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CREDITS THE INDOOR GARDENER MAGAZINE Postal Station Saint-Michel P.O. Box 183 Montreal, QC, H2A 3L9, CANADA Tel.: (514) 728-8118 Fax: (514) 728-1840 www.indoorgardenermagazine.com ISSN: 1715-0949 Volume 1 – Issue 0 Free Trial Issue Published by: Green Publications Vertes

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Photo: pure.au.dk © 2005

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Photo: D.R.

Publisher: Stan Daimon Managing editor: Bruno Bredoux Contributing editors: Helene Jutras, Jessy Caron, Fred Leduc Art Dir-ektor: EktorZolerZoza Editorial coordinator: Bruno Bredoux Collaborators in this issue: Bruno Bredoux, Jessy Caron, Stan Daimon, Marco Deux, Doktor Doom, Drew Fergusson, Herb Gardner, G. Hannafin, Paul Henderson, Helene Jutras, Roxanne LaBelle, LoupClaude LeBlanc, Gino Lechasseur, Émile L’Estrange, Fred Leduc, Miss Phobos, Ch. Rémy, Soma, William Sutherland, Chris Sheppard, Jeff Turcotte, vieux bandit. Sales & advertising: Stan Daimon, stan@tigmag.com Danny Guérin, sales@tigmag.com Translation: Helene Jutras Cover design: EktorZolerZoza after a photo taken by Jessy Caron.

On the cover: Photography by Jessy Caron

Illustrations: C. Sheppard & EktorZolerZoza Administration: R. LaBelle © 2005, Green Publications, Montreal, Qc, Canada Articles, iconographic representations and photographs contained in this magazine cannot be reproduced, in whole or in part, without the written consent of the Publisher. Legal deposit: First Quarter 2005. National Library of Canada. Bibliothèque nationale du Québec. ISSN: 1715-0949 Printed in Canada.

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Conversion Table Linear Measure (imperial to metric) 1 inch 1 foot (=12 inches) 1 yard (=3 feet)

2.54 centimeters 0.3048 meter 0.9144 meter

Linear Measure (metric to imperial) Imperial 1 millimetre 1 centimetre (=10 mm) 1 metre (=100 cm)

0.0394 inch 0.3937 inch 1.0936 yards

Volume (imperial to metric) Metric 1 (imperial) fl. oz. (=1/20 imperial pint) 1 (US liquid) fl. oz. (=1/16 US pint) 1 (imperial) pint (=20 fl. imperial oz.) 1 (US liquid) pint (=16 fl. US oz.) 1 (imperial) gallon (=4 quarts) 1 (US liquid) gallon (=4 quarts)

28.41 ml 29.57 ml 568.26 ml 473.18 ml 4.546 litres 3.785 litres

Volume (metric to imperial) Imperial 1 millilitre 0.002 (imperial) pint, 0.176 pint 1 litre (=1000 ml) 1.76 pints Mass (imperial to metric) 1 ounce (=16 drams) 1 pound (=16 ounces) 1 stone (=14 pounds)

28.35 grams 0.45359237 kilogram 6.35 kilograms

Mass (metric to imperial) Imperial 1 milligram 1 kilogram (=1000 g)

0.015 grain 2.205 pounds

Temperature To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 degrees and divide by 1.8. To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.8 and add 32 degrees.


TABLE OF CONTENTS Volume 1 – Issue 0 January / February 2005 – Bimonthly

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Editorial

Discover A Brand New And Unique Indoor Gardening Media... By Bruno Bredoux

Finally, An Advertising Campaign that Will Generate Results! By Stan Daimon

Notes & News

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Culinary Plants Crocus Sativus

Saffron, or 100,000 Crocus Flowers By Ch. Rémy

Photos: © www.hongkongdisneyland.com, FHD, Soma & © The Woolly Times

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Introduction

It’s Harvest Time Again! Late Season Harvest: Last Minute Tips By Émile L’Estrange

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Pest Control

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The S.O.G. Experiment

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Gallery: Water Gardening Indoors

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Technique: pH Measurement Methods

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Actor in the Industry

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A Few Common Plants and Their Amazing Properties

Agriculture: The Woolly Times

...And Now Wool Growers Have Their Own Magazine! By AP

Synchronicity The Dark Side of Oz By Gino Lechasseur

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Hydroponics: We Did It To A Radish!

Bob & Ted’s Excellent Adventure in Indoor Gardening By Bob T. & Ted B. (with the collaboration of Loup-Claude Leblanc)

A Little Bit of Cactus History: Heading Out The Huichol Way By Drew Fergusson

Tips & Tricks:

Choosing Seeds in Catalogs: A Few Things to Consider By Jeff Turcotte (Hydrotimes)

Growing Experiment: Echinocactus williamsii, Cultivation and Philosophy

Echinocactus Williamsii is Very Easy to Grow: Just Follow our Master Gardener Lesson By Soma

Advertise With Us!

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Music: Kaliroots

A Short History of Kébec Iconic Reggae Band Courtesy of www.kaliroots.com

Shopping: Horticultural Novelties

By Jessy Caron, L. Charnet, Vertuda Green, Loup-Claude LeBlanc and B.B.

Q&A

Our Indoor Gardening and Hydroponics Experts Are Here To Help! By Gerald ‘JR’ Hannafin

How to Eliminate Pest from Plants Coming In from Outdoors By Doktor Doom

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The Sea of Green Method in A Perpetual Garden By Paul Henderson

Our Best Shots for Your Viewing Pleasure By Bruno Bredoux, Exalted Fountains & Scott D. Appell

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An Overview of Current pH-measuring Instruments By Loup-Claude LeBlanc (with the collaboration of W. Sutherland)

‘Big Mike’ Is Speaking Out: Interview with Mike Straumietis, Co-founder of Advanced Nutrients By Fred Leduc

Useful, Powerful and Miraculous Herbs or Spices By M. Phobos

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D

EDITORIAL

iscover A New and Unique Indoor Gardening Media...

The Indoor Gardener Magazine, Volume 1—Issue 0 is a free sample of the experience we want to deliver to the dedicated indoor gardener and the indoor gardening community every two months. It shows off our unique approach to making a beautiful, cutting-edge and entertaining indoor gardening magazine, includes a number of exclusive interviews from industry insiders and detailed reviews from our expert gardeners on some of the new products available at your local hydroponic store. It also introduces you to a community of fellow indoor gardeners seeking fun, unique and interesting experiences to realize. Whether you’re into heirloom vegetables or exotic flowers, carnivorous plants or rare cacti, wild varieties of native plants or domestic species, hybrid cultivars grown for fun or agricultural crops produced for profits, starting your own lavender-growing business or growing nursery stock, we guarantee you’ll learn and discover something great you never knew existed in our new indoor gardening magazine.

To cut a long story short, The Indoor Gardener Magazine is dedicated to a large segment of the public, from those who grow a few tomato plants or a few cacti, to the aficionados who practice hydroponics gardening seriously and intensively. Mainly dedicated to the world of hydroponics, this new magazine focuses on indoor cultivation of plants, flowers, vegetable and fruits and offers in-depth articles for beginner gardeners as well as for those with experience. The magazine covers a wide range of plants, equipment, techniques and gardening tips and tricks.

The Indoor Gardener Magazine guaranties its readers an independent editorial vision, while offering advertisers the possibility to promote their products next to general articles covering types and lines of products. In-depth articles explore technical and scientific aspects, but also encourage readers to experiment with new recipes and to share their knowledge on indoor gardening tips. Finally, a surprising photo gallery regularly showcases images taken in the most spectacular indoor gardens by our collaborators. In the past decade, the hydroponics industry has enjoyed an unprecedented rise and success. Consumers are more and more careful about their impact on the environment, and more careful about what they consume. Growing their own vegetables, fruits and herbs is no longer only a source of pleasure: it also adds a sense of security. Consumers may now experience the unique satisfaction of knowing exactly what is on their plate.

Illustration: pure.au.dk, © 2005

The magazine's distribution covers all of North America, United States and Canada, and your bimonthly copy is available in hydroponics stores across the continent. It is a unique vehicle for advertisers, to reach their customers directly at the hydroponics equipment purchase location. A new issue of the 84-pages magazine is available every two months! A French version of the magazine, Le Jardinier d'Intérieur, is also available in Québec and in the best hydroponics stores in France. So grab this sample issue of The Indoor Gardener Magazine and discover: • An exclusive interview with the co-founder of Advanced Nutrients; • Exclusive expert tips and tricks on how to eliminate pests from plants coming In from outdoors, by the founder of Doktor Doom Insecticides; • Nine common plants and their amazing properties; • A look at the best benefits in choosing seeds in professional catalogs; • Our last minute tips for a late season harvest; • The history of Crocus sativus or how 100,000 crocus flowers give us saffron; • A look at Echinocactus williamsii: its origins, its philosophy and a few cultivation tips. Bruno Bredoux The Indoor Gardener Magazine January 2005

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YOUR AD

HERE! This page is reserved for your ads or other promotional projects. Contact our sales representatives for information. sales@tigmag.com www.tigmag.com

THE INDOOR GARDENER MAGAZINE • Postal Station Saint-Michel • P.O. Box 183 • Montreal, QC, H2A 3L9, CANADA Tel.: (514) 728-8118 • Fax: (514) 728-1840


ADVERTISE WITH US Finally, An Advertising Campaign that Will Generate Results! A Word From Our Sales Department There are so many different media companies to choose from and with whom to spend your advertising budget. The brand new magazines The Indoor Gardener Magazine and its French version Le Jardinier d’Intérieur have a solution for you! In the sophisticated American and Canadian indoor gardening markets, smart consumers and gardeners expect hydroponic retailers to carry and offer a diversity of high-end complementary magazines. In that respect, over 30,000 copies of each edition of The Indoor Gardener Magazine and Le Jardinier d’intérieur will be DISTRIBUTED and READ throughout North America every two months. There’s also thousands of people who attend indoor gardening and hydoponics shows each season. How can you reach that enthusiastic, engaged, cultured, and sophisticated consumers and gardeners? With both of our magazines! The Indoor Gardener Magazine and Le Jardinier d’Intérieur offer in-depth articles for beginner gardeners, as well as for those with experience—you are sure to reach your target market.

The Indoor Gardener Magazine and Le Jardinier d’Intérieur are dedicated to a large segment of the public, from those who grow a few tomato plants or a few cacti to the aficionados who practice hydroponic gardening seriously and intensively. We are a media company that will generate results. Affordable, targeted, advertise with us now! Here is an indicative list of the ad sizes we are offering (check off your choice below): • Spreads: Spread (pages 2-3, inside front-cover, 16,25” X 11” with bleeds included); Spread (pages 42-43, centerfold); Spread (pages 82-83, inside back-cover). • Full pages: Full page, with bleed (8,25” x 11”); Full page, no bleed (7” x 9,25”); Full page (page 2, inside front-cover, 8,25” x 11”); Full page (page 84, back cover, 8,25” x 11”). • Half-pages: Half-page, horizontal with bleed (5,5” x 8,25”); Half-page, horizontal no bleed (4,5” x 7”); Half-page, vertical with bleed (4,15” x 11”); Half-page, vertical no bleed (3,4” x 9,25”). • Quarter pages: Quarter page (3,4” x 4,53”). • Business cards: 1 Business card (2,25” x 3,4”); 2 attached business cards, horizontal (2,25” x 7”); 2 attached business cards, vertical (4,5” X 3,4”). • Square Ads (The Hydroponic World of North-America): 1 square (Hydro World of N.-A., 1,335” x 1,525”); 2 squares (Hydro World of N.-A., 2.735” X 1.525”); 3 squares (Hydro World of N.-A., 4,265” x 1,525”). For more information on how you can achieve your desired results and have a customized media campaign, contact Stan Daimon (sales@tigmag.com) and we will be able to get you the results you are looking for. Stan Daimon, Sales Director The Indoor Gardener Magazine www.tigmag.com

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INTRODUCTION

PICKING

GLEANING

IT’S HARVEST TIME AGAIN! By Red – Hydro-Sciences

STOCKING REAPING


INTRODUCTION

Late Season Harvest: Last Minute Tips By Émile L’Estrange

As the summer comes to a close and the cool winds of fall begin to blow, there is an excited state of uneasiness about what harvesting will bring to the dedicated gardeners. Growers scurry to their crops to check the final phases of their beautiful plants who are about to ripen and reap the rewards of a job well done. Stress levels are high because a summer’s worth of hard work and planning have all boiled down to what happens in these next couple of weeks. Any experienced grower has resigned himself to the fact that while copious amount of late season fresh vegetables or fruits may be waiting on the branch, they’re not in the clear yet. In fact, the last few weeks are often what matters most and a high level of quality depends on what is done during this most trying of stage… Harvest time is here! The Mission Preparedness is one of the best tools you can use; not only will it make your harvesting season easier and faster, it also does wonders for lowering stress levels. Make sure you pack all of the supplies you need well before jumping in the truck so you have everything, should the crop be ready or possibly already in critical phase. Pre-Harvest

Photos: © D.R. & www.gerbeaud.net

Once the ripen inflorescences have started to form it doesn’t take too long before the final stages will show themselves. Although it is preferable to take clones from a plant that has not reached its flowering stage yet, clones taken now will still survive. If you haven’t produced any seeds for next year this is a good idea if you have something that finishes well in your area. The clones can be put back to vegetative indoors and used for mothers for next year. The lower branches will be a bit behind in their progression and using them sacrifices less flower bud. An easy way to them home is by placing the cuttings in a Mason jar full of water. They will be fine for several hours and can be put in the rooting medium when you get to your growing room. With this method upwards of 50 clones can be put into a single jar. Having a mister with a 1ml per liter of water solution of 35% hydrogen peroxide is another smart thing to take. If any mold or rot is spotted, that portion of the plant should be removed immediately and the areas sprayed with the peroxide solution to minimize its spread. If the mold situation (see picture on the right) is very advanced you may have to cut down early and speed harvest to salvage anything. Try to minimize trimming branches, because those open wounds are

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INTRODUCTION

Late Season Harvest in Pictures where mold usually form firs. Another good thing for the mister bottle is fulvic acid. Spraying this on the inflorescences about 7-10 days before harvest will make noticeable differences in the quantity of final product per plant produced. Do not, however, put it in the same bottle as the peroxide or spray at the same time.

Harvested in autumn, sometimes before full maturity, most of these fruits are destined to be kept in storage until the following spring.

