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CEA Yearbook 2014/2015 The Combustion Engineering Association

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CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Message from the Chairman Message from the Director About the CEA

page 5 pages 6-8 page 9

From the EU - Medium Combustion Plant Directive (MCP)

pages 10-12

The need to continually monitor emissions

pages 14-15

A masters in burner design Save energy and boost steam system performance with reverse osmosis Not letting energy go to waste Sembcorp combustion expert wins Lord Ezra Award 2013 Makeover gives CEA a fresh face

page 16 pages 18-19 page 21 pages 22-23 page 24

A ‘bottoms up’ approach to boiler efficiency

pages 26-27

Solid fuel to natural gas conversions for circulating fluid bed boilers

pages 29-30

You can count your chickens with this result

page 30

Why spending more money is the wrong answer

pages 32-33

Steam boiler failure: Are you doing enough? Annual failure rates suggest not

pages 34-35

A challenging but exciting future ahead for combustion engineering

pages 39-41

For further information about the CEA please contact David Kilpatrick on: Tel: 01740 625538 Email: Web: or write to: The Combustion Engineering Association NETPark Thomas Wright Way Sedgefield Co. Durham TS21 3FD

The CEA Yearbook 2014/2015 is published by Armitage Communications Mill House Wandle Road Beddington Croydon Surrey CR0 4SD Tel: 020 8667 9660 Fax: 020 8667 9426

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Demand on the rise as health sector bids to cut costs and emissions

page 42

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And the winner is... CEA young engineer research prize

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The challenge of metering steam

page 46


Training special: The vital role of training in combustion engineering

page 49

Training special: Boiler operations training from EMK

page 50

Training special: Directory of training providers

page 50

Training special: Teaching BOAS: A trainer’s viewpoint

page 51

Training special: External training provides the winning formula

page 52

Training special: Site specific training is vital

page 54

Training special: CEA Experts Academy is launched

page 56

Meeting the demand for industrial hot water

pages 57-58

Want a biomass boiler?

pages 64-66

CEA Members guide

pages 68-73

Cover printed onto 300 gsm Claro Silk Text pages onto 150 gsm Claro Silk The pulp used in the paper process has not been bleached with chlorine gas therefore all the papers are ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free). The finished paper is 100% recyclable. All pulp purchased and produced is sourced from managed sustainable forests.

Copyright © CEA 2014

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015








Byworth Boilers, Parkwood Boiler Works, Parkwood Street, Keighley, West Yorkshire, BD21 4NW 4

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Message from the CEA Chairman


he past year has been positive for the CEA. Through the hard work and dedication of the Sedgefield Office, the Executive and Council and our general membership, the CEA has grown in numbers and stature. My first remark has to be to thank all those who have given sacrificially in time and resources to further the charitable aims of the CEA. The numbers speak for themselves – our turnover in 2013 was 13% above 2012 which in turn was 41% above 2011. Whilst income and expenditure have both grown, we have managed to maintain a healthy cash surplus which, as a charity, we are re-investing in the aims of the Association and therefore our industry. Our membership has grown too – in 2013 we had 90 members, up from 69 in 2012 and 57 in 2011. To encourage new applications we have added two new membership categories to extend our appeal to universities and the health care industry. We hope to break through the 100 member threshold in 2014. Once again my thanks to all who have acted as ambassadors for the CEA to potential members and written documentation to support recruitment – the website has proved an excellent shop front window. We have also welcomed a third member of staff, Mrs Lynsey Towns, to the office to help us deal with the increased workload. The reason for our growth gets to the heart of what the CEA is about. We are not a Trade Association but an organisation run by members to support other members to achieve each other’s goals. For some, this is ensuring our boiler operators are fully trained with a HSE recognised assessment process, the Boiler Operations Accreditation Scheme (BOAS); for others, the CEA provides a way of sharing our products and services within the industry. For many, the networking and social functions are not only enjoyable activities but opportunities to meet new colleagues and clients and to entertain. We had a record number – 90 – at our last David Gunn memorial lecture last October in the House of Lords. It was an excellent presentation by Captain Mike Martin and Commander Alan Dorricott of the Royal Navy. We are grateful to Derry Carr for finding us two excellent speakers. The event also gave us the opportunity to present the Lord Ezra Prize to Scott Taylor of Sembcorp and the Professor Bill Kaye Young Engineer Prize to James Wayman of AB Sugar. Congratulations to both. In October we also presented our Malcolm Dunphy Memorial Award to Robert Watkins of the 2 Sisters’ Food Group as our 1000th person to be accredited with BOAS. I am very much hoping that we can offer a similar award this October to the 2000th person. Of course none of this would be possible without the Lord Chidgey. We remain very grateful for his support of our Association as Vice President. We are also most fortunate to have Dr Pete

Waterman as our President. Pete’s support for the Association was perhaps most keenly demonstrated at the opening of Fulton’s new Factory in Bristol last September. Pete’s enthusiasm was a key feature of making the day so special and Fulton’s recruitment plans and the fact they were bringing boiler manufacturing back to the UK from China was music to Pete’s (as for many of our) ears. Returning to why our membership is growing, alongside the social and networking functions already mentioned and the role the CEA can play in our businesses’ strategic plans, for many members the area that they value most is the support the CEA offers in doing our day to day jobs – where the rubber hits the road. This support comes through BOAS, through knowledge sharing at our steam user group, through understanding and influencing the emission legislation heading our way from Europe, and significantly, it is through the CEA’s conferences. This year we ran four conference programmes, mainly focussed on boiler safety, but also on biomass. It was very pleasing to see so many exhibitors, more than 20 at a recent conference, exhibiting in a professional conference setting and to hear of the orders or leads that we gained as a result. The CEA wants to provide all our members a showcase – whether through conferences, dinners, factory openings or our website - to promote their business, and thus to develop our industry. The future is bright, we are tremendously fortunate in having Mr Derry Carr taking the role of Chairman. Derry is very experienced in our field and has his own initiatives that he wishes to promote – particularly risk assessment and gas safety. We also have some exciting developments through our ‘Experts Academy’ initiative where we are looking to support younger engineers right through their careers in our industry. Finally the CEA is totally dependent on the efforts of the Sedgefield office and its members. Thanks to Dave, Julie and more recently Lynsey for all their efforts on our members’ behalf – often beyond the call of duty. And then to our members a huge thank you for volunteering your time, often on top of busy jobs, to lead, support or represent our organisation on various committees and initiatives – such as developing our publications. A particular thank you to Chris Coleman for his service prior to stepping down as Treasurer during the year and to Paul Richards for taking up the role and re-formatting our financial reporting. Finally we continue to remember the role that Malcolm Dunphy has played in our Association and I am very grateful for Jim Findlay stepping into the Past Chairman role and offering such valued support and counsel. We face challenging times, but through working together, the CEA and its members recognise opportunities for development of the industry. We start the 2014/15 year with confidence. Mr David Gent Chairman of Council, CEA, AB Sugar CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Message from the Director


he CEA has in the last year continued to grow with a significant number of new members joining the Association at all levels, this has strengthened the voice of the Association as it continues to work with government agencies such as Defra with the IED and the Large Combustion Directive (LCP) above 50MWth input. But now there is also the newly emerging Medium Combustion Plant Directive (MCP) from 1 50MWth input that is estimated to affect 17,000 UK companies. This growth also allows the Association to broaden its activities and introduce some of the improvements and changes that the members have requested, and to see these as a benefit for the future security and growth, helping all that come into contact with the activities of the Association. The current Chairman David Gent has been extremely active in supporting all of the changes during the two years of his tenure, which will come to a close in March at the AGM. AB Sugar have given unprecedented support to the CEA, allowing David time away from his already very busy diary as Global Engineering Manager, to support the activities of CEA and help steer it on its current course. The Association’s finances for 2013 have seen a healthy growth with a modest surplus, due to the enormous effort from many CEA members, giving their time and skills freely to help the growth. Lynsey Townes was taken on as temporary admin support in October to help Julie and I with the ever increasing workload as the Association grows. This additional administration support has now been made a permanent position as of 1st January 2014.

other friends and mourners at an uplifting ceremony. The Vicar highlighted Malcolm’s contribution to society and his generosity which he himself had kept very low key. Malcolm was instrumental in creating BOAS which continues to be recognised by industry, the HSE and the engineering insurance and inspection companies such as RSA and Zurich as “Industry Best Practice”. In October 2013 at the David Gunn Memorial Lecture we awarded the 1000th BOAS candidate, Robert Watkins, of 2 Sisters Food Group, with the Malcolm Dunphy award for his achievement. Now in February 2014 we are well on the way to the 2000th candidate with almost 1800 who have achieved the accreditation so far. We hope to present the 2000th candidate in October 2014. This success is also down to the CEA approved training providers, who continue to deliver the training both in their training centres and at the customer sites, and Kiwa Gastec and the Assessors who travel extensively to carry out the assessment for each candidate. The first person to achieve the BOAS Operator, Manager and now Biomass accreditation is John Hogan of Buccleuch Energy in Edinburgh. He was awarded with his certificates at a recent Council meeting by Prof Bill Kaye, Chairman of the Training Committee, supported by David Gent and other Council members at Kiwa Gastec in Stoke Orchard.

However, a moment to reflect with the loss of our Past Chairman Malcolm Dunphy who died in April 2013 after a two year battle with Motor Neuron Disease. Malcolm had been a stalwart of the CEA over many years being awarded a CEA “Life Time Achievement Award” by Honorary President Pete Waterman only weeks before he passed away. Malcolm will be sadly missed by all that knew him. His funeral took place in Rochdale with Pete Waterman and other CEA members and friends joining his family and many John Hogan receives his BOAS certificate from Bill Kaye (right) and David Gent (left)

On the 7th June of 2013 we held the Members’ and Partners’ Dinner with 54 guests in the House of Lords, sponsored by Lord David Chidgey who has been a terrific supporter of the activities of the Association. Lord Renwick and Lord Howie with their partners also joined us, with many regular members attending and bringing family and friends to enjoy what is a most enjoyable evening. It’s safe to say that the light entertainment from Henry Cook doing some close up magic at the tables, was a real success, and enjoyed by all. We also had one member company bring two Directors and their wives over from the USA specifically for this event, they left extremely happy after a very enjoyable evening.

Malcolm being presented with his Life Time Achievement award by Pete Waterman

October 2013 saw the David Gunn Memorial lecture again in the House of Lords with 90 guests. The two guest speakers were Continued on page 8


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

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DE 7

Derry Carr - left, Lord David Chidgey - centre, Captain Mike Martin - right

Derry Carr - left, Lord David Chidgey - centre, Commander Alan Dorricott - right

Captain Mike Martin and Commander Alan Dorricott both RN Retired who gave a joint presentation on “Engineering in the Royal Navy from Dreadnaught to the New Queen Elizabeth Class aircraft carriers” which are still under construction. The CEA Vice Chairman Derry Carr had served with both Mike and Alan at HMS Sultan and on HMS Invincible back in the 80’s at the time of the Gulf War, which was evident from the amount of banter between them during the presentation, obviously a hang over from their days at sea.

year. With offers from Fulton, SAACKE, Cochran and SMC to host future meetings. Thank you to David Young of Cochran and Paul Whitehead of Energy and Environmental Solutions who both kindly Chaired the PM5/BG01 Conferences during 2013, and to all of the conference speakers. A very special thank you to the Executive Committee and Council, and to all members and colleagues who have given their time so willingly to speak and exhibit at the conferences and to participate in various working groups that take the Association forward.

The Lord Ezra award was won this year by Scott Taylor and Stuart Lax of Sembcorp at the old ICI Wilton site on Teesside for improvements to air filtration for a gas turbine giving improved performance and efficiency. The recent award donated by Professor Bill Kaye for the young research engineer “Innovation and Excellence Award” was won by James Wayman of British Sugar.

Thank you to all of the members who have been working on the re-branding of CEA and the new website, led by Sam Thiara of Emerson and supported by Dalkia’s Derry Carr and Nick Burchett, British Sugar’s David Gent, Lewis Johnson and James Wayman, Paul Balmer of Kiwa Gastec and Jim Findlay HeatSol Technology. We now have Jamie Lam from British Sugar and Zenaida D’Sa of Autoflame taking things forward with the Experts Academy along with Sam Thiara. Jovan Maric of Square Daisy continues to work with us and help with the website development and other marketing initiatives.

Conferences and workshops continued throughout 2013 for both biomass and the replacement to PM5, with HSE’s INDG436 and CEA’s BG01. The biomass H&S conference workshops took place in Perth and Birmingham with 40 delegates at Perth. The biomass conference in Birmingham was delivered in conjunction with an external conference organiser which attracted some of the large European energy providers such as Dong Energy and Vattenfall. We discovered that no matter how big or small they are and no matter where in Europe they are, their problems are the same when handling biomass. It has been highlighted in discussions within CEA, the HSE and among several CEA members that there is a significant gap in industry for the appropriate gas accreditation, which we have now embarked on creating a suitable program. This is specifically for people working with industrial gas installations, especially those in boiler houses. That said, we are not doing this alone, we have sought both HSE and IGEM support in creating and endorsing this accreditation, which will closely follow the BOAS model. Risk Assessment and Risk Management around steam and boiler houses have both been highlighted as areas needing better understanding and support, and many delegates attending BG01 conferences feel they need this. The delegates would also like CEA support in understanding how to carry out these assessments correctly. There is a plan to create and deliver such conferences with a longer term view that this could become a training programme that suitable CEA approved training providers could potentially offer. I would like to thank British Sugar, Kiwa Gastec, Byworth Boilers, Dalkia, Emerson Process Management, Spirax Sarco, Zeeco and Enersol Flomar for hosting various meetings throughout the


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

CEA held the Council meeting and Council weekend at The Royal York hotel in September and had a very pleasant evening. You may recall we have recently come to an arrangement with the “Institute of Healthcare Engineering Estate Management” (IHEEM) with a reciprocal membership agreement, the idea to arrange similar agreements with other Associations and trade bodies was approved at Council. This is likely to take the form of Affiliate members of CEA. The 80th Anniversary Yearbook was very well received and we have distributed over 2000 copies, so thank you to Armitage Communications’ Helen Greenhead and Tim Haines, who have also produced this 2014/15 Year Book. The CEA building in Clarke Street, Cardiff has seen the long term tenants, Fitness Wales, move to different premises. A local photographer had been renting the ground floor, but he has now taken over the whole building. And finally I would also like to say thank you to all Executive Committee and all of the Council members for the help, support and friendship which you have shown to both Julie and I, and now Lynsey as we endeavour to deliver the aims and objectives of the CEA. We hope that we are able to continue to give you the service and support that the Association requires in 2014. David Kilpatrick Director of the CEA

About the CEA


he CEA is an educational charity originally formed to promote the science of combustion engineering and today embraces the study of efficient energy use, the exchange of new technology information, the training of industry professionals, the development of standards and good practices and the provision of services for its ever growing membership. Members include; • Boiler, burner and equipment manufacturers • Steam equipment manufacturers and suppliers • End users, installers and energy suppliers

• Facilities management and maintenance providers • Industrial, environmental and design consultants Core activities also include the organisation of conferences and seminars, managing the CEA’s involvement in trade exhibitions, hosting an annual Memorial Lecture and the presentation of an Award for Innovation. In addition to the Yearbook, the CEA works closely with other organisations in the publication of guides and best practice information and plays an active role in the formulation and development of British and European Standards and Directives.

