowledge the hard work and dedication of its staff. The Rusty Award is an annual perpetual trophy acknowledging persistently high efforts of a Protective Coatings Team Member over and above expectations. Why “Rusty”? Rust never gives up – it grows stronger and more tenacious with time. It survives on oxygen, water, a bit of salt and little else! The 2011 Rusty Award was presented to the New South Wales State Manager, Vijesh Maharaj for his consistently outstanding results as well as for his dedication to educating the wider community on the use of Dulux Protective Coatings.

achieving results and activities above and beyond of what is expected. Colin Pentecost was presented the SPOTY Award for his remarkable sales figures, which he attributed to “doing nothing special” – just simply having a plan and sticking to it. Dulux Protective Coatings’ Senior Development Chemist Kim Baker was presented with the TOTY Award for her vision and determination to streamline and improve the Dulux manufacturing process.

When Dulux Protective Coatings moved its manufacturing base from Gracefield (New Zealand) to Dandenong South (Victoria), Kim recognised the need to manage the transition of product formulations and bulk manufacturing instructions and she rectified substantial variations in manufacturing instructions, language and terminology for over 80 product lines, significantly improving operator training efficiency. In addition, Kim devised a comprehensive set of QC Operator Training Guides for all test methods being introduced onto the new Dandenong site to comply with NATA or APAS requirements.

Dulux also presents the Sales Manager of the Year (SMOTY), the Sales Professional of the Year (SPOTY) and the Technologist of the Year (TOTY). The Dulux Protective Coatings business was delighted to win no less than three of these awards in 2011.

Coating Supplies RM Vijesh Maharaj also won the SMOTY Award for consistently

Dulux celebrate award recipients. From left to right: Jevan Dickinson (Business Manager - Dulux Protective Coatings), Colin Pentecost, Kim Baker, Vijesh Maharaj and Mario Blasco (Dulux Protective Coatings Technical Manager).

pty ltd

Sales: 1300 854 862 Fax: 1300 554 862

Web: www.rmcoatingsupplies.com.au

Respiratory and PPE Equipment Testing Instruments & Gauges Cartridge Filters Dust Collector Service & Repairs

All your coating supplies and service from one source

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.17


NEWS

Corroded anchor bolts in Canberra’s Scrivener Dam High priority engineering works at Canberra’s Scrivener Dam will cost up to $20 million following a safety audit in late 2011 that uncovered corrosion problems.

The 2011 safety audit of the dam found corroded bolts in the flap gates of the dam wall which are opened during flooding to regulate the level of Lake Burley Griffin.

The National Capital Authority (NCA) which manages the dam commissions an annual, independent, safety and surveillance inspection report.

The initial report only included an inspection of 49 visible anchor bolts from a total of 120. The remaining 71 anchor bolts which are encased in steel structures or concrete were Scrivener Dam

not visible to previous safety audits and surveillance inspectors. The NCA investigated further by conducting non-destructive testing by cutting away small sections of non-structural concrete or drilling small holes through the steel structures and using an endoscopic camera to inspect the previously hidden bolts. “The engineering work will involve the replacing of every bolt, on every hinge, on every gate,” said National Capital Authority chief executive Gary Rake. The anchor bolt system will also be redesigned as part of these engineering works to ensure that future inspections can be conducted easily. The NCA will also arrange the installation of cathodic protection to minimise future corrosion.

Photo: John Conway

p.18  CORROSION & MATERIALS


NEWS

Swinburne University Professor named President of ASM International Chris Berndt from Swinburne University was recently appointed President of ASM International. Only the second President outside of the USA and Canada, Chris joins the ASM Board of Trustees to direct the activities of the society for the good of the membership. ASM International is a society dedicated to serving the materials science and engineering profession. Through a membership of 36,000 worldwide, ASM International

provides authoritative information and knowledge on materials and processes, from the structural to the nanoscale. Chris received his Bachelor Applied Science in metallurgy from the University of South Australia and his Ph.D. in the Materials Engineering Department of Monash University in the area of thermal spray coatings. Chris spent many years working in the USA, notably at Stony Brook

Zinc Layer Anodes for Reinforced Concrete

University from 1989 where he is still an adjunct professor. In early 2005, Chris returned to Australia as the founding professor of Surface and Interface Engineering at James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. He moved to Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne in late 2007 as founding professor of Surface Science and Interface Engineering. He became director of the Industrial Research Institute Swinburne (IRIS) in 2008.

ZincTape for Steel Pipes, Poles, Tanks and Piles

Licensed Applicators Across Australia The simplest cathodic protection system for reinforced concrete - ever.

If it was possible to galvanise existing steelwork insitu ZincTape would still be better.

corrPRE of the Netherlands have applied zinc sheet based anodes to bridges, wharves, industrial plants and buildings for 10 years. ZLA (a sheet with pre-applied activator/adhesive,) Roll Anode (for insertion in 30mm diameter holes) and GSC Super Anode (embedded anodes) systems are designed to comply with cathodic protection and prevention standards.

Metalnastri of Italy have supplied ZincTape with its unique electro-conductive backing for 30 years. It has been approved by Shell, Mobil, British Energy and Exxon. Systems have been shown to last over 20 years. Performance is considered better than HDG. Supply and installation complies with UNI 10781.

PO Box 2111, Clarkson, WA

Tel: 08 9407 5363

Email: info@SRCP.com.au February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.19


NEWS

ACA welcomes new members Corporate Gold Members Batavia Blast Works Batavia Blast Works offers abrasive blasting and industrial painting to service the growing oil and gas, mining, marine, agricultural and domestic industries throughout the Midwest, Goldfields, Gascoyne and Northwest regions of Western Australia. With a fleet of mobile trucks, their team is fully mobile or they can accommodate customers at their newly built premises in Narngulu. Recent projects include Karara Mining, Iluka, MMG, Tiwest, Sharkbay Resources and the Geraldton Port Authority. Infracorr Consulting www.infracorr.com Infracorr Consulting Pty Ltd (formerly Ian Godson & Associates) are independent, specialist consulting engineers primarily addressing challenges to infrastructure caused by corrosion and deterioration of materials. Using advanced systems to investigate and specify repairs to structures including Cathodic Protection (CP) and Hybrid CP, they aim to provide superior solutions in preserving and extending the lifespan of infrastructure with minimal cost and disruption. Infracorr operate throughout Australasia in market sectors including civil, marine, mining, industrial, power and buildings. Corporate Silver Member Pan Abrasives www.pan-abrasives.com With a history dating back to 1954, the Pan Abrasives Group has played a role in the surface preparation and finishing

p.20  CORROSION & MATERIALS

industry worldwide. Pan Abrasives manufactures a complete and extensive range of surface preparation/ blasting products, marketed under the Trademark name of PanBlastTM and complemented with a complete range of abrasive blasting media. Corporate Bronze Members ATCO Gas Australia www.atcogas.com.au ATCO Gas Australia owns, operates and maintains the largest reticulated gas infrastructure in Western Australia. The gas reticulation networks serve Geraldton, Kalgoorlie, Albany, Bunbury, Busselton, Harvey, Pinjarra, Brunswick Junction, Capel and the Perth greater metropolitan area including Mandurah. These combined networks cover over 12,800km, connecting 628,000 end users to natural gas and LPG. Emeco International www.emecogroup.com Emeco is a supplier of heavy earthmoving equipment solutions to the global mining industry, with operations in Australia, Indonesia and Canada. Customer offerings are focused on the rental of mining equipment and supporting asset management services. Customers in Queensland and the Northern Territory are serviced either on-site, or from Emeco’s Mackay facility. HVAC Queensland Pty Ltd www.hvac.com.au HVAC’s Industrial division’s primary focus is in the design, procurement, and installation of heavy gauge steel fabrication products. Services include hood work, duct supports, fabrication of plate work such as bins & hoppers as well as medium structural works,

access platforms, conveyor gantries, guards and pipe work. Inductabend Pty Ltd www.inductabend.com.au Inductabend offers induction technologies for bending, forming and treatment of pipes and structural sections. They cover a range of diverse induction technologies; including the CNC Cojafex PB 850 SE induction bending machine. Their range of technologies offered demonstrates that their induction bending, shaping and heat treatment services accommodate a wide range of materials; including carbon, alloy & HSLA steels, all grades of stainless steels; Cr-Ni alloys, titanium and clad pipe, etc. OSD Pipelines www.osd.net.au OSD Pipelines is an engineering, operations, and training services provider that specialises in all aspects of pipelines, facilities and plant, in the oil, gas, water and mining sectors. OSD Pipelines deliver project solutions and today encompass a multi-disciplined project and asset services team offering complete pipeline industry services for a range of clients around the world. Pacific Quality Corrosion Control Formally ‘Roxby Downs Industrial Services’, the owner of PQCC (John McCormack) has decided to get back into the business after taking a break for several years. With many, many years of experience and the latest technology, the company will concentrate on providing ‘industrial services’ to all areas such as abrasive/UHP blasting, industrial cleaning, painting, etc. All while making quality & safety #1.


NEWS

ProDigital Pty Ltd www.prodigital.com.au ProDigital Pty Ltd has been involved in the corrosion industry since 1996 representing leading brands of analytical equipment

such as Princeton Applied Research and Solartron. ProDigital cover a multitude of applications requiring DC techniques for Corrosion analysis to Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Impedance

Spectroscopy. When you buy equipment from ProDigital you also gain their expertise, service and support.

Individual & Student Members Name

Company

Branch

John Anderson Andrew Brayshaw

South Australia Kaefer

Queensland

Jay Boothman

Seaforce

Western Australia

Ashley Cochrane

Jotun

Victoria

Martin Connolly

AJ Lucas

Newcastle

Shane Eckert

Babcock

South Australia

David Edwards

FLSmidth

New South Wales

Michael Fox

Newcastle

William Guest

SPAusnet

Victoria

Shukri Ismail

McConnell Dowell

Western Australia

Brian Jurd

Brian Jurd

New South Wales

Alen Minyi Lu

OneSteel

South Australia

Danny Mitchell

Department of Planning, Transport & Infrasture

South Australia

Gerry O'Reilly

Gortec

Queensland

Max Ratcliffe

Babcock

South Australia

David Ryan

Australian Steel Institute

New South Wales

Mobin Salasi

University of Western Australia

Western Australia

Benny Susanto

WorleyParsons

Western Australia

Leigh Symes

Era Polymers

New South Wales

Michael Walker

Argus Pacific

Victoria

Luke Watson

Hastings Panel & Paint

Newcastle

Brett Whitcroft

Queensland

Battling with Excessive Humidity? We have the solution. Dehumidification Technologies offers rental & sales of desiccant and refrigerant dehumidifiers. We have a wide range of dehumidification, cooling and heating equipment available to create any environment for our customer. Our innovative techniques, a wealth of knowledge and experience, and dependable service help customers achieve a successful project – on time and under budget.

1800-RentDH

(736 834)

Melbourne Sydney Adelaide Perth Brisbane

www.rentdh.com ddawson@rentdh.com 24 hours a day / 7 days a week on-call service

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.21


NEWS

Vale - Greg Harrold 13/10/1951 to 14/01/2012 Greg Harrold spent much of his life working within the protective coating industry. As a long term (15 years) member and Past President of the Queensland Branch of the Blast Cleaning and Coating Association (BCCA), he worked tirelessly to improve the industry. Upon Incorporation of the BCCA to BCCA Australia Ltd, Greg was one of the founding Directors. Greg has also been an active member of the ACA for over 30 years. Greg’s first interest in protective coatings was as the Administration Manager for Striker Boats 1979–1982 and prior to that he

worked as a Chartered Accountant for Hungerford Accountants 1967–1979. Following that introduction to Protective Coatings, he joined Morton Engineering Company, a marine and heavy engineering contractor. Projects included large scale mining equipment, marine construction, industrial buildings and proprietary equipment installations both in Australia & the near Pacific. Greg was the company secretary and director, but spent a lot of his time involved in “hands on management”. From 1983 onwards, Greg became heavily involved in the blasting & coating industry and its Industry Association. Through Government legislation, it was necessary for the Industry to address training,

safety, environment, lead based paint management and Quality Assurance. Greg was a member or Chairman of all the Queensland Industry/ Government committees who wrote the Industry Handbooks, Code of Practice and Guidelines on these subjects. In July 2000, Greg joined Incospec & Associates as the Queensland Principal. Greg has worked on major projects throughout Queensland, travelling up, down and across this huge State. Greg has bravely battled ill health over the past few years and on January 14th that battle ended. All the management and staff of Incospec join his wife Dawn and his daughter Lisa in mourning the passing of this “great bloke”.