Reaping A Harvest

Most vegetables or fruits are ready to pick up when they separate easily from the tree and the vegetable or fruit comes off when you give it a gentle lift and twist. Another indicator is the color of the seeds in the core. If you’re still in doubt, take a sample. To avoid pulling out the stem when you harvest, don’t yank the fruit to pick it; instead hold the fruit in your hand, tilt it upward, and twist to separate it from the branch with a rotating motion. Keep harvesting fruit, even if misshapen, to keep vines productive. Length of storage varies, ranging from only a few weeks to 6 months depending upon the variety. If you are growing bulb onions or garlic, they are usually ready to harvest when leaves begin to turn brown. Use a pitchfork to harvest the bulbs, and let them dry outside in the sun for a few days, then store in a cool, dry place. You can braid the dried leaves and hang the bunches or trim away the leaves and roots, and put into mesh bags and hang them in a well ventilated room. If necessary a pair of scissors—when harvesting a bushy type of herb crops—, a small hatchet or machete will bring down the larger branches in a flash. To bring plants down quickly and take up less space in the bag the fasted method is probably to take your hatchet and run it from top to bottom along the main stalk. All of the branches will chop off nicely at the internode and lay flat in the bag. Fiskars scissors, or any scissors with the spring back handles,

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1. Apples — 2. Pears — 3. Kiwis — 4. Plums — 5. Grapes 6. & 7. Chestnuts & Horse chestnuts — 8. Industrial hemp.

will save you from the pains of carpal tunnel syndrome when harvesting or manicuring. Invest the twenty dollars! To Conclude If you want to have a garden filled with large bushy plants that you can use in the kitchen and around the house, the secret lies in frequent pinching and harvesting, then allow the plant time to regenerate before harvesting again. If you do this enough times, in no time at all, your herb plants will be big and lush.

Have fun and happy harvest!

Photos: © D.R.

Time of maturity is dependent on many factors, the first of which is genetics. Most areas have their notorious strains because they are acclimatized to that particular region. As a general rule, most late season outdoor plant varieties will finish between the middle of September and the middle of October in Canada and the U.S. Environmental factors also play a large role. A hot dry summer may mean more work in the watering department, but everything will ripen slightly earlier. The temperature at night being much lower than during the day is another cue, more so with frost-sensitive plants. As with indoor cultivation, open your eyes and observe that the crops are ready for harvesting now! This is sometimes a difficult thing for the home gardener to determine no matter what when their herb plants, vegetables or fruits are perfect to pick up. Every specific types will vary depending on what variety it is.


NOTES & NEWS Music for Your Plants: Brilliant, Wonderful, Perfect Ambient Album Appropriately Titled “Hydroponic Garden” from Swedish Band Carbon Based Lifeforms This brilliant album was released last year (2003) and it is by any means one of the best ambient albums from the entire year. It has really soothing melodies, smooth structures and overall very peaceful feeling. I like all songs on the album. I won't go song by song cause there isn't so much to describe. They all sound very crisp with immense production. Crystal clear sounds and effects make this album a pure bliss. It is the best for chill outs after parties or for early mornings. Get it if you like your brain to float and travel in infinite spaces.

1. Central Plains 2. Tensor 3. MOS 6581 4. Silent Running 5. Neurotransmitter 6. Hydroponic Garden 7. Exosphere 8. Comsat 9. Epicentre 10. Artificial Island 11. Refraction • Carbon Based Lifeforms, Hydroponic Garden, Ultimae Records (2003). Note: 10/10.

– Seraph (Source: www.psynews.org, 2004/09/22)

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The Swedish ambient music duo was formed in 1996.

Photos: www.ultimae.com

The best songs on the album are: Central Plains (!), Neurotransmitter, Hydroponic Garden (!), Exosphere (!), and Artificial Island... The complete tracklist for the album is listed as follows:


NOTES & NEWS “Swords Into Ploughshares” Photo Exhibition in Toronto (August 6th – September 18th, 2004) The Urban Gardens of Caracas, Venezuela Venezuela is the world's 5th largest oil-producing country. Despite being an oil-rich country, 80% of its people live in abject poverty. This is due to generations of socio-economic oppression imposed on the average Venezuelan by the elite minority who had grown accustomed to siphoning off most of the revenue generated from the sale of oil. Hugo Chavez was democratically elected President of Venezuela in 1998. As part of the progressive social reforms President Chavez has been implementing in Venezuela, a system of communal and hydroponic gardens has been developed in the inner cities, in the slum areas and on army bases. Photographer Carmen Victor visited Calle El Tamarindo in El Valle during a visit to Caracas in August 2003. She was shown the communal gardens in this area by community leaders and by an army Major whose post it was to educate the people and promote a program of sustainable, crop yielding gardens. In addition, she visited Fuerte Tiuna (Fort Tiuna) a large army base located in the centre of Caracas where much of the land is used to grow organic produce. The produce grown there is used to feed the soldiers who also work in the fields, any surplus is sold in open markets. This is a new and unusual role for the military in Venezuela, instead of waging war or subduing a population, the Venezuelan army is engaged in feeding its country.

Photos: © Carmen Victor, c-print, 2004

Since the US-government backed attempted coup and the illegal lockout of 2002 (it was described as a 'strike' in mainstream media, however, it had none of the characteristics of a strike as North Americans would define it), the development of urban crop-yielding gardens has started to empower and enable the people to become self-sufficient and less reliant upon the supermarkets owned and operated by the elite minority. During the illegal lockout, supermarkets were deliberately closed by the elite, but open markets in poorer areas were lively and functioning. About Carmen Victor: Carmen Victor presented these documentary photographs of the communal gardens in Caracas, Venezuela at the DeLeon White Gallery, Toronto, accompanying the exhibition is a text written by Richard Rhodes, editor of Canadian Art Magazine from August 6th to September 18th, 2004. Carmen Victor was born in 1974 in Toronto and grew up in Nairobi, Kenya. She received an M.F.A. from the University of Victoria, B.C. and has exhibited recently in Toronto, New York and Vancouver. Currently she is Curatorial Assistant at the Blackwood Gallery, University of Toronto.

– City Farmer, Published In “Urban Agriculture Notes”, Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture, Source: www.cityfarmer.org.

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NOTES & NEWS McGill and IDRC Announce Global Three-City Project: "Making The Edible Landscape" Canada's McGill University and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) announced the launch of a new international research initiative that may have a major impact on how planners, architects, and municipal leaders map the city of the future. The announcement took place at the World Urban Forum in Barcelona, Spain.

"Modern cities are seen as centres of food consumption and rural areas as places of production," says Professor Vikram Bhatt, director of the Minimum Cost Housing Group at McGill. "Designers and planners tend to create city landscapes for beauty, not utility. But many kinds of urban agriculture already exist around the world-from balcony gardens to poultry farms. What we learn from these three test sites will enrich city-scapes of the future, both North and South." In each of the sites, city officials, architects, and urban planners will form a collaborative team, working closely with local communities. Researchers will test housing designs that include food-producing gardens to demonstrate the potential of urban agriculture. Sites were chosen by a competitive process to reflect global biodiversity as well as different ways of combining living, working, and growing food within the city. As the world's population becomes increasingly urban, cities everywhere-but especially in developing countries--face a mounting challenge of ensuring clean water, sanitation, and food security for their people. This project will contribute to meeting the United Nations Millennium Development goals by improving housing, income, and food security for the poor. The results of Making the Edible Landscape will be showcased at the 2006 UN-HABITAT World Urban Forum in Vancouver, Canada. For more information, contact: Jennifer Pepall, Senior Communications Strategist (jpepall@idrc.ca) or Professor Vikram Bhatt, Project Leader (mchgump.arch@mcgill.ca). – Source: www.cityfarmer.org via CanWest News Service

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Socio-Technology: Genome Model Applied to Software Open-source developers attempting to reverse-engineer the mysteries of private networking software turn to genomics research. They're applying algorithms developed by biologists to decipher the secrets of closed networks. Read the complete article by Danny O'Brien from the magazine Wired at: www.archive.wired.com/ techbiz/it/news/2004/10/65191

– Sources: Infosophy, Sociotechnological Rendering of Information (www.kmentor.com)

Urban Agriculture Tip: A Fountain But No Garden Gnomes! Gardens are the ultimate combination of beauty and function. A fountain in the right place can seriously enhance any rose garden. You don't need garden gnomes, but having the right design, selection of plants and vegetables is helpful.

– Published by City Farmer, Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture (Source: www.cityfarmer.org)

Photos: www.cityfarmer.org and www.cosmosmagazine.com

Making the Edible Landscape, a three-year collaborative project, will demonstrate the value of including urban agriculture as a permanent feature in city planning and housing design. With support from IDRC, the Minimum Cost Housing Group of McGill University, and the Urban Management Program of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), coordinated research will be undertaken in three cities: Colombo, Sri Lanka; Kampala, Uganda; and Rosario, Argentina.


NOTES & NEWS Super Ant Colony Hits Australia A giant colony of ants stretching 100 km (62 miles) has been discovered in the Australian city of Melbourne, threatening local insect species. The ants, which were imported from Argentina, are ranked among the world's 100 worst animal invaders. Although they exist in their usual smaller group size in their homeland, the colonies have merged in Australia to create one massive super colony. Experts fear that the invasion poses a threat to biodiversity in the area.

Photo: www.scribol.com

Introduced Pest Elissa Suhr, from Monash University, Melbourne, said the introduced pest's natural aggression kept numbers under control in its native country. But the lack of genetic diversity in the ants found in Australia has allowed them to build a super colony. "In Argentina, their native homeland, ant colonies span tens of metres, are genetically diverse and highly aggressive towards one another," Dr Suhr said. "So population numbers never explode and they are no threat to other plants and animals. "When they arrived in Australia, in 1939, a change in their structure occurred, changing their behaviour so that they are not aggressive towards one another. This has resulted in the colonies becoming one super colony." Dr Suhr said the Argentine ants have killed native ants, and consumed many other insects, posing a major threat to biodiversity. Taking Over She said Argentine ants could even displace native species by taking over local habitats and preying on insects commonly eaten by Australian ants. Australia is not the only country to be invaded by Argentine ants, according to Dr Suhr. "In California, they have displaced native ants, decreased the diversity of other native insects, affected the dispersal of seeds and even decreased lizard numbers," she said. Australian scientists are studying colonies in Perth and Adelaide to see if they share the same genetic structure and behaviour as the Melbourne ants. If they do, a super colony several thousand miles wide could spread across southern Australia.. – Source: www.news.bbc.co.uk


NOTES & NEWS

In a world where “the only good pumpkins are round pumpkins,” Spookley the Square Pumpkin is often teased by others because of his square shape. Soon Spookley is befriended by Edgar, Allan and Poe, three hilarious spiders who convince him that, square or not, he has a right to be the “Pick of the Patch” on Halloween. Could a square pumpkin really be the “Pick of the Patch”? Not if mean round pumpkins Big Tom and Little Tom can help it. These two bullies tease and taunt Spookley because of his square roots. Kindly Jack Scarecrow and his bat sidekicks, Boris and Bella, encourage Spookley to keep striving for “Pick of the Patch”, but he isn’t sure he has what it takes until one scary day when a mighty storm threatens his home. As the storm rolls the round pumpkins across the patch towards a raging river, Spookley’s square shape helps him save the day. • Directed by Bernie Denk (45 min., 2004), Holiday Hill Farm DVD.

– Source: www.newvideo.com

Hong Kong: Flower Show Has Attracted Over 230,000 Visitors The 2004 Hong Kong Flower Show has attracted over 230,000 visitors. The public did not miss the opportunity to see thousands of exotic flowers from all over the world. The flower show has recently replenished its floral displays with fresh ones. They included the theme flower, pansy, as well as hydrangea, begonia, kalanchoe and petunia. Among the rich and varied floral displays, the spectacular mosaiculture exhibits are always popular attractions. Mosaiculture is the art of creating a picture or sculpture using carefully selected and pruned plants. One of the mosaiculture displays that was a great hit with visitors was the Hong Kong Disneyland exhibit (Mickey's Fantasia Garden), which was full of lush, green topiary sculptures of celeb cartoon characters. – Source: www.lcsd.gov.hk

The Spreading Chestnut Trees To see a mature American Chestnut in nature is a rarity. The trees, which once took up about a quarter of Eastern US forests, were driven to near-extinction by a fungal disease introduced about 100 years ago. AM 580's Ali Kawa recently spoke with Purdue University scientist Doug Jacobs (right, under a chestnut in Wisconsin), who is working to restore the once-tremendously valuable American Chestnut. Check out their Website to listen to the full interview: www.will.radio.tv.online & www.will.illinois.edu.

– Source: www.will.illinois.edu/news/story/am580news2004-04-01

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Photos: Holiday Hill Farm, www.hongkongdisneyland.com & www.will.illinois.edu

Halloween Movie Treat: Spookley, The Square Pumpkin


NOTES & NEWS New Hydroponics Supplier in the UK: Green Spirit Hydroponics

Illustration (logo): www.greenspirit-hydroponics.com

Green Spirit Hydroponics Ltd are experts in the field of hydroponics and horticulture with two vastly stocked large retail outlets and a great e-commerce Website with experts on hand over the telephone, in store or via our online chat service to help with any questions you may have relating to getting the best out of your plants and gardening spaces. Green Spirit Ltd has had the pleasure of helping gardeners grow amazing plants indoors and outdoors since its grand opening in 2004. Our stores are packed with a huge range of products that are innovative and far beyond the usual garden center plant care products, we source our merchandise from highly scientific manufacturers from around the world giving you the gardener access to the most up to date and technologically advanced plant care solutions you could possibly get your hands on. We pride ourselves on stocking only quality products that really get results and we don’t settle for anything less. Please click the link below to visit our Website to see our huge range of products or give us a call on (011 44) 01142 753 353 if you would like to discuss what our products can do for your plants and garden. Address: 8-10, Stanley Street, Sheffield S3 8HJ, United Kingdom – Website: www.greenspirit-hydroponics.com.


Crocus

CULINARY PL ANTS

sativus

Saffron or 100,000 Crocus Flowers

By Ch. Rémy (Source: Femme D’Aujourd’hui)

Saffron is extracted from a crocus flower much like those that can be seen on mountainous grasslands as soon as snow melts. Botanists call it Crocus sativus, which is Latin for “cultivated”. It belongs to the family of Iridaceae, like sword grass and irises, but it differs from other crocus in two ways: first, it flowers in the fall rather than in the spring and, second and most importantly, on pale violet petals are the stigmata, three large bright red arrows—from which saffron will be extracted. The stamens, displaying an attractive yellow, have no value.

In a measured gesture, the cook adds a small quantity of red powder to her fish soup, which turns yellow. A strong and tenacious perfume fills the room, bringing forth visions of blue vacations, of Far East, splendid and fascinating. Mysterious saffron! When we use it in the kitchen, do we know its origin? Is it the bark of a tree, like cinnamon? A rhizome, like ginger? Perhaps an evanescent liana, prospering under the warm rains of the monsoon? None of these!

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Saffron was, from then on, used in Mediterranean countries for three distinct purposes: as a culinary spice, as a dye and as a religious symbol. Brides in Tyre, a Phoenician great city, wore saffron-dyed

Photos: Ch. Rémy & www.21food.com (D.R.)

Saffron originates from Nepal. The long tradition of using it as a dye has been known for years uncounted, and Buddhist monks still dye their garment with saffron, following a tradition lost in mystery. The botanists that accompanied Alexander the Great during his conquests in remote corners of India are said to have brought saffron to Greece, which may explain its continued presence in the Mediterranean basin.