Officers and Council Members as of 20th March 2014 Honorary Patron The Lord Ezra Honorary President Dr Pete Waterman Honorary Vice Presidents The Lord Chidgey Mr Kenneth Fergusson Prof Bill Kaye Mr David Arnold Executive Committee Chairman of Council Mr Derry Carr Dalkia Vice Chairmen Mr Paul Richards Fulton Ltd Mr Jim Findlay Heatsol Technology Ltd Prof Bill Kaye Kaye & Associates Ltd Immediate Past Chairman Mr David Gent AB Sugar Treasurer Mr Paul Richards Fulton Ltd Trustees Mr Derry Carr Dalkia Mr David Gent AB Sugar Mr Paul Richards Fulton Ltd Important Note: The offices of Patron, President and Vice Presidents, are Honorary posts and do not carry any automatic right to representation on Council. Trustees are automatically Members of Council.

Council Members 2014-2015

David Gent Derry Carr Prof Bill Kaye Paul Richards Jim Findlay Adrian Rhodes Sam Thiara Sharon Kuligowski Andy Rout Kim Stopher Paul Bough Paul Whitehead John Bashall Barrie Church Paul Mayoh Bernard Fox Malcolm Cook David Branch Paul Balmer Matthew Walton Chris Coleman Leigh Bryan Craig Prescott Ali Nicol Zenaida D’Sa

AB Sugar Dalkia Kaye & Associates Ltd Fulton Ltd Heatsol Technology Ltd Byworth Boilers Emerson Process Management Dunphy Combustion Ltd TLV Euro Engineering Ltd Stopher Associates Enersol Flomar Energy and Environmental Solutions JBC Industrial Services Ltd Global Energy Spirax Sarco Ltd Weishaupt UK Ltd SAACKE Cochran Kiwa Gastec Bosch Thermotechnology Spirax Sarco Ltd Wellman Thermal CPIBS Element Consulting Autoflame

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


From the EU - Medium Combustion Plant Directive (MCP)

Do you recognise any of this plant ranging from 1 - 50MWth Input? Is it something you are responsible for? If so, read on as this affects you


f you are running plant of this nature you are very likely to be affected by the Medium Combustion Plant Directive (MCP) from the European Union.

This new directive is likely to come into force by the turn of the decade. This may seem like a long way off, but it is in fact less than six years and it is estimated it will affect some 17,000 plants in the UK. The European Commission published its: Clean Air Policy Package on 18 December 2013 and it can be found at: Within it, as expected, is a proposal for a Directive ‘on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from medium combustion plants (MCP)’. It is being referred to as the “proposed MCPD” but note that it is a proposal which has to be negotiated amongst EU Member States. There is no certainty that it will emerge intact from that process, however, operators of MCPs need to think carefully NOW about what the proposal would mean and how it might better safeguard air quality in a proportionate manner.


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

The proposed directive covers all combustion plants with a rated thermal input (RTI) of between 1 and 50 MW. There are some exclusions, notably: • p  lants which are subject to the Chapters in the industrial emissions Directive dealing with waste incineration or large combustion plants (aggregated to 50 MW and above); • p  lants covered by the “eco-design” Directive (nominally less than 1 MW thermal input); and • p  lants whose combustion gases are used for direct heating, drying or other treatment. The proposed MCPD would require every individual plant to be registered with a “competent authority”. Within the UK, that could be the local authority or possibly the EA/SEPA/NIHES, although no decisions will be made until the Directive is finalised and ready to be transposed into UK law. Registration would require details of the type of plant, RTI and fuel(s) of each plant, and its expected operating hours and normal operational load.

New combustion plant legislation – the FAQs Do you own or operate a large steam or hot water boiler? Or perhaps you have a standby diesel engine or a CHP plant? Before the end of this decade the EU plans to pass legislation that will require owners of any Medium Combustion Plants (MCP) to only purchase equipment that meets new emissions standards. And a few years later, emissions limits will apply to all existing MCPs as well.

CEA Council Member Paul Whitehead explains some of the main points of the proposed legislation in the following FAQs:

and operating hours, normal operating load, emissions limits applicable and achieved, and other relevant data.

What is a ‘Medium Combustion Plant’?

What if my plant only operates intermittently?

Any individual piece of equipment that burns any fuel, with a very few specific exceptions, and where the rated thermal input (RTI) (i.e. gross fuel input) is between 1 and 50 MW. This applies to each individual unit, with no ‘aggregation’ of smaller units below 1 MW. Typically this means all steam boilers rated above approximately 1.3 tonnes steam per hour or the equivalent size of hot water boiler.

If you can prove (by keeping verifiable records) that one of your plant items only operates for less than 500 hours per annum it will not come under the proposed emissions legislation, but you will still have to register it with the Competent Authority.

It will also apply to diesel or gas engine generators rated above approx 400 kVA and the equivalent size of turbine installation, and any other appliance that uses fuel to generate heat or electricity. Mobile plants (boilers/generators etc.) are also included if they are rated above 1 MW thermal input.

What are the exceptions? • Plants covered by Industrial Emissions Directive Chapters IV or III dealing with waste incineration or large combustion plants respectively (aggregated to or individually 50 MW and above) • Plants covered by the “eco-design” Directive (nominally less than 1MW thermal input) • Plants whose combustion gases are used for direct heating, drying or other treatment • Plants used solely to purify waste gases (eg thermal oxidisers) • Plants used for propulsion/transport.

When do I have to measure the emissions from my plant? It is expected that each plant will have measurements taken of the relevant pollutants within 3 months of registration and thereafter annually if the MCP has a RTI of 20 MW or more and every three years if less than 20 MW RTI.

Who is going to do all these measurements? This will be decided when the legislation is transposed into UK law, but it may be an extension of the current MCERTS programme. Whatever happens, the measurements will have to be taken in accordance with international standards and be verifiable and audited.

What if I burn lots of different fuels or a fuel mix? The ELVs for that unit will be proportional to the percentage of the different fuels used in the measurement period, i.e. if you burn natural gas for 80% of the time and light oil for the remainder of the time the ELV will be calculated in that ratio.

What if I remove an old unit and replace it? What pollutants do the emissions limits apply to? Each individual combustion plant will have to meet Emission Limit Values (ELVs) for the production of Oxides of Nitrogen, Sulphur dioxide and dust (total particulate matter).

What are the specific emissions limits See charts below for specific ELVs for new plants and existing plants for each type of fuel.

The replacement unit becomes a new MCP and the new MCP ELVs apply from the date of putting it into operation.

What happens if I cannot get natural gas that I normally use? An allowance of 10 days per annum is made for using alternative fuels without penalty if gas is unavailable.

How many plants does this affect?

If I am in a poor air quality zone are the emission limits the same?

Approximately 17,000 in the UK (nearly half of them under 2 MW) and over 140,000 across the EU.

Probably not – the competent authority has the power to impose stricter limits in such areas.

When does this come into force?

What happens if my combustion plant cannot be fitted with a combustion system that meets the ELVs?

For new plants, the proposed legislation is expected to be in force well before the end of the decade, so only combustion plant items that comply with the planned ELVs will be allowed to be operated from the legislation implementation date. For existing plants, those rated greater than 5 MW would have until 1 January 2025 to meet the proposed emission limits, and smaller plant from 1-5 MW RTI would have until 1 January 2030.

The intention of the legislation is to control MCP emissions by primary abatement measures in order to help keep costs under control, but if ELVs cannot be met by this method the owner of the plant may be forced to consider a different, less polluting fuel, or a means of secondary abatement such as an ESP or filter for dust control or SNCR/SCR abatement methods for NOx control. The operation of any secondary abatement plant shall be continuously monitored.

Who is going to check this legislation is properly applied? Each EU country will nominate a ‘Competent Authority’ to operate a system of MCP registration and oversee the proper application of this proposed legislation. In the UK this may be either the Local Authority or the EA/SEPA/NIHES; a decision on who is to do this work will be made before UK implementation.

What do we have to do to register? Each plant owner will be required to tell the Competent Authority about each combustion plant, giving details of owner name and address, plant rating and fuel(s) used, operational start date

What happens now? Defra has set up a MCP Stakeholders Group and this group is helping formulate a proportionate response to the proposed legislation for discussion with EU Member States. Data regarding the performance of combustion plants that are likely to be affected is urgently required, from manufacturers and operators alike, in order that the UK position can be adequately and fairly represented. Please contact the CEA if you have any information regarding MCPs that might be useful.

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Charts of proposed ELVs for Medium Combustion Plants Figures in mg/Nm3 measured at STP

New Plants other than engines and gas turbines Solid biomass Other solid fuels Liquid fuels (not HFO) HFO Natural gas Other Gaseous fuels

SO2 200 400 170 350 – 35

NOx 300 300 200 300 100 200

Particulates 20 (25 if <5MW) 20 20 20 – –

New engines and gas turbines SO2 Engines and GTs 60 liquid fuel Engines and GTs – natural gas – 15 Engines and GTs – gaseous fuels other than natural gas

NOx Engines 190 (225 if dual fuel in liquid mode) GTs when above 70% load 75 Engines 95 (190 if dual fuel in gas mode) GTs when above 70% load 50 Engines 190 GTs when above 70% load 75

Particulates 10

Existing Plants other than engines and gas turbines Solid biomass Other solid fuels Liquid fuels (not HFO) HFO Natural gas Other Gaseous fuels

NOx 650 650 200 650 200 250

Particulates 30 (45 if <5MW) 30 30 30 – –

NOx Engines 190 (1850 if pre 2006 or dual fuel in liquid mode) GTs when above 70% load 200 Engines 190 (380 if dual fuel in gas mode) GTs when above 70% load 150 Engines 190 (380 if dual fuel in gas mode) GTs when above 70% load 200

Particulates 10

SO2 200 400 170 350 – 35

Existing engines and gas turbines SO2 Engines and GTs liquid fuel 60 Engines and GTs – natural gas – Engines and GTs – gaseous fuels other than 15 natural gas


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

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CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


The need to continually monitor emissions Autoflame explains the role and capabilities of its latest emissions monitoring systems


s emissions regulations become more stringent in the boiler industry, the ability to have a system that continually analyses flue gas emissions from your boiler plant has never been so important. Our customers asked us to take this to the next level and wanted to see their emissions equated into £ value so we did just that with the MK7 EGA Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS). One major development in our industry is the EU Commission focusing on the MCP (Medium Combustion Plant) Directive which will affect all combustion plant between 1-50 MW thermal input. Improving air quality is the main objective here, which brings us back to the increasing need to be able to continually measure emissions, collect and analyse this data.

Submitting data The MCP (Medium Combustion Plant) directive is expected to bring new legislation for companies whose combustion plants fall between 1- 50 MW thermal input. DEFRA is planning for the expected changes in legislation in 2019/2020, and it looks highly likely that sites will be required to submit emissions data. MCP will present data to local authorities such as operating hours, stack conditions and fuel consumption. Non-compliance with the guideline Emissions Limits Values (ELVs) will result in penalties. Logging the boiler emissions data continuously with the Autoflame System will allow boiler operators meeting the MCP criteria to submit data to the local authorities promptly, with minimal hassle. The expected ELVs that are currently proposed by the Commission are 200 mg/Nm3 for NOx for existing gas firing MCP (not including engines and gas turbines), and 650 mg/Nm3 for heavy fuel oil. The NOx ELVs can be carefully monitored by setting combustion safety limits on the MK7 CEMS EGA. The Mk7 Data Transfer Interface will log all emissions data, perform energy audits and record all burner information through the Mk7 Micro-Modulation burner controller. Additionally this can be tied into the site’s Building Management System.

Continuous emission monitoring system The majority of exhaust gas analysers used in the boiler room measure oxygen and stack temperature, and offer a calculated carbon dioxide value and corresponding efficiency. Carbon monoxide is a common additional option for safety and monitoring clean combustion. The Autoflame Mk7 Exhaust Gas Analyser (MK7 EGA) has been specifically designed in light of current regulations on emissions monitoring and offers all of the requirements for the boiler industry, capable of operating on both gaseous and liquid fuels. As standard, this analyser measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide, with the option to include nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide.


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Three of these parameters (oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide) are used for the patented trim process, enabling spot on combustion control especially with high performance burners. Additionally, a 10.4” full colour touch screen allows the user to view a totalised analysis of all of the emissions updating the data every second and logging for 24 hours. This data can be manipulated to review monthly emissions total for all of the measured parameters, with energy managers finding the NOx and carbon emissions particularly useful. The Mk7 CEMS E.G.A. has been developed from the standard Autoflame Mk7 E.G.A. In addition to the 3 parameter trim function and combustion safety limits, the CEMS E.G.A. stores the emission history for up to 2 years. Instantaneous and totalised values can be calculated for all the emissions data, as well as the fuel consumed and costs. The ‘This Period Last Year’ (TPLY) feature allows the operator to compare intervals of emissions data between years. Incorporated into the Mk7 CEMS E.G.A. is the ability to input the fuel composition data, the fuel flow (via an input signal) and also the fuel cost per unit. This allows the E.G.A. to calculate not only the total fuel input and average combustion efficiency over the designated period, but also the fuel costs for each fuel. All of this data is displayed in tabular and graphical format and can be exported for client analysis. The capabilities of this technology will allow the client to bring boiler house energy analysis to the board room, and enables immediate access to all emissions and operational data from each boiler located globally. Boiler operators who face strict environmental regulations can upgrade their existing MK7 EGA to a CEMS Exhaust Gas Analyser. The standard E.G.A. is sent back to the Autoflame UK Office, where the E.G.A. will be re-configured to include the CEMS data-logging features. Once the Mk7 E.G.A. is upgraded to the Mk7 CEMS E.G.A. it is returned back to site; provided no onsite changes have been made that could affect the combustion, it can be easily refitted to the boiler.

What to look for There are many benefits to monitoring the emissions from the boiler flue not least being energy savings. From the combustion

it is possible to tell a lot about the boiler and its operation. To achieve the best possible combustion efficiency the O2 emissions should be kept as low as possible, which we can see from the combustion reaction.

CxHy + zO2 = xCO2 +

y HO 2 2

This is the complete combustion equation otherwise known as Stoichiometric Combustion where CxHy represents the hydrocarbon fuel being burnt i.e. Natural Gas and O2 is the oxygen in the air. From this equation it is possible to calculate the amount of oxygen required to burn a fixed amount of fuel completely and achieve 100% combustion efficiency from the fuel. In reality, outside of perfectly controlled laboratory conditions this is not possible. Even the most well designed burner should only run at 2% to 3% O2 in the flue because there is always a requirement for more oxygen (Excess Air) to ensure complete combustion. Any variation in the fuel supply pressure or air supply could create a dangerous situation in the combustion chamber of unburnt fuel. One other thing to consider from this equation is that there is no production of Carbon Monoxide (CO) from the complete combustion of Hydrocarbons so any appearance of CO within the flue gases indicates that not all of the fuel has been burnt, hence affecting efficiency. Exhaust temperature is another key indicator of the burnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s combustion efficiency and can also tell us about the boiler itself.

A higher exhaust temperature indicates that heat is being lost through the stack and not heating the water inside the boiler. Higher excess air levels create an insulation layer between the flame and the boiler walls, in turn raising the exhaust temperature. The increased velocity of the gases passing through the boiler from high excess air will reduce the gasesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; residence time in the boiler, causing more heat to pass to the stack rather than being transferred to the boiler water. Monitoring the exhaust temperature over time will also show how well the boiler is performing; the exhaust temperature should not vary significantly for a specific firing rate, once the burner is commissioned. If scale builds up on the inside of the boiler, due to inadequate water treatment, this will also reduce the boilerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s heat transfer efficiency, causing an increase in exhaust temperature due to less heat being transferred to the water in the boiler. Using the Autoflame E.G.A. an offset limit of the commissioned exhaust gas temperature can be set, sending an alarm to the panel if the exhaust temperature goes too high. This will give the operator time to investigate any potential scale problems within the boiler before the scale builds too much, resulting in hotspots and damage to the boiler. This will not only improve the efficiency of the boiler by ensuring the emissions remain constant, but also reduce maintenance costs of the boiler by identifying potential problems before damage occurs. Setting safety limits for harmful emissions and exhaust temperature, together with highly efficient burner controls offers the end user more control over their carbon footprint and ultimately reduces costs.