General Manager – Durability Consultants Are you young, motivated, with excellent communication skills and a desire to learn and earn high rewards? Then this is for you. BCRC offers an exciting opportunity to manage their Durability Consultancy offices in NSW. The business operates in the building and infrastructure sectors. The company turns over $1.5m/year. As Manager you will have responsibility for business and technical development. You will have the opportunity to gain a high profile as the leader of a well known company with internationally recognised consultants. BCRC NSW markets the full range of services offered by BCRC’s local, national and international consultants. This includes durability design services on new and existing structures, inspection and repair consulting, materials assessments and specifications. As the successful candidate you are likely to be a graduate with 10+ years of experience and you will have the ability to absorb business and technical skills from the founders and consultants. A major activity will be your ability to present information to small and large audiences hence you are required to have excellent communications skills. Writing of reports will also be required so high level written and spoken English is required. As one of the issues will be managing company growth some knowledge of business is preferred. If you are successful, you will be resourceful, driven to succeed and able to work with little supervision. Whilst BCRC NSW will focus on NSW projects you will be expected to travel overseas occasionally for technical development. The base will be in Gosford, NSW initially although re-location of the office in the future is possible. See www.BCRC.com.au for company background. Applications to r.munn@bcrc.com.au Should you have any questions please phone +61 2 9939 7533

Exclusive Distributor for

SUPER GARNET in Australia & New Zealand Abrasive Blast Media • • • • • •

High Garnet Purity (approx 99.5%) Low Chlorides Correctly Graded (7 grades available) Performance (cutting speed, profile, recyclability) Quality Certificate (to meet ISO standards) ISO 9001, ISO14000 & ISO 18000 Certified

www.mineralscorp.com sales@industrial-minerals.co.nz

Free Phone AU 1800 309 734 Free Phone NZ 0800 646 372


e t e r c n o C f o n io s o r Cor s e s r u o C s e r u t c u r t S ACA/ACRA Corrosion and Protection of Reinforced Concrete Wollongong, 2-3 April 2012 Tasmania, 3-5 October 2012 This course will provide a solid foundation of knowledge about the corrosion of both reinforcement and concrete, so that those working in this field can reach more effective solutions in the prevention and remediation of this ever-growing problem. Course Highlights The Characteristics of Cement and Concrete Concrete Deterioration Mechanisms Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete Survey and Diagnosis of Concrete On-site Measurements Laboratory Measurements Repair and Protection of Reinforced Concrete Repair of Damaged Concrete Cathodic Protection Further Electrochemical Methods Preventive Measures for New Concrete

Corrosion & CP of Concrete Structures Sydney, 21-22 August 2012 This course covers the background theory on corrosion and cathodic protection, including such aspects as selection and design of cathodic protection systems (impressed current and sacrificial), installation of cathodic protection systems, materials and equipment, problem troubleshooting and assessment and repair of structures. Course Highlights Modes of Concrete Deterioration Assessment and Repair of Structures Corrosion Fundamentals Remediation Options Selection & Design of Cathodic Protection Systems Materials and Equipment Installation of Cathodic Protection Systems Control of Interference Currents Commissioning of Systems Criteria for Cathodic Protection Operation and Maintenance of Systems Problem Troubleshooting System Records and Documentation

Register now at www.corrosion.com.au February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au 

p.23


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

ACA Standards Officer Arthur Austin has prepared a schedule of the latest Standards developments. This report will comprise two parts; a search of SAI Global publications at https://infostore.saiglobal. com/store for new standards, amendments and drafts, and a search for all current publications and standards relating to one of the ACA Technical Groups. This issue will have a focus for the ACA Concrete Structures & Buildings Technical Group. Results of the search can be found in Table 1.

A search of SAI Global at http:// www.saiglobal.com/online/ for new Standards, amendments or drafts of AS, AS/NZS, EN, ANSI, ASTM, BSI, DIN, ETSI, JSA, NSAI, and Standards and amendments of ISO & IEC published from 1st November 2011 to 25th January 2012 was conducted using the following key words and key word groups: durability corrosion or corrosivity or corrosive; but not anodizing or anodize(d) paint or coating; but not anodizing or anodize(d)

 alvanize or galvanized or g galvanizing cathode or cathodic anode or anodic electrochemical or electrolysis or electroplated corrosion and concrete, or concrete and coatings The search results showing 94 new Standards Drafts and Amendments in the general search can be found in Table 2. A copy of the full report can be downloaded from the ACA’s website www.corrosion.com.au

Table 1. Title search by Publisher with keywords ‘concrete and corrosion’ – 148 publications found Search by subject – Construction Materials and Building – Structures of Buildings – 47 results ASTM G109-07

Standard Test Method for Determining Effects of Chemical Admixtures on Corrosion of Embedded Steel Reinforcement in Concrete Exposed to Chloride Environments

BS EN 990:2002

Test methods for verification of corrosion protection of reinforcement in autoclaved aerated concrete and lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure

DIN EN 1504-7 (2006-11)

Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures - Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation of conformity - Part 7: Reinforcement corrosion protection

DIN EN 15183 (2006-11)

Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures - Test methods - Corrosion protection test

DIN EN 990 (2003-01)

Test methods for verification of corrosion protection of reinforcement in autoclaved aerated concrete and lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure

EN 1504-7:2006

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Definitions, Requirements, Quality Control And Evaluation Of Conformity - Part 7: Reinforcement Corrosion Protection. This document is not available once adopted. Please see Equivalent Standard below for national adoptions.

EN 15183:2006

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Test Methods - Corrosion Protection Test. This document is not available once adopted. Please see Equivalent Standard below for national adoptions.

EN 990:2002

Test Methods For Verification Of Corrosion Protection Of Reinforcement In Autoclaved Aerated Concrete And Lightweight Aggregate Concrete With Open Structure. This document is not available once adopted. Please see Equivalent Standard below for national adoptions.

GOST 28574:1990

Corrosion Protection In Construction - Concrete And Reinforced Concrete Constructions - Methods Of The Protection Covers Adhesion Testing

GOST 28575:1990

Corrosion Protection In Construction - Concrete And Reinforced Concrete Constructions - Test Of Protection Covers From Steam Penetration

I.S. EN 1504-7:2007

Products and Systems for the Protection and Repair of Concrete Structures - Definitions, Requirements, Quality Control and Evaluation of Conformity - Part 7: Reinforcement Corrosion Protection

I.S. EN 15183:2007

Products and Systems for the Protection and Repair of Concrete Structures - Test Methods - Corrosion Protection Test

NBN EN 1504-7:2007

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Definitions, Requirements, Quality Control And Evaluation Of Conformity - Part 7: Reinforcement Corrosion Protection

NEN EN 1504-7:2006

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Definitions, Requirements, Quality Control And Evaluation Of Conformity - Part 7: Reinforcement Corrosion Protection

NEN EN 15183:2006

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Test Methods - Corrosion Protection Test

NF EN 12269-2:2010

Determination Of The Bond Behaviour Between Reinforcing Steel And Autoclaved Aerated Concrete By The Beam Test Part 2: Long Term Test

NF EN 1504-7:2006

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Definitions, Requirements, Quality Control And Evaluation Of Conformity - Part 7: Reinforcement Corrosion Protection

NF EN 15183:2007

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Test Methods - Corrosion Protection Test

NF EN 990:2003

Test Methods For Verification Of Corrosion Protection Of Reinforcement In Autoclaved Aerated Concrete And Lightweight Aggregate Concrete With Open Structure

NS EN 1504-7 Ed. 1 (2006)

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Definitions, Requirements, Quality Control And Evaluation Of Conformity - Part 7: Reinforcement Corrosion Protection

p.24  CORROSION & MATERIALS


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

NS EN 15183 Ed. 1 (2006)

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Test Methods - Corrosion Protection Test

NS EN 990 Ed. 2 (2002)

Test Method For Verification Of Corrosion Protection Of Reinforcement In Autoclaved Aerated Concrete And Lightweight Aggregate Concrete With Open Structure

ONORM EN 990:2003

Test Methods For Verification Of Corrosion Protection Of Reinforcement In Autoclaved Aerated Concrete And Lightweight Aggregate Concrete With Open Structure

PN 82/B-01801:1982

Protection Against Corrosion In Building - Concrete And Reinforced Concrete Structures - Basic Design Principles

PN 86/B-01802:1986

Protection Against Corrosion In Building - Concrete And Reinforced Concrete Structures - Terms And Definitions

PN 86/B-01810:1986

Protection Against Corrosion In Building - Protective Properties Of Concrete Referring To Reinforcing Steel Electrochemical Tests

PN 86/B-01811:1986

Protection Against Corrosion In Building - Concrete And Reinforced Concrete Structures - Material And Structural Protection - Specifications

PN 88/B-01807:1988

Protection Against Corrosion In Building - Concrete And Reinforced Concrete Structures - Principles Of Diagnostics For Structures

PN 88/B-01808:1988

Protection Against Corrosion In Building - The Principles Of The Determination Of Scars In The Coatings Protecting Steel And Reinforced Concrete Structures

PN 91/B-01813:1991

Protection Against Corrosion In Building - Concrete And Reinforced Concrete Structures - Superficial Protective Measures - Principles And Choice

PN 92/B-01814:1992

Protection Against Corrosion In Building - Concrete And Reinforced Concrete Structures - Test Method For Adherence Protective Coatings

PN 92/B-01815:1992

Protection Against Corrosion In Building - Concrete And Reinforced Concrete Structures - Test Methods For Water Vapour Permeability Of Protective Coatings

PN EN 1504-7:2007

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Definitions, Requirements, Quality Control And Evaluation Of Conformity - Part 7: Reinforcement Corrosion Protection

PN EN 15183:2007

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Test Methods - Corrosion Protection Test

SS EN 1504-7 Ed. 1 (2006)

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Definitions, Requirements, Quality Control And Evaluation Of Conformity - Part 7: Reinforcement Corrosion Protection

SS EN 15183 Ed. 1 (2006)

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Test Methods - Corrosion Protection Test

SS EN 990 Ed. 2 (2002)

Test Methods For Verification Of Corrosion Protection Of Reinforcement In Autoclaved Aerated Concrete And Lightweight Aggregate Concrete With Open Structure

UNE 112011:2011

Corrosion Of Concrete Reinforcement Steel - Determination Of The Carbonatation Depth For In-Service Concrete

UNE EN 1504-7:2007

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Definitions, Requirements, Quality Control And Evaluation Of Conformity - Part 7: Reinforcement Corrosion Protection

UNE EN 15183:2007 (R2010)

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Test Methods - Corrosion Protection Test

UNE EN 990:2003

Test Methods For Verification Of Corrosion Protection Of Reinforcement In Autoclaved Aerated Concrete And Lightweight Aggregate Concrete With Open Structure

UNI 8981-5:1999

Durability Of Concrete Works And Prefabricated Elements - Criteria For Increasing The Resistance Corrosion Of Steel Bars

UNI EN 12269-2:2010

Determination Of The Bond Behaviour Between Reinforcing Steel And Autoclaved Aerated Concrete By The Beam Test Part 2: Long Term Test

UNI EN 1504-7:2007

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Definitions, Requirements, Quality Control And Evaluation Of Conformity - Part 7: Reinforcement Corrosion Protection

UNI EN 15183:2007

Products And Systems For The Protection And Repair Of Concrete Structures - Test Methods - Corrosion Protection Test

Search by subject – Construction Materials and Building – Protection of and in buildings – 5 results ACI 222R:2001 (R2010)

Protection Of Metals In Concrete Against Corrosion

ACI C 25:1993

Concrete Durability: Corrosion Protection

GOST 31383:2008

Protection Against Corrosion Of Concrete And Reinforced Concrete Constructions - Test Methods

GOST 31384:2008

Structural Concrete Protection Against Corrosion - General Requirements

GOST R 52804:2007

Protection Against Corrosion Of Concrete And Reinforced Concrete Constructions - Test Methods

Search by subject – Manufacturing Engineering – Surface treatment and coating – 26 results BS EN 14879-3:2006

Organic coating systems and linings for protection of industrial apparatus and plants against corrosion caused by aggressive media. Coatings on concrete components

BS EN 14879-5:2007

Organic coating systems and linings for protection of industrial apparatus and plants against corrosion caused by aggressive media. Linings on concrete components

DIN EN 14879-3 (2007-02)

Organic coating systems and linings for protection of industrial apparatus and plants against corrosion caused by aggressive media - Part 3: Coatings on concrete components

DIN EN 14879-5 (2007-10)

Organic coating systems and linings for protection of industrial apparatus and plants against corrosion caused by aggressive media - Part 5: Linings on concrete components

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.25


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

EN 14879-3:2006

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 3: Coatings On Concrete Components. This document is not available once adopted. Please see Equivalent Standard below for national adoptions.

EN 14879-5:2007

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 5: Linings On Concrete Components. This document is not available once adopted. Please see Equivalent Standard below for national adoptions.

GOST 28574:1990

Corrosion Protection In Construction - Concrete And Reinforced Concrete Constructions - Methods Of The Protection Covers Adhesion Testing

I.S. EN 14879-3:2006

Organic Coating Systems and Linings for Protection of Industrial Apparatus and Plants Against Corrosion Caused by Aggressive Media - Part 3: Coatings on Concrete Components

I.S. EN 14879-5:2007

Organic Coating Systems and Linings for Protection of Industrial Apparatus and Plants Against Corrosion Caused by Aggressive Media - Part 5: Linings on Concrete Components

NBN EN 14879-3:2007

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 3: Coatings On Concrete Components

NBN EN 14879-5:2007

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 5: Linings On Concrete Components

NEN EN 14879-3:2006

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 3: Coatings On Concrete Components

NEN EN 14879-5:2007

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 5: Linings On Concrete Components

NF EN 14879-3:2007

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 3: Coatings On Concrete Components

NF EN 14879-5:2007

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 5: Linings On Concrete Components

NS EN 14879-3 Ed. 1 (2006)

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 3: Coatings On Concrete Components

NS EN 14879-5 Ed. 1 (2007)

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 5: Linings On Concrete Components

ONORM EN 14879-5:2008

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 5: Linings On Concrete Components

PN EN 14879-3:2008

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 3: Coatings On Concrete Components

PN EN 14879-5:2009

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 5: Linings On Concrete Components

SS EN 14879-5 Ed. 1 (2007)

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 5: Linings On Concrete Components

UNE EN 14879-3:2008

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 3: Coatings On Concrete Components

UNE EN 14879-5:2008

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 5: Linings On Concrete Components

UNI EN 14879-3:2007

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 3: Coatings On Concrete Components

UNI EN 14879-5:2008

Organic Coating Systems And Linings For Protection Of Industrial Apparatus And Plants Against Corrosion Caused By Aggressive Media - Part 5: Linings On Concrete Components

Search by subject – Metallurgy – Corrosion of metals – 10 results ASTM G109-07

Standard Test Method for Determining Effects of Chemical Admixtures on Corrosion of Embedded Steel Reinforcement in Concrete Exposed to Chloride Environments

ASTM STP1065-90

Corrosion Rates Of Steel In Concrete

ASTM STP1276-96

Techniques To Assess The Corrosion Activity Of Steel Reinforced Concrete Structures

JIS A 6205:2003

Corrosion inhibitor for reinforcing steel in concrete

NFA 05 611:1992

Electrochemical Corrosion Protection - Cathodic Protection Of Concrete Reinforcement - Buried Or Immersed Works

UNE 112010:2011

Corrosion Of Concrete Reinforcement Steel - Chloride Determination For In-Service Concrete

UNE 112011:2011

Corrosion Of Concrete Reinforcement Steel - Determination Of The Carbonation Depth For In-Service Concrete