CULINARY PL ANTS Beware of safflower, or bastard saffron, which comes from western Asia. It has the colour of saffron, with its sunshine yellow stigmata that turn to burnt orange as they dry or age, but it has nowhere near the aroma concentration of real saffron. You will require five times as much safflower (or Carthamus tinctorius, an annual belonging to the Asteraceae family) as actual saffron to perfume a dish the same way! Because of its high cost (over 100,000 flowers give off five kilos of stigmata, which once dried will give one kilo of saffron), many replacements are used in the kitchen: safflower, turmeric, Marigold petals or imitation products such as Rizdor, Afral or Spigol (containing only 1% saffron). Saffron is simply the most expensive of all spices!

Photos: Ch. Rémy & www.teheran.ir (D.R.)

veils of yellowish green. According to legend, saffron dyes the sheets of love, and the myth of its aphrodisiac properties is tenacious on the borders of what is now Lebanon. Phoenicians used to spend their wedding night in sheets dyed with saffron. In Persia (Iran), however, saffron was rather used in mortuary ceremonies. Romans used to lay its flowers on the ground on holidays. Arabs, being great traveling peddlers, helped to implant saffron in Northern Africa as well as in Spain, where it still flowers under the wings of windmills. Does it grow in France? It used to, intensively, in one area where one might not expect it to: in Beauce or nearby, more precisely in the part of Gâtinais located to the northeast of Orléans, where the forest is interrupted by the Loire, and is replaced by great fields.

Saffron’s delicious perfume accompanies well fish dishes, seafood, as well as dishes from India, such as curries.

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TIPS & TRICKS Choosing Seeds In Catalogs: A Few Things To Consider

Extending the growing season by starting plants indoors, before outdoor conditions are favorable, allows you to transplant healthy plantlets at the right time. Then, at the end of the season, harvesting and saving your seeds is easy, but you must also know how to eventually choose seeds from a commercial catalog. Here are a few tips.

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Photo: Vilmorin

By J. Turcotte (Š Hydrotimes, 2005)


TIPS & TRICKS

Seed Germination 1

1. Put the seeds on moist tissue.

2

Heirloom Seeds While offering only seeds by mail order or in the Internet, many nurseries are specializing in historic perennials and annuals, traditional herbs, and heirloom vegetables. They are mainly selling certified organic, open pollinated, heirloom and heritage seeds for organic home and market vegetable growing. Non-hybrid vegetable, flower, and herb seeds are your best source for heirloom vegetable cultivation. It was in the 1970s that hybrid seeds began to proliferate in the commercial seed trade. Some heirloom varieties are much older, some apparently dating back from the Prehistoric Ages. However, not everyone agrees on what an heirloom seed (variety) is. For many gardeners and scientists, an heirloom variety has been grown for a certain number of years or since a certain year. Others think an heirloom variety must have been handed down from one family member to another for many generations. Finally, there are "commercial heirlooms," and historically those were introduced many years ago, have been saved for commercial trade, and are still sold nowadays with the same potent characteristics of their original parents. In order for produce to be considered as being heirloom, it must come from a plant that is over 70 years old. Heirloom tomatoes have the biggest selection in this category of plants. Heirloom varieties must be open-pollinated. Open-pollinated seeds can be saved from the current year's plants to be grown the next year.

2. Cover the plate with another upturned plate.

3

21

oC

3. Put the covered seeds in a warm place and keep them moist.

Illustrations: Hydrotimes

4

Indoor / Outdoor Whether or not a plant variety can be grown outdoors depends on the duration of the season that you have at your disposal. All outdoor and indoor/outdoor plant listings in seed catalogues include an approximate finishing date for outdoor growing. This is a most important feature to consider and is greatly influenced by the seasonal characteristics of the plant as well as its genetic traits of simple inheritance. You want plants that will mature before the danger of frost or bad weather arises. The more the variety in the genetic mix, the longer the plant will take to finish. If you have a very long growing season, most plants in catalogues can be grown outdoors. These finishing dates are approximate and will vary depending on the conditions. From there, make your choice based on what you like and the descriptions of the plants. I grow indoors, outdoors, in greenhouses, anywhere. Don’t choose seeds that are listed as outdoors for indoor growing: they don’t always transfer over well. It can always be accomplished—but it may take a few crops to settle them in. Flowering times and yields listed are approximate and will vary depending on conditions. Height

4. Soon, the seeds will open and a small root becomes visible.

The heights listed in catalogues for each variety are for full-sized plants. When growing indoors, we have complete control over how tall these plants will get, because we decide how long to grow them before flowering is initiated. Artificial lights do not efficiently penetrate a plant much more than 90 centimeters down into the garden, so it makes little sense to grow them much bigger than this.

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TIPS & TRICKS

Flowering will begin in about seven to fourteen days after the light schedule is changed to twelve hours on and twelve hours off,. During this time the plants will continue to grow another 15 to 35 centimeters and eventually stop. How much they will grow depends on the genetic characteristics of the plant. Tropical and land race pure varieties will stretch the most. Depending on these characteristics, flowering should be initiated at around 45 to 60 centimeters to achieve the end height of 90 centimeters. How long it takes for the plants to get this tall depends on the type of plant and the conditions in the garden. Price vs. Quality You’ll notice that some varieties listed in seed catalogues share the same name but have enormously different prices. Here’s why: the expensive varieties come from the major seed banks in the world. They have spent over thirty years inventing and developing their strains, many of which have been multiple competition winners and are considered some of the best in the world. As a result, these varieties command a higher price on the market. The less-pricey strains of the same name come from local breeders who have taken the original genetics, grown them themselves, have chosen the parents carefully and produced seeds. They have not invented the variety nor have they done the original homework to command the same high prices. The quality is just the same, only the plants may be somewhat different from the originals, depending on the parents chosen. In all cases, the results are a good representation of the variety. Potency All of the strains carried in seed catalogues are potent. The success of the eventual outcome will depend on your personal taste and on the conditions in which the seeds are grown. Nobody tests the germination percentages and rates of these varieties and we are not really sure what the numbers mean when they do. Seed size, quality and germination varies between varieties, from year to year. Starting many different seeds indoors under lights, you may notice that some of them will have a germination rate of 100%, while many other will only reach 40-50%.

From my experience, it is better to grow in a hot, dry atmosphere than in a hot humid one. To maximize valuable chemical compounds production, drop the humidity in the room during the flowering stage, the lower the better. But no matter how much chemical reactions you induce on a variety of plant, it’s still not going to give you the same results everytime—make decisions based on your personal tastes and expectations. Note that seed viability (the embryo must be kept alive during storage) can be maintained for several years when seeds are stored at the proper temperature in a cold room.

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Photos: Vilmorin & D.R.

To function and survive, plants produce a wide array of chemical compounds not found in other organisms. On some varieties, those chemical compounds can be found in the resin glands that form on the plant during the maturation process. These glands act as a shield to protect the seed from the searing heat of the sun.


TIPS & TRICKS

Seed Germination 5

2-5 mm

5. Put the seed in a growth medium approx. 2-3 mm (max. 5 mm) under the surface.

21 oC

6 6. Keep the seeds warm and moist, in a propagator for example.

Yields All of the yields listed in seed catalogues are approximate and depend on how the plants are grown and on the quality of their environment. Indoor lights don’t penetrate down very far, so it is much better to grow a larger number of smaller plants to achieve the highest yield of top-quality blossom. Maximum yields indoors are coming from specific varieties and mostly hybrids. For indoor tomato growth that produces fruits gradually and consistently throughout the winter, grow an indeterminate variety. Determine tomato varieties—those that reach a specific length and then stop growing—don't perform as well indoors. It is also preferable to grow small cherry or pear tomatoes, rather than larger varieties grown for slicing. These produce fruits more consistently indoors. Another popular and easy-to-learn plant training method that increases yields is known as "supercropping." Basically, supercropping means to bend your plant so that individual stems lay flat and form a "knuckle" where they were bent. Supercropping can be used alongside any other plant training method or by itself. Now when it comes to plant training, there are lots of methods that involve actually cutting your plant, or removing stems and/or leaves. However, the less you put these methods in the mix, the lower the yields tend to be. An indoor yield is really only limited by the amount of light it receives and not by the sort of variety chosen. Given a good growing environment, you could expect the yield to be about the same from any variety in relationship to its genetic content. It is up to us as growers to maximize our plants’ potential in our space. In order to do this we need to experiment and find out how each variety will best respond. Flowering Time

Illustrations: Hydrotimes / Photos: D.R.

7 8

Flowering times listed in seed catalogs for each variety are an indication of how long it will take the plant to mature indoors after flowering has been induced by changing the light cycle to twelve hours of darkness. This will be influenced by the environment to some degree, but is pretty much fixed in the plant. Some tropical varieties are flowering faster than others and hybrids are following the percentage of each genetics they contain. Equally important in the process is the vegetation time, or how long you grow the plants before the flowering stage is triggered. Some early subspecies grow very quickly—if we wait too long to flower them, they will outgrow the limits of the space and will not fill out to their full potential. On the other hand, if a variety with a different length of vegetative stage is not grown for long enough, the yield can be greatly reduced. Sometimes, the length of the vegetative stage depends on how large you want your plants. Ultimately, depending on the scheduling of the process, they can often both end up taking about the same amount of time to grow and mature.

7-8. Well-rooted plantlets can be transplanted with high success rates.

To conclude, always choose a variety that is advertised to grow in the conditions that you have planned.

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HYDROPONICS

We did it to A Radish!

By Bob T. and Ted B. (with the collaboration of Loup-Claude Leblanc)

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Photo: FHD

1


HYDROPONICS GROWING EXPERIMENT Bob & Ted's Excellent Adventure in Indoor Gardening While the war on terrorism and epidemics were disturbing the tourist industry in south-eastern Asia, Bob T. and Ted B., two indoors gardeners who manage a scuba-diving school in Thailand, decided to return to British Columbia for the winter. They had no other choice at the time than to leave their diving school, wait for things to settle, in the hopes of returning to the peninsula someday, perhaps with their own diving boat. Back home, they decided to make an attempt in aero/hydroponics. Here is an account of their experiment.

each pump), for $380 each. Indeed, something needs to turn off the lights if ever a water pump broke down. We also added to our list of purchases fans, bulbs, carbon filters, a multiple-measure device (NutraDipTM's Tri-Meter CMS, measuring pH, ppm and temperature), nutrients, and reflectors." From Growth to Flowering "We used Plantroids's Quickroot rooting gel to start our various cuttings, and we were very surprised to discover that after eight days, nice long roots had appeared. We fed the plantlets a mixture of nutritive elements and vitamins (6 ml per 4 litres of Holland Secret's PropO-Gator and 1 ml per 4 litres of Holland Secret's Super B+). This last supplement can be replaced by an equivalent: SUPERThriveTM (concentrated B1 vitamins made by the famous Vitamin Institute), again at 1 ml per 4 litres. Cuttings prospered in a reproduction dome: Nutriculture's Propagator®. We maintained the temperature in the dome at 27 °C. As soon as the clones reached a height of 10 cm, we estimated it was

Preparing the Project "As soon as we arrived, we contacted a hydroponics store (Better Than Nature Indoor Garden Center in Kelowna— www.betterthannature.com) to find out more about the products and equipment required to obtain a yield of fruits and vegetables that would be worth it considering the chosen lighting power (we chose eight light bulbs, 1,000 watt each). Coming from an agricultural background, we knew how to increase quality and yield, but we must live with our times, and we wanted to experiment aero/hydroponic cultivation."

Photos: FHD

"After a few explanations on the functioning of every system demonstrated in the store, we were convinced to use a space-saving system built in the 2 shape of an inverted pyramid (V-shaped), the Plant Tier® (or Pipe Dreams) 160 made by Future Harvest. Three Plant Tier 160 can fit in our indoor garden, each system measuring 240 cm x 240 cm at its base. Our growing space is a room with a surface area of approximately 115 m³. The lighting comes from eighth 1,000-watt high-pressure sodium Plantastar lamps (from Sylvania)." "The cost of each system was approximately 2,465 Canadian dollars, including the cultivation tubes, irrigation system, high-pressure water pump (which will be submerged), a timer, and a V-shaped support. We also purchased three electronic controllers (one for

3

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HYDROPONICS a protective cap placed around the base of the stem, which will be more efficient."

time to transplant them in our three PT systems."

"The average temperature is now maintained at 28°C during the day and between 15.5 and 18.5 °C at night. The ambient humidity should not go above 60%, but rather should be maintained closer to 40%. Five oscillating fans are simultaneously in use to ensure a constant fresh-air 4 circulation. Two centrifugal air extractors at a speed of 3,200 RPMs exhaust the air through two 60-cm carbon filters. Equipped with an air-entry fan with a cooling capacity of 29 m³/min (cubic metres per minute), they completely evacuate the room's air in less than four minutes (29 x 4 = 116 cubic meters—I remind you that our room is 115 m³), which prevents the garden's air from becoming overly warm." A Few Problems (Quickly Solved) and the Tests We've Performed "When we transplanted our cuttings, we were surprised to see that they were infested with spider mites and their roots were invaded by black-gnat larvae. We sprayed Doktor Doom's Botanics® insecticide twice against spider mites (during the first and third weeks) and saw no more afterward in our garden. We also added Wilson's insecticide/fungicide Garden Doctor® to each reservoir during the second and 7 third weeks. This managed to efficiently control the expansion of black gnats, but did not eradicate them. From now on, we will use

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"Here's our tip to maintain the proper average temperature of the nutritive solution. Since the reservoir is located outside the garden, on the cold cement floor, the temperature is subjected to oscillate between 18.5 °C and 21.5 °C depending on whether it's night or day. We've run a hose from each reservoir, allowing for a constant flow of cold water. The nutritive solution's temperature when entering the PT systems is thus maintained to around 19 °C. That is the ideal temperature for roots to absorb minerals properly and strongly develop a fibrous system." "For our nutritive solution, we've used FHD's Holland Secret nutrient line, as recommended by the salesman at our hydroponic store. Holland Secret's Bada-Bing and Bada-Bang were used during the growth stage, at a dosage of 800 to 1,000 ppm. Flowering plants were fertilized using Holland Secret's Bada-Bloom at a dosage of 1,000 to 1,300 ppm. The tenth day, we added Holland Secret's liquid nutrient Bud Bloom Plus. It increases the flowering yield. Over the last three weeks, we added Holland Secret's Veg Bloom Plus liquid nutrient to each reservoir, and also used it as a foliar spray." Harvest Time "Six to four days before we harvested, we rinsed every conduit of the PT systems using Quick Grow South's nutritivesolution cleaningproduct Double Flush and water. 6 During the three days before we harvested, we finished rinsing the conduits and reservoirs using only pure water with an unmodified pH so as to evacuate any nutritive-product residue." "Two weeks before the harvest, we started cleaning out the systems, removing yellowing leaves and any excess foliage that was preventing the proper development of the flowering tops (or fruit). It's essential to undertake a rinsing stage at least five days before harvesting (as we've seen, we did it in two three-day steps)." "With Future Harvest's Pipe Dreams, some growers believe it's not necessary to use reflectors. They recommend using only a black

Photos: FHD

"Growth in the PT systems started quickly, and we modified our lighting cycle (18 hours of light and 6 of darkness per day) to 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness per day once the plants reached a height of 12.5 cm That is the time when growth accelerates and when nutritive elements are optimally absorbed when the nutritive solu5 tion is maintained at a pH of 5.8. The nutritive solution's temperature must also be stable (around 19 °C). From then on, we emptied the reservoirs once a week, throwing out the already used nutritive solution and rinsing the system for 24 hours using only pure water with an unmodified pH."