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


A masters in burner design ELCO Burners has supplied two RPD dual fuel burners with a nominal output of 13 MW to the Free University Amsterdam, Netherlands. The burners have been installed on top of each other on the main water pipe boiler to provide heating and hot water to 16,000 students at the University, as well as act as an emergency backup to the local district heating system.


he highly efficient dual fuel RPD burners are designed to run on natural gas and oil, with continuity of supply a key consideration of the heating system. The burners fire two 25 MW water pipe boilers and three 7 MW three-pass boilers. Both burners have also been specified for their industry leading NOx emissions, with the gas burner emitting less than 104 mg/m3, and the oil burners less than 238 mg/m3. RPD burners are suitable for a wide variety of firing applications and benefit from innovative ELCO technologies, such as a modern electronic compound controller â&#x20AC;&#x201C; providing automatic adjustment of the fuel-air mixing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; plus a speed regulator which offers impressive energy savings. In addition, the burners can be finitely adjusted at the primary and secondary air inlets to optimise flame geometry and atomisation. The RPD burners are also suitable for a wide variety of processes, including modern waste incineration, thermal disposal of gas or liquids and thermal neutralisation of exhaust air.


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Ever since it was founded in 1880, Free University Amsterdam has been known for its distinctive approach to learning, as well as it being an open organisation, strongly linked to people and society. The University is focused on the acquisition of a greater depth of knowledge, which is characterised by a high level of ambition throughout the organisation. ELCO Burners is a division of Ariston Thermo Group with models available in the UK through Ecoflam UK. The range of burners comprises gas, light oil and dual fuel versions, designed for a wide array of commercial and industrial applications. For more information please call Ecoflam on 01905 788010

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CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Save energy and boost steam system performance with reverse osmosis There’s never been a better time for almost any steam system user to explore the substantial potential benefits of reverse osmosis (RO), argues Mike Griffin, National Sustainability Specialist, UK & ROI.


combination of recent technical innovations and increasing pressure to save energy means that today’s RO systems could help many steam plant users who may never have considered RO before. What’s more, new legislation introduced in 2013 to minimise the presence of lead in drinking water, has added a further incentive to deploy RO to remove the phosphate that utility companies use to prevent lead from dissolving in mains water. RO is a robust, chemical-free technology that uses semi-permeable membranes to deliver purified water to boilers and clean steam generators. It’s a well-proven technology that’s already widely used in industries such as water and wastewater treatment and food production. Now growing numbers of steam system users are finally starting to wise up to the potential benefits.

Save energy and reduce emissions RO can deliver a range of advantages, but the biggest driver for most steam users to invest in RO, until now, is the need to save energy and reduce costs. That need is intensifying all the time as climate change measures evolve and grow in stature at the same time that underlying energy prices continue to rise. For example, the Climate Change Levy (CCL) is essentially a tax on energy use, and businesses in energy-intensive sectors may be eligible for a reduction in the CCL by meeting energy reduction

targets. Meanwhile, the European Union emissions trading system requires organisations in energy-intensive sectors to report and meet targets to reduce CO2 emissions. Inevitably, such measures will continue to ramp up the cost of energy. In fact the EEF’s 2014 Executive Survey confirmed that rising input costs are perceived as the biggest threat to growth, stating that energy affordability is one of the most critical issues facing manufacturing today.

Achieve a step-change in consumption Of course, no single technology can entirely mitigate volatile energy pricing, but RO can make a significant contribution by slicing fuel bills by as much as 3% for typical steam users. RO is commonly used in conjunction with water softening, chemical dosing or filtration to deliver purified water to boilers and clean steam generators. By stripping out almost 99% of the dissolved solids, RO can reduce boiler blowdown by an order of magnitude, resulting in significant savings in energy, water and treatment chemicals.

Tackling phosphate dosing At the same time, tighter controls on the level of lead permitted in drinking water are heading our way at the end of the year. This is significant, because one of the ways water companies are responding is to add phosphate to water supplies as a corrosion inhibitor that prevents the lead in old pipes from dissolving. The limits on lead were first imposed by the 1998 European Drinking Water Directive, which gave EU Member States 10 years to ensure that drinking water supplies have lead levels that do not exceed 25 microgrammes per litre. Now they face an even tougher limit of just 10 microgrammes per litre. Water companies and householders have removed a lot of the old lead pipes since the Directive first arrived on the scene. At that time the water to some 8 million British households was still travelling through lead pipes. Even so, it’s doubtful whether lead will be totally eliminated from the supply in the foreseeable future. So it looks like phosphate dosing is here to stay. The phosphate situation varies across the UK. For example, soft water tends to dissolve the most lead, so suppliers in soft water areas will typically be relying on phosphate dosing more heavily than suppliers in hard water areas. But wherever a site is based, steam system operators should be aware that they could have an issue with phosphate unless they or their water treatment contractor keep on top of the situation.

Westons Cider saves £42,000 a year with a Spirax Sarco Reverse Osmosis System


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Left untreated, phosphate can precipitate and cause scale when it reacts with calcium or magnesium in the boiler water. Typically this happens when the boiler water becomes too hard. Avoiding this situation involves constant management of the alkalinity of the water in the boiler, adding chemical dispersants and ensuring that

the level of dissolved solids is kept in check through regular boiler blowdown, all of which could be time consuming and expensive. RO can virtually eliminate the phosphate before it reaches the boiler.

to Westons Cider’s, Jason Roberts. “Before we installed the RO system I could put my hand on the boiler blowdown pipe and it was warm, so there must have been hot water being discharged frequently into the blowdown vessel from the boiler,” he says. “Now it’s almost always cold, so we’re definitely losing less water and energy.”

How does RO work? RO uses a pump to force a stream of water through a semi-permeable membrane, separating it into two streams. One is the reject stream or concentrate stream and the other is the purified water or permeate stream. The permeate typically flows to a holding tank or hotwell before being sent to the boiler or clean steam generator.

Regular boiler blowdown is needed to prevent dissolved solids from accumulating in the boiler, where they can cause problems such as foaming and scale. The RO system from Spirax Sarco treats water before it reaches the boiler feedtank and removes more than 98% of contamination to produce high-quality, lowconductivity water.

RO membranes do not need to be regenerated using the acid or caustic chemicals used in conventional dealkalization or demineralisation plants. This makes RO generally safer and easier to manage.

The project has shown a step-change in control and efficiency and has enabled an increase in the boiler cycles of concentration, resulting in reduced boiler make up and boiler blowdown. A cut in blowdown from 3% to less than 1% has been achieved, saving oil, water and boiler treatment chemicals.

Applicable to all Virtually all steam users stand to benefit from RO, whether they’re tackling hard water in hospitals or fighting contamination in food factories. Used in combination with the right treatments, RO helps cut down on plant downtime caused by scale and reduces corrosion in the condensate circuit. RO is a low-maintenance technology and the use of long-life membranes and quick-fit fittings help keep the time and cost of servicing and maintenance to a minimum. Spirax Sarco uses high efficiency membranes to offset the pumping costs associated with RO, reducing the overall operating costs compared to other systems.

Extra savings through innovation

In fact, the RO-treated water is so clean that it has effectively descaled the boiler, reports Mr Roberts: “It started out by descaling and cleaning up the steam system, but the blowdown rate soon dropped back to a much lower level than before.” The Westons Cider site in Much Marcle, Ledbury, makes cider and perry. The 2,000kg/h boiler produces steam for various process duties, including pasteurisation and cleaning. “Westons is a very environmentally conscious company,” says Mr Roberts. “When Spirax Sarco suggested that installing RO could save boiler blowdown water we were very interested. The installation was quick and easy and the RO system is compact. We’re very pleased with the results and we may well consider using RO again in other applications.”

Many engineers are wary of the potential work or maintenance issues associated with introducing an unfamiliar technology, but RO combines the potential for major benefits with easy maintenance and straightforward operation. It’s time for all steam users to consider how RO could help them reduce their bills.

Plant steam

RO in action Westons Cider is saving around £42,000 per year in fuel and water costs following the installation of a Reverse Osmosis (RO) water treatment unit from Spirax Sarco. The new RO system has reduced water and energy losses by cutting the amount of boiler blowdown and water needed. Accurate metering of fuel oil and water has pinpointed the savings, including 3,800 litres of oil saved over a 15-day period. What’s more, the savings are likely to be even higher than these measurements suggest because of reduced CO2 emissions and a lower Climate Change Levy (CCL), although these have yet to be quantified.

Make-up water

Softened water




Water softener

RO system

Water treatment chemicals

Chemically treated water

Boiler blowdown

Overview of the chemical treatment of boiler feedwater.

There are also other clear signs that confirm the savings, according

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015



CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Not letting energy go to waste With energy conservation an increasingly hot topic within the process heating industry, stakeholders are now looking to innovative ways to reduce energy consumption. Simon Tarr, Sales Manager for Industrial Boilers at Bosch Commercial and Industrial Heating, explains how a combination of technologies can maximise energy efficiency.


he rising cost of energy is a concern for everyone right now. Increasingly, industrial energy users are looking to maximise energy efficiency and minimise production costs and overheads. Add to that the increasing requirement for businesses to meet strict energy targets and there is a real case for reviewing energy use in order to determine where improvements can be made. On an industrial and commercial scale, there is arguably no better place to start improving efficiencies and running costs than by taking a fresh look at the technologies available in the marketplace and how these can be utilised to maximise energy efficiency. Whilst much can be done by installing modern heating and hot water technologies to reduce energy usage and lower costs, a case can be made for the combination of certain technologies to enhance energy efficiency even further. For example, integrating a Combined Heat and Power module (CHP) with a steam boiler is an innovative way of utilising the CHP systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s waste exhaust gas to create a unique arrangement which helps to increase steam generation efficiency levels.

The combination of steam and CHP Steam is one of the most widely used commodities for transferring heat energy. Its use is popular throughout the industry for a broad range of tasks from mechanical power production, space heating and other process applications. One of the most common methods of steam generation is the use of a steam boiler, which operates using three pass technology.

methods. A typical CHP module consists of a gas engine, a generator and a heat exchanger system. The gas engine drives the generator to produce three-phase electrical power, which feeds in to the main low voltage distribution system where it can be used locally. During this process, the heat within the exhaust gases is produced as a by-product of the usable power and heat generated which, in a conventional power station, would often be wasted. However, this exhaust heat generated by a typical CHP module can be re-directed and may be used in process heating or hot water applications. Through the use of a waste gas inlet valve, this surplus heat can be transferred to a specific point of use. By implementing an innovative fourth smoke tube pass between the CHP unit and the steam boiler, the surplus heat generated can be driven back into the steam boiler, thus maximising the energy efficiency of steam production.

System design Not only is steam an excellent carrier of heat, it is also sterile, and thus commonly used in the food, pharmaceutical and health industries. It is also widely used in hospitals for sterilisation. This has meant that companies have had to address the source of electrical power and heat generation in isolation. The installation of a steam boiler is very complex, with each installation requiring a bespoke design. Incorporating an innovative fourth pass technology into any system design between a CHP unit and a steam boiler, can lead to considerable increases in energy efficiency in comparison to separate electrical power and heat generation. This will also ensure reduction in CO2 and NOx emissions, providing further environmental benefits and compliance with the CRC Energy Efficiency scheme. For more information on Bosch Commercial and Industrial Heating and its new range of steam boilers, visit or call 0844 892 3004.

The steam generated should be available at the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s point of use in the correct quantity, at the correct pressure, clean, dry and free from air and other incondensable gases. In an industrial steam heating system, the purpose of the generation and distribution of steam is to provide heat at the process heat transfer surface - this could be using a heat exchanger. To enhance boiler efficiency, additional heat can be transferred into the steam boiler via the waste exhaust gas from a CHP unit. A CHP module offers a more efficient way to generate heat and electrical power simultaneously, compared to conventional

Innovative technologies are making industrial steam boilers even more efficient

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Sembcorp combustion expert wins Lord Ezra Award 2013 Scott Taylor, Business Development Engineering Manager at Sembcorp Utilities UK at Wilton, was presented with the annual Lord Ezra Award for 2013 for outstanding achievement in the study of combustion engineering.


judging panel of experts from the combustion industry were impressed with a major paper submitted by Scott Taylor on gas turbine air inlet filter improvements which he coauthored with former colleague Stuart Lax. Sembcorp operates two gas turbines at Wilton and Taylor and Lax’s work has now been published and will be of benefit to firms in the process industries looking to make energy and environmental efficiencies.

Named after the 94-year-old former chairman of the National Coal Board, the Lord Ezra Award has been presented annually since 1995. One of the most prestigious UK awards for engineers, it is also open to CEA member companies and students, graduates and trainees in the industry. David Kilpatrick, Director of the CEA visited Teesside to make the award to Taylor in person. Kilpatrick said: “The quality of Scott’s paper and presentation to the judges was excellent and showed a real innovative example of how money could be saved through energy efficiency and better maintenance, including making incremental changes in the filtration of turbines.” Taylor, who received a certificate and £500 to be shared with his former colleague, said: “I am absolutely delighted to have received such a prestigious honour.”

Scott Taylor (center right) receiving the Lord Ezra Award from David Kilpatrick watched by CEA administrators Julie Kilpatrick (left) and Lynsey Townes.


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

About the Lord Ezra award Lord Derek Ezra has been connected with energy and combustion for over 60 years. For the last 21 years, The Combustion Engineering Association has been privileged to work with Lord Ezra—first as President of the CEA and latterly as Patron of the Association. Lord Ezra is an Honorary Fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge, and Liberal Democrat Life Peer having joined the Liberals in 1936. He worked in the UK coal industry for 35 years, the last 11 years as Chairman of the National Coal Board. During that time he was instrumental in the early forming of today’s European Union. Lord Ezra was the Liberal Democrat’s spokesperson for Economic Affairs, Trade & Industry (Energy) (1998-2005) and latterly spokesperson on Energy Matters and has been Honorary President of the Coalfield Communities Group since 2006. In recent political times, Lord Ezra has concentrated on the environmental impacts of energy/clean coal technology and the problem of fuel poverty. Recently Lord Ezra formed a private company promoting small-scale electricity generation. Lord Ezra was very keen that CEA should continue to support the industry through education and training. He wanted to add his own personal support and commitment to that end by offering a prize to encourage new entrants to the industry and new innovation where possible. Thus, in 1995, the Lord Ezra Award was initiated and presented each year. By way of further encouragement and equitability, the Award is open to a large field and entrants are asked to submit competitively based schemes in order to actually win the award. The meritorious entrant or entrants receive the Award every October in the House of Lords. Combustion Engineering Association, on behalf of Lord Ezra, is proud to present the Award and each year invites entries from a person or group of persons in combustion engineering who have created or facilitated a benefit to that industry, especially through a new, innovative or novel nature. Kiwa Steam Training Ad 186x131_Layout 1 10/03/2014 16:46 Page 1

Together, we can steam ahead safely Kiwa - a new name but the same reliable team doing BOAS assessments, just as we always have. Training is carried out by a number of providers around the country, but assessments and candidate interviews are all carried out by our Kiwa team. News of the importance of proper training for steam boiler operatives and managers is spreading and we have been carrying out BOAS assessments as far away as Qatar. We are a low carbon consultancy, training and product testing company. As a Notified Body (0558) under the Boiler Efficiency Directive, we know a thing or two about boilers of all kinds.