UNE 112083:2010

Measurement Of Free Corrosion Potential On Steel Reinforced Concrete Structures

UNI 10322:1994

Corrosion Of Reinforcement In Concrete Structures - Method For The Determination Of The Degree Protection Of Concrete Against The Corrosion Of Reinforcement

UNI 9944:1992

Corrosion And Protection Of Reinforcing Steel In Concrete - Determination Of The Carbonation Depth And Of The Chlorides Penetration Profile In Concrete

p.26  CORROSION & MATERIALS


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

Search by subject – Metallurgy – Iron and steel products – 4 results ASTM C1582/C1582M-11

Standard Specification for Admixtures to Inhibit Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete

ASTM G180-07

Standard Test Method for Initial Screening of Corrosion Inhibiting Admixtures for Steel in Concrete

UNE 112010:2011

Corrosion Of Concrete Reinforcement Steel - Chloride Determination For In-Service Concrete

UNE 112011:2011

Corrosion Of Concrete Reinforcement Steel - Determination Of The Carbonation Depth For In-Service Concrete

Search by subject – Civil Engineering – Bridge construction – 1 result AASHTO TF 32:1992

Task Force 32 Report - Manual For Corrosion Protection Of Concrete Components In Bridges

Table 2. New standards, amendments or drafts for AS, AS/NZS, EN, ANSI, ASTM, BSI, DIN, ETSI, JSA, NSAI and Standards or Amendments for ISO & IEC PUBLISHED between 1 November 2011 and 25 January 2012 Key word search on ‘durability’ – 3 citations found 2 from AS AS/NZS DIN EN ISO 12543-4 (2011-12)

Glass in building - Laminated glass and laminated safety glass - Part 4: Test methods for durability (ISO 12543-4:2011)

DR AS 3706.11 CP

Geotextiles - Methods of test - Part 11: Determination of durability - Resistance to degradation by light, heat and moisture

DR AS 3706.13

Geotextiles - Methods of test - Part 13: Determination of durability - Resistance to certain microbiological agents

Key word search on ‘corrosion’ or ‘corrosivity’ or ‘corrosive’; but not ‘anodizing’ or ‘anodize(d)’ – 15 citations found; none from AS or AS/ASNZ 11/30249422 DC BS EN 15280.

Evaluation of a.c. corrosion likelihood of buried pipelines applicable to cathodically protected pipelines

11/30254168 DC BS EN 10088-3.

Stainless steels. Part 3. Technical delivery conditions for semi-finished products, bars, rods, wire, sections and bright products of corrosion resisting steels for general purposes

BS 7870-3.12:2011

LV and MV polymeric insulated cables for use by distribution and generation utilities. Specification for distribution cables of rated voltage 0.6/1 kV. XLPE insulated combined neutral and earth copper wire concentric cables with copper or aluminium conductors, having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases when affected by fire

BS 7870-3.22:2011

LV and MV polymeric insulated cables for use by distribution and generation utilities. Specification for distribution cables of rated voltage 0.6/1 kV. XLPE insulated split concentric cables with copper or aluminium conductors, having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases when affected by fire

BS 7870-3.50:2011

LV and MV polymeric insulated cables for use by distribution and generation utilities. Specification for distribution cables of rated voltage 0.6/1 kV. XLPE insulated , copper wire waveform or helical concentric cables with solid aluminium conductors, having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases when affected by fire

BS EN 4540:2011

Aerospace series. Bearings, spherical plain, in corrosion resisting steel with self-lubricating liner elevated load under low oscillations. Technical specification

DIN 81249-1 (2011-12)

Corrosion of metals in sea water and sea atmosphere - Part 1: Terms and Definitions, basic information; Text in German and English

DIN 81249-2 (2012-01) (Draft)

Corrosion of metals in sea water and sea atmosphere - Part 2: Free corrosion in sea water; Text in German and English

DIN EN 4687 (2012-01) (Draft)

Aerospace series - Paints and varnishes - Chromate free non corrosion inhibiting two components cold curing primer for military application; German and English version FprEN 4687:2011

DIN EN 4688 (2012-01) (Draft)

Aerospace series - Paints and varnishes - Corrosion inhibiting two components cold curing primer for military application; German and English version FprEN 4688:2011

DIN EN 4704 (2011-12) (Draft)

Aerospace series - Tartaric-Sulphuric-Acid anodizing of aluminium and aluminium wrought alloys for corrosion protection and paint pre-treatment (TSA); German and English version FprEN 4704:2011

I.S. EN 4540:2011

Aerospace Series - Bearings, Spherical Plain, in Corrosion Resisting Steel With Self-lubricating Liner Elevated Load Under low Oscillations - Technical Specification

IEC 61701 Ed. 2.0 (Bilingual 2011)

Salt mist corrosion testing of photovoltaic (PV) modules

ISO/FDIS 21608

Corrosion of metals and alloys - Test method for isothermal-exposure oxidation testing under high-temperature corrosion conditions for metallic materials

JIS C 60695-5-1:2011

Fire hazard testing - Part 5-1: Corrosion damage effects of fire effluent - General guidance

Key word search on ‘paint’ and or ‘coating’; but not ‘anodizing’ or ‘anodize(d)’ or corrosion – 77 Publications found; none from AS or AS/NZS. ISO 11127-3:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products - Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives - Part 3: Determination of apparent density

11/30237853 DC BS ISO 16482-1

Binders for paints and varnishes. Determination of the non-volatile-matter content of aqueous rosin-resin dispersions. Part 1. Oven method

11/30237856 DC BS ISO 16482-2

Binders for paints and varnishes. Determination of the non-volatile-matter content of aqueous rosin-resin dispersions. Part 2. Microwave method

BS EN 4159:2011

Aerospace series. Paints and Varnishes. Determination of resistance to microbial growth

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.27


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

BS EN 4171:2011

Aerospace series. Paints and varnishes. Test method for determination of phosphoric acid index

BS EN 4195:2011

Aerospace series. Paints and varnishes. Test method for determination of chromate

BS EN ISO 11127-1:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products . Test methods for non-metallic blast cleaning abrasives. Sampling

BS EN ISO 11127-2:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products . Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives. Determination of particle size distribution

BS EN ISO 11127-3:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products . Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives. Determination of apparent density

BS EN ISO 11127-4:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products . Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives. Assessment of hardness by a glass slide test

BS EN ISO 11127-5:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products . Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives. Determination of moisture

BS EN ISO 11127-6:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products . Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives. Determination of water-soluble contaminants by conductivity measurement

BS EN ISO 11127-7:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products . Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives. Determination of water-soluble chlorides

BS EN ISO 12137:2011

Paints and varnishes. Determination of mar resistance

BS EN ISO 1518-2:2011

Paints and varnishes. Determination of scratch resistance. Variable-loading method

BS EN ISO 2431:2011

Paints and varnishes. Determination of flow time by use of flow cups

BS EN ISO 7783:2011

Paints and varnishes. Determination of water-vapour transmission properties. Cup method

DIN EN 16105 (2011-12)

Paints and varnishes - Laboratory method for determination of release of substances from coatings in intermittent contact with water

DIN EN 4159 (2012-01) (Draft)

Aerospace series - Paints and varnishes - Determination of resistance to microbial growth

DIN EN 4171 (2012-01) (Draft)

Aerospace series - Paints and varnishes - Test method for determination of phosphoric acid index

DIN EN 4195 (2012-01) (Draft)

Aerospace series - Paints and varnishes - Test method for determination of chromate leaching

DIN EN 4687 (2012-01) (Draft)

Aerospace series - Paints and varnishes - Chromate free non corrosion inhibiting two components cold curing primer for military application; German and English version FprEN 4687:2011

DIN EN 4688 (2012-01) (Draft)

Aerospace series - Paints and varnishes - Corrosion inhibiting two components cold curing primer for military application; German and English version FprEN 4688:2011

DIN EN 4689 (2012-01) (Draft)

Aerospace series - Paints and varnishes - Two components cold curing polyurethane finish - High flexibility and chemical agent resistance for military application; German and English version FprEN 4689:2011

DIN EN 4704 (2011-12) (Draft)

Aerospace series - Tartaric-Sulphuric-Acid anodizing of aluminium and aluminium wrought alloys for corrosion protection and paint pre-treatment (TSA); German and English version FprEN 4704:2011

DIN EN ISO 4628-6 (2011-12)

Paints and varnishes - Evaluation of degradation of coatings - Designation of quantity and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance - Part 6: Assessment of degree of chalking by tape method (ISO 4628-6:2011)

DIN EN ISO 6272-1 (2011-11)

Paints and varnishes - Rapid-deformation (impact resistance) tests - Part 1: Falling-weight test, large-area indenter (ISO 6272-1:2011)

DIN EN ISO 6272-2 (2011-11)

Paints and varnishes - Rapid-deformation (impact resistance) tests - Part 2: Falling-weight test, small-area indenter (ISO 6272-2:2011)

I.S. EN 10245-1:2011

Steel Wire and Wire Products - Organic Coatings on Steel Wire - Part 1: General Rules

I.S. EN 10245-2:2011

Steel Wire and Wire Products - Organic Coatings on Steel Wire - Part 2: pvc Finished Wire

I.S. EN 10245-3:2011

Steel Wire and Wire Products - Organic Coatings on Steel Wire - Part 3: pe Coated Wire

I.S. EN 10245-4:2011

Steel Wire and Wire Products - Organic Coatings on Steel Wire - Part 4: Polyester Coated Wire

I.S. EN 10245-5:2011

Steel Wire and Wire Products - Organic Coatings on Steel Wire - Part 5: Polyamide Coated Wire

I.S. EN 4159:2011

Aerospace Series - Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Resistance to Microbial Growth

I.S. EN 4171:2011

Aerospace Series - Paints and Varnishes - Test Method for Determination of Phosphoric Acid Index

I.S. EN 4195:2011

Aerospace Series - Paints and Varnishes - Test Method for Determination of Chromate Leaching

I.S. EN ISO 11127-1:2011

Preparation of Steel Substrates Before Application of Paints

I.S. EN ISO 11127-2:2011

Preparation of Steel Substrates Before Application of Paints and Related Products - Test Methods for Non-metallic Blastcleaning Abrasives - Part 2: Determination of Particle Size Distribution (iso 11127-2:2011)

I.S. EN ISO 11127-3:2011

Preparation of Steel Substrates Before Application of Paints and Related Products - Test Methods for Non-metallic Blastcleaning Abrasives - Part 3: Determination of Apparent Density (iso 11127-3:2011)

p.28  CORROSION & MATERIALS


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

I.S. EN ISO 11127-4:2011

Preparation of Steel Substrates Before Application of Paints and Related Products - Test Methods for Non-metallic Blastcleaning Abrasives - Part 4: Assessment of Hardness by a Glass Slide Test (iso 11127-4:2011)

I.S. EN ISO 11127-5:2011

Preparation of Steel Substrates Before Application of Paints and Related Products - Test Methods for Non-metallic Blastcleaning Abrasives - Part 5: Determination of Moisture (iso 11127-5:2011)

I.S. EN ISO 11127-6:2011

Preparation of Steel Substrates Before Application of Paints and Related Products - Test Methods for Non-metallic Blast-cleaning Abrasives - Part 6: Determination of Water-soluble Contaminants by Conductivity Measurement (iso 11127-6:2011)

I.S. EN ISO 11127-7:2011

Preparation of Steel Substrates Before Application of Paints and Related Products - Test Methods for Non-metallic Blastcleaning Abrasives - Part 7: Determination of Water-soluble Chlorides (iso 11127-7:2011)

I.S. EN ISO 13123:2011

Metallic and Other Inorganic Coatings - Test Method of Cyclic Heating for Thermal-barrier Coatings Under Temperature Gradient (iso 13123:2011)

I.S. EN ISO 2431:2011

Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Flow Time by use of Flow Cups (iso 2431:2011)

I.S. EN ISO 7783:2011

Paints and Varnishes - Determination of Water-vapour Transmission Properties - cup Method (iso 7783:2011)

ISO 11127-1:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products - Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives - Part 1:

ISO 11127-2:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products - Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives - Part 2: Determination of particle size distribution

ISO 11127-4:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products - Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives - Part 4: Assessment of hardness by a glass slide test and Elated Products - Test Methods for Nonmetallic Blast-cleaning Brasives - Part 1: Sampling (iso 11127-1:2011)

ISO 11127-5:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products - Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives - Part 5: Determination of moisture

ISO 11127-6:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products - Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives - Part 6: Determination of water-soluble contaminants by conductivity measurement

ISO 11127-7:2011

Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products - Test methods for non-metallic blastcleaning abrasives - Part 7: Determination of water-soluble chlorides

ISO 12670:2011

Thermal spraying - Components with thermally sprayed coatings - Technical supply conditions

ISO 13123:2011

Metallic and other inorganic coatings - Test method of cyclic heating for thermal-barrier coatings under temperature gradient

ISO 17186:2011

Leather - Physical and mechanical tests - Determination of surface coating thickness

ISO 21809-3:2008/Amd 1: 2011

Petroleum and natural gas industries - External coatings for buried or submerged pipelines used in pipeline transportation systems - Part 3: Field joint coatings - Amendment 1

ISO 2431:2011

Paints and varnishes - Determination of flow time by use of flow cups

ISO/DIS 12736

Petroleum and natural gas industries - Wet thermal insulation coatings for pipelines, flow lines, equipment and subsea structures

ISO/DIS 15528

Paints, varnishes and raw materials for paints and varnishes - Sampling

ISO/DIS 16145-4

Ships and marine technology - Protective coatings and inspection method - Part 4: Automated measuring method for the total amount of water-soluble salts

ISO/DIS 28340

Combined coatings on aluminium - General specifications for combined coatings of electrophoretic organic coatings and anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium

ISO/TR 15922:2011

Metallic and other inorganic coatings - Evaluation of properties of dark-stain phenomenon of chromated coiled or sheet product

ISO/TR 26946:2011

Standard method for porosity measurement of thermally sprayed coatings

Key word search on ‘galvanize’ or ‘galvanized’ or galvanizing’ – 0 Standard Publications found. Key word search on ‘corrosion’ and ‘concrete’ or ‘concrete’ and ‘coatings’ – 0 Standard Publications found Key word search on ‘cathode’ or ‘cathodic’ – 0 publications found 11/30249422 DC BS EN 15280

Evaluation of a.c. corrosion likelihood of buried pipelines applicable to cathodically protected pipelines

ISO/FDIS 12696

Cathodic protection of steel in concrete

Key word search on ‘anode’ or ‘anodes’ or ‘anodic’ – 0 Standard Publications found – None from AS/ANZS Keyword Search on ‘electrochemical’ or ‘electrolysis’ or ‘electroplated’ – 0 Standard Publications found Keyword Search on ‘anodize’ or ‘anodized’ – 0 Publications found

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.29


Review Hosted by The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc, the 18th International Corrosion Congress (ICC) was held from 20-24 November 2011 at the Perth Convention & Exhibition Centre. Confirmed during the congress, the ACA welcomed over 800 registered delegates from 45 countries from the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, the Middle East, the North and South American continents as well Africa. In attendance was a diverse range of practitioners from the coatings industry, academia, defence, gas and oil production areas, engineers, corrosion scientists and more. However, even with such a diverse delegate representation, the unifying experience was the shared passion for decay and learning to understand the forces that control the rate at which corrosion processes take place and determine the ultimate integrity of our infrastructure. The Governor of Western Australia, His Excellency, Malcolm McCusker officially opened the 18th ICC during the opening session by saying that “this is truly an international gathering of minds who are all committed to making the future of this state, this nation and the world more sustainable”.