HYDROPONICS

8

and white Mylar sheet. We didn't dare listen to this advice this time around, but we will attempt another experiment using Mylar. For our second experiment, we'll also add a carbon dioxide generator (CO2) in our garden. We'll see what a difference in yield it makes. What we can say however after this first harvest using aero/hydroponics is that the Plant Tier system has made fulfilled gardeners out of us when it comes to yield and quality per light bulb. Happy growing!"

Source: Future Harvest Development *If you need to, use this online tool to calculate the revolutions per minute: www.profweb.qc.ca/lveillette/RPM.htm.

Photos: FHD

Photos: 1 & 8. See the size of this pink radish? We think it speaks for itself. 2. Global view of an empty system. The inclination due to the system's Vshape optimizes the spreading out of light. 3. As in any proper garden, adequate ventilation is essential to evacuate heat. 4. Each plant can develop and each flowering top receives enough light. 5 & 6. Close-up of roots in the Plant Tier system's baskets. 7. Roots develop quite well in the Pipe Dreams system, and the system's efficiency is quite obvious.

From Future Harvest Development Pipe Dreams With FHD's Pipe Dreams systems... Double your performance! Harvest more often! Optimize your garden space! Pipe Dreams is an avant-gardist system made from high-end materials. Titaniumcovered tubes prevent the propagation of spores and allow you to keep your system in excellent condition for a longer period. Built in tiers, the system allows you to maximize your available space. All systems come fully equipped with tubes, pots, pump, reservoir, timer and all necessary plumbing for assembly. A reflective tent is also available. Holland Secret Fertilizer Holland Secret is a scientifically formulated nutrient which contains all elements that are essential for plants. Since it leaves no residue, it doesn't alter the flavour. With Holland Secret, say goodbye to blockage problems! Contact: www.extremegrowing.com, Tel: 250 491-0255, fax: 250 491-0252.

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PEST CONTROL How to Eliminate Pests from Plants Coming In from Outdoors By Doktor Doom

Bringing plants in from outdoors or starting plants from seeds or from clones will always carry the threat of pathogenic insects. To eliminate insects from plants, you should always treat them with a residual based insecticide before bringing them indoors. Outdoor plants will carry soil-borne insects as well as surface crawling insects. If you are growing a large volume of plants indoors under intense artificial light, you are likely to see insects. In an ideal world, you could effectively eliminate these insects; however, you will always be vulnerable to infestations unless you can diligently maintain absolute sterile conditions.

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PEST CONTROL A – Preventive Measures before the Plants are Coming In Here are some preventive measures to eliminate the potential of infestation:

1. Make certain that you fully clean and fumigate your growing area prior to introducing your plants. Wash all surfaces well with warm soapy water and allow them to dry. After this, for an extremely sterile environment, you can apply Dr. Doom Surface Deodorizer—this product is registered in the United States as a hard surface sanitizer—and will leave an invisible barrier, on all treated surfaces, that eliminates mildew, mould, fungus and bacteria before they can set in. It is particularly effective on powdery mildew and gray mould. Once this treatment is completed, proceed with treating all surfaces within your growing environment with a residualbased insecticide; Dr. Doom Residual Surface Insecticide Spray is the ideal product for this use. Apply it liberally to cracks, crevices, walls, floors, ceilings and to any growing equipment: pots, sticks, baskets, growing medium (rock wool, lava rocks, etc.)—this lasting residual will kill insects for weeks after only one application.

2. Intense grow lights require fresh air. Even very fine mesh filters do not adequately catch all insects being drawn in by the fans. Residual Insecticide spray kills the insects before you bring them indoors. As an extra precaution, treat the filters and the inside of the venting tubes. 3. If growing from clones, be certain that your supplier is providing you with insectfree clones. If in doubt, apply Dr. Doom Botanics before you introduce the clones to their new growing environment.

hot water and always using the same, unexposed to the outside clothes will dramatically reduce your odds of bringing bugs into your growing environment. 7. Do not allow visitors in your grow room, unless they too have extremely sterile clothing. 8. Do not allow your pets in your growing environment, as they too will carry microscopic insects.

5. When pruning and removing dead foliage, always remove it from your growing environment immediately—this is a prime breeding area for insects.

9. Regularly use Dr. Doom Total Release Fumigators in the grow room. These fumigators will flush out and eradicate insects prior to them becoming a fullfledged problem. The Fumigators can be used throughout the entire growing cycle; we do recommend that you discontinue their use in the last couple of weeks of plant growth. If you see insects at that point, use Botanics Insecticide Plant Spray—it is safe for use up to three days before harvest.

6. Be certain to always wear sterile clothing within your grow room. Insects are mostly microscopic and will hitch a ride from outdoors: wearing clothes washed in very

10. Identifying the insect pest and learning about its evolutionary lifecycle is crucial for you to clearly understand what you are up against.

4. Once your room is up and running, you must keep a diligent eye out for insects, as you have now created the ideal environment for them to multiply quickly.

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PEST CONTROL B – Others Tips (When Your Plants are Indoors)

1. Eliminating Powdery Mildew Odours Powdery mildew and gray mould have a very pungent acidic odour. Surface Deodorizer effectively eliminates the odours caused by these organisms. The Surface deodorizer leaves an invisible barrier on the treated surfaces, which continues to kill the odours as the organisms try to establish themselves within the growing environment. Apply Surface Deodorizer throughout the entire indoor growing environment—including plants, equipment, ventilation systems, etc. A very good moisture control and exhaust system will definitely assist you in eliminating the problem before it starts. Dehumidifiers and temperature controls are a huge plus. Surface Deodorizer has gotten great results on plants in the final days of their life cycle prior to harvest. Always mix this product according to the label directions and be certain to use it up within the recommended shelf life. Surface Deodorizer is 100% non-toxic, environmentally friendly and will not eliminate the beautiful aromas or flavours from your plants. It only attacks the smells caused by mildew and moulds. Recommended product: Doktor Doom Surface Deodorizer.

2. Getting Rid of Spider Mites The biggest problem in an indoor growing environment is often spider mites. These pests lay their eggs once they smell insecticides: it is their evolutionary defence and survival mechanism. It is extremely important to eradicate them early in the growing stage. Use fumigators: the best eradication method is using Fumigators every three to four days. Before each use, apply Botanics to the underside of the leaves. Spider mites do not like intense heat or bright lights, so when the HID lights are blazing, the spider mites are hiding out in the shade. Once the lights go off, they come out to play. Use the Fumigators and apply Botanics Plant Spray about four hours after the lights have gone out. Be certain that the exhaust fans are shut off, so as to keep the smell of the insecticide in the growing environment. The longer it is in the area, the more effective it is. When using the Fumigators, make sure not to have a CO2 burner running—extinguish all open flames prior to treatment. It would be best to apply the Plant Spray first, and then use the Fumigators, as this reduces your risk of exposure to the insecticides. Always wear a mask when spraying and always wash your hands thoroughly after all treatments. Recommended products: Doktor Doom Botanics Plant Spray, Doktor Doom Fumigators, Dr. Doom Spider Mite Knock Out.

To protect your fruits bearing plants, use Plant Spray for Tomatoes and Vegetables or House and Garden Insecticide Spray. Of all the products on the market, the best one for this purpose is House and Garden Insecticide Spray. It leaves a lasting residual coating on all treated surfaces. For soil-borne pests, allow the soil to dry out to at least 7 to 10 centimetres, then apply the spray to the soil. Let the product dry in the soil for at least two hours before stirring it in. After stirring it, apply the product once more and allow it to dry. Water your plants at least four hours after the second treatment. Water will not reduce the product’s effectiveness. Once it has fully dried, it will continue to kill insects as they emerge through the soil. For foliage-crawling insects, lightly mist the plant with House and Garden Insecticide Spray—make sure to spray from a safe distance—use your hand as a guide: if the mist is cold on your hand, you are too close to the plant and the cold will be a shock to it—be certain to treat both the underside and the top side of the leaves, as well as the stems, as best you can. These two preventative measures will give you lasting residual insect control and you will not need to apply another product on the plants for weeks. Recommended products: Dr. Doom Plant Spray for Tomatoes, Dr. Doom Vegetables or House and Garden Insecticide Spray.

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Photos: www.doktordoom.com & Bruno Bredoux

3. Protecting Your Fruits Bearing Plants


4. Treating Indoor Seedlings and Clones Indoor seedlings and clones should be treated early in the growth stages. The best product for this use is Botanics Insecticide Plant Spray. It has the highest concentration of pyrethrins allowed in a plant spray in Canada (10 to 20 times stronger than a standard plant spray). This 0.20% pyrethrin formula is pH-balanced, perfume free and has the lowest amount of oils available in any formula. Oil and soapbased insecticide products actually stunt plant growth and are phytotoxic. They clog stomatas, preventing photosynthesis and in many cases can burn your plants. Botanics Insecticide Plant Spray effectively kills all pathogenic insects on contact and is soft and gentle on your plants, as it does not create phytotoxicity nor does it prevent plant growth. Botanics organically breaks down in a matter of hours through exposure to HID lighting, humidity and air flow. Be certain to apply from a safe distance as to prevent the cold chill from the container shocking the seedlings—this is essential. Recommended product: Dr. Doom Botanics Insecticide Plant Spray.

Photos: www.doktordoom.com & D.R.

5. Stimulating the Vegetative Growth Cycle Use a neem oil plant stimulant during your vegetative growth cycle. Neem oil does not kill the insects but makes them moult—literally, it acts as a vasectomy and prevents the adults from laying new eggs. Neem oil is a systemic product, so it will not start working immediately—it usually takes about 10 to 12 days for it get into the vascular structure of the plants, whether you are applying it as a foliar spray or watering it in through the growing medium. We recommend watering it in through your growing medium, as the foliar spray will clog the foliage’s stomatas! Recommended product: Neem Oil. Using the above methods of insect and odour control will provide you with fewer headaches and a bountiful harvest. Happy growing! Source: www.doktordoom.com.


SEA OF GREEN

The

S.O.G. Experiment By Paul Henderson

The Sea of Green Method in a Perpetual Garden The sea of green method was developed in the Netherlands to save electricity; it leads to a higher yield and to a balanced production in indoor gardening. The Technique Associated to a Perpetual Garden

I am here proposing a most efficient variation on the theme, the sea of green method associated with a continual-harvest or perpetual garden. The perpetual garden technique entails the regular introduction of a predetermined number of plants in the garden, so as to harvest regularly, without interrupting the perpetual growth and flowering cycle. To use this technique properly, you will need two garden rooms. Use the first room to grow mother plants and to root cuttings. Use the second room only to flower the cuttings that have rooted in the first one! You could use the same room, but the two spaces must then be completely light-tight, because each growth stage will require its own light schedule: 18/6 for the vegetation room part, and 12/12 for the flowering section.

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Photos: www.artwall.ru

Summed up, the technique is to flower many young plants simultaneously. Since there is almost no growth phase, the technique is profitable for commercial producers in the Netherlands. The technique also allows for one additional crop each year and saves electricity—a factor that soon becomes obvious when we compare this technique with others.


SEA OF GREEN Growth Room Choose two or four quality mother plants. Under a 400 watt metal halide lamp, you should be able to get about ten cuttings each week. Always keep the mother plants under proper lighting: metal halide or high pressure sodium, 400 watt and above. In the vegetative growth room, you will need to set up a space for the cuttings to root. This is done under neon (cool white). The high intensity discharge lamp’s rays should not come in direct contact with the cuttings. Make sure that the light emitted by the metal halide lamp or the high pressure sodium lamp used for the mother plants’ growth is deviated and does not directly reach the cuttings, or use a mobile system.

Please note: The cuttings made in the vegetation room are directly transferred to the flowering room as soon as they have a decent root system (approximately 14 days); in this way, there is no growth delay for these plants. This growth is achieved in the same room, but using the mother plants’ light to grow the rooted cuttings. Using this technique, however, the added growth time can give you plants that grow height-wise rather than width-wise because of the closeness of plants in the flowering site. It can be preferable to wait until you have enough experience with the technique before allowing this extra growing time. Make attempts, and make sure the plants do not have to compete overmuch. Flowering Room For a sea of green, putting four plants in 30 square centimetres is acceptable. For example: we know that a 400 watt lamp covers a surface area of 130 by 130 centimetres, so we can place 60 to 70 plants under it. One the cuttings are well rooted, it is time to transfer the plants to the flowering room. In soil, you should use 10 to 15 centimetre square pots. In this case, use a neutral substrate, such as Pro-Mix® Professional and make sure it contains no fertilizer (you will add them yourself). If you intend to use a drip system, add 10 to 15% perlite to help drainage and improve root oxygenation (the proper use of a drip irrigation system will improve the final yield). Perpetual Technique Take the following example: you have a 400 W lamp, and hence a 130 square centimetre surface area, allowing you to have up to 64 plants. You want, for example, to harvest every week, without ever breaking the regular perpetual cycle. You must calculate the flowering time and the number of cuttings to introduce at each interval to avoid breaking the perpetual cycle. Here is a mathematical formula to solve this issue: Flowering time ÷ interval = garden section. So, Garden section ÷ number of plants – number of plants to add at each interval. or, for those who, like me, have trouble with math: Plant flowering time (60 days, for example) ÷ desired interval between each harvest (in our case, 7 days) = number of garden sections. So, up to now: 60 days (of flowering) divided by 7 days (the interval) give 8.5 garden sections. Round up to 8 (sections).