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CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Makeover gives CEA a fresh face Welcome to a fresh look for the CEA. A recent revamp of the organisation’s website was accompanied by a revamped logo. We look at how it was done and the thinking behind the new design


website and logo are the public face of an organisation. At the CEA, we want to be open and informative, a force for innovation and development in combustion engineering, so it was vital that our website and logo matched our values. With the previous website being difficult to update with our ever changing news and events, the time was right to give it a revamp and adopt a fresh look. Creative agency Square Daisy was given the brief to design and build the new site as well as rejig the logo with a more contemporary feel. The consultation process involved Square Daisy talking to members to get the inside story on how the CEA works for them, what they would find helpful and how the website could reflect the values they thought were important. The result is a website that we feel is simple in its design, is totally content led, provides a simple user journey and acts as a hub for a host of other information.

Forward-looking logo The new logo was based on the existing design, keeping the major elements of the black CEA wording representing coal, the red flames representing heat and the blue representing steam,

yet giving them a more modern feel that reflects our forward looking stance. As well as the logo, the new branding has been adopted across all aspects of CEA communications, including stationery, templates and documents and is being very well received by members. We hope you like our new look and find the new website easier to navigate, with more useful content. Despite the changes, our old commitment to helping combustion process users remains a core value and we hope to continue serving old and new members alike in the years ahead. Take a look at the new logo and website at:

New brochure outlines CEA membership benefits The CEA has just published a short brochure aiming to give readers a quick overview of the Association’s activities. The benefits of becoming a CEA member outlined include access to all CEA information services, conferences, seminars, trade exhibitions, road shows, workshops and expert support. The CEA is a point of contact for members looking for information on subjects such as legislation and guidance, research, health and safety, EU Directives and many other related topics. Member companies are eligible to contribute to the industry on a wider scale through exhibiting, presenting and speaking at various conferences. The Association keeps a directory of member organisations and manufacturers freely available to all members, and has access to a database of information provided by field experts. The CEA provides business opportunities for members, public relations for member organisations and publications to keep members and the public up-to-date with industry guides and current best practices.


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Professional Representation

Information Exchange

The CEA works with a number of professional representation groups to help provide the best experience for its members. By working with similar associations and other trade bodies we gain an increased knowledge of topics such as the replacement for PM5 with INDG436 and BG01, IED, LCPD, and now the MCP, RHI, climate change and the Clean Air Act.

The CEA aims to provide the best possible service to our members, and a lot of that work comes from the exchange of information. Members who visit the association’s website ( will find it filled with up-to-date news and views from all over the industry, making sure members always know what’s going on.

The CEA uses the information, support and guidance of UK and European government departments about industry related matters in order to keep our members up-to-date on the changes affecting their industries. Through consultation and liaison with UK organisations such as Defra, DECC, BIS, the Carbon Trust, British Standards and the Health and Safety Executive we can stay on the cutting-edge of the industry.

Educational and Technical Development The CEA places great emphasis on education, working with UK universities, research establishments and students on combustion engineering wherever applicable. We also provide Training and assessment for boiler operators and managers Advice to both members and non-members on all aspects of the industry

The CEA serves as a point of contact for members looking for industry information on subjects such as legislation and guidance, research, health and safety, EU Directives and many other related topics. The Association keeps a directory of member organisations and manufacturers that is freely available to all members, and has access to a substantial database of information provided by renowned field experts.

Association Services The CEA provides opportunities for member companies to contribute to the industry on a wider scale. Through exhibiting, presenting and speaker opportunities at various conferences, member companies can share their experiences and innovations with other members. The CEA is also keen to promote networking between members, by holding a number of functions at various prestigious locations to encourage interaction between member organisations, their business contacts, family and friends.

Development on products and services by members for members Research into emissions and pollution control Arranging networking opportunities for research projects through members and industry contacts The use of training rooms for members at NETPark in Sedgefield, close to Stockton-on-Tees

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CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


A ‘bottoms up’ approach to boiler efficiency In this article Byworth Boilers take us through the various considerations that operators must address to create an effective and efficient boiler system to meet their needs


ith old, out-dated boilers, costing as much as 10% more to run than newly installed plant it is vital that endusers work closely with their supply chain to ensure that existing plant is kept in peak condition and that any new plant is properly specified. To ensure efficient steam production across the range let us begin from a `bottoms up` approach. Firstly, establish the minimum load required for the plant and remember that seasonal heating demand can affect this significantly. Secondly, establish the normal and peak loads. Where the peak loads are sufficiently brief and far enough apart, it may be more appropriate to size the boiler to satisfy the average load and employ a thermal store or steam accumulator to take care of the peaks (batch processes can often benefit from this approach). Where seasonal loads vary significantly, it may be prudent to invest in multiple boilers allowing you to leave excess capacity idle in the summer.

Next we look at how much your annual steam load will cost on different fuels and what effect they have on the emissions profile of the site. Selecting the right fuel can impact significantly on the overall financial and environmental cost of operating the plant, it isn’t just about the cost of a single unit of fuel. For off-grid users of steam and hot water, LPG and LNG are an essential consideration as they can offer both emissions and cost benefits over traditional fuel oils while the Renewable Heat Incentive can also make biomass a realistic option for many.

Selecting the right burner The difference between the minimum and maximum process loads is known as “turn-down”, and it is important to select a burner that is capable of matching your needs and doesn’t keep turning on and off all the time. A burner that starts and stops 10 times in an hour is responsible for around 1% of your annual fuel bill, but remember, you won’t get any more benefit from a burner capable of 8:1 turndown over one that can do 6:1 if your process only needs 4:1. Where you employ multiple boilers, it is important to employ a good sequencing system. Many modern burners have this functionality built-in but where boilers differ in size, or where the heat sources vary (e.g. a mix of biomass and fossil fuel or applications with an element of waste-heat) a more sophisticated solution is required, often housed in a separate panel. A carefully balanced distribution header must also not be overlooked. Done badly, the system can create uneven demand on the boilers potentially leading to inefficient cycling of some, and water carry-over from others.

Pressure point In a steam application, your process system pressure is often used to determine the boiler working pressure but is this the right thing for efficiency? For any boiler, the lower the flow temperature, the more efficient the boiler will be. With a steam boiler, low pressure operation can lead to wetter steam, larger bore pipework for distribution (with an associated increase in system losses) so it may therefore be more cost effective to distribute steam at higher pressure and reduce at the point of use. In a hot water system a low flow temperature will mean a larger volume of water is needed and therefore larger distribution pipework and pumps. Ultimately it is a careful balancing act between the boiler’s efficiency and that of the distribution system that leads to the best overall efficiency.

Boiler design Energy cost concerns mean most projects prioritise running costs and reliability over purchase price and boiler manufacturers have responded to this with higher efficiency, lower emission designs.

A Byworth pre-heated air boiler


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Boiler shells and furnaces should now be generously sized, not minimised to save steel costs. A steam space which is too small

causes priming and `carry over` of water to the steam system resulting in process contamination, scaling and water hammer. Furnaces should be generously sized to lower the volumetric heat release rate which in turn reduces the flame temperature meaning lower levels of thermal NOx are produced.

Flue gas economisers Economisers are now common in many new steam boilers and typically improve efficiency by around 5% at peak throughput by utilising otherwise wasted heat from the flue gases to pre-heat the boiler feed water. Greater efficiencies can be achieved by heating a process fluid instead, making condensing systems possible in certain applications. Note that demand for steam and demand for water are not always synchronous, so efficiencies can vary significantly throughout the operating sequence.

Shell boilers operate happily with 3500 ppm TDS, having a set point, for example, of only 2800 ppm will mean 30% more energy going to drain than necessary. In-shell monitoring of the boiler TDS level helps further by ensuring the boiler only blows down when it really needs to while on-line chemical treatment systems work to continuously adjust the required level of chemicals in the boiler feed water, preventing over- and under-dosing, increasing the longevity of the plant and minimising blowdown. Once you’re satisfied that your blowdown is at the absolute minimum the next thing to consider is installing a heat exchanger to recover the lost heat back into the feed water; if your feed water is around 150 ppm, you’re losing 1% of your energy input down the drain with most of this recoverable

Combined heat and power Pre-heating combustion air A large portion of the air consumed by a burner simply passes through, leaving the boiler far hotter than when it entered; by using the heat in the flue gas to pre-heat the air prior to entering the burner it is possible to produce significantly better results than with an economiser (typically 7 to 10%). The additional benefit of preheating the air is that demand for air is always synchronous with the demand for heat meaning much more consistent gains in efficiency across the operating range.

Add-on technology To support the increasing efficiency of the boilers themselves there have been significant technological advances in burner and boiler controls. Burners with electronic air:fuel ratio controls are more accurate than mechanical systems and therefore can target lower oxygen levels in the flue gas throughout the turn down range (reducing the oxygen level in your flue gases from 4% to 3% on a gas fired boiler will mean around 0.5% reduction in your fuel bill). Variable speed drives play an important part in your boiler efficiency allowing fine control of the combustion air and feed water meaning less starts and stops of your burner while the electrical savings alone will for many mean the device pays for itself in a matter of months.

If you generate your own power there is good deal of energy in the exhaust gases leaving the engine and waste heat boilers can help recover this energy and convert it to hot water or steam. These boilers can be dedicated waste heat only or the waste heat section can be incorporated into a conventionally fired boiler where the waste heat helps provide the base load and a burner tops it up to meet demand.

Reliable back up services Well that`s all sorted then! A highly efficient boiler plant designed to meet your unique needs. Or is it? The likelihood is that your boiler will be with you for many years to come so to keep it in top condition;

Water treatment

• Ensure your operators are adequately trained to the latest BOAS or equivalent standard (remember BOAS qualifications need to be renewed every 5 years). • Meter everything. Trending of data helps to spot trouble early while the latest control systems can incorporate live data into their control loops to further maximise your efficiency • Get a service agreement in place for all of your plant. You just spent a lot of money buying it, maximise your return on investment by ensuring it is properly maintained but be sure to agree who will hold spare parts, it’s no good having an engineer turn up if neither of you have the necessary parts to get the boiler running again! • Have a backup plan. If the boiler develops a fault, what will it cost in lost production? Make sure you have the space and necessary connections to hook up a hire boiler to cover long periods of down-time. • And finally; is having a service provider available 24/7 enough or do you actually need …..another boiler?

Correct water treatment is critical to both the efficiency and the longevity of your boiler. Choosing reverse osmosis over a baseexchange softener will reduce the TDS level in the feed water meaning a lower blowdown rate is required overall; readers in hard water areas with little condensate return could save up to 2% of their fuel bill from this change alone.

Byworth Boilers provides an end-to-end service, from initial consultation and design through to final installation and commissioning. Our maintenance personnel are trained to the highest standards and are backed by comprehensive insurance. All Byworth brand products are manufactured exclusively in the UK.

Do you know your condensate return percentage? Once the steam has condensed, any remaining condensate still holds significant amounts of energy so recovering as much of it as possible is vital but be mindful of the design of your storage tank as much of this heat can be lost as flash steam through an open vent.

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


customised low NOx power solutions

ZEECO® LN Duct Burner

At Zeeco, combustion is all we do. We design and deliver the most reliable combustion solutions for the power and steam generation industry around the globe, and we back it up with more than three decades of innovative engineering. The proof? Our Zeeco DB-series Low NOx duct burners and GB boiler burners, plus our Ultra Low NOx Free-Jet boiler burners. Custom designed for every application and with the lowest cost of ownership in the industry, our burners are engineered to perform safely and reliably day in and day out, year after year. Powerful design. Proven results.

duct burners, boiler burners, burner management, combustion control

ZEECO Europe Ltd. The Woolfox Building, Great North Road, Rutland, LE15 7QT, UK +44 (0)1780 765077


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

ZEECO® is a registered trademark of Zeeco, Inc. in the U.S. ©Zeeco, Inc. 2014

Solid fuel to natural gas conversions for circulating fluid bed boilers Zeeco describes a project involving solid fuel to natural gas conversion of a Circulating Fluidised Bed (CFB) boiler


ecent discoveries of vast natural gas reserves across the world have led to increased natural gas production, resulting in lower prices. Utility and large industrial facilities are performing solid fuel conversions on their boilers to natural gas as a cost-effective and efficient fuel solution. Natural gas is not only economically beneficial but also environmentally efficient with cheaper prices and reduced SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently released mandatory requirements that directly affect the cost effective operation of solid fuel boilers, resulting in natural gas becoming a more economically appealing choice of fuel for facility operators. Zeeco recently completed a solid fuel to natural gas conversion of a Circulating Fluidised Bed (CFB) Boiler designed for 380 MWt of heat input for the maximum continuous steam rating. The project required that the following conditions were met: • Maintain boiler steam design capacity ~ 544 t/h • Meet permitted NOx requirements – 58 ppm - 25-100% heat input for NOx emissions • Minimal or no impact on the boiler waterside design • Boiler able to follow steam needs per electrical generation requirements • Ability to ramp per the original design conditions • Turndown of 10-1 The owner required less than 26-week delivery for all components, as the need to fire natural gas was critical to the financial status of the project. Two sister units were built/commissioned on solid fuels approximately two years previously. The units were originally designed with natural gas start-up burners and commissioned for main fuel support via the petcoke. The petcoke was to be fired and combusted via a circulating fluid bed system; however, their petcoke fuel contract was no longer cost effective. The boilers were in operation for less than two years when the decision was made to switch to natural gas and utilise Zeeco’s DT Ultra-Low NOx Free-Jet Burner technology. The Zeeco Free-Jet burner series was designed with the specific purpose of maximising the amount of IFGR to reduce thermal NOx emissions without sacrificing burner performance with respect to flame length, turndown, and stability. The maximisation of IFGR means many of the problems associated with using high levels of EFGR to achieve low emissions can be reduced or eliminated. Specifically, Zeeco’s Free-Jet design dramatically reduces or eliminates the need for EFGR by reducing blower power usage, increasing turndown, reducing maintenance and improving flame quality.

Figure 1: Free-Jet Flame Stabilisation Method Illustration

To do this, Zeeco devised a method to stabilise the burner flame in a low-pressure area created on a series of specially designed hot refractory ledges. As combustion occurs, the refractory ledge retains heat and flame stability is enhanced. Before combustion is initiated, a furnace is typically filled with normal air, which contains 21% oxygen. Once the burner is ignited, the oxygen content inside the furnace decreases until the burner achieves maximum duty. At this point, the oxygen content in the furnace

Figure 2: Zeeco’s DT Free-Jet Burner

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Solid fuel to natural gas conversions for circulating fluid bed boilers Continued from page 29

is normally 2 to 3%. To keep the burner stable throughout the transition from start-up with 21% oxygen to maximum duty with 2 to 3% oxygen, Zeeco developed a series of stabilisation ledges as shown in Figure 1. These ledges are a design feature of the Zeeco Free-Jet Burner chosen for the boiler retrofit. Since the boiler was only in operation for a short period of time, the plant needed assistance with the selection of the new gas firing system and options that would allow them to operate the boiler at the same steam flow capacity and pressure as originally designed for petcoke firing. Zeeco designed three options for converting the boiler to natural gas firing, and the operator chose one requiring the replacement of the four start-up burners with new burners, plus adding a second level of four burners above to achieve the necessary heat input for full load steam conditions (440 MWt). The new Zeeco Free-Jet DT burners (Figure 2) fit within the existing opening, minimising retrofit costs.

This option provided the operator with maximum flexibility to return to petcoke firing if the price for natural gas rose to a level higher than that of petcoke fuel.

Final conditions: • Burner performance and full steam boiler operation was achieved in less than two weeks. • Final emissions performance met the contract and permit requirements of 58 ppm • Plant owner was able to generate plant power within less than a month after the initial boiler start-up.