Major Sponsor

Supporting Sponsors

Standard

Jotun blue

p.30  CORROSION & MATERIALS

A major thank you to Hempel who were the Major Sponsors of the congress and who were represented by a large contingent of international employees including Thomas Christensen, the Regional Sales Director of South East Asia based out of Singapore. An initiative from the local ICC Organising Committee was that of the Non-OECD sponsorship allowing deserving corrosion practitioners from lesser developed countries around the world participation who may have otherwise found it difficult to attend. Consistent with the objectives of the ICC, this allowed Kashif Mairaj Deen of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Iman of Bangladesh and Mauricio Vásquez Rendon of Colombia to attend the congress. Each day of the congress, delegates were served morning tea, lunch and afternoon tea in an exhibition pavilion with 80 exhibition booths, which allowed delegates to get hands-on with the latest products and services on offer in the corrosion industry. The exhibition area was an important hub during the congress which allowed exhibitors the opportunity to demonstrate and showcase their offerings to existing and potential customers.

Sponsors


R

w ie v e

Thomas Christensen of Major Sponsors Hempel

Following the opening plenary and keynote presentations each morning, the technical programme was split into seven or eight concurrent streams to allow for the 200 plus oral presentations to be presented. These included streams such as corrosion modelling, aviation, cathodic protection, concrete, coatings, oil & gas, advanced materials and more. On the Tuesday afternoon, the oral presentations stopped to allow delegates to look at the poster papers during a poster session which numbered 57.

Technical Convenor Liam Holloway

ICC President Tooru Tsuru

The social functions of the congress were a highlight for many with a Welcome to Country ceremony conducted by the Doorum Dance Group at the Welcome Function on the Sunday evening. Over 50 young corrosionists attended the Young Corrosion Professionals function on the Tuesday evening which gave the ACA’s Young Corrosion Group (YCG) a great avenue to encourage those in attendance to attend local YCG activities coming in 2012. The gala dinner on the Wednesday evening provided a delicious three course meal before many delegates hit the dance floor to Darren Reid & The Soul City Groove Cover Band until midnight. The Farewell Function where Ian MacLeod handed over the ACA gavel to incoming President Peter Dove provided delegates that final opportunity to say goodbye to new and old friends. The 18th ICC was another great conference organised by the ACA with over 800 delegates and 100 partners attending. The ACA is now underway organising its 2012 annual conference in Melbourne at the Crown Conference Centre, 11-14 November (straight after the Spring Racing Carnival) with call for papers now open.

Governor of Western Australia, His Excellency, Malcolm McCusker

Congress Convenor Peter Farinha

2011 ACA President: Ian MacLeod

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.31


Plenary & Keynote Speakers Review The 18th ICC technical programme began each day with one plenary and one keynote presentation. 2011 ACA President Ian MacLeod provides a summarised account of each of these presentations:

Plenary 2: Alison Davenport of the University of Birmingham, UK

Plenary 1: Tim Burstein of the University of Cambridge, UK

Alison’s presentation managed to seamlessly connect the worlds of nuclear waste processing to pitting corrosion problems in surgical implants and explaining how very small clumps of titanium can end up being incorporated into human tissue as a result of some unusual corrosion phenomena. As would be expected from such a consummate professional presenter, Alison took us on a molecular journey that revealed structures of corrosion products through the magical eyes of high intensity X-ray beams coming from a synchrotron. The role of surface preparations and the characterisation of both naturally and potentiostatically grown films provided answers to many of the problems associated with the manufacture and use of stainless steel in its wide variety of applications. In a series of images gained from tomography studies it was possible to discern the fundamental mechanisms associated with pit growth in stainless steel, the impact of chloride ions on the corrosion of nickel and the actual role that molybdenum plays in the effective inhibition of marine grade stainless steels. In short, the application of high intensity x-rays and the imaging capacities associated with beam line experimental apparatus is opening up a powerful and innovative tool for understanding the corrosion mechanisms of socially and economically significant corrosion resistant materials.

Sensitive Measurement of Unusual Properties of the Passive State and its Breakdown Tim’s lecture was quite provocative in its presentation by challenging the audience of peers and colleagues to correct and to re-evaluate their understanding of corrosion processes that are controlled by the interface of the metal and surrounding solutions. Beginning with the traditional approach of understanding Tafel slopes and the whole issue of passivation he shrank down the listener from the macroscopic scale of a laboratory bench experiment down to the molecular level where the oxide coating was growing and interacting with the solution. Tim pointed out the trap of assuming that corrosion measurements made after a few hours will reflect a steady state value and he was able to demonstrate that most of the published literature was erroneous and only of use for comparing data with that gained under identical conditions of polarization and experimental set up. By using batteries as the power sources for his ultra sensitive potentiostats he measured pico ampere currents and watched the hysteresis between scans develop. Readers are encouraged to read his brilliant paper, especially before embarking on analysis of passivation processes on stainless steel.

Shedding Light on Corrosion


ea p S

k

s er

R

w ie v e

Tim Burstein

Alison Davenport

David Scantlebury

Hector Videla

Plenary 3: David Scantlebury of The University of Manchester, UK Underprotection of Mild Steel in Seawater, The Calcareous Film David’s address was simply inspirational with many delegates having the pleasure of listening to him recall the work of his hundreds of students. He began by reminding us all to keep up to date with old literature and recall the work of masters like Sir Humphrey Davy who published a series of papers on decompression sickness, or the bends, in the 18th century and that his papers of that time still survive contemporary scrutiny. Well researched literature from the 19th century can still provide profound insights into corrosion processes which are not surprising given that the chemistry of decay does not alter with fashion as new methods are applied to solving old problems. David presented the results of experiments with an immersion machine that replicates the effects of wetting and drying in a design construct that modelled the corrosion microenvironment of the intertidal zone. It was clear from his depth of understanding the practical aspects of undertaking experimental work that many researchers have fallen into the trap of interpreting their results that are an artefact of the physical set up and not fully reflective of the operational environment of materials in their service lives. His talk was presented despite him suffering from a severe infection in his vocal chords and the audience gave him a strenuous ovation.

Plenary 4: Hector Videla of the University of La Plata, Argentina Biocorrosion and Microbial Corrosion Inhibition. A Review Hector’s presentation style was as smooth and flowing as a tango from his homeland of Argentina. The congress organisers chose well inviting Hector to Perth to share his wealth of information about microbially induced corrosion and the impact of biofilms on materials that would otherwise be free from decay. Through systematic analysis of the microflora found in tubercules, on stagnant surfaces and in localised crevices the master of microbes has been able to develop a detailed understanding of how all the different groups of organisms interact with each other. This work was integrated with data about the metallic

substrate and how corrosion products act as vital energy sources for the continued growth and propagation of the biofilms. Hector was able to demonstrate the extension of his approach to solving corrosion problems associated with architectural bronze fittings and sculptures and how the impact of industrial pollution of SOx and NOx alters the viability of organisms that can live on inherently toxic substrates such as cuprite through the development of chemical barriers that insulate the cytoplasm from invasive metal ions. This plenary lecture confirmed that our world is in fact controlled by the deterioration processes associated with the life and times of bacteria, yeasts and moulds that abound in the natural environment and are ever adaptable to changes in dosage of biocides.

Keynote 1: Maria Forsyth of Deakin University, Australia Multifunctional Rare Earth Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel and Aluminium Alloys As the leader of a large research group at Deakin University, Maria demonstrated the wisdom of her peers who appointed her to a Chair in Electromaterials and Corrosion Sciences through the presentation of a series of case studies of successful research projects. She has a remarkable capacity to find answers to complex industrial corrosion problems through inspirational leadership and the ability to think laterally and creatively and be the creative catalyst for her research students. Through the application of ionic organic solvent systems she has been able to determine many of the fundamental parameters that are controlling the decay of modern materials such as specialty magnesium alloys used in the aerospace industries and their future applications of ceramic materials in the automotive industry as we move towards a more green and sustainable future through the application of clever corrosion science. The diligent and systematic way in which her team has characterised the optimisation of the corrosion inhibiting effects of lanthanum hydroxy cinnamate complexes on mild steel was inspiring. Their discernment of the nature of the reactive species as a function of pH was symptomatic of the way in which creative and intuitive research can be integrated with sound technologies and the development of novel methods for stopping corrosion dead in its tracks.

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.33


Keynote 2: Mads Juhl of Hempel, Denmark Advances in Corrosion Protection by Use of Coatings Part of the strength of the Australasian Corrosion Association is the integration of knowledge and technologies developed through engagement with academia and industry. The work of Hempel in the development of new coating systems that will withstand the constraints of modern environment legislation and the expectations of clients for excellence in materials performance is characterised by a determined and systematic approach to finding flaws in systems and turning these into creative opportunities for new products. This work was exemplified by the discussions on anti-fouling coatings on large ship hulls. Hempel have developed a gel based product that confuses the colonising larvae and nymphs into believing that the ship hulls are not solid substrates and thus they are not colonised. As this new approach becomes the industrial norm through its future adoption by those involved in military specifications, tens of thousands of tonnes of fuel will be saved by ships having clean bottoms. In addition, the time saved by not having to be slipped and have new coatings applied to hulls is of great advantage to the owners of the vessels and should also result in a reduction in insurance premiums.

P F Thompson Lecture: Ian MacLeod of the Western Australia Museum, Australia Consuming Corrosion – A Journey into the Realm of Materials Conservation The P F Thompson memorial lecture informed the international audience of the pioneering work of Australia’s consummate corrosion professional. Ian presented aspects of Thompson’s remarkable capacity for painstaking recording through many a long night to ensure that critical changes in surfaces were noted. There was almost nothing that could withstand the scrutiny of his approach and Thompson solved problems affecting the food industry, the nascent aviation industry in WWII with its aluminium corrosion problems and the emerging technologies of stainless steel. The lecture made the connection

p.34  CORROSION & MATERIALS

between solving the corrosion problems on the America’s Cup winning Australia II and Thompson’s classical work on pitting in aluminium alloys. A systematic series of measurements on degrading engraved rock art images in the Burrup peninsular allowed MacLeod to solve the dissolution mechanism. In a similar fashion he worked on the corroded remains of the SS Xantho (1872) engine for 25 years to stabilise this relic from the Crimean War. The lecture concluded with a demonstration of the migration of a 700 kg shark out of ethanol into glycerol which showed that he, like Thompson, could turn his hand to anything.

Keynote 4: V. S. Raja of the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India High Temperature Corrosion Problems in Designing Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings The journey into the realms of high temperature corrosion problems of equipment such as turbines in the jet engines that brought delegates from 45 countries to Perth was electrifying. The passion demonstrated by Raja for his topic of mitigation of the degradation due to channelling effects of defects in ceramic coatings allowing access to corrosive agents left the audience somewhat spell bound. Despite the apparent novelty of many of the coatings, including partially stabilized yttria zirconia, the efficacy of this approach and others involving multi component modified ceramic coatings on the high temperature metal alloys used in the production of turbines was demonstrated by appreciable reduction in the oxidation current densities of the treated materials when exposed to standard potentiodynamic modelling and corrosion simulation. The author demonstrated the essentially preventive nature of regular maintenance assessment of the critical components in aircraft jet engines and how through careful modelling it is possible to minimise the impact of poor thermal characteristics and how to optimise the bonding of the protective ceramic coatings onto the metallic substrates. This plenary lecture filled the central role of binding together elements from major industries and how they manage to control high temperature corrosion.

Maria Forsyth

Mads Juhl

Ian MacLeod

V. S. Raja


Protective Coatings Training From basic concepts to carrying out quality control tests and producing specifications, these short ACA courses will improve your knowledge of protective coatings.

Introduction to Protective Coatings (1 day) This course provides an introduction to basic concepts of protective coatings; including the various types of coatings, the inspection requirements and considerations when selecting such products. Course Highlights: Background Information Types of Coatings

Coatings Selection & Specification (3 days)

Coating Inspection

This course aims to provide participants with the ability to produce a clear and technically correct protective coatings specification. The course provides theoretical and practical information on coatings selection for corrosion control, largely based on AS/NZS 2312 Guide to the Protection of Iron and Steel against exterior Atmospheric Corrosion.