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SEA OF GREEN Then, Divide the number of plants that the site can accommodate (64) by the number of sections (8) and you will get the number of cuttings that must be added every seven days, the interval defined above. So, 64 plants divided in 8 sections equals 8 cuttings. All this to say that you can place eight cuttings in each section every seven days for plants that flower in 60 days in an area of 130 square centimetres, for a total number of plants of 64. Sixty days after the initial introduction, the perpetual cycle has begun! You will only need to harvest the eight mature plants and replace them by new plants, and so on. Always plan to root the cuttings two weeks in advance. You now hold the recipe of a perpetual sea of green! A Few Additional Notes I voluntarily did not discuss nutrient dosage, because this technique does not require a specific dosage. Follow the manufacturer’s directions. Here is, however, a reminder of some factors to take into account in a greenhouse: • Maximum Room Temperature: 30 °C at the apex, right under a lamp; • Miniimum Room Temperature: 24 °C at the roots. Use a mercury thermometer and plant it in the substrate to get this reading. • Solution Temperature: minimum = 18 to 20 °C, maximum = 23 °C. Oxygenate the nutritive solution using pumps and air stones designed for this purpose. • pH: in soil: 6.2; in hydroponics, 5.8; • Ppm and Electro-Conductivity (EC): in soil (using Pro-Mix®), onset of growth at 450 ppm – EC 1; gradually increase week after week up to a maximum of 800 ppm – EC 1.8; during flowering, continue at 800 ppm – EC 1.8. In hydroponics: start at 500 ppm – EC 1.1; increase each week up to 1,100 ppm – EC 2.2. Always look at the messages sent by your plants’ foliage. Signs of overfertilization include curling leaves, yellowing leaf parts, borders that turn brown or yellow. If this happens, rinse off for 24 hours using pure water (no nutrient), and don’t forget to adjust the water’s pH. Afterwards, restart the nutrient program, using 100 ppm less than during the last application. Optimal fertilization makes the ends of leaves a little black and dry. Vigorous Plants To keep your plants short and vigorous, use fans to make the foliage move about, increase the light intensity by lowering the lamps as close as possible to the plants without burning the canopy, and check the canopy temperature, directly under a lamp. You are ready for a sea of green! Any questions? Contact me at submit@tigmag.com.

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OUR BEST SHOTS FOR YOUR VIEWING PLEASURE

Photo: Bruno Bredoux

GALLERY

GALLERY


Photos: Bruno Bredoux


GALLERY

“The sound and feel of running water, the sight of flashing and darting fish, the smell of fragrant flowering aquatic flora, and even the taste of edible, homegrown water plants satisfies all of our senses...”

Photos: D.R.

– Scott D. Appell


“...A water garden is a soothing, beautiful addition to the indoor landscape, and it does not have to be a financial burden.”

Photos: D.R. & www.fukai.com.sg

– Scott D. Appell


“A tabletop fountain is a great home accent and they will bring a sense of serenity to your indoor space.” – Exalted Fountains

Photos: © www.exaltedfountains.com

GALLERY Nature Bowl Tabletop Fountain


Photos: © www.exaltedfountains.com

Nature Bowl Tabletop Fountain “Indoor fountains are thought to bring Feng Shui to your area and give your residence or place of employment a feeling of valuable life energy known as ‘qi’.” – Exalted Fountains


GALLERY

“To remove chlorine and fluoride, use a water conditioner from the aquarium store, a water purifier, or simply let the water stand, uncovered, for 24 hours.”

Photos: www.aroma2004.com & D.R.

– Scott D. Appell


“If you don’t want to install a lot of artificial lighting, take advantage of aquatic plants suited for shady situations, such as Marsilea quadrifolia, water clover (left), and Sagittaria, arrowhead (right).”

Photos: Alan & Linda Detrick & www.aroma2004.com

– Scott D. Appell


GALLERY “Aquatic plants are grouped into three categories based on the way they grow—emergent plants, submergent plants, and floaters. […]. To make matters more complex, aquatic plants are divided into warmand cold-water plants.” – Scott D. Appell


A Definitive Reference: “Landscaping Indoors, Bringing the Outside Inside” By Scott D. Appell, in association with the Brooklyn Botanic Garden About the author: Scott D. Appell is director of education for the Horticultural Society of New York and a member of the Publications Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. He is a contributing author to Smith & Hawken’s Book of Outdoor Gardening and Rodale Press’ 1001 Ingenious Gardening Ideas as well as a botanical consultant for Gardens by the Sea: Creating a Tropical Paradise, published by the Garden Club of Palm Beach. In addition, he has written three books, Pansies, Tulips, and Lilies, all published by Friedman/Fairfax Publishers, Inc, New York. His private consultation company is called The Green Man. E-mail: hortny@aol.com.


TECHNIQUE

pH Measurement Methods By Loup-Claude LeBlanc (with W. Sutherland’s collaboration)

There are three methods for measuring pH: a probe and meter, litmus paper, and a field kit. The most accurate and reliable method is the probe and meter. This method is no less convenient than the other methods, but requires more expensive pieces of equipment. This article is an overview of those instruments.

1 Referencecell solution (potassium chloride and silver chloride)

Electrodes (fig. 1) A pH-metre is a thermodynamic sensor. Measuring the pH of a solution is measuring the cologarithm of its hydrogen-ion (H+) concentration. To do so, we use two types of electrodes: one glass electrode for the measure, and one calomel electrode acting as a reference. The glass electrode has a very thin membrane (0.2 mm) and allows us to observe the diffusion of H+ ions in one direction or the other, depending on whether the solution is mostly acidic or alkaline. The signal sent is measured following the activity of hydrogen ions on the glass cell wall, in millivolt.

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Referencecell electrode

Hydrogensensitive glass

Measurecell electrode


2

Mv/pH Ratio (fig. 2) When the pH-metre’s electrode is submerged in a solution, the pH-measuring cell emits a signal, measured in millivolt, which reflects the activity of the hydrogen ions within the tested solution. The pH-metre emits a tension that is proportional to the pH (mV = a x pH + b). To ensure that the proportion is correct in function of the pH, two points must be set (pH, mV) and a single straight line, as on the graph above.

3 Temperature Variations and Effect of Temperature on the Electrode’s Response (fig. 3) As mentioned in point 1, the electrode’s glass wall is sensitive to the temperature of tested solutions. The older the pH-metre, the less reliable its electrode’s response will be. Chemical damage appears little by little on its inside surface, partially caused by the chemical substances contained in the tested solutions. Temperatures above 35 °C are particularly damaging. Regularly replacing the pH-metre is thus important when frequently testing high-temperature solutions.


TECHNIQUE

4

5

Two-Point Calibration of a pH-Meter (fig. 4) Depending on the pH-meter, the gardener can have a device that is automatically calibrated with one or two points and with three pH values in memory (generally pH 4.0, pH 7.01 and pH 10.01). There are also manual- and automatic-calibration devices using only two points with three pH values in memory. Finally, more sophisticated models, such as pH-mV-ion meters (Hanna Instruments, models HI 4221 and HI 4222) make it possible to calibrate the pH using five points and five specific buffers. These models also provide automatic electrode testing with an instant diagnosis of its aging rate (which makes them interesting when faced with the problem raison at point 2 page 49).

Left, BNC connector; right, ASC connector

Two Types of Electrode Connections (fig. 5) Finally, you must know that a pH-meter’s electrodes can use two different types of connections: ASC (American Standard Connector) or BNC (Bayonet Neill Concelman). On the ASC type, the electrode seems to be already fitted with an internal ATC sensor, but it’s only an impression given by the electrode-connector’s design. Before choosing and plugging in any electrode, make sure to check the back of the pH-meter to see which type, ASC or BNC, should be used. When the electrodes are connected, determine the level of their junction (the plastic casing covering the electrode sometimes makes it difficult to detect the precise level of junction), because it must always be submerged in the solution you wish to test to obtain a reliable reading.

6

CA/CC connection; ATC sensor connection

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It may sound stupid, but properly plugging in a pH-metre is not always obvious. Before plugging in your pH-meter, you need to understand how the electrodes are linked to the sensor. On most pH-meters sold nowadays, the electric connection for CA/CC current is (facing the back of the meter) found at the left and the connection for electrodes is at the right. If your model is equipped with automatic temperature control (ATC), you’ll find in between an outlet for the ATC sensor and perhaps a second outlet to record the references obtained with your successive calibrations. It looks like the sound jack behind a PC computer (where you plug in the speakers). Users who do not pay attention to the connections behind their pH-meter often make a mistake and plug in an independent ATC sensor, even though the electrode is already equipped with ATC-compatibility.

Illustrations by Chris Sheppard

How to Plug-In a pH-Metre (fig. 6)


7

Comparing the pH of Two Solutions: (A) One With a Weak H+ Ion Content, (B) One With a Strong H+ Ion Content (fig. 7) As shown on this graph, when measuring the pH of a solution with a weak hydrogen-ion (H+) concentration, the voltage difference between both electrodes is negligible. When measuring the pH of a solution with a strong hydrogen-ion (H+) concentration, however, the voltage difference between the pH-meter’s two electrodes is significantly higher.

Illustrations by Chris Sheppard & www.fotosimagenes.org

8

Litmus Paper (fig. 8) Litmus paper consists of a strip of filter paper that has been treated with litmus, a mixture of dyes extracted from lichens. These dyes are pH indicators, or substances that change color in response to a change in pH. No color change indicates that the substance is neutral. You’re now ready to use your new pH-meter to keep your nutritive solution at an acidic/alkaline ration that is perfect for the type of plants you grow!


INDUSTRY

‘Big Mike’ Is Speaking Out Interview with Mike Straumietis, co-founder of Advanced Nutrients By Fred Leduc

A while back, when I talked with a scientist from Advanced Nutrients, he kept a few things to himself, saying he didn’t know if Mike Straumietis would like me talking about this or that. So I decided call Mike and ask him.

additional 20 products right there. We’ll bring out 9 right away but there’re 20 products that have been formulated for us.

Fred: Mike, how did you get started in making nutrients? Mike Straumietis: I was supplying other people’s nutrients and we had other lines of bulbs, ballasts, growing mediums. You name it: we had it. Then one day we said, you know what, we could make better nutrients than the people that are out there. Because we knew we could do that. So why not look at bringing in the nutrients, since we were into all the other stuff.

F.: Can you tell me about your specific nutrients for indoor plants? M.S.: Yes, well, once we were established in the marketplace, we started coming out with different varieties. We actually grew indoor plants. Eventually, I’ll take pictures of them and say, if you grow this kind of plant and you use our nutrients this way, this is what you’ll get!

F.: You started out at a hydroponics store?

F.: Every time? M.S.: Yeah, we started selling our stuff in a hydroponics store.

M.S.: I wish I could say every time but there are all these environmental things that go along with it, like diseases and bugs. If the growers use sound growing practices, they can get close to that.

F.: In Canada? M.S.: In Canada. F.: When was that? M.S.: Around 2000? Carbo Load was one of the first products we came out with, and it did real well. There was nothing like it in the marketplace. We started selling more and more nutrients and we thought we should focus on the nutrients and not so much on the equipment end of it, because we had the resources to do it.

F.: As Advanced Nutrients?

F.: So it’s only been about nine years?

M.S.: Yeah, we have over a hundred different products now. We’re coming out with a new line and that’s going to add an

M.S.: We’ve been in business since 1997.

M.S.: No, as Creative Solutions. We brought on Advanced Nutrients around 2000.

M.S.: Yup, Scorpion Juice.

F.: Your product line has grown into quite a number of different products.

M.S.: It’s out now. We’ve been teasing people for a long time with it and it’s out now.

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F.: I heard of a new product called Scorpion Juice?

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F.: When is it going to be out?

F.: Will it help plants go further into the growing season? Make them more frost-resistant?


INDUSTRY M.S.: Not frost-resistant so much as disease-resistant longer towards the end of the cycle. When botrytis (grey mould) would strike, you spray the plant before the botrytis starts; most people know when putting out their plants when the botrytis starts. It’s an antiviral. It’s the first antiviral on the market place. It also kicks in the plants immune system. It’s a systemic required resistance. When the plant is being attacked, you spray Scorpion Juice on the plant and it will quarantine the infected area with a ring of dead cells around it. It also stimulates plants very well in the vegetative stage. You give it to a plant during the vegetative stage and during the flowering stage, every three weeks and it pumps the plant up. The size difference was huge between our controls and the ones we had given Scorpion Juice to. F.: Anything brand new on the horizon, like the next thing you’re going to release?

comes from Japan. It was researched and made by a scientist we once worked with. It combines 88 different plant extracts and it takes three months to make, with the fermentation processes that it has to go through and everything. This is actually Japanese technology. I can’t think of its name, but there is an existing similar product and it’s very expensive. Ours is going to be half the price of the Japanese product. You take one drop per litre. They have a website: these guys are growing horse radishes three or four feet long. They’ve been using this product for years and years in Japan. There are two different companies that make it. No one outside Japan has been using this and we’ll bring it on at a reasonable cost. We looked at the company and we were going to work with them, but they were just too expensive. Our scientist and his friend got at it and were able to nail down the process and now we have our own version of it.

M.S.: The next thing that we’re going to release is something called the Emerald Shaman. It’s a catalyst. The technology

One of the products we’re really excited about is called Ed’s Perfect 10. It’s an all organic bio-stimulant. It’s like liquid karma

on steroids: that’s the only way I could describe it. We took that kind of idea and ran with it even further with more extracts, alfalfa extracts, barley extracts and wheat extracts because they all work with the hormones, and the barley extract is good for fighting algae as well for those who have that big algae problem. F.: Has anybody been asking you about industrial plant? Fibre production? M.S.: Fibre plants, yes. We were going to work with the some people in the industry to put out bags of fertilizer, one for fibre and one for seed. We have two different formulas for that and I didn’t have time to get it in their hands quickly enough to have them test it this year, so I’ll do it next year. F.: You have products ready? M.S.: Oh yeah, we have products ready. I want to field-test them in big acreages and see what the farmers say. I already know what they’re going to say: “Oh we really love this stuff. It works”.

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INDUSTRY F.: Are you borrowing any of these technologies from other parts of the plant industry? M.S.: Yeah, sometimes when we see a product that is being successful, that the people are starting to buy. We’ll usually take that product, have a look at it and do a few other things. We either duplicate it and bring it out at a better price or we make our own version of it – in most cases that’s what we do. We look specifically at indoor plants to see how it works and if it works well. We know so much about gardening products that we could say “add this to it”, “add that to it” and “make it better”, and that helps to form the competition. People like to use different products. You don’t have to use all our products. It’s like a tool chest: you could take this product over here and that product over there and maybe you don’t like that product or you like this product better. I mean we have two different bloom boosters. We have Bloom Booster and we have Big Bud and we sell both of them. Big Bud sells the most, but some people still want to use the Bloom Booster. We have different tools for whatever you’re looking at. Some varieties of plants do better with certain types of nutrients than they do with others.

M.S.: No; it depends on what we’re going for. Sometimes we’re not going for yield, we’re going for oils, for example, and we’re doing all kinds of things. We’re not even looking at yield at all: we’re looking more at how amino acids go, at how carbohydrates go. We had one of our biggest yield with a combination of our products.

M.S.: Oh yeah, all the time. Well not “help me out” but basically they’re willing to try new products before they hit the market. That’s usually the trial test, first to our lab then to actual growers; then it goes on the market.

F.: Do you just use one light?

M.S.: We have a Sensi Pro box that’s idiot proof… well, that’s what we call it. It goes by every week and whatever is in the box, you just throw it into a 100 litre reservoir and mix it up and give it to your plants. It automatically balances the pH level.

M.S.: A thousand watt high-pressure sodium. F.: And how many plants? M.S.: That particular time I believe they were growing 30 plants underneath the light. F.: Do you have growers coming over and going, “hey, help me out”?