You can count your chickens with this result HeatSol reports on a successful project for a chicken meat processor aimed at reducing gas consumption

Tony Gilroy, the Managing Director of Kookaburra Ltd. stated: “Our cost of natural gas in relation to usage on our steam boiler has significantly reduced……to touch and feel these savings week on week is nothing short of a great success story.”


ookaburra Ltd in Peterlee, a food process plant that processes chicken meat, was anxious to reduce its steam boiler gas consumption and at the same time ensure reliability of operation of its single steam boiler that operates 24/7 throughout the year. The company called in Boiler Technical Services (BTS) to assist in considering the changes that could be made. BTS, amongst other recommendations, advised the retrofitting of a Dreizler Marathon Gas Burner on the steam boiler, having witnessed gas energy savings on several other steam boiler plants of a similar size with the Dreizler system. The Dreizler Marathon® gas burners recommended are equipped with an ORBIC Control Unit (Optimised Reset Burner Intelligence Control) that incorporates a short air purge on a controlled restart coupled with gas tightness valve control. The unique patented Dreizler® ARZ low NOx emission burner head and frequency speed control together also contribute to the high efficiency operation. The variable speed of the fan is adapted to the burner capacity with high turn-down modulating capability that results in gas energy savings of 10% to 20% per annum. The payback time is normally less than 15 months and power savings of more than 50% are also relevant in the overall savings programme.


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Unique Flame Pattern

Steam Boiler Energy Savings patented dreizler marathon burners (15kW to 44MW)

If you are you looking to save fuel costs on your Steam Boiler Plant, please call 0800 313 4683 for a free survey

HeatSolutions for Industry & Commerce For more information contact:

HeatSol Technology Ltd Tel: 0800 313 4643 HeatSol House, 28 High Street, Droitwich Spa, Worcestershire WR9 8ES Email: CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Why spending more money is the wrong answer Malcolm Cook, Managing Director of SAACKE Combustion Services Limited explains why new thinking about energy efficiency is needed from the combustion industry Question: What’s so surprising about 125 people gathering in one place to discuss efficiency of boiler plant? Answer: No one can tell you when it last happened. In fact, if you were at The National Motorcycle Museum last October at the 2013 Combustion Engineering Technical Seminar, you were present at a unique event. And, if you were there, you’ll know exactly why Aseai Zlaoui, Engineering Energy Manager from Harrods Ltd said ‘I came to see what’s out there. Are there opportunities to investigate? And it’s been brilliant, it really has.’ And why Lionel Macey, Technical Director of Therm Tech Ltd, said ‘I came to catch up on what’s been going on in the rapidly growing world of combustion technology. This seminar has certainly achieved that.’ Because both Azeai and Lionel (plus 123 others) know that if they’re going to keep their businesses competitive; if they’re going become more efficient; if they’re going to use every device

possible to save money, then they have to stay ahead of the game. Because they know that if they don’t, their competitors will. Question: What else is surprising about 125 people gathering in one place to discuss efficiency of boiler plant? Answer: That there were ONLY 125 gathered in one place to discuss efficiency of boiler plant! Of course it’s tough to take time away from the business; we know that a number who really wanted to be there at the National Motorcycle Museum will have felt they just couldn’t invest the time, even though they knew how valuable it would be. And therein lies a message for us all. We live in an age obsessed with the impact of global warming. The watchwords of the generation are, ‘save’, ‘recycle’, ‘reduce’, ‘conserve’. The recession has created an even more cost conscious climate. So, how has business responded? Take the world of company vehicles. The monthly ‘Fleet News’ magazine has over 100 pages packed full of green issues, hybrid cars, low emissions, high mileages, LPG, driver training and more. Fleet managers are under increasing pressure to ensure the ‘green’ credentials of their purchasing decisions. Alongside this our approach to technology has, over the past decade, undergone a sea change. We have grown accustomed in business to expecting a replacement company vehicle, laptop and mobile phone every three years or so in our pursuit of efficiency, and at home new TVs, DVDs and games consoles are the norm. And what of our own industry? How have we responded? A somewhat different story emerges. Automation and de-manning over many years have taken their toll, and in those multiplying cases where decisions are being passed to accountants, the arguments for investing in plant have taken a back seat. When it comes to heat generating plant, the main engines for our factories and installations, we adopt a more blinkered stance when considering investment in new technology, efficiency improvements and, in some cases, maintenance for our businesses. Even plant that has all the main efficiency improvement gizmos of motor inverter drive, oxygen trim and electronic burner management can improve further. We commonly see boiler plant that cycles over 300 times a day or has a sequence control system that has one boiler at MCR with another clicking in and out to top up the output demand – hardly the most efficient operation.

Replacement Dual Fuel Rotary Cup Burners at Major Hospital


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

We are, in the words of one industry expert ‘Using yesterday’s technology to burn tomorrow’s energy’.

So, what do we do about it? The easy answer is, ‘spend more money on your plant’. But that, in our opinion, is the wrong answer and addresses the wrong issue. Because the issue is not simply about pulling out the cheque book, although of course, businesses will have to invest if they want to take advantage of our industry’s technical advances. But the starting point is elsewhere. Because the real issue is to do with how we think about energy; the importance we place upon it and the attention we pay to it in relation to other aspects of business. Consider marketing. How many marketing campaigns deliver a real and measurable ROI? How many marketers do you meet who will put their hands on their heart and guarantee a specific ROI for a marketing campaign? Very few in our experience. And this is not to denigrate marketing. So much of it is an imprecise science. And now consider combustion. Can you measure heat loss? Yes. Can you measure fuel consumption? Yes. Can you measure energy output? Yes. Can you measure energy saving as a result of new

plant or equipment? Yes. Can you accurately predict payback time on capital investment? Yes. Can you, therefore, give your financial masters a watertight case for ROI? Yes, indeed you can. And yet we’ll bet that it’s easier for marketing to win funds for a campaign than it is for the combustion specialist to argue and win the case for new equipment. Why? Is it just that burners and boilers are not as sexy as advertising hoardings? Or is it that we need to take more responsibility for creating powerful arguments for change? Is it that we need to create a campaign of our own? Perhaps an internal marketing campaign that can actually promise a return on ROI. Is it that we are not forceful enough in putting our case forward? Is it, dare we say it, that we are not totally certain what kind of a result, what kind of ROI, an investment programme could deliver? If we really want to create more profitable businesses and in turn create more security of employment, we have to start ‘stepping up to the plate’ as combustion professionals and establishing compelling arguments for investment. And that means we need to be in total control of the facts – the facts of our boiler rooms, our boilers, our burners. We have to KNOW where the weaknesses are. We have to KNOW where efficiencies can be made. We have to KNOW where costs can be cut. In order to do that, we have to ensure that all our people KNOW where to look and to open their eyes. So, the starting point is not the cheque book. The cheque book is at the very end of a process that starts with a good hard look at ourselves, our teams, our knowledge and our desire (yes, our desire) to bring true efficiencies and savings to the companies we serve. Because when we commit to this campaign, we make a much more powerful statement about our concern, not only for the present, but also for future generations. So, we at SAACKE have decided to address this as best we can – this information is too important for us not to share it with as many businesses as possible – and we’ve arranged a series of regional conferences starting at the end of March 2014. We can’t possibly cover all the ground we would like in a day, but we’ve crammed this one day programme with information that WILL help you to increase your plant’s efficiency, reduce your costs and, ultimately, make your business more profitable. And, on the way, perhaps help to secure a more stable and secure future for our planet.

Teminox GLSa155 Low-NOx Monobloc burners at Major Brewery

And, because we can only get so much information into one day, we’re offering everyone who attends a CD of all last year’s Seminar presentations, a FREE boiler plant energy survey AND a complimentary copy of ‘A Better Use of Energy’, the ultimate guide to helping you create the argument for change.

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Steam Boiler failure: Are you doing enough? Annual failure rates suggest not It is the line of least resistance to do a job by rule of thumb or just follow instructions. But often things happen that cannot be put right by rules and require someone who knows “why” as well as “how”? Here, Chris Reid of Controls4Steam explains why water treatment demands close attention


hat statement is as relevant today as it was in 1945 when it appeared in “The Stoker’s Manual” prepared under the directions of the Fuel Efficiency Committee of the Ministry of Fuel and Power. The book contained information that would help the stoker ‘operate the boiler plant in the best possible way’, and recognised the important role the Stoker could play in saving coal. Yet today, boiler water treatment is still based on a ‘Rule of Thumb’ that was conceived when the ‘Lancashire Boiler’ was at its peak. At that time it was recognised that controlling the pH value was sufficient to prevent corrosion on low pressure boilers with low heat-flux and employing internal chemical treatment. 70 years ago it was left to the Boilerman to test the feed and boiler water once or twice a shift and manually adjust the rate at which the chemicals were dosed. With modern boiler plant conforming to CEA/SAFed BG01 operating unattended for 72 hours, who carries out the daily water tests? Are you doing enough? Compared to their predecessors, modern 3-pass wet back boilers contain probably less than a third the amount of water for the equivalent steam generation capacity with the furnace tube having a considerably higher heat-flux rate. Maintaining the combustion efficiency over the lifetime of any boiler is dependent upon the rate of heat transfer from flame to water; fouling of the furnace and boiler tubes retards boiler efficiency. With over 70% of all recorded boiler failures related to incorrect or no chemical dosage, is it not time to disregard the “Rule of Thumb” of a daily water test and give water treatment chemical dosing the prominence it deserves? To maintain efficiency throughout the boiler’s working life we need to ensure that the heat transfer surfaces remain scale and corrosion free, accurately control the surface blowdown at the recommended TDS level and prevent excessive sludge build up by minimising chemical dosage and regular operation of the bottom blowdown valve. Good corrosion control requires a high boiler water pH, the formation of a dense thin magnetite layer on the metal surfaces


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Effective boiler feed water chemical control systems are essential to maintain boilers at peak operating efficiency

and the total absence of oxygen in the feed water throughout the boiler’s working life. Relying on daily water tests and manually adjusting the dosing pumps cannot possibly be the most efficient and effective way to protect the boiler from damage. Any company that has suffered boiler failure or has had to have their boiler retubed or chemically cleaned will appreciate the need to improve boiler feedwater chemical control.

Passivation The internals of new boilers and boilers that have been opened for their annual insurance test should always be passivated as an essential part of set to work. It is often set aside or forgotten, particularly with the common misconception that oxygen scavengers promote the formation of magnetite during normal boiler operation. The reality is that sodium sulphite, the most widely used oxygen scavenger, does not promote magnetite formation.

Scale formation All scale deposits have a much lower thermal conductivity than the furnace and boiler tubes and must when present reduce the thermal efficiency of the boiler. At best the scale will hinder the heat transfer process; worst case scenario would result in the hot spots weakening the metal. The metal will then be distorted by the boiler pressure and may collapse. A reduction of 2-3% of heat transfer per 1mm of scale is itself significant. With a monthly fuel bill of £30,000 the reduction in efficiency can cost from £750/ month upwards. Reduced heat transfer also results in high metal temperatures at the entrance to the first tube pass which can cause cracking of the tube plate ligaments and cracking of welds and tube ends at the tube plate attachments.

Oxygen corrosion Water with a temperature below 100°C will absorb oxygen, which unless removed by suitable treatment reacts with the metal inside the boiler and steam system causing corrosion. The lower the feedwater temperature the greater the amount of dissolved oxygen it contains and therefore proportionally more oxygen scavenging chemicals are required to prevent damage. Oxygen damage is characterised as localised pitting so it does not take too much before a tube failure occurs or problems start to appear in the steam and condensate lines. Neutralising the oxygen before it enters the boiler is obviously vital but this is not without its downside – sodium sulphite, which is commonly used on land boilers requires approximately 8-10mg of product to neutralise 1mg of dissolved oxygen thus raising the TDS of the feed water by at least 8mg/litre, so if your philosophy to combat oxygen damage is to overdose the chemical for the worst case condition you introduce other problems like higher rate of surface blowdown with the attendant energy and water loss. Whether you have a daily start-up or operate 24seven the feedwater temperature will vary throughout the course of the day each and every day. Ascertaining the correct dosage of oxygen scavenging chemicals is based on calculation: on start-up or with an increase in load, the natural balance between steam flow and condensate return will change and the feedwater tank level will fall. Cold make-up water is required to correct the imbalance. The tank temperature will be depressed and dissolved gas content will increase. Testing once a day, at about the same time will probably give you similar results. But the results are not representative of actual operating conditions throughout the day. Dosing chemicals based on an estimated temperature or one sample per day contributes considerably to problems in the boiler which ultimately reduces efficiency and increases operating costs throughout the lifetime of the boiler. At a temperature of 80°C there is 3mg/l of dissolved oxygen in the water being fed to the boiler. At 95°C the oxygen content will be 1mg/l reducing the sulphite requirement by approximately 65%. Taking into account the large increase in dissolved solids contributed by the sulphite, monitoring and maintaining the highest possible feed temperature will not only reduce the dissolved oxygen, it will provide a reduction in dissolved solids. This means less blowdown is required which gives savings in water and energy. Another common misconception is that heating the feed water using inline heaters or economisers reduces the dissolved oxygen. The reality is that it does not because unlike an atmospherically vented feed tank, the oxygen has nowhere to escape.

Given, therefore, the uncertainty of the stored feedwater temperature and the boiler demand it makes sense to monitor the feed rate and the dissolved oxygen level (or feed water temperature) and to design your dosing algorithm based on these factors. It would then be possible to accurately adjust the dosing rate in real time, according to the amount of dissolved oxygen in the feed water and the boiler demand. Not too much, not too little but just the right amount, saving chemicals and energy by reducing the need to blow down the boiler.

Dissolved and suspended solids content As we generate steam, the water in the boiler evaporates and the concentration of dissolved and suspended solids increases. How quickly they increase depends on the quality and condition of the feedwater. If we do nothing about this, the dissolved solids level will increase until we get foaming and priming with consequent problems within the boiler and the steam distribution system. It is essential therefore, that the dissolved solids level within steam boilers is not allowed to rise above a specified concentration. The majority of modern boilers have automatic controls which monitor and regulate the solids content to within the boiler manufacturers specified limits to prevent foaming and carry over. However, the majority of controllers installed rely on a fixed temperature input to calculate the solids level. Since conductivity varies with temperature at approximately 2% per °C, accurate control can only be achieved when temperature compensation is automatically applied. Some suspended solids, will fall to the bottom of the boiler forming sludge. This should be controlled by manual or automatic operation of the bottom blowdown valve. The most effective and economic way is to open the valve quickly but for short periods of 3 to 5 seconds duration. The object being to disturb the sludge at the bottom of the boiler and draw it out through the valve, short sharp operation has over time proved the best method. To summarise, the chemical requirement of a 10 bar 10 tonne/hr boiler can vary by as much as x6 between low load and high load. During make-up, feed tank temperatures can fall by 20°C or more. To be effective boiler feedwater control needs to be automatic and available 24seven.

Controls 4 Steam knows “Why and How”? to maintain the correct feed and boiler water chemical balance. If you want to compare your dosing regime and cost of steam against an automatic system email: and request a copy of the ‘Boiler Model’ or visit the web site and watch the video.