Coating Maintenance

Inspection is only one part of ensuring a quality coating job, and selecting the correct coating system and writing a good specification are just as important. This course has been developed to provide information to assist the specifier select the best coating system and to write a specification. Course Highlights: Determining the Corrosivity of an Environment Importance of Design in Corrosion and Coating Life Methods and Standards of Surface Preparation Advantages and Disadvantages of Metallic & Specialist Coatings Different Types of Paints, Their Properties & Where They’re Used Procedures and Factors of Maintenance Painting Factors Which Affect Selection of a Coating System Features of the Coating Systems Described in AS/NZS 2312 Understanding the Content of a Specification Writing a Specification

Coating Selection

Protective Coatings Quality Control (3 days) This course aims to formalise or improve the skills of carrying out basic quality control tests associated with protective coatings projects. It uses formal lectures, demonstrations, and extensive practical exercises as teaching methods. Course Highlights: Introduction to Project Documentation Introduction to the Corrosion of Steel and Other Metals Coating Technology Introduction Surface Preparation Assessment Assessment of Applied Coatings Understanding and Monitoring Ambient Conditions Standards (applied to selection, application and testing of protective coating systems) Quality Control Tests (with a strong focus on hands-on use of instruments, and recording the relevant information)

Course dates, locations and full registration details available at www.corrosion.com.au February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.35


Photos

p.36  CORROSION & MATERIALS


February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.37


p.38  CORROSION & MATERIALS


February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.39


Awards Each year a series of ACA Awards are announced and presented to the successful recipients at the annual ACA conference. The ACA awards papers of outstanding quality presented at a conference, seminar or symposium held under the auspices of the ACA, or published in the ACA’s journal Corrosion & Materials. These papers are judged by the ACA Awards Committee comprised of Les Boulton, Bruce Hinton and Erwin Gamboa. The ACA also recognises members for outstanding service to the Association through Life and Honorary membership.

AC Kennett Award The AC Kennett Award is awarded each year to the best paper presented under the auspices of the Association that deals with nonmetallic corrosion. The recipient also receives a cheque for AU$1,000. Frédéric Blin & Sarah Furman for their paper presented at the Corrosion & Prevention 2010 conference ‘Durability Guidelines for Materials in Aggressive Brine Exposures’. SUMMARY: Extended drought conditions and an increasing population have lead to water supply uncertainty in Australia. In recent years major cities in Australia have supplemented or are planning to supplement the water supply with desalinated water produced using reverse osmosis technology.

Best Papers In pursuit of attracting quality technical papers, the ACA annually awards two certificates of merit for papers either published in Corrosion & Materials or presented at the annual conference. The award will be made only where the standard of papers is of a level warranting recognition; one certificate is for the best review paper and the other is for the best research paper.

Marshall Fordham Best Research Award Xian Zhou for the paper ‘Kinetic Stability of Aluminium’ presented at Corrosion & Prevention 2010. SUMMARY: The stability of a material (electrochemically) is typically described in terms of equilibrium thermodynamics; i.e. by Pourbaix diagrams. However, in engineering applications, a likelihood of corrosion as predicted by thermodynamics is not as useful as knowing how ‘fast’ a material reacts in a certain environment, although being highly reactive thermodynamically, reactive metals such as aluminium, commonly display high ‘kinetic stability’ that allow them to be engineering materials in contact with corrosive environments. In this work towards presenting a kinetic stability diagram for pure aluminium, and discuss the utility of this in terms of alloy design.

The by-product of this process is concentrated, ambient temperature brine. This aggressive fluid poses significant durability issues for many concrete and metallic materials that are required to transport it back to the ocean. If not addressed adequately such durability issues could significantly impact on the operation of a desalination plant. However, existing standards do not provide sufficient guidance on how to select materials that withstand exposure to such aggressive brine solutions. This paper provides an understanding of the degradation mechanisms that may impact on the materials used in the brine circuit of a seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant. Based on theory and experience, it also sets out an approach for the selection of concrete and corrosion resistant alloys for use in the transportation and dispersion of brine.

David Whitby Best Review Paper Award Rajko Vukcevic for the paper ‘Directions for the Future: A Case for a Critical Review of ICCP of Steel in Concrete’ presented at the Corrosion & Prevention 2010 conference. SUMMARY: The paper discusses the need for a critical review of the contemporary impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for steel in concrete. It treats the issue as an engineering-based undertaking, laying out directions for the construction of new and enhanced forms of ICCP systems. The corrosion of steel in concrete has specific issues and consequences, and corrosion protection of such structures requires a multi-disciplinary approach. ICCP in concrete is somewhat different from ICCP employment in other environments (seawater, fresh water or soil), both in its electrochemical

p.40  CORROSION & MATERIALS


d ar

s

foundation and in its engineering implementation. A case is presented for the holistic and critical review of Aw engineering of ICCP systems for steel protection in concrete. The review should encompass all relevant elements, from corrosion science background, applicable sensors, CP criteria and anode current drive, to engineering opportunities and limits in design, construction and installation of ICCP systems. ICCP systems are considered in their entirety, as their engineering structure is enhanced to include the knowledge of CP experts used in adjustment of the protective impressed current. This knowledge, incorporating sensor readings and criteria for protection to form a feedback mechanism of the system, is regarded as embedded into the system rather than external to it, as it is usually viewed and practiced today. Suggested are the possible and the most probable directions in which the future ICCP systems may evolve. These directions are based on the current state of electronics technology, on available corrosion protection knowledge and on current CP practice. Highlighted are key areas for future research that may provide engineering insights for the development of significantly improved ICCP systems.

was used to compare the corrosive behaviour without and with mechanical surface damage. In most cases the current evolution vs. time trends measured in the corrosion-only conditions agreed well with the cyclic polarization data and confirmed the effects of chloride ions on corrosion kinetics. Under tribocorrosion conditions there were cases observed where the concurrent abrading action of grits was beneficial in preventing or halting the pitting. However, after stopping the abrasion the damaged surface resulted in lower resistance of the HCCI to pitting. SEM images were used to aid the analysis and explanation of electrochemical data.

Western Australia Branch Honorary Membership Honorary Membership is appointed by a Branch in recognition of service to that Branch.

ACA Student Research Award The ACA Student Research Award is presented to a full time post graduate student who has submitted a paper to the annual ACA conference of that year for fundamental or applied research in any branch of corrosion for the purpose of a higher degree in Science, Engineering or a related discipline. The award is judged upon significance of the work to the community, originality and soundness of the research as well as several other criteria and is awarded a cheque funded by the ACA WA Branch of AU$2,500.

Robert de Graaf There is no shadow of doubt that Robert has made a remarkable contribution to the WA Branch and corrosion community through more than 30 years of commitment. Robert has been a member of the ACA since 1979 and was the WA Branch President in 1984-85. Robert is described as almost too generous in his time, especially to up and coming young corrosion professionals.

Mobin Salasi for the paper ‘Chloride Effect on Corrosion & Corrosive Wear of High-Cr Cast Irons in Different pH Solutions’ presented at the 18th International Corrosion Congress. SUMMARY: High chromium cast irons (HCCIs) are typical alloys used for corrosive wear applications. The aim of this research was to study corrosion and abrasion corrosion of HCCI samples with the emphasis on investigating the effects of chloride ions on the alloy degradation. Cyclic polarization method was used to assess the susceptibility of the HCCI samples to pitting in near neutral and alkaline solutions containing chlorides. It was found that the HCCI samples passivated in pH 12 and a high concentration of chlorides was needed to initiate pitting. Matrix/carbide boundaries at the areas with a large concentration of carbides were the sites prone to pitting. In pH 10 and lower the HCCI samples did not passivate and the presence of chlorides caused pitting. Tribocorrosion experiments were performed using a new three-body abrasion-corrosion rig incorporating electrochemical techniques. Coarse semi-round silica sand particles were the third-body abrasive grits. Electrochemical noise technique

Life Membership Life Membership is awarded for outstanding service over an extended period either to a Branch or the Council and is awarded only as agreed by Council. Robert Jeffrey Robert is an internationally recognised corrosion researcher and consultant with over 35 years industrial experience and over 10 years of University based research experience. He has had over 13 papers published in major international refereed journals, published over

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.41


35 refereed conference papers and has received two David Whitby Best Review Paper awards. In 2004, Robert was awarded the British Institute of Corrosion’s TP Hoar Award for the best paper in the highly esteemed journal Corrosion Science. Robert joined the ACA in 1991 and has since been extremely active and has given generously of his time to its development and success. He has been a committee member of the Newcastle Branch in various roles such as Secretary, Branch President and even an ACA President.

1st: 518: Steven Lin of Deakin University & Monash University in Australia - Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Alloy AZ31 via Phosphonium Based Ionic Liquids 2nd: 306: Florina Branzoi of Institute of Physical in Romania Chemistry ‘IG Murgulescu’- Inhibition Effect of the New Friendly Environment Inhibitors for Anticorrosion Protection of Cooling Water Systems 3rd: 552: Daniel de la Fuente of National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM/CSIC) in Spain - Clarifying Certain Aspects of the Atmospheric Corrosion of Weathering Steels Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Alloy AZ31 via Phosphonium Based Ionic Liquids

Best Poster Papers With 57 poster papers presented at the 18th International Corrosion Congress, it was a task that required care and diligence by judges Nick Birbilis and David Young to select the following best three posters:

Over 57 poster papers were presented at the 18th International Corrosion Congress.

p.42  CORROSION & MATERIALS

SUMMARY: Magnesium alloys are becoming important materials for infrastructure, automotive, aerospace, and energy storage applications,[2] however, the use of magnesium based alloys is not yet widespread because of poor corrosion resistance. To address the poor corrosion resistance of pure Mg and its alloys, conversion coatings are typically used to provide corrosion protection. In this project, three phosphonium based ionic liquids have been synthesized and tested as environmentally friendly alternatives to chromate based treatments. Both electrochemical and immersion testing results confirmed that Trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium Diphenyl Phosphate (P6,6,6,14DPP) and Trimethyl Butyl phosphonium Diphenyl Phosphate (P1,4,4,4DPP) ionic liquids protected the magnesium alloy against the corrosion attack. On the other hand, Trimethyl Butyl ammonium Diphenyl Phosphate (N1,4,4,4DPP) ionic liquid appeared to enhance the corrosion process.


A lifetime of practical knowledge and skills in just 6 days. NACE Coating Inspection Program (CIP) The NACE Coating Inspector Program (CIP) program sets the standard for inspections in the protective coatings industry and is the world’s most recognised coating inspector certification program.

CIP Level 1 Course Highlights: • Coating types and curing mechanisms • Coating specifications • Surface preparation • Coating application • Inspection procedures • Environmental testing • Nondestructive test instruments Recognition: NACE Coating Inspector Level 1 – Certified

The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc has held the license to conduct the CIP program in Australasia since 2002 and has certified over 1,000 inspectors. The three level program utilises classroom lecture and hands-on practice labs to teach inspection concepts to a variety of coatings professionals including applicators, blasters, contractors, and manufacturers.

CIP Level 2 Course Highlights: • Blast cleaning and waterjetting • Linings and non-liquid coatings • Concrete, mainline, pipeline, and field joint coatings • Destructive test instruments • Specialised application equipment • Coating survey techniques • Common coating failure modes Recognition: NACE Coating Inspector Level 2 – Certified

CIP Level 3 Peer Review: A detailed, oral examination in front of a three-member review board where candidates must demonstrate that they can apply the practical and technical knowledge they have learned on-the-job from the CIP program. Recognition: NACE Certified Coating Inspector Level 3

Register today at www.corrosion.com.au and change your career forever!

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.43


Exhibitors BEST BOOTH AWARD Papworth Construction Testing Equipment Papworth Construction Testing Equipment trading as PCTE has been in business since 2004, as a supply company focusing only on Non-Destructive testing equipment for construction materials. The equipment they supply can be used to assess the Quality and Strength of new structures or old, to examine the geometry of structures that lack records, for concrete defect location, and to find corrosion before its effects are visible or to monitor at risk structures. www.pcte.com.au

p.44  CORROSION & MATERIALS


E

xh

ib

o it

rs

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.45


p.46  CORROSION & MATERIALS


February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.47


TECHNICAL GROUP STEERING COMMITTEES

ACA Technical Group Steering Committee Update During the course of the ICC conference in Perth, ACA’s Technical Groups held their AGMs and elected steering committee members for 2012. The term of an office bearing position (Chair and Secretary) is for two years and a regular steering committee position for one year. Technical Group Officers will be selected on the basis of experience and expertise in the assigned technology of the Group. Group Secretaries and regular steering committee members may each stand for re-election at the completion of a term, for a number of consecutive terms.

The Group Chair is the figurehead of a Technical Group who, with the support of the steering committee, provides guidance and leadership to that Group. ACA is aware that this responsibility requires commitment of time and energy from the member, and support from the member’s employer. A Technical Group Chair may stand for re-election once, serving a maximum of two consecutive terms (total of four years). Leading up to the completion of a Chair’s second term, nominations for the position will be invited and a new Chair shall be appointed at the AGM. Serving two consecutive

terms as Chair does not preclude that person from being appointed to the position in the future. Nor does it prevent the person sitting as a regular member of the Technical Group’s steering committee. ACA welcomes the following new office bearing appointments: Kishore Venkatesan to the role of Secretary of the Research steering committee, and Graham Fry, Chair, and Krishnan Kannoorpatti, Secretary, of the Welding, Joining & Corrosion steering committee. A full listing of Group steering committee appointments appears below.