M.S.: Not yet. That’s going to be a huge undertaking that’s going to cost us millions of dollars to do, to categorize all that stuff. We’ve slowly been doing it. That will be done in future years.

M.S.: Yeah, a grow room that we actually set up, support, put the equipment in and we run protocols in. F.: In the lab, is there an average yield per light?

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F.: When we started, you said you were getting ready to go around the world. M.S.: Yup. I want to start trailing around the world and selling nutrients. We have distributors in Australia now as well as in Holland and the U.K. The Holland guys are handling Switzerland, Italy and Belgium so I’ll be going all around those areas. F.: Are you getting many international sales in Canada?

F.: Are you providing the information with the product, saying this fertilizer works well for this variety?

F.: You’re getting all the information from your own grow rooms. And do you have a lab in a grow room?

F.: Do you have some kits that are idiot proof?

“Big Bud sells the most but some people still want to use the Bloom Booster.”

M.S.: We can’t keep up with it. We can’t grow a company that fast because whenever you get a new distributor, you have to dump hundreds of thousands dollars worth of nutrients because you have to help carry the product along while it’s in its first stages, before it becomes really popular. It’s crazy. Wherever we go, we become the most popular nutrient for a certain time period. In the U.K. we beat everybody else except Canna. It might take a couple of years to beat Canna in the U.K. but we’ll do it, we’ll be ahead of those guys. It takes a while. We can only grow a company so fast but we’ve received interest from Spain, Germany, and Slovenia. We get people from all over the world who are interested in our nutrients and we just can’t keep up with it. Basically what we’re doing in the next year and half to two years is establishing our worldwide distribution network. Once we get that established then we’ll start pushing some


INDUSTRY of the other things. Once we get the nutrients established, we’ll start getting into some of the other equipment… maybe charcoal filters and fans, that type of stuff that people need and help absorb our worldwide distribution center.

F.: Wow. And nine years ago this company didn’t even exist. M.S.: Well the nutrient end of it didn’t. The selling of the gear did. F.: That was the hydroponics store in Vancouver?

F.: Are you guys thinking about going public any time?

M.S.: Actually in Abottsford. F.: Thanks a lot. You’ve answered everything. I’ll like to call you when you get back. In a couple of weeks?

M.S.: Probably 5 to 7 years from now. F.: And what would the company be then? How big will it be? M.S.: Probably doing between 50 and 70 million a year by then. We want to go public right around that area.

M.S.: No, I’ll be gone for months. Once I get out there, I’ll probably stay there. I’ll go to Australia, and there’s some things in Asia I want to check out, fossil sources for some nutrients and stuff like that. I want to look at some tea makers and cocoa. I might end up in Sri Lanka for a while. But I’ll call you when I get back.

F.: And right now you’re running at around?

(Montreal, QC, Canada, July 2004)

M.S.: Almost 25 million a year.

do do do

“Our new product called Scorpion Juice is out now.”

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MEDICINAL PL ANTS

A Few Common Plants and Their Amazing Properties Useful, Powerful and Miraculous Herbs or Spices

Photo: D.R.

By M. Phobos

ANGELICA (ANGELICA ARCHANGELICA)

The word "aphrodisiac" was derived from the Greek goddess of beauty and love, the attractive Aphrodite, whom the Romans named Venus. The Greeks used a unique word, "pharmakon" to name condiments, aromatic herbs, spices, medicine and aphrodisiacs. Greek mythology refers often to spices or "aphrodisiacs". Here is a short list of a few plants known to bring about a certain kind of happiness... Many people use those plants' virtues through culinary art. Of course, they are also used symbolically— it is not absolutely necessary to consume these plants. A bouquet will suffice. Angelica: The angelica is a member of the Ombelliferae family; it originated in Northern Europe, Corsica, as well as in the Alps and the Pyrenees. It was archangel Raphael who thought humans the angelica's virtues and in the old days, people use to sing its miraculous virtues. It is a tonic for women, and is considered today as the female equivalent to ginseng. Angelica postpones menopause, and hence the body's aging process, and it can help estrogen production continue to an advanced age. It has many powerful properties—in particular, it can fight impotence. Stimulant and tonic, it improves the effectiveness of genitalia. It is antiseptic, digestive, sudorific, carminative and it stimulates the appetite.

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MEDICINAL PL ANTS

Celery: Celery is an unavoidable vegetable. Raw or cooked, it has a delicate flavor. It is an excellent depurative and it stimulates the appetite. Its aphrodisiac virtues, however, are controversial. According to legend, Tristan and Isolde's love potion contained a great quantity of celery. The legendary potion, however, also contained a white two-year old rooster's testicle, wine, fresh mandrake flowers, truffles, crayfish, red pepper, pepper, cumin, thyme and laurel. Celery provokes the contraction of the perineum muscles, which held the penis get erect. No substance in celery, however, seems responsible for such virtues. Perhaps the most important aspect is that the person eating celery or feeding celery to his or her love object believe in its power.

CLOVE (SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM)

CELERY (APIUM SATIVUM)

“If women knew what celery does to men, they would fetch it from Paris to Rome.� (Old French saying)

Clove: Cloves come from the aromatic flower of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum. In fact, they are nothing but the floral buds of the clove-tree, a tropical tree that can reach 15 metres high. In India, the clove-trees have been used for perfumes for millennia. The clove's uses are many: it is a local anaesthetic used for its bactericide properties. It is used in making kohl, it is found in gingerbread, marinades and wine sauces. It can be made into a very strong tea (10 cloves for one cup). To delicately perfume your cupboards, take an orange or make a fabric ball filled with spices and ambergris. Plant enough cloves in it for the fabric or the peal not to be visible. Hand this amber apple in your cupboards or in a room. It smells good and purifies the air. If you use a fabric ball and insert a few grains of ambergris, the perfume emitted becomes mightily aphrodisiac.

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MEDICINAL PL ANTS

Globe Artichoke: As the mythology goes, Jupiter once fell in love with Cynara, a beautiful girl with ash-golden hair who would not have him. To punish her, he transformed her into the Cynara scolymus, the artichoke. The Romans and Greeks cultivated it thousands of years ago on the Mediterranean. In the shadow of the Middle Ages, the artichoke crossed the Alps because of Catherine di Medici. Already at the age of 14, she refused the royal doctors' advice, who forbade the consumption of the aphrodisiac artichoke for fear of its terrible consequences on the mind. Catherine had herself prepared little meat pies garnished with artichoke, containing young rooster liver and crest. Nonetheless, the artichoke was long considered a luxury item. It was introduced in Louisiana by the French and in California by the Spanish. It is found in Chile and in Buenos Aires' pampa.

GLOBE ARTICHOKE (CYNARA SCOLYMUS)

Five Flavor Berry: The Chinese fructus schisandrae is a climbing ornemental native to forests of Northern China and the Russian Far East. Its berries possess all five basic flavors: salty, sweet, sour, pungent (spicy), and bitter. That’s why their usual name is literally "five flavor berries". They are used in traditional Chinese medicine and they allegedly tone the kidneys and heart. A fruit wine made from the berries is also considered an aphrodisiac because it regularizes a failing sex drive and increases sexual energy and physical endurance.

FRUCTUS SCHISANDRAE CHINENSIS

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Photos: Bruno Bredoux, www.rhs.org.uk & www.winwellcorp.com

COW PARSNIP (HERACLEUM MAXIMUM)

Cow Parsnip: Cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum) or Indian celery, a plant from the Ombelliferae family, was dedicated to Hercule during the Antiquity, in memory of his strength. The meaning of its name literally is “belonging to Hercules”. However, the French name for the same plant (“berce”) comes from the Polish bartszez, a bitter drink, half beer and half soup. The Poles boiled it and fermented the leaves and seeds. Cow parsnip is widely spread throughout Europe and most of the continental United States except the Gulf Coast. It prefers cool spots, hedges, the sides of brooks. Cow parsnip is decidedly diuretic, and expectorant, but in large doses it is also a narcotic. It is menses-inducing, digestive and re-establishes hormonal balance. Its aphrodisiac properties are its most interesting: it is tonic, stimulating, exciting—it stimulates the sex drive and brings pleasure back to love games. It was Henri Leclerc (1870–1955)—a famous French historian who introduced the terminology of phytotherapy into medical science—who discovered its exciting and aphrodisiac virtues.


MEDICINAL PL ANTS Cinnamon: Cinnamon is perhaps the oldest of spices. It is mentioned in a botanical text dating back from 2,700 B.C. The Romans bought it in Asian markets at a very high price. In the Middle Ages it was used to perfume wines, stews and sauces. Today it is mainly used in baking and for hot wine. In the past, cinnamon has been held in esteem for its powerful medicinal qualities. It is a delicacy and a natural aphrodisiac. Since Ancient times, as a warming spice, it is said to help in the games of love and to increase appetite, both physical and sexual.

CINNAMON TREE (CINNAMOMUM VERUM) Green Pea: The green pea is the small spherical seed of the pod fruit Pisum sativum. Green peas are loaded with vitamins A, B-1, B-6, and C. They are powerhouses of nutrition and give you tons of concentrated nutriments for superior health benefits. In the Antiquity, green peas were commonly considered aphrodisiacs. In fact, according to theories of the Roman physician Galen, foods worked as aphrodisiacs if they were "warm and moist" and also "windy," meaning they produced flatulence. And green peas are indeed flatulent causing green vegetables. Try them!

TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA)

Photos: D.R. & www.visoflora.com

GREEN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM)

“J’ay pois en cosse touz noviaux [I Have Freshly Picked Peas Still in Their Pod].”

(French poet Guillaume de Villeneuve, 13th Century)

Turmeric: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is often referred to as "India's saffron". It is a perennial tropical herb, to 1m tall, with underground rhizomes. Turmeric looks just as great in the garden as it tastes on the table. It is a cousin spice of ginger and many dishes mostly use its rhizome as a starter ingredient. Fresh, it is white, but once dried, after steaming and being ground, it becomes golden yellow. Turmeric is at the core of the mixture we call curry. It has been extensively used in India, China and South Eastern Asia since Antiquity. In Europe, it was mostly used to dye wool and silk: it gives fabric a nice orange yellow color. In the Far East, monks still use it to dye their robes. Turmeric is also known as a Kama Sutra aphrodisiac food for honeymooners and romantic dates. In Sri Lanka, sometimes turmeric is used to disinfect the skin, hospital floors, or to act as an anti-microbial in food.

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GROWING EXPERIMENT

Echinocactus williamsii Philosophy & Cultivation By Soma

INTRODUCTION

CULTIVATION

A Plant With Sacred Connotations

Cultivating Echinocactus williamsii

Echinocactus williamsii or peyote is a sacred plant. We have much to learn from sacred plants and, as humans, we should devote as much time as possible to them. Unfortunately, this cactus has become an endangered species. In the wild, it requires particularly stable natural conditions to grow to maturity, and the regions where it can grow wild are becoming more and more rare. We can, with much patience and a light touch, grow it indoors. Outdoors, in its natural endemic zones, it is suggested not to harvest it. If it has been previously dried by an association owning a right to harvest it, you can use the cactus, as is, in many recipes. Otherwise do not decimate the wild populations of Echinocactus williamsii or use your own harvest.

Echinocactus williamsii is easy to grow. Just like any other cactus, it will require gypsum or dolomite mixed into the soil to stimulate and allow flowering (approximately one level tablespoon per gallon of substrate). The following mix has been evaluated and found satisfactory: 1/3 washed silica sand (similar to beach sand), 1/3 sifted peat, 1/3 perlite, well mixed. The moment when the seeds are planted is of little importance, since young plantlets can be incorporated into any adequate environment if they are given sufficient time to adapt.

One way to participate in the preservation of the Echinocactus williamsii species is activism, which you can do by joining and/or supporting the 250,000-plus members strong Native American Church. Church members use Echinocactus williamsii according to very precise rules that are so strict they should never threaten the species’ survival. The Native American Church had made a church sacrament of Echinocactus williamsii before the plant started suffering from the ecological degradations that have now forced it onto the list of threatened plant species. The more people grow peyote, the more seeds will be available in the future! Do not hesitate to add this small cactus to your “small friends with spikes” home collection.

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Peyote seeds must be placed directly on the surface of the substrate and be covered by a thin layer of sand. Place pots in a shallow container, such as a terrarium, filled with tepid water to humidify the substrate. If at all possible, the temperature should be maintained around 26 or 27 °C. The fluorescent lamp must stay on 18 hours per day. Humidity must be kept at between 60 and 90% inside the terrarium and each pot can be covered with a perforated sandwich bag (Ziploc-style) to create condensation (and hence humidity, but in a form that is difficult to control; it would be preferable to spray the lower part of the plant once in a while.) Seed germination occurs three to ten days after the seeding. At first, small round and green growths will appear; a trained eye will distinguish the cotyledons and the first group of areoles.


GROWING EXPERIMENT

Peyote flower

Button-like peyote in bloom

(Cultivation tip: plant a tooth-pick above each seed to find the emerging baby cactus with more ease.) Applying a fungicide, if done adequately, will not only eliminate excess humidity, but will sometimes save the entire crop. It will also allow the peyote to grow with little supervision, and will make its growth uniform and constant until the cactus is transplanted. Luckily, the plant itself never absorbs non systemic fungicides. Fungicide is only necessary during the first four months of growth. MULTIPLICATION Grafting Echinocactus williamsii Grafting is another cultivation method. Peyote buttons can be grafted on to a San Pedro cactus, allowing them to grow six times as quickly. In Europe, one can buy a peyote cactus in many specialized shops as well as in stores selling ethnobotanical herbs. In North America, one can find them on specialized web sites. The detailed grafting method will be explained in an upcoming issue of this magazine. One the peyote buttons are growing, it can be wonderful to create a cacti garden next to a sun-lit window. Set up a nice shelf or use a properheight table. Spread clean white beach sand on the shelf or table, add some crystals and shells, add some other exotic plants, and take pleasure out of Feng Shui, peyote-style. NOTE Not To Be Confused: Peyote, Mescal And Mescaline Mescal (mexcalli in Nahuatl) is a Mexican alcohol produced by fermentation and distillation of the juice from various agaves. It is also a Mexican dish, prepared with the fleshy leaves and juicy stems of some agaves, which are cooked gently for a very long time. In the Mexican Indian Nahuatl’s language, the inflorescences of Echinocactus williamsii are called mès-kàl´, or mescal buttons, but this has nothing to do with the alcohol or dish that bear the same name. In this case only is mès-kàl´ a synonym of peyote. As for mescaline, it is the main alkaloid in Echinocactus williamsii.