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015



CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015



Asia Africa Australia Europe North America South America

Harris Pye Steams Ahead with New Boiler Management Systems Over the past twelve years, Harris Pye has built an excellent reputation for automation and control engineering, covering all required electronic, electrical and pneumatic instrumentation. Our automation and control teams are particularly in-demand in the offshore oil & gas, petrochemical, power, cruise, workboat and leisure craft industries. Turnkey automation and control systems: Our scope of activities was traditionally dedicated to the installation of boiler combustion and control equipment, as well as the maintenance and servicing of offshore and marine instrumentation and control systems. Nowadays we are proud to also be renowned for the provision of turnkey systems, encompassing all areas of engineering, procurement, construction, installation and commissioning. Our all-encompassing expertise means that we are one of the few companies in the world able to be able to offer complete boiler systems, from design and supply through to installation, commissioning, and operational advice. This is complementary to our core business as we also service and repair all types of boiler control and combustion, plant instrumentation and electrical control systems. Head Office: David Davies Road, No. 2 Barry Dock, Barry, Vale of Glamorgan, United Kingdom CF63 4AB Tel: +44 (0)1446 720066 Fax: +44 (0)1446 700801 Email:



CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

A challenging but exciting future ahead for combustion engineering With new legislation to digest, coupled with challenges in emissions and efficiency, the combustion engineering industry needs to change and grow to meet the needs of the future. A survey of leading CEA members revealed how they see the industry developing toward 2020.

Paul Whitehead of Energy and Environmental Solutions gave some further details: “Some of the main items are the Large Combustion Plant Directive. This is already in place under the Industrial Emissions Directive, mainly power generation plant above 50 MW thermal input. The Medium Combustion Plant Directive will apply to 1-50 MW plants and will affect around 17,000 plants in the UK, including boilers, engines and turbines across all industries and every sector.” The eco-design directive for plant below 1 MW plant and some other related directives such as energy efficiency will also be significant, while Craig Fuller of Flowserve highlighted the possibility of further taxation either on fuel or emissions.

“The key piece of legislation will be the implementation of the directive on industrial emissions, which is being implemented on new plant now and will be implemented on existing plant in the future.” Tony Garret, Zeeco Europe Ltd

Some major challenges in emissions and efficiency Unsurprisingly, emission control also featured highly in respondents’ thoughts when asked about the key challenges facing the industry.


ombustion engineering is a vital part of modern society. But what of its future? How will the technology and legislation develop and change to 2020? And how will the industry respond to the challenges these changes will produce? To answer these questions, we asked some leading CEA members for their views of how the industry will develop in the near future.

Jornitz emphasized the need for authorities to set realistic emissions levels that the industry can actually achieve, while Gent saw the key challenge as meeting the new BREF emission values, particularly when upgrading existing plant. Tony Garret said: “A major challenge will be balancing plant efficiency against a reduction in greenhouse gases to reduce the CO2 footprint. There are various ways of reducing emissions to meet the IE - these methods may require the use of auxiliary power sources, which increase the emissions of CO2, so careful design of systems will be required to minimise the use of auxiliary power.”

New legislation in the pipeline Survey respondents were asked about key pieces of legislation facing the combustion engineering industry. Emission regulations came out top of the list. Ulf Jornitz, Operations Manager – Capabilities for Unilever Engineering Services, says: “The key focus in legislation will be emissions. We must ask, can we run combustions in a more efficient way to further reduce emissions? I feel a new, higher standard of emissions for combustion will be set up.”

Whitehead also mentioned the advent of reduced emissions limits from all combustion plant, with other factors being improved energy efficiency regulations and uncertainty over whether renewables are the right way to go: “I foresee tighter limits on waste creation and waste treatment and shifting the emissions problem back to electricity suppliers - the electricity generator then has the problem of which fuel to use to make my electricity, and what pollutant to create or abate.

The CEA’s own David Gent mentioned the Industrial Emission Directive and Medium Combustion Plant Directive as significant. Tony Garret of Zeeco Europe Ltd., agreed: “The key piece of legislation will be the implementation of the directive on industrial emissions, which is being implemented on new plant now and will be implemented on existing plant in the future.”

“Some abatement techniques (ammonia for NOx reduction for example) could create more problems than they solve if not carefully managed. There needs to be the political will to ensure that industrial facilities in the UK do not lose out to cheaper foreign competition when we have to spend a fortune on dealing with emissions legislation.”

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Craig Fuller mentioned efficiency as a major challenge, namely how to encourage end users to be efficient by using best in class technology and auditing their sites for efficiency.

Technology reining in emissions This need to curb emissions will obviously have a major impact on how combustion technology develops in the next few years. Jornitz said that the industry must invest in new combustion technologies, such as new burners, better controls and new cleaning technologies, while Gent foresees a need for increasing technological sophistication to achieve lower emission levels, hand-in-hand with improved instrumentation and control. Fuller recognized that emissions control will have a big impact, with any new equipment needing to adopt best in class technologies.

“We will need to invest heavily in new plant and new techniques, and older boilers that are perfectly capable of making steam safely, and reasonably economically, might not be able to accept the new technologies.” Paul Whitehead, Energy and Environmental Solutions Garret said: “We need to match the boiler plant with the combustion equipment. No longer can this be viewed as a customer / supplier relationship – complete systems will need to be designed with input from both parties.” Whitehead underlined the need to move towards fundamentally new combustion technology in the long term: “We will need to invest heavily in new plant and new techniques, and older boilers that are perfectly capable of making steam safely, and reasonably economically, might not be able to accept the new technologies. For example, matching ultra-low NOX burners to old furnaces may simply not work. “Some fuels will disappear altogether, firstly heavy oil, then residual and light oils for all but essential uses, such as standby gensets and diesel for lorries, then some biomass mixes because

of particulate and other emissions. Natural gas will be all that is left, and then it will run out, so we will need an alternative.” Efficiency clearly dominates thinking on what will have the biggest impact on technology. Jornitz believes that the largest affect will be a high efficient combustion control technology, while Fuller cited low cost control equipment that will precisely monitor and control efficient operation.

No easy answers to fuel price challenge Asked how they see energy efficiency improving in the coming years, respondents focused on the role of the end user looking for more efficient solutions that cut costs. Jornitz stated:”With increasing energy pricing, the whole industry is looking for higher efficiencies and with this for lower emissions,” while Gent envisaged that companies who develop energy efficient products will continue to take market share. The uncertainty over fuel availability and pricing up to 2020 is a grey area for the combustion industry. Jornitz believes that organisations must have internal programs to make processes more efficient to save fuels, while sharing good proven practises between organisations will help all to manage uncertainty and price increases. Paul Mayoh, Technical Manager of Spirax Sarco UK believes that some key technologies will help organisations to deal with uncertainty over fuel availability and pricing: “Energy storage will become more important alongside the ongoing development of energy efficiency and utilisation.” Paul Whitehead emphasises the importance of plant that can use more than one fuel. However, “the main issue is that everything needs electricity to power burners, fans, pumps and control systems, so unless we have guaranteed and reliable electricity supplies nothing will run. Having a tank full of oil, a gas pipe and a pile of logs for the fire are no use at all if the lights go out.“

Need to get even tougher on health and safety Heath and safety could be considered the bedrock of good operational practice in the industry. Says Jornitz: “This is one of the most important points for the future. Even now, a lot of boilers run in an unsafe way, even with strict national laws in place. Internal standards have to bring more strict inspection regimes, while sharing of good proven practice will help to improve the level of safety.” Gent cited the number of high profile H&S events in biomass combustion plants as ones the industry must continue to learn from. He added: “The CEA’s proposed contribution to gas safety will hopefully transform the assessment of those working in the industrial gas area.” “We are now seeing the upgrade of existing equipment within Europe to use the safety standards EN12952-8 and EN746,” says Garret. “There is a requirement for combustion engineers to be involved with these upgrades as their knowledge of processes enables them to design and specify the correct solution for the individual user.”

The need to curb emissions will obviously have a major impact on how combustion technology develops in the next few years for boiler plant of all sizes. Shown here are two boilers rated at 5,000 kg/hr and 1,500 kg/hr. Image kindly supplied by Byworth Boilers Ltd


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

“New H&S legislation has been very sparse over the last few years and much of what we have today is decades old and still relevant,” comments Whitehead. “I can only foresee a few ‘tweaks’

Better control for all plants Improvements to control and monitoring equipment is on the agenda according to Whitehead: “Cheap and reliable continuous emissions monitoring equipment for all the small plants that might need it.” Similarly, Fuller predicts the ability of burners to automatically adjust controls to suit the calorific value of the fuel being used. David Gent sees continued development of energy/fuel diversity and an emphasis on reacting to government incentives in areas such as renewables. He adds: “The industry will remain core to many public services and much of manufacturing/processing industry and therefore the outlook remains positive.”

Biomass and waste combustion will be also be a big part in future solutions, says Ulf Jornitz

here and there over the coming years. The driver for all the emissions legislation is primarily a human health issue, so that seems to be where the focus has shifted.”

“Even now, a lot of boilers run in an unsafe way, even with strict national laws in place. Internal standards have to bring more strict inspection regimes, while sharing of good proven practice will help to improve the level of safety.” Ulf Jornitz, Operations Manager – Capabilities, Unilever Engineering Services

In terms of technology, he stated that combustion processes will either operate at a lower temperature or alternative processes will be available for heat release that do not depend on combustion, while more processes will commute from steam to either hot water or thermal oil. Jornitz sees on site generation as a growing trend: “The biggest challenge here will be to set up combined operations in industrial areas, so that systems can be optimised and run as well in the summer. Sharing of energy, especially heat, between industries in an area will be a big theme in the future. As an example, if a company runs a combined heat & power plant, can the heat of this plant be shared with neighboured companies? “Biomass and waste combustion will also be a big part in future solutions.” The message of the survey is that the combustion engineering industry is healthy and ready to face the challenges with innovative solutions. However, as Paul Mayoh concludes: “The industry needs to drive change, rather than be driven!”

Towards 2020 The combustion industry is a dynamic one and several technological developments will help to meet the challenges of efficiency and emissions, while the industry itself, both users and vendors, will not stand still. Garret sees two main developments, one being that Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) will not disappear completely from the world but will still be used in areas where gas supply is unavailable or where HFO is plentiful. He says: “The NOx requirements for oil in Europe will be applied world-wide to HFO and so the development of a sub-200 Mg/Nm3 NOx HFO burner will most probably appear. “Shale gas usage and operating with gas will dominate Europe, and so in-duct burners with Ultra- Low NOx levels will be introduced. The use of shale gas as a source of energy will most probably minimise the use of coal within Europe.” Talking about prospects for the industry itself, he commented: “Generally the cost of development will drive combustion companies into larger blocks and so the industry will most probably be dominated by a few large combustion companies, with large R+D facilities working in all areas of combustion. “The industry has a strong future globally as emission reduction policy is rolled out into all the developing countries.”

The combustion engineering industry is healthy and ready to face the challenges with innovative solutions. Image kindly supplied by Spirax Sarco

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Demand on the rise as health sector bids to cut costs and emissions As NHS Trusts battle with high energy costs and carbon emission targets, Wellman Group is reporting an unprecedented demand for its efficient steam boiler range.


oug Howarth, National Sales Manager at Wellman Thermal Services, said the company had seen an uplift in Wellman steam boiler sales with Trusts looking to replace older and less efficient boilers as well as also opting for energy efficiency upgrades and economisers. “We have supplied a variety of high efficiency boilers, including models from our Wellman Ygnette and Wellman Sygnette range to a variety of NHS Trust projects. We estimate we have supplied more than 80 per cent of recent hospital projects across the UK. “Hospitals are under pressure to cut energy costs but they also have to meet stringent emission targets as part of a wider NHS plan to reduce the environmental impact of healthcare in the UK. “Our NHS customers are required to embed carbon reduction into the day to day running of their facilities, and so are investing significant funds into plant replacement. This investment is also

being ploughed into the introduction of new technology, and so we have also seen a corresponding rise in demand for our energy efficiency upgrades and our economiser range which has been the focus of much of our recent research & development programme.” Jonathan Hawkins, Energy and Efficiency Manager at Wellman Thermal Services, said: “Perhaps more than any other market sector, the healthcare industry is the one which requires consistency and reliability - needing to keep patients warm and the water hot. Many of our customers are the same hospitals we supplied decades ago – they have chosen Wellman again because we have continued to develop our technology and engineering expertise and can offer highly efficient new systems and energy efficient upgrades for older existing systems. The world renowned Alder Hey Children’s Hospital in Liverpool is installing three Wellman boilers in a £237 million project to rebuild the hospital on a site nearby. And the company also supplied South Devon NHS Healthcare Trust with two of its large capacity trailerised hire boilers for Torbay Hospital’s sterilisation, heating and laundry requirements pending the arrival of new boilers commissioned by the Trust. Alan Banner, Technical and Operations Manager of Wellman’s Boiler Hire division, explained: “The hospital complex deals with more than 70,000 patients per year, mainly in the Accident and Emergency Department. “To ensure no loss of steam production, Wellman supplied these trailerised hire boilers within a very short timeframe, complete with dual fuel burners, bunded fuel tanks and full ancillary package to ensure self-sufficiency.” The hire boilers are being replaced by newly-designed Wellman composite and ‘standard’ steam boilers consisting of two 7,200kg/h three-pass steam boilers with integrated economisers plus a bespoke 7,684kg/h combination waste heat recovery boiler. For further information about Wellman, please visit or call 0121 543 0000

An installation by Wellman Thermal Services at Kingston Hospital in London


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


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CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


New TC Model • 500 - 2000kg/hr • Touch control screen • Full modulation feature 50-100% firing • Natural Gas, Light Oil, LPG and Bio Fuel • Automatic facility option • PM5 Facility option • Pressure range up to 32 barG • >98% Efficiency * • Remote compatible with Profibus/ CANbus etc. • Steam in 3 minutes • Compact construction • Lightweight • Suitable for mezzanine floors • Factory tested prior to dispatch to site • NOx Gas reduction option • Dual fuel option

SC Range • 80 - 2000kg/hr • Natural Gas, Light Oil, LPG and Bio Fuel • Automatic facility option • PM5 Facility option • Pressure range up to 32 barG • >98% Efficiency * • Steam in 3 minutes • Compact construction • Lightweight • Suitable for mezzanine floors • Factory tested prior to dispatch to site • NOx Gas reduction option

Electrical Range • Compact • 8 - 160kg/hr Steam output • Modulating ouput • Skid mountable • Steam in 3 minutes • Automatic facility option

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CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

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And the winner is… CEA young engineer research prize


ord Chidgey presented James Wayman with the Combustion Engineering Association’s (CEA) Young Engineer research prize and a cheque for £500 sponsored by Professor Bill Kaye of Kaye and Associates Ltd. The Award is presented annually to reward outstanding achievement in the study of combustion engineering by a degree course or post-graduate student. The Award is judged by a panel of committee members from the CEA. The prize giving took place at the CEA’s member’s lunch in October 2013, which gathers annually for the The David Gunn Memorial Lecture. The event was held at the House of Lords and hosted by Lord Chidgey on behalf of the CEA.

This year’s David Gunn Memorial Lecture: ‘Marine Engineering in the Royal Navy from Dreadnaught to Queen Elizabeth Class’, was given by Captain Mike Martin OBE RN (Rtd) and Commander Alan Dorricott OBE RN (Rtd). In addition Sharon Kuligowski MD of Dunphy Combustion and daughter of Malcolm Dunphy presented the Malcolm Dunphy 1000th Boiler Operation Accreditation Scheme (BOAS) candidate award to Robert Watkins, a manager at 2 Sisters Food Group based in Newport North Wales, who is a very keen advocate of training. Malcolm Dunphy was instrumental in setting up the BOAS in 2004 when C&G dropped boiler courses. Without suitable accreditation there was no way of proving competence for operators, managers and technicians responsible for running large and complex industrial boiler plants. Sharon said “Dunphy Combustion have almost completed a large new research facility designed and started by Malcolm at Rochdale before he passed away very recently. This will be opened later this year, the 50th Anniversary of the founding of Dunphy Combustion, by CEA President Dr. Pete Waterman OBE DL”. CEA Member Fulton Boilers also recently built and opened a new factory in Bristol, increasing its manufacturing capacity in the UK and bringing manufacturing back from China, great signs in the growth within the combustion sector.