Cathodic Protection Nominee

Position

Company

State/Branch

Bruce Ackland

Chair

Bruce Ackland & Associates

Victoria

Alireza Kouklan

Secretary

SP AusNet

Victoria

Richard Brodribb

Member

M. Brodribb Pty Ltd

Victoria

Graham Carlisle

Member

ORONTIDE

Western Australia

Francis Carroll

Member

GHD

Queensland

Peter Clark

Member

Peter Clark & Associates

New South Wales

Andrew Hargrave

Member

Hargrave Pipeline Group

Tasmania

Doug Herd

Member

Savcor

Queensland

Ulf Kreher

Member

Aurecon

Victoria

Nick Riley

Member

Clough AMEC

South Australia

Dave Robertson

Member

SA Water

South Australia

Mark Sigley

Member

Watercare Services

New Zealand

Rajko Vukcevic

Member

SMPS

Victoria

Lyndon Zimmerman

Member

Solaris

South Australia

p.48  CORROSION & MATERIALS


TECHNICAL GROUP STEERING COMMITTEES

Coatings Nominee

Position

Company

State/Branch

Matthew O’Keeffe

Chair

Akzo Nobel

Queensland

Steve Wickham

Secretary

Eptec

New South Wales

Dave Anderson

Member

Petro Coating Systems

Victoria

Dinesh Bankar

Member

Coating Inspection Services (India)

India

Fikry Barouky

Member

Anti Corrosion Technology

Western Australia

Todd Brynes

Member

AECOM

New South Wales

Graham Carlisle

Member

ORONTIDE

Western Australia

Mark Davidson

Member

Chevron Australia

Western Australia

Peter Dove

Member

GHD

Victoria

Luke Emery

Member

IPCQ

Queensland

Rob Freedman

Member

Bocian

New South Wales

Ian Glover

Member

Corrotek Consultants

Western Australia

Peter Golding

Member

Galvanizers Association of Australia

Victoria

Neil Krotzsch

Member

Horiso

New South Wales

Willie Mandeno

Member

Opus International Consultants

New Zealand

George Pieratos

Member

Dulux Protective Coatings

Victoria

Will Spresser

Member

Rio Tinto

Queensland

Dean Wall

Member

Jotun

Tasmania

Mark Weston

Member

Incospec & Associates Australia

South Australia

Geoff White

Member

Jotun

China

Concrete Structures & Buildings Nominee

Position

Company

State/Branch

Frédéric Blin

Chair

AECOM

Victoria

Warren Green

Secretary

Vinsi Partners

New South Wales

Arthur Austin

Member

ALS Industrial

Queensland

Hal Burkett

Member

Painting Inspection Services

Western Australia

Andrew Dickinson

Member

Parchem

New South Wales

Ian Donoghue

Member

Structural Systems

New South Wales

Adrian Dundas

Member

Building Rectification Services

Queensland

Peter Johnsson

Member

Freyssinet Australia

New South Wales

Philip Karajayli

Member

Savcor ART

New South Wales

Luke Menefy

Member

SMEC Australia

New South Wales

Ike Solomon

Member

Aurecon

Victoria

Don Wimpenny

Member

Halcrow Group

Victoria continued over…

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.49


TECHNICAL GROUP STEERING COMMITTEES

Mining Industry Nominee

Position

Company

State/Branch

Peter Farinha

Chair

Extrin Consultants

Western Australia

Ted Riding

Secretary

Jotun

Victoria

Giles Harrison

Member

Extrin Consultants

Western Australia

Liam Holloway

Member

Savcor

Western Australia

Willie Mandeno

Member

Opus International Consultants

New Zealand

Mick Morris

Member

Zintec Corrosion Solutions

Northern Territory

Alan Sterling

Member

Anode Engineering

Queensland

Petroleum & Chemical Process Industries Nominee

Position

Company

State/Branch

Fikry Barouky

Chair

Anti Corrosion Technology

Western Australia

Phil Fleming

Secretary

AS Harrison & Co

New South Wales

Ross Antunovich

Member

NZ Refining Company

New Zealand

Arthur Austin

Member

ALS Industrial

Queensland

Richard Clegg

Member

CQUniversity Australia

Queensland

Rolf Gubner

Member

Curtin University

Western Australia

Krishnan Kannoorpatti

Member

Charles Darwin University

Northern Territory

Ripan Kapoor

Member

Shell Refining Australia

New South Wales

Greg Reece

Member

Caltex

New South Wales

David Monk

Member

Mobil Refining

Victoria

Vukan Ruzic

Member

BP Refinery Bulwer Island

Queensland

Mike Tan

Member

Deakin University

Victoria

Nominee

Position

Company

State/Branch

Nick Birbilis

Chair

Monash University

Victoria

David Young

Chair

University of NSW

New South Wales

Kishore Venkatesan

Secretary

CSIRO

Victoria

Rolf Gubner

Member

Curtin University

Western Australia

Reza Javaherdashti

Member

Qatar University

Qatar

Robert Jeffrey

Member

Pacific Testing

New South Wales

Krishnan Kannoorpatti

Member

Charles Darwin University

Northern Territory

Rajko Vukcevic

Member

SMPS

Victoria

Research

p.50  CORROSION & MATERIALS


TECHNICAL GROUP STEERING COMMITTEES

Water & Water Treatment Nominee

Position

Company

State/Branch

David Mavros

Chair

SA Water

South Australia

Matthew Dafter

Secretary

Hunter Water

New South Wales

Nick Critchley

Member

Savcor

Victoria

Warren Green

Member

Vinsi Partners

New South Wales

Greg Moore

Member

Moore Materials Technology

South Australia

Jon Morris

Member

Opus International Consultants

New Zealand

David Nicholas

Member

Nicholas Corrosion

New South Wales

Stuart Smith

Member

Melbourne Water

Victoria

Mike Tan

Member

Deakin University

Victoria

Kerryn Wilson

Member

AECOM

Victoria

Welding, Joining and Corrosion Nominee

Position

Company

State/Branch

Graham Fry

Chair

TechnoWeld Inspection

South Australia

Krishnan Kannoorpatti

Secretary

Charles Darwin University

Northern Territory

Igor Chaves

Member

The University of Newcastle

New South Wales

Roman Dankiw

Member

Rana Everett

Member

Hydrochem

Northern Territory

Paul Hilton

Member

International Welding & Engineering Solutions P/L

Western Australia

Ripan Kapoor

Member

Shell Refining

New South Wales

Gerard Millar

Member

Professional Diving Services

Victoria

Graham Sussex

Member

Sussex Material Solutions

Victoria

David Tawfik

Member

Tawfik Group

Queensland

Paul Vince

Member

SA Water

South Australia

South Australia

Number of Members Technical Group

No. of Members

Cathodic Protection

817

Coatings

1120

Concrete Structres & Buildings

707

Mining

529

PCPI

583

Research

364

Water

596

Welding

498

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.51


PROJECT PROFILE

Concrete Mine Thickener Tank Repaired with Hybrid CP Introduction In November 2010 Infracorr Consulting Pty Ltd (formerly Ian Godson & Associates) was consulted to provide a repair specification to an 80m diameter coal thickener tank suffering from significant concrete deterioration issues. The 3m high tank at Curragh Coal Mine, located near Blackwater Queensland, was suffering from corrosion of the reinforcement due to chloride contamination from the treatment water in the tank, with severe spalling and delamination especially in the external launder wall. Corrosion surveys also indicated that sections of the main tank walls and the service tunnel beneath the tank were also corroding, with less visible spalling. Design of Repair The repair of the tank was to extend the life of the structure for a minimum of 30 years with the main client requirement to minimise downtime of the tank during repair works to a maximum of the programmed shutdown of 2 weeks for other works inside the tank. The corrosion mitigation system chosen was the DuoGuard

Hybrid Anode system. This uses zinc alloy internal anodes in an impressed current phase (usually 1–2 weeks) which is claimed to effectively passivate the steel. At the achievement of set criteria, the power supply and all cables are removed and the anodes are connected in “galvanic mode” at a series of junction boxes, with the galvanic current flowing to maintain the long life corrosion protection. This is claimed to allow the advantages of Cathodic Protection type protection levels without the high costs of permanent cables and transformer rectifiers with vastly reduced monitoring and maintenance costs. The largest challenge was the anode design to protect the very thin launder wall section which was only 150mm thick and reinforced with a single mat of reinforcement. To minimize the risk of drilling through the launder tank wall, the short DuoGuard 175 anodes, 44mm long, were designed to be installed into 60mm deep holes of 30mm diameter, with controlled depth drilling to eliminate the risk of penetrating to the operating (full) tank. A dry process gunite overlay

Corroded Reinforcement causing concrete spalling in the external launder wall of the tank.

p.52  CORROSION & MATERIALS

of 25mm was then to be placed over the outer surface of the launder wall, providing cover to the anode system. Details of Works The works commenced in late January 2011, with hydrodemolition utilized around the clock to maximize the productivity of defective concrete removal which was required up to but not behind the bar. The exposed reinforcement was checked for electrical continuity with isolated problems resulting in a 6mm continuity bar being required, tack welded to all vertical bars around the tank. Dry process gunite closely followed the hydrodemolition and continuity work, restoring the concrete to the original profile, with cover to the reinforcement of approximately 20mm. All hydro-demolition and gunite repair was completed during the tank shutdown of two weeks, with the tank re-filled and restored to full operating condition by mid February 2011. The anode installation was completed progressively around

Coal Thickener Tank during 2 week shutdown. Hydro-demolition & dry process gunite progressing around the tank.


PROJECT PROFILE

reinforcement negative connection connected to the titanium anode connection in the distributed junction boxes (24 No) around the tank. The galvanic current achieved averaged between 2 to 3 mA/ m2 reinforcement. Following the installation of the anode system, the 25mm layer of dry process gunite was applied over the entire outer launder wall.

the tank. Permanent reference electrodes (Mn/MnO2) were installed initially with 36 installed in monitoring areas around the tank. The 30mm diameter holes were percussively drilled initially and soaked with water for 24 hours to maximize the moisture in the concrete. The anodes were installed in the holes in the alkaline paste backfill in batches (sub-zones), checked for isolation from the reinforcement and immediately powered by the temporary transformer rectifiers at 12 volts. The impressed current was maintained at 12 volts for a minimum of 7 days, with the current recorded daily in each subzone. A minimum charge criterion of 50 KC/m2 reinforcement area was maintained with the aim of ensuring that the reinforcement was completely passivated. Once the impressed current criteria was met, the system was converted into galvanic mode with the

Evaluation of the system performance was assessed against a corrosion rate criterion based on the Stern Geary Equation, with the targeted corrosion rate to be less than 2mA/m2 steel, approximately equivalent to a 2mm section loss in 1000 years (this criterion is in the latest European CP standard, ISO12696). This was measured by recording the galvanic current of the sub-zone and completing an instant off and depolarisation test (similar to impressed current CP) and utilising these figures to

Launder wall after hydro-demolition has removed the delaminated and spalling concrete.

Anodes Installed in Proprietary Paste backfill ad powered at 12V from the temporary transformer rectifiers.

calculate the actual corrosion rate. The corrosion rates calculated by this means ranged from 0.3 to 0.8 mA/m2 steel, well below our criterion. The overall system was finalised with the installation of a remote monitoring system that was designed to take galvanic current and depolarization readings and update those to an internet database, allowing considerable travel cost and time savings for the monitoring process. Summary The installation was complete by mid April 2011, a project duration of approximately 10 weeks. The finalized concrete repair incorporated approximately 500m2 of hydro-demolition/surface preparation and 40 tonne of dry process gunite. The hybrid CP system incorporated approximately 9000 anodes (D175 & D350), 36 reference electrodes and the remote monitoring system. The repair works and Hybrid installation was completed by Freyssinet Australia in joint venture with Marine & Civil Maintenance PL. The design, supervision, commissioning and monitoring of the works was completed by Infracorr Consulting Pty Ltd. Ian Godson & Luke Thompson Infracorr Consulting Pty Ltd

Completed Tank Concrete Surface showing monitoring and junction box.

Part drawing of hybrid anode arrangement. The launder wall was treated with short (D175) hybrid anodes with an overlay of 25mm gunite to reduce risk of drilling through the wall.

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.53


PROJECT PROFILE

Protective Coating of the Gates on the Ord River Diversion Dam Introduction The Kununurra Diversion Dam was constructed in 1963 to provide water to the Ord River Irrigation area. The dam constitutes a 335m long gated barrage structure. This structure consists of 20 radial gates, each 11m high and 15m wide constructed on a concrete sill and contained with large concrete piers. Each steel gate weighs approximately 95 tonnes and the gates were fabricated using riveted construction. Each gate is fitted with rubber seals to minimise water leakage from the dam. Kununurra is located 3,040 kilometres north of Perth and only 37 kilometres from the Northern Territory border. The initial maintenance of the gates was undertaken by Water Corporation personnel with a rolling program of touch up painting. An Expression of Interest was released in March 2009 seeking interested contactors

Ord River Diversion Dam

p.54  CORROSION & MATERIALS

to register for possible selection to be invited to tender for the protective coating of the gates. Invited tenders were called for in October 2009, with only two companies being selected to bid. Following a very detailed review of the tender submissions, McElligott Partners were awarded the initial works in February 2010. The Contract The initial contract included the refurbishment of four gates previously identified as needing immediate recoating and other works. The initial scope of works included both the protective coating of the gates as well as welding repairs. The abrasive blasting and painting works included:  rection of access platforms, E scaffolding & handrails Complete containment of the

Roadway

gate, including negative air pressure and dehumidification  he complete abrasive blasting T of the external surfaces of the upstream and downstream skin plates, radial gate arms, trunnion block cover plates and seal clamp bars  pplication of an epoxy coating A system to all blasted surfaces The Specification The initial project specification was based on a system previously used by the Water Corporation on the gates. However following a series of reviews and input from all of the related parties, the specification was changed. The revised system was a simpler system for application whilst offering newer coating technology. Due to the less complex nature of the new specification it had the added advantage of being more economical.