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PL ANT HISTORY

Heading Out the Huichol Way By Drew Fergusson

The teachings of the shaman kept spinning through my mind like an overloaded washing machine. Respect, the word kept clunking off my cerebrum as I made my way to the desert for what could be the journey to find my life. Chaos had led me to an unfamiliar path, the Huichol way. I swear it had nothing to do with the Freaks Brothers. It was time to put the shambles of my life aside and allow respect to enter into the equation. Respect the Huichol

cacti, I had read, and it will help me with a state of consciousness that aids in the quest for spiritual enlightenment, opening the door to the fundamental interconnectedness that is life on Earth. Such are the beliefs of the Huichol Indians of Mexico. The Huichol are based in the mountainous regions of northern Mexico. Numbering around 19 000,

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they are reputed to be the last indigenous group in North America that continues to follow their pre-Columbian customs. It could be said that they stick to their guns, but they don't. The Huichol have no history of warfare throughout their existence.

Photos: Š 2004, Da Proba, D.R., www.peyoteway.org & www.culturacolectiva.com

I Made My Way To The Desert...


PL ANT HISTORY

“For the Huichol, cacti represent the free and spiritual part of life and their use facilitates the communication with the spirits.�

Photos D.R. & www.travelbymexico.com

The Experience Responds Uniquely to The Needs of The Huichol People A significant part of their traditions revolves around their shaman's teachings, through the use of indigenous cacti, of understanding how to live in peace with both the physical and spiritual worlds. The tenets of the local cacti ceremony center on communicating with the spirits that surround the shamans, in efforts to help their collective lives and that of the Universe. For the Huichol, cacti represent the free and spiritual part of life and their use facilitates the communication with the spirits by letting them become known and accessible in everyday life.

Central to this communication is the use of the local cactus. Lophophora williamsii is a small cactus that grows wild in the desert regions that connect central Mexico to Texas. The buttons (the above ground position) of the plant are harvested and eaten fresh or brewed into a tea. Diverse compounds found in the plant are considered to be active ingredients.

The experience with the plant is said to bring about a state where consciousness can shift and perception is modified. The effects of the plant are slow. These cacti are a very bitter substance. The experience responds uniquely to the needs of the Huichol people. Inner peace, increased mental activity and awareness are

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PL ANT HISTORY

The Ceremonies Help The Huichol Learn Respect For All Forms of Life Only a small number of the Huichol make the annual pilgrimage to collect the revered cacti. The journey to Wirkuta (the Field of Flowers), the sacred region where the cacti grow in abundance, is hundreds of miles long. The trek is led by a mara-a'kame, a shaman. The shaman is in contact with Tatewari (Grandfather Fire), the oldest of their Gods. Tatewari helps the shaman by interpreting the wisdom of the deities. The shaman passes this knowledge to the trekkers over the course of their journey.

Photos: Š 2004, Da Proba, D.R., Didier Pol & Soma

common. These effects are reflected in the artwork of the Huichol. The uses of these cacti have a strong connection to the natural world. Specific messages are delivered to the users through their contacts with plants, animals and even personable creatures.

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PL ANT HISTORY

Photos: © 2004, Da Proba, D.R., Didier Pol & Drew Fergusson

“Only the cacti cultivated in the traditional manner can be used for the Huichol spiritual needs.” This wisdom is used so that the Huichol can find their lives as both individuals and as a people. This pilgrimage is as old as the Huichol and is a fundamental aspect of their culture as only the cacti cultivated in this traditional manner can be used for their spiritual needs. The use of the cacti by the Huichol is in no way a form of escapism. The cacti are used as a teaching tool for the participants. Personal issues are addressed in the ceremonies so those individuals can work towards a more complete understanding of their reality.

The ceremonies help the Huichol learn respect for all forms of life. They believe that this knowledge will help their future and that of their children. Through their ceremonies, the Huichol have developed the belief that all of life is connected and that every individual is in fact a small-scale Universe. As a result of these connections, life exists in a delicate balance. This balance is to be respected so that life can continue in harmony. They also feel that non-Huichols would do well to follow the teachings of this hallowed plant so that humanity can head towards a saner existence.

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AGRICULTURE

s e m i T y l l o o W e

Th

...And Now Wool Growers Have Their Own Magazine! By AP

“We were trying to keep it in the Western states, but we can't do it,” Bellinger said recently. “It's gone national. There was a need for it. I had no idea.” That need is confirmed by the encouraging e-mails Bellinger receives from readers all over the country, many of them praising her for the fact that The Woolly Times is printed on plain paper, not the slick kind used by most magazines. “People are sending in articles,” Bellinger said, “and I'm afraid if it were a slick publication, they wouldn't do that. They

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might be too intimidated. The best part is working with new writers.” The fall issue features stories and columns on a welfare-to-work weaving program, raising alpacas and angora goats, preventing fiber moths and knitting socks. There's also a piece about famed Los Alamos knitter Valentina Devine.

The Woolly Times also has letters to the editor, Bellinger's own folksy “From the Editor” piece and display and classified ads. Not to be overlooked is the cover by Los Ojos artist Paul Trachtman, a drawing titled “Sheep in La Puente.” A free-lance writer for Santa Fe's newspaper, The New Mexican, and a resident of Pecos, Bellinger published her first article in a national magazine 25 years ago. She has since written for local, regional and national publications as well as for radio and television. She also has written a novel about a troubled teenage girl who moves to a sheep ranch.

Photos: © 2001, The Woolly Times

Cindy Bellinger's new The Woolly Times magazine “connects wool growers and fiber folks throughout the West... and then some,” the publication's masthead says. It's the “then some” that amazes Bellinger: the quarterly publication, in just its second issue, is already reaching a much wider audience than she imagined it would.


AGRICULTURE

In addition to writing, Bellinger dyes the yarn she spins, makes her own clothes—and loves sheep, even though she doesn't have any right now. “But I'm definitely moving in that direction,” she said. Growing up on the California coast, Bellinger recalls she had to have a lamb. She was 14 and while her friends were joining the yacht club, Bellinger recalled, she joined 4-H and asked her father to build a sheep pen inside her horse corral. Thirty-six years later, Bellinger said, she is still “crazy about sheep.” “The idea for The Woolly Times came to me during a spinning class,” Bellinger said. “I first thought of doing a counter page for knitting and weaving stores and then a newsletter.” From there, Bellinger added, the idea developed into a magazine “that's taking over my life. It really is the craziest thing I've ever done.”

“If that happens, it would allow me to spend more time on editorial details,” said Bellinger, who would like to turn over the responsibility of advertising sales to an ad team she is putting together. “I'm doing a lot of the sales right now,” she said. Bellinger prints 4,000 copies and mails the magazine all over the United States, using mailing lists she received from spinning and weaving guilds. The first issue of the publication was free, but Bellinger is encouraging readers to subscribe to The Woolly Times, which costs $12 for four issues. As she prepares for the third issue, Bellinger said she's glad things have gone so well. Next month Bellinger will fly to California to interview a woman who raises silkworms. She says she's enjoying meeting people in the fiber culture, many of whom are buying plots of land to raise such fiber animals as sheep, goats and alpacas. “That the magazine is quickly reaching this growing niche tells me its time has come,” she said.

Source: Amarillo Globe-News (via AP)

Illustrations: www.easyvectors.com & www.vectorstock.com

Bellinger, who moved to New Mexico in 1979 from southern Colorado, is financing the magazine from her own pocket; it costs more than $2,000 per issue to design, print and

circulate. She recently heard from an Arizona man who might be interested in investing in the publication.

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SYNCHRONICITY

The Dark Side Of

OZ ? By Gino Lechasseur

ome say that the famous Pink Floyd album "The Dark Side of the Moon" was specifically recorded to sync to the MGM movie "The Wizard of Oz". In the following pages, we are examining the phenomenon (or urban legend) known as “The Dark Side of Oz”... and debunking the myth!

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SYNCHRONICITY

ou’ve always wanted a great pounding heart, a brain with a superior IQ, or courage for two? Doesn’t that sound familiar? Yes, you’re getting there! We may have grown all over Canada, but few among us have never seen the movie The Wizard of Oz. Produced in 1939 by MGM Studios and directed by Victor Flemming, it was one of the first movies to use to Technicolor process. Inspired by a famous children’s book by L. Frank Baum dating from 1900, the movie tells the adventures of a young girl, Dorothy, and her dog, Toto. They are brought far beyond the rainbow by a tornado, to the country of Oz. To return home to Kansas, Dorothy will have to vanquish many obstacles, and along the road she’ll make friends: a lumberjack made of tin, a scarecrow without a brain and a lion without courage. Dorothy travels in a magical and strange world, where the eternal forces of good and evil struggle, with evil taking the shape of witches, monsters and flying monkeys. To make this more interesting, let’s bring Pink Floyd into the mix. The legendary group doesn’t need an introduction. In 1973, Pink Floyd released a pearl: The Dark Side of the Moon album. At this point, you’re looking for a link with the Wizard of Oz, aren’t you? Well the two are not as estranged as it seems. Two topics, two mediums, with different fans and from a different era, and yet they come together. Nobody knows quite why, but if you use the Pink Floyd album as a soundtrack for the movie, you will experience a rare phenomenon, strange enough for some to call it eerie. The album’s songs comment the movie, cling to the action and to the characters’ evolution, give scenes a new meaning. Perfect synchronism. Where does that discovery come from? Nobody really knows. The most probable explanation, which is generally accepted by the Dark Side of Oz fans, is that someone, a fan of both the movie and the album, combined the two by coincidence, during a home viewing in the seventies. His motivation remains a mystery, but keep in mind that in the seventies, people liked to do that kind of thing, letting their mind bathe in various substances, both intoxicating and illegal.

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SYNCHRONICITY

he phenomenon gained slowly in popularity until it was broadly diffused in the mid-1990’s, when an American D.J. mentioned the combo on a local radio station. The movie, with its Pink Floyd soundtrack, has since been shown in many independent movie theatres, all across North America. Even the urban legend has its own legend. So what is so fantastic about the experience? Simply, and almost continuously, a plunge in the fourth dimension. The album’s lyrics fit the movie’s scenes. The album’s story offers a new narrative, while the speed and rhythm follow the moods, attitudes and actions of the characters on the screen. Sometimes, you’d swear Roger Waters’ lyrics are spoken by the characters. Many are sceptical, but once the phenomenon has been experiences, all doubts vanish. What spell are we under? One of the first theories—a rumour, really—was that Roger Waters had been inspired by the movie and its projection when he recorded the album with the group. Waters has denied this many times over the years, saying that synchronising an entire album, to the second, with a movie, would be a gigantic and extremely difficult task. Even though he is a fan of the movie, Waters said this synchronisation would be a life’s work, and the phenomenon is simply a coincidence. Less than satisfied with this explanation? We all are, and that is why many strive to solve the mystery. Theories abound all over the Net. Recent technology has made the synchronisation relatively easy to realize. In the 1970’s, however, available equipment was not as sophisticated. Those who remember Super 8 cameras and eight tracks will find it hard to believe that a group such as Pink Floyd would have wasted their time on a task that could only have mediocre results. On top of that, when the album was still being put together, the members of the group had trouble agreeing on how to put it together, length-wise: either as one piece, one song after another, or separately, with a pause between the songs. It’s another reason to believe that they had not planned the synchronism ahead of time. What to think of all this? Unfortunately, we will never have a definite answer. The hallucinatory experience, however, is cheaper than a trip to the Bermuda Triangle, and easier to make happen than a chance meeting with a ghost, so just try it!

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SYNCHRONICITY

ere is a list of some examples of the “coincidences” between the movie and the music: • The line “balanced on the biggest wave” comes as Dorothy balances on the fence. • The song “On the Run” starts as Dorothy falls off the fence. • “The Great Gig in the Sky” begins when the tornado first appears. • The song “Us and Them” is played when Dorothy meets the Wicked Witch of the West. • The line “black and blue” is repeated when they are talking to one another (Dorothy in her blue outfit, the Wicked Witch in black). • The line “the lunatic is on the grass...” coincides with Dorothy meeting the Scarecrow. • As the Scarecrow sings “If I Only Had a Brain”, Pink Floyd sing “Brain Damage”. • Side 1 of the original vinyl album (up to the end of “The Great Gig in the Sky”) is exactly as long as the black and white portion of the film. • As Dorothy listens to the Tin Man’s chest, the album ends with the famous heartbeat sound effect. Special Screenings In the recent years, a number of theaters have had special showings of The Wizard of Oz synchronized with The Dark Side of the Moon. Some theaters, such as the Rosebud Cinema Drafthouse in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, have shown this as a midnight movie. A retrospective of film adaptations of L. Frank Baum’s Oz books by the Ryder Film Series at Indiana University included a showing of The Wizard of Oz synchronized with Dark Side of the Moon in July 2000. The Blinding Light Cinema in Vancouver showed “Dark Side of the Rainbow”, as it is also sometimes called, in February 2001. After being damaged by fire, the Neon in Dayton, Ohio, reopened with a special showing of The Wizard of Oz synchronized with Dark Side of the Moon in February 2001. The most elaborate production occurred, appropriately enough, in Kansas at the Topeka Performing Arts Center in August 2000—a laser show with admission costing $17. (Source: www.turnmeondeadman.net)

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SYNCHRONICITY “I haven’t [watched The Wizard of Oz synchronized with Dark Side of the Moon]. But I hope someone else will do it when I’m there. I can never quite be bothered to do it. I can assure you we never worked with the film when we were working on the track. That would be so convoluted a way of making a record.” Nick Mason – November 2001

nstructions for “The Dark Side of Oz” Experiment Required material: • 1 CD The Dark Side of the Moon, by Pink Floyd (released in 1973, recently re-released for its thirtieth anniversary) (Note: The live Pulse album contains all of The Dark Side of the Moon, but will not work. Neither will the CD you made yourself from MP3s. Tapes and records are not recommended either.) • 1 VHS or DVD version of The Wizard of Oz (1939), with Judy Garland. And now, come aboard, the trip is about to begin! 1) Put your The Dark Side of the Moon CD in your CD player; 2) Press on “repeat“ to continue the experience once the CD has played in its entirety; 3) Adjust the volume to your liking, but remember that the results will be evidenced by a louder sound. 4) Pause the CD at exactly 0:00 of the first song. 5) Insert the tape in the VCR or the DVD in your player. Mute the television sound or turn the volume completely down. 6) Press on “play” on the VCR or DVD player. When the MGM lion starts to roar for a third time, press “pause”. This step is crucial to the synchronization. 7) When the words “produced by Mervyn Leroy” slowly vanish, the transition between the songs Speak To Me and Breathe should coincide exactly. If the movie and the CD are not perfectly in synch, you’ll figure it out at that moment. It is worth starting over even if you are only two seconds off, to fully experience this. Send us your comments on your own “Dark Side of Oz” experience at: submit@tigmag.com! (Photos: D.R., © MGM & © Warner Home Video)

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HERE! This page is reserved for your ads or other promotional projects. Contact our sales representatives for information. sales@tigmag.com www.tigmag.com

THE INDOOR GARDENER MAGAZINE • Postal Station Saint-Michel • P.O. Box 183 • Montreal, QC, H2A 3L9, CANADA Tel.: (514) 728-8118 • Fax: (514) 728-1840


MUSIC

KALIROOTS

A SHORT HISTORY OF KÉBEC ICONIC REGGAE BAND Courtesy of www.kaliroots.com

Kaliroots is an eleven musician world music band from Quebec. They are the first French-language reggae band to succeed and earn recognition from rastamen all over the world. While the genre has always generated interest among Quebec artists over the years, especially among young singers in the seventies, few fully identified with this style. You can count on the fingers of one hand the reggae tunes from the likes of Claude Dubois, Boule Noire, Pierre Bertrand, the Colocs and Rudeluck, for instance. Things started to change in the mid-nineties. In 1995, Alain Peddie met Sean Hill, a Jamaican friend, and together they created the band Rootsy Kali, a reggae-influenced group. After playing for some time at student parties, the two went their separate ways but Alain had caught reggae fever and would not quit. With other musicians whose primarily interests were in various musical forms, one in classical music, another one in jazz, or a third one in rock songs, Alain put together a new group and named it Kaliroots, an inversion of his first group’s name. They soon became a local attraction climbing on stage every Friday night at the Jailhouse Rock Cafe during the summer of 1997.