Lord Chidgey congratulates James Wayman

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


The challenge of metering steam Andy Capper, Business Development Manager, Endress+Hauser Ltd

Generating steam and hot water accounts for 40% of fossil fuels used in industry, therefore improving energy efficiency in processes using steam is an obvious way of reducing utility bills.


mproving the fuel-to-steam efficiency when generating steam will save 1% in fuel costs for every 1% improvement in fuel-tosteam efficiency. But before replacement energy efficient boilers are purchased, or economisers, advanced combustion controls and oxygen trim controls added to existing older boilers, a business case must be made for the likely return on any investment. Without metering it is not possible to determine current energy performance and the savings that would result following the implementation of energy saving measures. Flowmeters don’t save energy or money, they merely provide consumption data. Steam is difficult to meter. Poor quality steam can operate in variable flow regimes and the steam condensate (water) content can affect measurement. Different technologies are affected in different ways by the presence of steam with a typical dryness fraction of 0.95 (95% dry, 5% water). Most steam meters are designed to perform best on 100% dry saturated steam with a dryness fraction of unity. The droplets present in wet steam can travel at speeds of up to 100mph and will erode the sharp edge on an orifice plate causing a negative shift in calibration. The traditional square-edged orifice plate is the most common steam meter due to its relatively low cost. However, it arguably remains one of the poorest methods as a result of the erosion tendency that will have a substantial effect upon the accuracy of the measurement. The ideal steam meter should be robust enough to withstand temperature shocks, water hammer, vibration and effects of erosion inherent in steam-generating systems. Additionally, the meter should have no moving parts, measure mass without the need for additional instruments and provide multivariable outputs such as mass, energy and specific enthalpy. Vortex shedding flowmeters are being used more and more in modern steam systems. They provide robust sensor designs and negligible calibration drift, solving many of the problems caused by this aggressive fluid. Most Vortex flowmeters have in-built pressure and/or temperature measurement to meet the needs of measuring steam mass or energy. So, is it the perfect measurement for steam? Well, almost. Correct siting of the flowmeter is critical: bends, valves, pipe reductions or expansions can cause measuring errors from disturbed flow profiles. In saturated steam systems a pressure reduction, from a valve for example, close to the flowmeter of any type will induce a small level of ‘super heat’ at the measuring point. If the meter is assuming this is saturated steam, it will over-report the steam mass and energy from the reduced pressure at the point of the restriction. So we know what can cause measuring errors when using Vortex flowmeters, but what else can affect the measurement accuracy? As


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Endress+Hauser’s steam R&D facility at the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland

previously stated, most saturated steam flowmeters are designed to measure dry steam. If the steam quality is poor and the dryness fraction starts to reduce, the water phase holds a lower heat energy and therefore the reported energy content will be in error and read high. With new sensor developments in Vortex flowmeters, it is now possible to detect and even quantify free water in a steam system. With clever signal processing and some simple evaluation of the water content, the true steam energy can be given. This has been demonstrated with great success at Endress+Hauser’s steam research and development facility at the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland in Windisch. This rig has been used to develop a new range of vortex meters, offering wet steam detection and measurement from dryness fraction 80-100%. Accurate metering of steam heat energy is critical for the government’s Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) scheme. The relative success of this scheme from the Department of Energy and Climate Change has been mainly due to biomass renewable heat which accounts for over 90% of the total heat energy generated by renewable technologies. The uptake in in this technology is about to increase further since the tariff for large scale biomass is about to double to 2p/kWh in April 2014. Many companies, particularly in the food & beverage sector will be interested in the biomass potential of many of their waste residues. It may be necessary to further treat and separate some of the residues before achieving their biomass potential but, with incentives now improved by the government, projects could start to take shape and progress. Whilst the necessary accurate metering for this scheme is made easier at the boiler side of the steam distribution system it could become more difficult closer to the process and the consumers. This will be due to the water content or dryness fraction of the steam. Developments in steam metering technology allow this heat to be measured accurately by measuring the dryness fraction of the steam, schemes such as the RHI would do better to insist on accurate metering in this way rather than suggesting MID (Measuring Instruments Directive) approval be sought.

Consult the experts in energy metering

For all matters concerning steam and energy metering, turn to Endress+Hauser. Whether you need help to determine the fuel-to-steam efficiency of your current system, heat metering to meet Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) accreditation or even help with a new RHI application, we have the right solution for you. With a wealth of experience in providing compliant metering, consultancy services and reporting solutions, youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re in expert hands.

Endress+Hauser Ltd Floats Road Manchester M23 9NF

Tel: 0161 286 5000 Fax: 0161 998 1841 CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Valves Industrial Electronics Automation Special Equipment and Vessels for Heat Recovery Services

Flowserve GB Ltd. • Gestra - Power Division · Euro House · Abex Road · Newbury · Berkshire · RG14 5EY · United Kingdom Telephone: +44 (0)1635 46999 · Fax: +44 (0)1635 36034 · · 48

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


The vital role of training in combustion engineering As a registered educational charity, one of the CEA’s biggest remits is to support training to improve the understanding and development of the combustion industry. In this feature, we look at some of the CEA’s activities in education and expert support for the industry and hear from leading training suppliers about what they offer. The runaway success of BOAS


ne of the CEA’s biggest successes in education has been the creation of the popular Boiler Operative (and Manager) National Qualification. The qualification was devised in consultation with the Health & Safety Executive (HSE), the insurance industry, manufacturers of boilers, burners and associated equipment, and employers, with the practical support of The Carbon Trust In 2013 racked up its 1,000th BOAS accreditation. The successful delegate was Robert Watkins, Engineering Team Leader at 2 Sisters Food Group, based in South Wales, who completed his accreditation at Spirax Sarco’s Cheltenham UK Steam Technology Centre. “Training at Spirax Sarco helps us stay up-to-date with technology advancements and new legislation,” says Mr Watkins. “For us, the BOAS course ticks all the right boxes for insurers and the HSE,” Mr Watkins continues. “By looking after your boiler in the form of good maintenance and effective water treatment, you’ll receive both a safety and financial gain.” In recognition of this landmark for the BOAS course, Mr Watkins was invited to the CEA’s David Gunn Memorial Lecture, at the House of Lords.

Sharon Kuligowski MD of Dunphy Combustion, presenting the Malcolm Dunphy award for the 1000th BOAS candidate to pass to Robert Watkins, Engineering Team Leader at 2 Sisters Food Group

2. Steam boilers without steam raising in tubes (<15 barg) 3. Steam boilers with steam raising in tubes (<32 barg and <200 tonnes/hr) Assessment at the higher category does not offer a presumption of competence at a lower category. To find out more please visit the CEA website:

Achieving the qualification The qualification can be obtained in two alternative ways: 1. By attendance on an approved training course. 2. By application for assessment for those who can demonstrate sufficient experience. In cases where a candidate attends an approved training course, the assessment will be carried out within the course. Where the experienced candidate just applies for assessment, he will be required to attend a one-day assessment course, which will include oral and written processes. In all cases the candidates will be issued with log books where they will be required to record all working operations of the boiler plant under their control over a period of three months, at which time an ‘on site’ interview will be conducted. The qualification is available in various categories as follows: 1. Hot water boilers

BOAS certificate and ID card

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015



Boiler operations training from EMK EMK Educational & Environmental Services Limited explains why managers and operators need to be trained separately


MK specialises in professional and vocational education and training. We employ professional trainers who are specialists in energy efficiency, fuel technology, gas engine and turbine, steam turbine, steam boiler and hot water boiler training. All are industrially experienced Chartered Engineers, qualified teachers and have many yearsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; experience in industrial and commercial plant operations training. EMK specialises in boiler operations training for both operators and managers and provide training under the Boiler Operation Accredited Scheme (BOAS). Taking the BOAS training course with EMK offers the advantage of our trainers carrying out the training at your site. The training will be focused on your equipment, carried out on the actual plant operated by your trainees and tailored to meet their exact needs. On-site training also saves clients the cost of accommodation and travelling that might otherwise be associated with the training.

Furthermore, EMK is an independent provider with low overheads enabling us to provide the best service at the most competitive prices. Nor do we seek to promote a particular type of plant or equipment. While the BOAS courses are our premier products, there are certain advantages in the non-accredited two-day boiler training course. A rigid assessment structure and the need to pass written examinations are not always appropriate to all operatives and organisational needs.

BOAS for Managers These courses are specifically designed for boiler plant managers and lead to the Diploma in Boiler Plant Operation Management (DipBOM). The course activities are designed to develop and demonstrate the analytical and process improvement skills as well as written and verbal capability required by boiler plant managers. EMK believes that managers need to be trained in what they have to do and cannot learn this properly on a course in which they are mixed in with operators.

Directory of training providers Byworth Boilers Parkwood Boiler Works, Parkwood Street Keighley, West Yorkshire BD12 4NW

M&M Training Ltd Fletcher House, Marlsborough Drive Fleckney, Leicestershire LE8 8UR

Tel: +44 (0) 1535 665225 Fax: +44 (0) 1535 680997 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 116 240 3430 Email: Web:

Chris Newton Steam Services Geraint Cottage Geraint, Llangollen LL20 8AA

JBC Industrial Services Ltd Howley Park Road East Morley, Leeds LS27 0SW

Tel: +44 (0) 1978 860578 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 113 220 3830 Fax: +44 (0) 113 252 1407 Email: Web:

Cochran Ltd Newbie Works Annan, Dumfries & Galloway DG12 5QU

Neil Riches Little Orchard 40 Mount Road, Penn, Wolverhampton WV4 5SW

Tel: +44 (0) 1461 202111 Fax: +44 (0) 1461 205511 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 01902 345233 Mobile: +44 (0) 7710 444842 Email:

EMK Environmental Services Ltd Prospect House 2 Sinderland Road Altrincham WA14 5ET Tel: +44 (0) 161 929 0430 Email: Web:


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Spirax Sarco Ltd Charlton House Cirencester Road Cheltenham, Gloucestershire GL53 8ER Tel: +44 (0) 1242 521361 Fax: +44 (0) 1242 573342 Email: Web:


Teaching BOAS: A trainer’s viewpoint We ask Chris Newton of Steam Services about his extensive experience and how he uses it to provide first rate training to students on the BOAS scheme. CEA: Can you tell us something of your background and experience in boiler systems?

practical exercises on their plant and managers can ‘call in’ to see they are getting value for money. There are also cost benefits from reduced travelling and lower accommodation and overtime costs. Delegates are familiar with other delegates and there is less ‘getting to know you time’ needed. For BOAS training, there are the added advantages in that smaller groups ensure individual attention. There is one tutor for the week, giving continuity of teaching. Training and assessment are completed in the same week, while course work can be related to a customer’s plant and industry.

Chris Newton: I have worked with steam systems and boilers all my life. I was actually the last full time steam engineer on British Railways and was later the Chief Mechanical Engineer of one of the largest railways in the UK. For many years, I worked for BIB Cochran, the country’s largest boiler manufacturer. CEA: What can you offer as trainer? Chris Newton: Well, first of all, I can draw on my long experience and working knowledge of steam systems to offer the highest standard of occupational training, in both boiler house operation and maintenance. I use this ‘hands on experience’ to back-up established technical theories and get them across to students. This appeals to students as it helps them grasp the fundamentals of operating a modern steam plant safely and efficiently. All types of boilers are catered for - shell, water tube and waste heat, with many different firing arrangements

Chris Newton (left)

CEA: What other attributes or qualifications suit you for the role? Chris Newton: I am also a member of the Combustion Engineering Association, as well as an approved training provider of the BOAS scheme. Training at post graduate level in adult teaching gave me the fundamental skills needed in, and often unfortunately missing from, adult occupational training. Essentially, these training skills mean I can combine my passion and enthusiasm for the subject with the ability to get the information across in a way that students will find interesting and stimulating. CEA: What is your approach to training? Chris Newton: I provide training to leading industrial companies, who demand the highest standards. All have been very happy with the quality received and have made many repeat bookings. Above all, I think good experience based learning must be enjoyable to be successful. I believe it’s also the trainer’s responsibility to do whatever it takes to accommodate the varied learning styles of their students. CEA: What are the benefits of training on a customer’s site? Chris Newton: One of the major ones is that subject matter is tailored to suit the needs of your plant and managers can request that their key concerns are covered. Delegates can do their

Chris Newton Steam Services Ltd Boiler Operation and Maintenance Training

B.O.A.S. Training and Assessment ON YOUR SITE

Also available at our Llangollen training facility centre One and two day INDG 436 safety and maintenance certificated courses available on your site Tel 01978 860578 Mb 07533619277 Email

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015



External training provides the winning formula Getting the most from today’s advanced steam control systems demands high quality training of plant operators, says Spirax Sarco.


he problem for many companies is that it is increasingly difficult to recruit skilled engineering staff. In fact, the CBI’s education and skills survey 2013 highlights that almost half of its respondents had ‘acute concerns’ in employing highskilled workers in key sectors of manufacturing, construction and engineering in the coming years. The question is, if well-qualified, experienced engineers are hard to come by, how difficult is it to provide proper in-house training for other members of staff? The solution is to bring in an external training supplier, but expert training can be conducted at an external training centre or on-site at the steam-using organisation’s own premises, so which is better?

On-site or off-site? There are, of course, advantages to both. Some companies like the idea of bringing the training to them, as it can eliminate the travel and accommodation costs of sending trainees to a training provider’s site. It also means training can be conducted in familiar surroundings on equipment that employees are using day-to-day.

The advanced facilities of a dedicated training centre offer a host of other benefits. For example, Spirax Sarco’s Cheltenham-based UK Steam Technology Centre is the only UK training facility to offer a fully-operational steam system with SCADA control. This, along with other facilities such as the on-site boiler, means equipment problems can be simulated with a trainee having to find and rectify realistic faults in a safe and systematic manner. This handson approach is a very solid way of learning.

Safety training saves money It’s an unfortunate fact that some companies view spending on training as a burdensome expense. In terms of Health & Safety, the HSE says that it’s the hidden costs of accidents that companies often fail to take into account. Saving money by reducing insurance premiums, making fewer claims and minimising lost productivity will normally far outweigh the modest initial cost of providing proper training. Furthermore, properly trained staff can add real benefit to a company’s bottom line in other ways too. For example, BOAS is supported by the Carbon Trust, the Government’s vehicle for encouraging energy efficiency. With today’s rising fuel costs, it pays to have boiler operators who are aware of the energy-saving and environmental implications of optimising boiler operations.

However, expert training at a dedicated facility offers its own benefits. It gets employees away from their work environment to a place where there are no interruptions and the relaxed environment can actually help trainees absorb more information.

Training with the experts

Sending employees on a course also helps to make them feel more valued and they get to meet like-minded delegates from other companies, allowing them to network and share experiences.

There is a wide range of courses covering the latest legislation and aspects of the design, operation and maintenance of steam systems. Each course is taught by leading experts in steam technology and is approved by professional bodies such as Pearson BTEC; City & Guilds; CEA; and CIBSE.

The Spirax Sarco UK Steam Technology Centre has a fully operational steam system with SCADA control to support training

Spirax Sarco 2014 training schedule gives plant operators and managers more ways to save energy, increase productivity, improve product quality and reduce risk.

In addition to training courses at the UK Steam Technology Centre, Spirax Sarco provides a selection of national qualifications, correspondence courses and on-site training to suit any training need.

Tour the UK Steam Technology Centre Take a virtual tour of the Spirax Sarco UK Steam Technology Centre and see how you can benefit from world-class training at our modern facilities. It is the only UK facility to offer a fully operational steam system with SCADA control, which helps provide a very high standard of theory, practical and design steam engineering courses. Take the tour by visiting


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Is your BOAS certificate out of date?