PROJECT PROFILE

 brasive Blast all external surfaces A to Class Sa2½ (ISO 8501-1.1988) Blast profile 75µm to 100µm  pply full coat of polyamide A adduct cured epoxy holding primer. DFT 40µm  pply a stripe coat of polyamine A adduct cured epoxy to rivet heads and all edges. DFT 300µm  pply a full coat of polyamine A adduct cured epoxy to all surfaces. DFT 500µm  pply a full coat of two pack A polyurethane to downstream surfaces only. DFT 50µm Spark test all surfaces at 2,000 volts The decision to coat the downstream surfaces in the polyurethane was made to preserve the aesthetic appearance of the gates as the polyamine epoxy tends to yellow with exposure to sunlight. The Issues This project presented a series of unique challenges: 1.1 The location Due to the distances travelled and remoteness it was necessary to truck in all of the required equipment. Four full semi-trailers of gear were sent from Melbourne and another

Downstream Containment

two semi trailers of scaffold was brought in from Darwin. It was also necessary to have backup equipment and spares available immediately for the project including compressors, a dust collector, dehumidifier, large blast pot with after-coolers, airless sprays, hoses, ducting, pipes and barges. 1.2 Climatic Conditions Works were programmed to be carried out between May and October, which is basically the dry season. Average rainfall for the year is approximately 800 mm; however during the dry season this is only 7mm per month. The annual temperature range is from a low of 21.6° to a high of 35.1°. The average top temperature for the dry season is 33.7°. Due to the sensitive environmental impact requirements coupled with the removal of hazardous coal tar epoxy, the gates were fully scaffolded and enclosed within containment sheeting. Whilst this provided protection to the outside environment, in particular the Ord River and the lake, it effectively created a “hothouse” for the workers in side. Initial temperatures inside the containment reached 58º. This was effectively controlled by using a refrigerated dehumidifier. This unit was rated at 140 cubic

metres of treated air per minute. The delivery temperature of the air was 12°, effectively reducing the temperature in the workspace to 28°. This alongside a heat stress management program allowed the workforce to progress with the works. 1.3 Traffic Flow The diversion dam also serves as a bridge carrying major traffic connecting Western Australia to the Northern Territory. Access was gained on previous works by pulling up sections of the roadway which involved shutting the highway either completely or at best severely restricting traffic flow. Given both the amount of traffic and the size of the trucks using the roadway, the Water Corporation was interested in exploring alternative systems to access the gates. The solution to the problem was to use barges to carry the equipment out to the various gates. This allowed for the roadway to remain fully opened apart for a few short closures to crane the scaffold in and out of the spillway and removal of the spent abrasive. The two barges measure 5m x 11m and 4m x 9m. The barges carried all of the necessary equipment and materials for the project, including the blast pot, dust extractor, airless sprays,

Dehumidification Unit

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.55


PROJECT PROFILE

garnet and paint. They were moved in and out each day to allow for refuelling and reprovisioning of materials. The one major piece of equipment not on the barges was the compressor. This unit was situated on the southern bank of the dam and the air piped out to the gates using steel piping. As with the barges, this served to eliminate congestion on the dam roadway. 1.4 The Crocodile The added excitement of an “in house” resident crocodile added further interest to the project. The crocodile is a salt water crocodile and measures in at approximately 6m in length. Basically it lives at the base of the dam controlling all of the surrounding area as its territory. Initial consideration was given by the Water Corporation to catching and relocating the animal, however locals pointed out that due to the territorial nature of crocodiles a new one would move in, which may not be as friendly as the incumbent. So the decision was made to leave him alone.

1.5 The Gate – Statistics Approximate Quantities for a single Gate Man-hours (excluding scaffolding & setup)

1,304 hours

Abrasive (Garnet)

30 tonnes

Epoxy Primer

100 litres

Epoxy barrier paint

760 litres

Two pack Polyurethane

100 litres

Surface Area

710 sq.m

Value (excludes mob & demob)

$440k +

Conclusions A project like this can only be delivered through team work. The protective coating of the gates and associated repair works has been a particularly exciting and challenging project only made possible by the involvement of all of the stake holders. The level of cooperation both in the planning and delivery stages was outstanding. Works are now under way for stage two of the project and McElligott Partners are confident that we will all achieve similar results.

The Crocodile

Heavy Traffic on Highway.

p.56  CORROSION & MATERIALS

Stripe Coating of Gate.

Acknowledgements Special thanks go to the team from the Water Corporation, in particular Megan Lally, Ryan Lind, Vin O’Sullivan and Harry Lee. Also thanks to Bob Wark from GHD. In addition the crew from McElligott Partners lead by Tom Bryan, carried out an outstanding job. References Contract Documents from Water Corporation (WA) Michael Harrington McElligott Partners Pty Ltd


COATINGS GROUP MEMBER PROFILE

EPTEC Pty Ltd Q: In what year was your company established? A: 1997. Q: How many employees did you employ when you first started the business? A: W  e commenced with only two but expanded rapidly. Q: How many do you currently employ? A: T  otal number fluctuates depending on the status of projects we are involved with. Currently we have in excess of 200. Q: Do you operate from a number of locations in your home state or in other states of Australia? A: O  ur head office is in Sydney and we operate offices in Townsville, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth and Darwin. We also establish site/project offices on large project sites Australia wide. Q: What is your core business? (e.g. blasting and painting, rubber lining, waterjetting, laminating, insulation, flooring etc.) A: A  sset Preservation and Rehabilitation utilising our expertise in abrasive blasting and coating, waterjetting (UHP hydro blasting), fibreglass and carbon fibre laminating, concrete repair, insulation, flooring and waterproofing. Q: What markets do you cover with your products or services? eg: oil & gas, marine, chemical process, general fabrication, tank lining, offshore etc.

A: W  e are actively involved in most industrial sectors including minerals and energy, chemical processing, tank lining, marine and defence and any area where risk matters and assets require preservation and rehabilitation. All work is supervised by NACE accredited coating inspectors working to the exacting standards of Eptec’s PCCP levels 1 – 5 certification and ISO 9001 and AS4801. Q: Is the business yard based, site based or both? A: W  e are site based but have the capacity to establish semipermanent yard/factory facilities on large project sites.

A: T  he best specifications will only yield the expected results if qualified, experienced contractors are used. Similarly, the best contractors will only provide the expected results if qualified, experienced organisations have prepared job specific specifications. Q: Do you have an internal training scheme or do you outsource training for your employees? A: W  e have a number of internal training procedures but also utilise the services of ACA for specific training including NACE CIP courses. We are looking forwarding to ACA offering SSPC courses in 2012.

Q: Do you offer any specialty services outside your core business? (eg. primary yard based but will do site touch up etc.) A: T  otal project management of all rehabilitation requirements as well as our own core business functions. Q: What is the most satisfying project that you have completed in the past two years and why? A: S ydney Desalination Plant. This project allowed Eptec to showcase our core strengths of corrosion protection of both concrete and steel in aggressive environments, waterproofing, tank lining and environmentally sustainable methods of surface preparation. Q: What positive advice can you pass on to the Coatings Group from that satisfying project or job?

EPTEC Pty Ltd PO Box 782 Broadway NSW 2007 Tel: 02 9034 6969 Fax: 02 9034 6970 E eptec@eptec.com.au Key Contacts: Enrico Piccioli Chief Executive Officer Joe Viglione General Manager Steve Wickham Project Development Manager

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.57


UNIVERSITY PROFILE

Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Queensland University of Technology (QUT) prides itself in its high level of interaction with commercial partners and utilising this interaction to educate students for the future. We have a unique position to transfer cutting edge industrially relevant research to students and industry partners. Corrosion Consulting and Research (CORRCONRES) facilities are located within the Discipline of Chemical Sciences at QUT´s Gardens Point Campus in Brisbane Australia. Our aim is to establish the root cause of a corrosion problem and to recommend possible mitigation procedures. The members of the group are specialists in a range of corrosion and materials degradation related fields and utilise a unique set of specialised equipment to this end. The research programs are themed on corrosion and include mitigation, sensing and identification in partnership with the Centre for Integrated Engineering Asset Management, the Defence Science Technology Organisation and Defence Materials Technology Centre. A major area of research is the prediction of the lifetime of organic paint coatings and the utilisation of NDT techniques to evaluate the remaining service life of a coating in the field. The tools used for these studies are designed to observe chemical changes in the coating using IR techniques and the changes in barrier properties of the coating through crack development and electrical changes in the coating. Software that we utilise allows the analysis of large data matrices and gives enhanced plotting capabilities

p.58  CORROSION & MATERIALS

which can reveal otherwise hidden phenomena. QUT has routinely evaluated a variety of environments and metals for industrial corrosion performance such as haulage tanks, cooling towers, vegetable extracts and beverages using standard testing methods. We evaluate the corrosivity of a given environment and suggest potential causes and mitigation for industrial corrosion problems. Weight loss and electrochemical methods are commonly undertaken to evaluate corrosion rate as are evaluation of environmental factors such as pH, oxygen content conductivity of electrolyte and presence of water. For example potentiodynamic polarisation can be used for inhibitor evaluation and susceptibility of alloys to pitting; Polarisation Resistance (PR) may be used for corrosion rate determination; Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) - suitable for determining the degradation of paint coatings and as an alternative to Tafel plots and polarisation resistance. To extract the detailed information from these multi faceted electrochemical experiments software has been developed called SYMADEC. With SYMADEC the user is able to SYnthesise an experimental polarisation curve, MAtch closely the synthesised curve to the experimental one and then DEConvolute (deconstruct) the matched curve into its anodic and cathodic components. The program is based on the thermodynamic and kinetic principles of aqueous metallic corrosion and has an

easy to use interface designed for students. SYMADEC has been recently expanded to be used with other metals such as zinc as is currently being expanded to take into consideration the effect of insoluble precipitates which form during corrosion. The use of SYMADEC and Pourbaix diagrams allows a more complete picture of the corrosion process. Corrosion Rate Monitoring utilising traditional techniques such as coupon and LPR is an ongoing interest, however, QUT is partnered with other groups to develop corrosion sensors which are currently being deployed in aircraft, tanks, bridges and large infrastructure to provide informed decisions regarding maintenance of assets. Our current sensor suites allow for the measurement of corrosion in inaccessible or remote areas and employ the latest use of energy harvesting and management along with various forms of communication to remotely monitor a structure’s corrosion health. Current sensors are designed to identify coating breakdown, presence or various forms of corrosion in air, concrete and underneath coatings along with the presence of microbiological attack, localised corrosion and stress induced corrosion. We possess expertise in cathodic protection analysis specifically on above and below ground storage tanks, pipelines (design, specification and commissioning capacity and performance evaluation), condenser and heat exchanger water boxes, high voltage interference mitigation and earthing.


UNIVERSITY PROFILE

Figure 1 0.8

CBTAH–OE

CBTAH–HE 0.6 0.4 Potential vs SCE (V)

QUT Science and Technology offers a wide range of state of the art facilities for material diagnostics. We have world recognised experts in a wide range of areas with a willingness to engage external stake holders through a variety of means including pay per service, consultancy, training and research projects. A number of granting schemes also exist to develop these interactions. Our team incorporates recognised experts in the area of corrosion (Dr. Harvey Flitt, Dr. Paul Schweinsberg, Assoc. Prof Geoffrey Will) as well as experts in material degradation (Dr. John Colwell and Emeritus Prof. Graeme George). Our specific areas of expertise include microscopy, polymer materials and composites, corrosion and metallurgy, infrared spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, chemical analysis, sensors and electrochemistry.

CBTAH–BU CBTAH–ME

0.2 blank 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6

blank

CBTAH–OE CBTAH–HE

-0.8 -10

-8

0

CBTAH–BU -6 -4 Log Current Density (A cm-2)

CBTAH–BU -2

Figure 2

Contacts and further information: Assoc. Prof. Geoffrey Will Discipline of Chemical Sciences Queensland University of Technology Gardens Point Campus 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD, 4001, Australia www.corconres.qut.edu.au g.will@qut.com Ph: +61 7 3138 2297 Fax:  +61 7 3138 1804

Figure 3

-700 -750 -800

Zinc dissolution

-850

E(mV/SHE)

-900

Figure 1: Polarisation Curve for various inhibitors.

Oxygen 2e reduction

-950 -1000 -1050 -1100

Figure 2: Pitting Corrosion of 316 Stainless Steel Exposed to Animal Feed.

-1150

Figure 3: Deconvoluted Polarisation Curve for galvanized steel in 3% NaCl.

-1250

Oxygen 4e reduction

-1200

-1300 10-7

Water reduction

10-3

10-6

10-2

10-5

i(A/cm2)

10-4

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.59


TECHNICAL NOTE

Selecting the Right Stainless Steel! This paper is based on a presentation by ASSDA to several of the 2011 ACA Roadshow seminars. There are hundreds of grades of stainless steels - with many suitable for each application, but sometimes subtle differences in properties can determine the best technical and economical fit. The main selection criteria are durability in a corrosive environment, aesthetics, cleanability/hygiene and life cycle costs. Owners’ expectations of life and appearance can vary greatly and this must also be considered. All stainless steels owe their durability to the thin chromium oxide film - a millionth of a mm thick - that

protects the metal. If it is damaged, then it immediately starts to regrow so long as oxygen is available in the surrounding air or water. The Australian (and overseas) Customs definition of a stainless steel requires at least 10.5% chromium, but corrosive services such as a balustrade on the seafront, a tomato sauce vat, the high pressure end of a desalination plant or even a toaster, all require more chromium to remain bright and functional. There is a limit of about 30% chromium that can be added to a steel, and other elements such as molybdenum, nitrogen and even tungsten are also

added to improve the corrosion resistance of some grades. There is an empirical rule (called Pitting Resistance Equivalent (PRE)) developed for the austenitic, nickel rich stainless steels. This is one of the five stainless steel families (ferritic, austenitic, duplex, martensitic, precipitation hardening) and PRE has become the “Holy Grail” in predicting corrosion ranking of all the families from composition alone. This PRE is calculated from: PRE= %Chromium + 3.3 (%Molybdenum + 0.5%Tungsten) + 16%Nitrogen

Smooth surface that was then electropolished gives outstanding appearance and durability even in a warm marine environment.

p.60  CORROSION & MATERIALS


TECHNICAL NOTE

The numbers range from 11.5 to about 50. Small changes (<1) are generally not significant and the PRE value should be viewed only as giving a guide to ranking of grades. Importantly, nickel is not in the equation, as it does not affect pitting corrosion initiation. Neither is sulphur, which in quantities sufficient to help machining reduces corrosion resistance. In addition, the corrosion resistance of the high manganese grades of stainless steel may not be accurately predicted by the standard PRE formula. The austenitic, ferritic and duplex grades with PRE >40 are known as “super” as they usually can resist corrosion in seawater. All these corrosion considerations take no account of the choice of family of stainless steel. Hence the stainless steel family can be chosen for its physical or mechanical properties such as ability to bend or roll form like carbon steel (use a ferritic), very high ductility (use an austenitic), or double yield strength (use a duplex) before considering the required level of corrosion