In 2001, the group won the Félix for best world music artist of the

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Kaliroots in concert at Woodstock-en-Beauce, June 2003.

Photos: Bruno Bredoux & D.R.

In February 1998, at the Medley Club in Montreal, they played the first gig for the legendary Wailers, Bob Marley’s musicians. At the same time, they recorded their first serious demo CD under the title Roots Rock Kébec. Some of the tracks from this album were among the very first distribution successes in a mp3 format on the Internet in Quebec. In the summer of 1998, Kaliroots resumed its weekly parties, this time, at the Medley, one of the city’s most famous stages. They launched their self-produced album Rien à perdre in May 2000 and performed at several important festivals such as Woodstock-en-Beauce Festival, Festival des Musiques du monde de Lévis, Montreal’s Francofolies and the Journées québécoises de la solidarité internationale.


MUSIC

The current members of the band are: • Philippe Dalpé: tenor saxophone; • Daniel Deslauriers: bass; • Carole Facal: backing singer (since september 2000); • Dorianne Fabreg: backing singer (since september 2000); • Jean-Sébastien Girard: organ, keyborads, clavinet; • Sébastien Jean: trumpet (since september 2000); • Alexis Messier: guitar; • Alain Peddie: lead singer, guitar; • Martin Renaud: drum; • David Robidoux: percussions (since september 2000); • Jean-François Thibault: trombone.

Past members:

Photos: www.kaliroots.com & D.R.

• Karim Ama: percussions (1996-2000); • Yanick Garon: guitar (1996-2000); • Georges Parent: trumpet (1996-2000); • Simon Lavoie: trombone (1996-2000).

year at the ADISQ Awards (Quebec’s Grammys). This recognition prompted them to release an instrumental dub version of Rien à perdre entitled Kaliroots Dub (2002). In 2003, for D.E.P., a label famous for the quality of its productions, they recorded a new album in Washington, at the studio owned by Jim Fox, a reference among reggae musicians. Junior Marvin, of the Wailers, joined them for this recording session and subsequently for a series of concerts. This second album of original material, Mission Internationale, was released in June 2004. The band has toured regularly since. Their style is decidedly 100% Québécois and 200% reggae. Twice, they received the accolade of the legendary Wailers, for whom they had already opened a show in 1998 at the Medley. Last year, at Woodstock-en-Beauce Festival, Junior Marvin attended yet another of their concerts. And as the saying goes, “When the Wailers agree, it’s gotta be good!”

The official Website of Kaliroots contains the latest news about the band, upcoming concerts, films and a list of their current projects. Kaliroots was performing last May 1st at the MMM 2004 in Montreal. They even shot their new music video in the streets during the demonstration... Just find out if you're in the video on the Web! They will embark on a tour later this year to celebrate the release of their last album, Mission Internationale. Kaliroots has what it takes to make it outside the francophone sphere. So far, however, they prefer to lead a family life within their community rather than live the rock star life all over the world. Make sure to download their mp3 on their Website! Discography • 1998: Roots Rock Kébec • 2000: Rien à perdre • 2002: Kaliroots Dub • 2004: Mission Internationale

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SHOPPING

HORTICULTURAL NOVELTIES

Adjust-AWings® Reflectors

AquaJet is the first aeroponic system that combines efficiency and convenience. Its 2' x 4' expandable concept allows to add or remove sections to fit your needs. Thanks to their small size, sections are easier to carry than competitor systems. With this system, you will enjoy the beauty of 18 native and exotic plants growing together in a 21 1/2" x 45 1/4" table. The post harvest cleaning is also simplified. Manufactured by FloraCorp, and available exclusively in Eastern Canada from Biofloral. – Biofloral

Launched by Australia’s Accent Hydroponics a few years ago, Adjust-A-Wings reflectors are beyond compare when it comes to covering the lighting needs of a 1.2 m by 1.8 m growing unit, and they can be very close to the tip of the plants. Because of its shape, its size and its covering (cooked pain in white or silver), the Adjust-A-Wings reflector ensures that the heat emitted by the lamps will never remain captive in the reflector but is rather evenly distributed in the room. Accent Hydroponic has also designed a heat diffuser, the heat Shield, which adapts to the Adjust-A-Wings series. The Heat Shield diffuser is made of white metal and covered with the same type of paint as the reflectors. It is also specked with tiny holes which filtrate the heat emitted by sodium lamps. Fixed to the reflector, the diffuser is at an angle, which allows it to diffuse the heat above the grow room instead of having it concentrated under the bulb. No more problems with uncontrollable temperatures caused by the extra heat from the lamps. Depending on the reflector's opening angle, you can offer your plants between 40 and 60 watts per square foot. – L.-C. L.

Atami / B’Cuzz Cultivation Trays Atami / B’Cuzz cultivation tray is an innovative and rugged support, allowing for many cultures. It seems to say "here I am!", which happens to be the literal translation of "Atami"! Request the Atami cultivation tray, with the Atami brand name on the side. – L.-C. L.

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Clearex Nutrient salts can build up over time creating a toxic condition in your hydroponic media or potted plants. A great frontline defense, Clearex loosens the bond between nutrient salts and your growing media to allow thorough leaching of salt deposits. – Botanicare

Photos: Biofloral, Accent Hydroponics, Atami & Botanicare

AquaJet Aeroponics System


SHOPPING A New Deer Protection Device: Deer Tech 880 What can you do to win the battle against hungry deer when, in October, your harvest is nearly ready and the result of your summer efforts will be rewarded with a beautiful yield? Don’t let those stupid but tough mammals destroy your crop! Nature Technologies, an American company, proposes Deer Tech 880, a new ultrasonic device that keeps deer away from your outdoor garden. Deer Tech 880 protects your plants, flowers, shrubs, trees as well as your elaborated landscaping or plantations. It uses a patented ultrasonic technology to overload the predator alarm senses of deer. It is also scientifically proven safe for pets and song birds: only deer will leave your property. Visit: www.naturetechnologies.com or call: 1-800-701-1244. – V.G. (Source: NYT)

Farmer's Blend

Farmer’s Blend for Soil or Soilless Agriculture

A brand new product distributed by La Ferme Matthews in St. Andre d'Argenteuil (Quebec), Farmer’s Blend was first developed in Europe by top agricultural scientists for soil or soilless agriculture. This product contains a combination of nutrients blended to promote healthy growth of most ornamental plants and vegetables and will also promote a heavy yield of flowers and fruits. Everything needed is conveniently in one bottle; there is no need to mix three or four different fertilizers. For more information, call 1 450 562-7250 or write to: lafermematthews@aol.com. – V.G. (Source: La Ferme Matthews)

Photos: La Ferme Matthews, General Hydroponics & D.R.

pH Test Indicator: Solution pH Tester

GH FloraKleen®: Salt-Clearing Solution

General Hydroponics’ pH Test Kits make pH testing easy. Simply fill a test-tube halfway with nutrient, add a few drops of pH Test Indicator, and observe the coloration of the liquid in the test vial. Many experienced growers prefer our pH Test Kit to expensive electronic meters because of its reliability and ease of use, which are important factors when the health of a valuable crop is at stake. pH Test Indicator is available in 8 oz. – L.C.

Dissolves accumulated fertilizer salts. Reduces plant stress caused by excess and imbalanced nutrients. Releases nutrient bonds between plants and systems, also correcting nutrient lock-out. Use it as a final flush a few days before harvest to promote maturation and sugaring. Safe for all systems and media while plants are growing. FloraKleen removes fertilizer residue that can accumulate over time in hydroponic systems, growing media, and potting soils. Use FloraKleen monthly to purge your hydroponic system or potted plants of excess salts that can accumulate as a result of regular fertilizer application. FloraKleen is an excellent final flush, and can be used at any time to dissolve mineral and salt build-up. Its high concentration and low price make FloraKleen the economical choice for maintaining your plants in both hydroponic and soil-based environments. FloraKleen is available in 1 quart, 1 gallon, 2.5 gallon and 6 gallon sizes. – L.C.

Submit Your Product Review If you would like to send us your company news item or new product releases for publication, please submit your text and pictures with any additional information at submit@tigmag.com.

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THE INDOOR GARDENER


SHOPPING

With Plasmaponix : Dare to Grow! Innovation is the name of the game for 2005! After the Apollo system, a table that turns a full 360 degrees, and the rotary system Orbio3, here come the Plasmapockets. Plasmaponix’s new pocket for vertical growing is now on the market. The goal: making you dare to grow where no one has grown before: in vertically suspended pockets. The pockets are soft, and are suspended one above the other with shower curtain hooks. The watering system is comprised of a 6 millimeter hose to properly irrigate the plants. Inserting mesh pots or 8 centimeter rock wool cubes into the pocket is ideal to facilitate nutrient access for the root mass. To drain? Simply install a gutter at the base, or a T connection system with a one centimeter hose. The hose will bring the water to other plants or rather to the central recuperation system, where it will be re-oxygenated and recycled. Plasmaponix is an intelligent and innovative system that should tickle your imagination! – J.C.

The new 100% organic bat guano 0-2-0 from Herb Science is an exclusive and excellent organic fertilizer developed by Hydrotimes in Canada. The bat guano, or bat manure, is only made with the excrement of fruit eating bats. This natural fertilizer stimulates flowering, improves fruit color and texture, and increases fruit size and weight. The product is completely soluble in the nutritive solution, and is consequently and rapidly absorbed by the plants. The bat guano is best used when applied 4 to 6 weeks in anticipation of the flowering stage. – J.C.

Awesome Blossoms (2-11-11) was scientifically designed to meet the needs of all vigorously flowering plants. A superior formulation of micro elements, phosphates, and 2% humic acids. Awesome Blossoms is a concentrated liquid that’s easy to apply effectively. Regular application of Awesome Blossoms throughout the flowering phase will help your plants achieve maximum flowering density with a rich color and a beautiful bouquet. It’s best to begin using Awesome Blossoms as soon as flowering buds appear. – L.-C. L.

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The secret of Bigfoot has finally been revealed! Bigfoot Veg A (1.5-0-2.6) and Veg B (0.5-0.55) help plants grow big and strong, while pH-balanced Bigfoot Blossom A (2-0-2) and Blossom B (1-0.6-2) promote big yields and blooms during the latter stages of development. This Dutch-style nutrient formula is the Canadian A + B product that’s sweeping North America with multiple sightings in grow rooms across the continent! Is it growing in yours? The 2-part vegetative/blossom formula is highly concentrated, easy to use, pH balanced and will help you save money while you’re making profits! Proudly made in Canada, Bigfoot Nutrients are “helping plants thrive since 1990”. Now available at National Garden Wholesale. For a distributor near you, call 1-866-445-4436. – B.B.

Photos: Plasmaponix, Hydrotimes, Technaflora & Bigfood Nutrients

Bigfoot Nutrients

Awesome Blossoms

THE INDOOR GARDENER

New 100% Organic Bat Guano 0-2-0 from Herb Science


HERB SCIENCE

100% ORGANIC BAT GUANO 0-2-0

NEW!NEW!NEW!NEW! * Stimulates flowering * Rapidly absorbed * Improves fruit color and texture * Increases fruit size and weight * Completely soluble * Available formats: 250ml, 500ml, 1L, 4L, 10L, 20L

Distributors welcome

Contact Jeff : 450-688-4848


Q&A Our Indoor Gardening and Hydroponics Experts Are Here to Help! You have questions, we have answers. In our upcoming issues of The Indoor Gardener Magazine, our Q&A section will be a recurring feature aiming to help gardeners and the indoor gardening community members! In this sample issue, we share some tips and tricks. You can already send your questions for our next issue. All you need to do is ask. Send your questions to: submit@tigmag.com.

Healthy Plants Begin with Healthy Seeds

optimum levels, you still might have a plant that's genetically predisposed to growing up skinny and scraggly. This is often the case when using seeds that come from a bad bag of seeds from a non reliable source.

Q

Some gardeners are complaining that their plants look nothing like the superb plants they see in gardening magazines. They harvest skinny and scraggly crops because the seeds often came from a non-reliable merchant. So, how can you get the plants you grow at home to look more like the plants you see in your magazine? There are many factors that can affect the appearance of your plants and their overall yield. Nutrient and pH balance, soil aeration, availability of light, proper ventilation, proper temperature and humidity, and any of a hundred other nit-picky little things can be the cause of the dreaded scraggly harvest syndrome. What's worse – even if you have all of those little nit-picky things at their precise

A

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Thankfully, there also obviously exists a lot of serious business on the Internet. You have to do your own research. Mail ordering from a known and reputable source is less risky, and you can be using overnight mail or certified mail. Regular mail takes a little longer. If you know a person who is growing some plants that look good to you, see if he or she will trade you a cutting or two. You can then grow those cuttings out, and take dozens of clone cuttings for flowering. Once you have your crop stock picked out, it is only a matter of finding the optimum growing conditions for your particular plant variety before your yields will improve considerably. – Gerald ‘JR’ Hannafin

Photos: Bruno Bredoux & D.R.

Your best bet, if you want plants that look just like the pictures in this fine publication, is to note the varieties that look prettiest to you and try to identify the origin of the plant. Sometimes this is easy, as the photos often have captions that tell you what variety they are. When you find a variety you like, seek to acquire seeds from that species from a reputable seed dealer. This may not be as easy as it sounds. Mail ordering seeds is a risky business, and there are quite a few rip-off artists who will e-mail you a catalog full of hard-to-find tropical varieties but who will never deliver.


EDITORIAL

Don’t Miss our Next Issue of Vol. 1 – #1 in stands March 1st!

Safe Sex For Plants! How to Take

Cuttings

How to Transplant

Rooted Aero Clones to Soil Using Gibberellic Acid to Manipulate Plants

...And More!


EDITORIAL

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The Indoor Gardener Magazine Volume 1—Issue 0 (Reissue)  

This is an exclusive reissue of our original specimen edition of The Indoor Gardener Magazine (Volume 1—Issue 0, from January/February 2005)...

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