A B

C Photo: Alex Gouch, Austral Wright A: Corrosion because rough surface (Ra~0.6µm) and non-draining horizontal polish B: Pickled around site weld gives less corrosion for same roughness C: Smoother than A (Ra~0.4 µm) and vertical, drainable lines so less corrosion

resistance. In readily available commercial grades, there are 5 levels of corrosion resistance with stainless steels, which are, in order of increasing corrosion resistance (PRE), called barely (>10.5 & <14, e.g. 409), low (>17 & <20, e.g. 304), medium (>23.5 & <26, e.g. 316), resistant (>30 & <40, e.g. 2205) and super (>40, e.g. 254). One way of relating PRE to real corrosion effects is to measure the temperature at which pitting not only initiates, but also continues. This Critical Pitting Temperature (CPT) and its Critical Crevice Temperature counterpart (CCT) separately correlate well with PRE for different families of CrNiMo stainless steels, e.g. an austenitic and a duplex with the same PRE will have a similar CPT. While CPT is always higher than CCT, the difference is larger for more resistant grades. As examples, bushfire resistant fencing mesh require very low cost 12%Cr ferritics, a large tank or vessel could use stronger duplex of corrosion resistance to suit the contents and temperature (2101 <2304 <2205 < 2507) and a rollformed thin gauge cladding might use a ferritic for ease of forming. However, most applications use 304 or the more corrosion resistant 316. Grade (or PRE) is only part of the corrosion resistance picture. Exposed manganese sulphide inclusions are known initiating points for corrosion, but fortunately they dissolve readily in acid. This means that mill products that have been pickled in acid, such as cold rolled 2B or BA finishes and hot rolled annealed and pickled (HRAP), do not have significant exposed sulphides and are more corrosion resistant than abraded or cut surfaces such as a No4 linished surface. Tests which measure pitting potential as a means of determining

corrosion resistance show five methods for increasing pitting potential (corrosion resistance) by similar amounts: either changing grade from (say) 304 to 316, pickling (treating with hydrofluoric and nitric acids) or electropolishing a ground or abraded surface, passivating (treating with nitric acid) or polishing using a fine size abrasive. This provides separate design and appearance choices for selecting a particular corrosion resistance, although the choice of a chemical treatment on a rough (e.g. abraded #36 grit) surface would probably not be acceptable for aesthetic reasons or dirt retention. The annotated picture illustrates these inter-related effects on a 316 handrail on Bondi Beach where direction of abrasion, coarseness of polish and chemical pickling interact. Note the brown line of corrosion around the weld toe where not all weld tint had been removed by pickling. Measuring corrosion resistance of stainless steels is not well described in standards. ASTM A380 has tests for detecting iron contamination but not the extent of passivation. Proprietary tests exist for measuring the degree of passivation but are not yet standardised. Electrochemical pitting potential measurements are standardised to some extent. Testing for onset of pitting or crevice corrosion in highly aggressive environments (e.g. ASTM G48) is well standardised but the conjoint effects of roughness of polish, composition of substrate material, and chemical or electropolishing treatments has not been studied in depth. Nevertheless, excellent corrosion performance can be obtained from using controlled processes, even in quite harsh environments. The key to a successful outcome is a clear understanding of the environment and of the asset owner’s expectations. Australian Stainless Steel Development Association

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.61


RESEARCH NOTE

Corrosion of a Gold Alloy in Saline and Acidic Environments Introduction Gold, one of the most noble of all metals, is generally alloyed with other metals in order to modify its hardness, colour and ductility for the jewellery industry. Gold alloys, particularly with a carat content lower than 14, which typically contain varying additions of silver, copper and zinc, are known to suffer from stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Numerous studies have been conducted on the SCC behaviour of low carat gold alloys [1-5]. However, little is known about their susceptibility to other forms of corrosion, in particular selective leaching (de-zincification for example), due to the presence of non –noble alloying additions. Limited studies revealed single phase alloys showed superior corrosion resistance to the dual phase alloys [6], and selective dissolution is more likely to occur in the lower carat gold alloys [7]. The purpose of this study was to systematically study the corrosion behaviour of a quaternary 9 carat gold – silver – copper – zinc alloy using DC potentiodynamic electrochemical tests in a range of acidic and saline environments.

0

sample 1–4

the alloy and corroding media were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in order to determine the corrosion mechanisms and the occurrence of any selective dissolution. Results and Discussion 1.1 Potentiodynamic Scans for Phase 1 of the Study Analysis of the potentiodynamic scans conducted in 3.5% NaCl, 0.1M HCl and 0.1M H2SO4 respectively (Figures 1 to 3) indicate the presence of a series of distinct transitions in the anodic region showing a rise in the current density, followed by a plateau, suggesting the presence of a number of competing anodic reactions, possibly associated with the selective dissolution of the alloying elements. Analysis of the Ecorr and Icorr results (Figures 4 and 5 respectively) indicate the corrosion rate of the gold alloy is higher in the acidic media compared with saline media, with HCl being the most aggressive (Figure 5), although the Ecorr values indicate the alloy appears to be 0

sample 1–1

-1

-1

-2

-2

-2

-3 -4 -5

I (logA/cm2)

-1

I (logA/cm2)

I (logA/cm2)

0

Experimental Details The sample used in this study was a commercial 9 carat gold quaternary alloy wire, thickness 2mm, with composition 37.6% Au, 42.8% Cu, 10.5% Ag and 9.07% Zn. Sample surfaces were abraded with 1200# SiC paper to remove any residual oxide layers on the surface. All electrochemical corrosion tests were carried out in a selection of acidic and saline environments (3.5% NaCl, 0.9% NaCl, 0.1M HCl, 0.1M H2SO4) at room temperature (20°C), using a Voltalab 21 Potentiostat. Anodic / cathodic scans in Phase 1 of the study were conducted in the potential range -1000 mV to +1000 mV at a scan rate of 1mv/s, in order to determine the overall corrosion characteristics of the alloy. The results are presented as potentiodynamic polarisation curves in the form E vs. log I plots and Tafel Extrapolation was used to determine the corrosion rates (Ecorr and icorr values) of the system. Phase 2 of the study consisted of conducting a series of selective anodic scans and terminating the scans at different anodic potentials. The surface morphology and composition of

-3 -4 -5

-6

E(V, VS.SCE)

Figure 1 Cyclic potentiodynamic scan for alloy in 3.5% NaCl

p.62  CORROSION & MATERIALS

-3 -4 -5

-6 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

sample 1–3

-6 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

E(V, VS.SCE)

Figure 2 Cyclic potentiodynamic scan for alloy in 0.1M HCl

-1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

E(V, VS.SCE)

Figure 3 Cyclic potentiodynamic scan for alloy in 0.1M H2SO4


Figure 4 Ecorr values for gold alloy in saline and acidic environments 0.9% NaCl

0.1M HCl

0.1M H2SO4

Icorr (mA/cm2)

3.5% NaCl

Ecorr (mV)

0 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 -600 -700 -800 -900 -1000

Figure 5 Icorr values for gold alloy in saline and acidic environments

Environment

Figure 6 Four anodic potentials chosen for further analysis -1.0

-1.5

I (logA/cm2)

-2.0 -2.5

Position A

-3.0

Position C

Position D

Position B

-3.5

4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

3.5% NaCl

0.9% NaCl

0.1M HCl

0.1M H2SO4

Environment

Figure 8 SEM image of alloy after polarised to position D in Figure 6

Figure 7 SEM image of alloy after polarised to position A in Figure 6

-4.0 -4.5 -5.0 -5.5

-1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

E(V, VS.SCE)

more thermodynamically unstable, indicating a higher susceptibility to corrosion, at higher NaCl concentrations compared with the acidic environments (Figure 4). 1.2 Structural and Compositional Analysis at Selected Anodic Potentials (Phase 2) Here, the gold alloy was subject to potentiodynamic scans to selected anodic potentials, corresponding to the various positions show in Figure 6. Figure 7 and 8 show typical SEM images of samples polarised in 3.5% NaCl at position A and D respectively. Table 1 shows the relative compositions of the alloy taken at the various anodic potentials. The surface morphology of the micrographs indicate the presence of areas where possible dissolution of selected regions of the alloy may have occurred after polarising to position D (Figure 8), compared with position A (Figure 7). The results from Table 1 indicate that as the anodic potential was increased the Cu and Zn concentrations were reduced significantly, with a corresponding significant increase in the Au and Ag content. This would suggest that selective dissolution of the Cu and Zn are occurring. Atomic Original O

selective dissolution of the more active alloying elements (Cu and Zn) has occurred.

absorption spectroscopy (AAS) confirmed the dissolution of Cu and Zn into the solution. Conclusions 1. Potentiodynamic scans conducted on the gold alloy in a selection of saline and acidic media indicate the presence of a discontinuous curve in the anodic region (a series of distinct transitions showing a rise in the current density, followed by a plateau). This suggests the presence of a number of competing anodic reactions, possibly associated with the selective dissolution of the alloying elements. 2. The Ecorr and Icorr values results suggest that (i) the alloy is more susceptible to corrosion in the acidic media compared with saline media, HCl being the most aggressive and (ii) increased chloride concentration in saline environments is likely to increase the corrosivity of the alloy and shift the free corroding potential to more negative values. 3. SEM and EDX analysis of the alloy after polarising to different anodic potentials indicated the

References 1 Farina, SB, Duffo, GS and Galvele, JR, Corrosion Science 49 (2007) 1687–1695 2. Alvarez, MG, Fernandez, SA and Galvele, JR, Corrosion Science 44 (2002) 2831–2840 3. Alvarez, MG, Fernandez, SA and Galvele, JR, Corrosion Science 42 (2000) 739-752 4. Duffoó, GS, Farina, SB and Galvele, JR, Corrosion Science 46 (2004) 1–4 5. Raspon, WS, Gold Bulletin, 29(2) (1996) 61-69 6. Nakagawa, M, Matsuya, S and Ohta, M, J. Materials Science – Materials in Medicine 3 (1992) 114-118 7. Forty, AJ, Gold Bulletin 14 (1) (1981) 25-35

L Ward1, D Chen2, A P O’Mullane3 & S K Bhargava3 School of C†ivil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, Australia. 2Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Foshan University, China. 3School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Australia 1

Position A

Position B

Position C

Position D

1.72

3.46

3.79

5.58

Ag

10.57

15.03

21.4

19.43

22.14

Cu

42.86

39.02

18.67

26.39

24.52

Zn

9.07

8.08

3.44

5.29

4.69

Au

37.50

36.15

53.03

45.1

43.07

Table 1 Elemental composition (Wt%) of sample at the different anodic potentials (A to D) in 3.5% NaCl

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.63


SUPPLIERS & CONSULTANTS

D R MAY Inspections David May Welding Supervision Welding Inspection NDT Specialist Coating Inspection Inservice Inspection

Leading Suppliers of NDT Equipment for the Corrosion Industry

Geelong Office: 193 Station Street, Corio, Victoria 3214 Australia Postal Address: P.O. Box 1080, Corio, Victoria 3214 Australia Tel: +61 3 5275 3339 Fax: +61 3 5275 0585 Mob: 0412 520 699 Email: dmay@drmay.com.au

Unit 23, 58 Box Rd Taren Point NSW 2229 Tel: 02 9524-0558 • Fax: 02 9524-0560 Email: ndt@ndt.com.au • Web: www.ndt.com.au

Cathodic Diecasting

Abelmet

Abel Metal Services Pty Ltd

• Mg & Alloy Ingots • Mg Anodes • Backfill Mail: PO Box 90, Moorebank, NSW, 2170 Phone: 02 9602 7740 Fax: 02 9602 7780 Email: mckimmie@abelmet.com.au Web: www.abelmet.com.au

Manufacturing anodes since 1984 Queensland (Head Office)

Phone: +61 7 5476 9788 Fax: +61 7 5476 8268

Melbourne

Phone: +61 3 9755 3770 Email: sales@cathodicdiecasting.com.au

ABN: 93 821 370 828

www.cathodicdiecasting.com.au

ANNOUNCEMENT

Cathodic Diecating - small advert 3-2-10.indd 1

3/3/10 10:51:21 AM

The new name andPROTECTION address for Ian Godson & Associates: CATHODIC

Infracorr Consulting PL.

Agent for:

LIDA® – Mixed Metal Oxide Anodes • Sacrificial Anodes • Silicon Iron Anodes • Transformer Rectifiers • Reference Electrodes

Prevent corrosion on your:-

D E NORA

�/��� Burwood Rd Hawthorn East VIC ���� –Zinc, Aluminium Magnesium Ph: +�� (�)�and ���� ���� • Calcined Petroleum Backfill www.infracorr.com • Surge Protection, Insulation

• Strip, Rod, Tubular, Ribbon, Disk and Wire

Infracorr

–Copper, Zinc and Silver

PIPELINES, TANKS, BRIDGES, WHARVES, OFFSHORE PLATFORMS

Tel: +61 (03) 94672520 or 0413 201562

Corrosion Durability Repair

Email: robertcox@pipecorr.com.au • www.pipecorr.com.au Committed to Professional Service, Competitive Pricing and Customer Satisfaction

ANNOUNCEMENT

The new name and address for Ian Godson & Associates:

Infracorr Consulting PL. �/��� Burwood Rd Hawthorn East VIC ���� Ph: +�� (�)� ���� ���� www.infracorr.com

Infracorr

Front

Corrosion Durability Repair

Gareth van Loggerenberg Corrosion and Coating Failure Investigations Fitness for Purpose and Remnant Life Assessment Expert Witness and Litigation Support Corrosion, Materials & Mechanical Engineers Applied Scientists, Metallurgists, Coating Inspectors NDT Technicians Arthur.Austin@alsglobal.com Australia Wide +61 7 3718 0300

TITANUM ELECTRODE PRODUCTS

t: +61 (0) 8 9256 4499 f: +61 (0) 8 9256 4599 m: +61 (0) 408 931 072 e: gareth@telpro.com.au w: www.telpro.com.au Unit 2, 26 Baile Road Canning Vale Western Australia 6155

February 2012  www.corrosion.com.au  p.79


Platinum Members

Standard

Jotun blue

Black and white

Gold Members

ACA114_february  

Corrosion & Materials February 2012

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you