A Boiler Operation Accreditation Scheme certificate only lasts for five years, so don’t get caught out, book your BOAS Renewal course with us today. If you don’t yet have accreditation, stay compliant with boiler guidance on a BOAS course at our Cheltenham UK Steam Technology Centre. Contact us quoting ref ‘CEA14’: E: T: 01242 535211 W:

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CEA Yearbook 2014/2015



Site specific training is vital Site specific training is of vital importance to ensure safe operation of boiler plant, according to Wellman Thermal Services – a view echoed by the Chairman of the CEA


uccessful partnerships between Wellman, its customers and their in-house training teams are resulting in positive feedback on the high quality and content of the company’s bespoke training programmes. And with skills, training and safety being the watchwords of the industry, CEA Chairman Derry Carr has also spoken of the importance of non-generic training, with legislation stating that people should be suitably trained on the equipment they are operating. Leigh Bryan, Wellman’s Boiler Divisional Sales Manager, says: “We provide extensive on-site training for customers, whether we have supplied them with one of our boilers or they have chosen us to deliver training to their staff after installation. “Effective operation is not just about ensuring boiler equipment is properly installed and maintained, it is about the safe operation and use of that equipment within the boiler house. And it is recognised that the way this training is delivered is key. “Whist attending a recent CEA PM5 replacement conference, it was good to hear Derry Carr give a presentation on How To Manage a Steam Boiler Plant Under the New Guide Lines in BG01, in which he covered the importance of site specific training.”

The value of on-site training “He made reference to the role boiler OEMs, such as Wellman, have in conducting training specific to the equipment and control arrangement for any given site. Our training supports the BOAS accredited training which is a comprehensive course covering all aspects of safe operation and management of the boiler facility – but by its nature, the content has to be generic,” continues Bryan. “The importance of training personnel on their own equipment on their own site is important; questions specific to their operation, equipment and burner/boiler control philosophy can be addressed as well as OEM specific recommendations for maintenance and operation. Wellman offers boiler training to fulfill these requirements, based on a single days training for up to eight people at a time. By delivering the courses on the client’s site, those attending are trained in a familiar and relaxed environment which usually stimulates a good level of interaction between the delegates and the trainer throughout the day. “Where Wellman differs to other training providers is the breadth of experience within our training team, and the expertise we have across a huge range of products, from our own systems to those from other manufacturers. We are passionate about developing the skills and awareness of boiler house and plant operatives, because this is the best way to ensure that boilers run safely and at their peak efficiency.” Clients recently receiving training from Wellman include St James Hospital, Leeds; Birmingham University, EDF Energy Generation, Kelda Water and Baxter Healthcare. Michael Jakovljevic, of EDF Energy Generation, says: “A recent Auxiliary Steam Enhancement project at EDF Energy’s Hinkley Point B power station in Somerset included the installation of three ULS 6000 boilers supplied by Wellmans Thermal Services, which was also the training provider. The boilers were being tied into an existing installation but required their own dedicated services; this determined that the training intervention had to satisfy knowledge gaps relevant to both boiler specific and plant specific aspects of the project. “From an early stage a successful partnership developed between Wellman and the station’s operations training representative, ensuring that appropriate and timely training was provided as the project progressed, at the commissioning stage and during the soak period. The training intervention was well received with positive feedback given at all sessions.” The training consists of presentations and importantly hands on training in the boiler house, supported by a written test and open discussion at the end of each session. For further information about Wellman, please visit or call 0121 543 0000

Wellman supports its products with site specific training


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

P Fu roce rn ss En ac gin e En ee rin gi g ne er in g

Seven PillarS OF WiSdOm

re a rc e t f ng A i r ce ee n a i ng rn E u F iler ilers Bo o B y Robe ercare t f A r e l i o B Boiler Hire

Wellman Thermal Services now have seven divisions, with over 150 years experience and wisdom available for you See us on:

Wellman Thermal Services Limited. Newfield Road, Oldbury, West Midlands, B69 3ET. Tel: +44 (0) 121 543 0000 Fax: +44 (0)121 543 0070 Email: CEA Yearbook 2014/2015




CEA Experts Academy is launched 2014 sees the launch of the CEA experts Academy, a team of the industry’s top professionals dedicated to helping and inspiring young engineers


he Combustion Engineering Association boasts some of the UK’s most experienced engineers and consultants in the field of combustion technology. Dating back to 1933, the CEA has a strong history in offering education to its members, core to its mission and values. With UK, European and International legislation affecting all industries the CEA has and continues to play a pivotal part in helping set standards and industry best practice and this coupled with the expertise of individual and corporate members has elevated it’s visibility to a wider audience. The progressive developments within the CEA to reach out to new members have resulted in a recruitment effort that has seen increased interest and now many are joining the CEA. Furthering the ambitions to inspire, educate and motivate its membership

Kim Stopher has been in the steam industry since 1985, having worked for Gestra (UK) Ltd, Fulton Boiler Works GB Ltd, and now runs his own consultancy business, Stopher Associates Ltd. As Chairman of the CEA he oversaw the introduction of BOAS (Boiler Operator Accreditation Scheme), which is endorsed by the HSE in their latest boiler operation guidance document, BG01. Kim also works as an Assessor and interviews candidates who seek that important qualification. In addition to consultancy work on steam systems, he also provides training on behalf of M&M Training Services Ltd and Byworth Boilers Ltd, where his extensive steam experience proves to be a valuable asset.


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Derry Carr, is technical manager and group gas manager at Dalkia. He has worked with an extensive range of boiler and CHP plants throughout a career encompassing operational, maintenance, and construction activities, in healthcare and industry. Over the past decade he has managed many hospital energy plants, including major plant upgrade projects at Southampton General Hospital, Kingston Hospital, and King’s College Hospital. Derry is also part of the STEM Ambassadors Programme, which actively seeks to create opportunities to inspire young people in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).

the CEA has pooled a number of its most experienced members under the auspice of an Experts Academy. 2014 sees the launch of the CEA Experts Academy. This will provide a platform to help inform, educate and inspire the next generation of engineers and future technical and industry leaders by leveraging the expertise of selected CEA members. David Gent, Derry Carr, Sam Thiara, Kim Stopher and Bill Kaye have volunteered their services in a voluntary capacity. The CEA together with the contribution from the Experts Academy represents the voice of the industry. The Experts work diligently behind the scenes to ensure the best interest of its members As industry thought leaders and technical subject matter experts you will see them delivering seminars, writing articles and white papers, working on technical committees, managing the CEA’s affairs and all while doing their day jobs. The Experts Academy has a collective desire to help those less experienced or new into the industry and welcome any member to tap into this wealth of knowledge and experience. Mentoring support is a given and together with their wide network of contacts within the industry and academia they are able and willing to advance their careers or seek collaborations.

David Gent is the Engineering Manager for AB Sugar, the world’s second largest sugar business. He has spent 25 years with the business in operational and HQ positions. Combustion and energy management are at the heart of the sugar manufacturing business and David has extensive experience in industrial CHP plants and energy optimisation around the world. David is a Chartered Engineer and a Board Member of BF2RA (Biomass and Fossil Fuel Alliance).

Professor William G Kaye (Bill Kaye) has been connected with energy and combustion for over 50 years. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Energy and a Chartered Engineer, a Director of the British Coal Utilisation Research Association (BCURA) and formerly Assistant Director (Combustion and Pollution Control) at British Coal’s, Coal Research Establishment (CRE), Stoke Orchard. He is currently a visiting professor in Energy Technology and member of the Engineering Research Centre at the University of Glamorgan, assisting with research projects and post-graduate research Students.

Sam Thiara BEng(Hons), M(Eng) has been involved in energy efficiency and conservation since 1985. He has worked on energy efficiency projects across diverse industry sectors and since 2008 specialised in combustion control, safety & optimisation applications in the process industries. Sam is an international business development manager working with his team of combustion and steam consultants on some of industry’s most challenging energy projects. He provides process and technical consulting expertise and combustion solutions to an increasing number of UK and international clients in energy intensive industries. Sam is also leading the CEA’s ‘Engineering Your Future’ Initiative.

Meeting the demand for industrial hot water Armstrong International presents two case studies looking at installations with different approaches to providing hot water in the food processing sector Case Study 1: Maintaining a smooth flow of biscuits at McVities A Digital-Flo industrial water heater package from Armstrong is contributing to the maintenance of food production standards at the United Biscuits, McVities plant at Tollcross, Glasgow. Consisting of a plate and frame heat exchanger with steam PRV station, expansion vessel, pressurisation set, pumps and the ‘Brain’ digital temperature control valve, the system is essential to deliver malt and syrup perfectly for the mixing stage in the manufacturing process. The Tollcross plant produces the Go Ahead range, Rich Tea and Hob Nobs at a total 45,000 tonnes per annum. To sustain the integrity of the recipe and control production flow, the ingredients must be delivered at a constant temperature to ± 1°C. Too hot and the mixture is runny, too cold and it will not flow smoothly. Both situations could lead to hold ups in production and inconsistencies in the colour, taste and texture of the finished biscuit. “The previous method was proving inadequate. McVities project engineer Michael McEwan explains, “Our existing system was based around heated oil transferred to the heated jackets surrounding the malt and syrup pipeline. A number of problems were evident – maintaining a constant temperature from the heated oil, having to heat the oil in the first place using unnecessary energy, oil storage and the additional risk of contamination, which was a particular concern for both our health and safety people and customers such as major supermarkets.” McVities already produces excess steam from other processes in the factory so there is no initial heating cost in the steam delivered to the heat exchanger as there was with the oil. The sensitive ‘Brain Digital Temperature Control Valve’ controls the temperature of the ingredients at a constant 21 °C whatever the ambient temperature. McEwan explains further: “In all aspects the Digital-Flo system has produced everything that Armstrong promised from the outset. It delivers consistency, which is vital to maintain the speed and quality of our highly automated biscuit production process. It is easy to maintain, has no storage requirements and absolutely no risk of contamination. As there is no pre-heating required of any material it has made a considerable contribution to our energy saving policy. Furthermore it has passed the most stringent testing from both our own internal audits and the external audits of our customers.”

The United Biscuits McVities plant in Glasgow is maintaining high food production standards with the help of an industrial water heater package from Armstrong

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Case Study 2: Helping to meet production and hygiene requirements A poultry producer, with a turnover in excess of one billion Euros, operates from several sites throughout the UK and Europe. As a major supplier to retailers and food service providers it is committed to the highest standards of hygiene and environmental care.

Project Manager at the site explains, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Hot water generation is one of the fundamental utilities required for primary poultry processing so the right choice was vital. It is used mainly for scald tank filling to allow the effective plucking of birds, hygienic wash down of equipment and general hand washing services.

This commitment was a major consideration when the company expanded facilities in 2011. The need to introduce best practice methods prompted a search for a better and more efficient method of generating hot water. The existing steam boilers had to be decommissioned as they did not meet the requirements of the modern food production process and it was also necessary to eliminate the steam pipe work circulating around the site to comply with associated pressure equipment regulations.

All hot water required for the plant is now generated from the Flo-Direct. It is specified at 41m³ per hour of water at 65 °C and circulates around the factory where it is mixed locally to the required temperature at point-of-use. As a result the plant is now entirely steam free - an important contribution to health and safety. Although exact cost savings are not easily quantifiable, as the Flo-Direct installation coincided with significantly greater production and therefore water usage, the company is thoroughly convinced that the installation has resulted in a considerable proportionate gas reduction and that the investment was returned remarkably quickly.

The solution was the installation, in February 2011, of a fully packaged Armstrong Flo-Direct gas fired water heater with pumps and buffer tank.

A packaged gas fired water heater with pumps and buffer tank is providing all the hot water for poultry producer


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015



CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Highly efficient hot water generation and control from Armstrong Flo-Direct® All stainless steel “Complete Thermal Exchange” gas fired water heater. • 99.7% of all the energy in the gas is transferred to the water. • Same efficiency whatever the demand. • Compact and low maintenance. • Improved CO2 emissions. • Resistant to scaling. • Drinking water compliant.

Digital Flo® & Digital Flo®-HT Incorporating the Brain® for revolutionary Digital Hot Water Temperature Control. • Delivers hot water quickly and precisely at ±1ºC, even at low flows. • Water is overheated, before blending back down to the set-point, to reduce risk of bacterial growth. • Completely failsafe. • Proven technology provides predictable and reliable hot water every time. • Ideal for process, sanitary and general plant hot water.

Armstrong generating hot water with precision. Call 0161 266 2279 for details Armstrong International S.A Manchester Business Park, 3000 Aviator Way Manchester M22 5TG

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Energy & Technical Services MCL Energy has been successfully working with UK process sectors for over 30 years, providing customers with bespoke energy and technical solutions. A recent project for Huntsman Advanced Materials UK comprises the Design, Build, Finance & Operate of a new boilerhouse with civil works, building, steam plant, reverse osmosis, plant provision of project capital and long term inclusive O&M support service with over 30% energy savings in the first six months full operation. Process service solutions include;-

Contract Energy Management

Design, Build, Finance & Operate

Building Services

Utilities Services & Maintenance

Energy and related plant installation

To find out more call 01623 741940


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Are your boiler operators fully qualified? Steam and hot water generation is a vital element of many operations. Improved fuel efficiency, minimised down time, safer operation, lower emissions and reduced operating costs can all be delivered by a well trained boiler operator. Founded more than 130 years ago and operating in over 100 countries around the world, Cochran are the internationally acknowledged experts in the provision of industrial steam and hot water boilers, combustion equipment and ancillary technology constructed to the most stringent UK, European and international standards. Delivered at a Cochran facility, at your site or at a suitable local venue anywhere in the world, Cochran’s high quality, Certified Industrial Boiler Training courses cover the full spectrum of customer needs and all boiler manufacturers and specifications. Training ranges from five day ‘Boiler Operative Accredited Training’ (BOAS) and one day refresher courses, through a two day ‘Boiler Operation and Maintenance’ (BOM) course aimed at boiler operators to one day ‘Boiler Operation and Safety Awareness’, ‘Health & Safety in the Boilerhouse’ courses and ‘Boiler Operation and Safety Awareness’ seminars which are suitable for anyone associated with the supervision, operation and maintenance of steam and hot water boilers and associated equipment. Many businesses have their own special Health and Safety, operational and security issues that would benefit from specially tailored training formatted to match their unique requirements. Cochran develop and deliver high quality customer-specific training at your own site, a location convenient to you, or at the Cochran Training Centre.

Looking for world class boiler training? Speak to the global leader in industrial boiler making.

For further information call Cochran today or speak to your regional Cochran representative:

+44(0) 1461 202 111

Boiler Training Worldwide Cochran Ltd Newbie Works, Annan, Dumfries & Galloway, UK DG12 5QU.

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


Want a biomass boiler? Over the last 10 years the use of Biomass has expanded rapidly in the UK. In this article, Alastair Nicol of Element Consulting looks at the legalities and regulations surrounding the sector


he rapid expansion of biomass has brought design, procurement, operational and regulatory challenges. The bulk of installations function satisfactorily and biomass has become an established element of the UK’s fuel mix. However, solid fuel boilers and particularly biomass are operated differently to fossil fuel boilers and combinations of inadequate installation and operational expertise have resulted in some plant failures and potentially dangerous situations – all of which could have been avoided if the existing regulatory structure had been observed. The system must comply with emissions regulations. If the intended area is a smoke control area then the appliance (and the fuel) must be certified for use in a smoke control area. Regardless of the area the operation of a combustion appliance burning more than 45 kg/hr fuel must comply with the Clean Air Act 1993. The Clean Air Act is under review and the revised CAA will likely impose much more prescriptive and onerous emissions performance targets for biomass. Thus feasibility should take consideration of this fact. On industrial sites and for small scale plant e.g. less than 20 MW, the emissions will be governed by the IED (Industrial Emissions Directive) and any existing IPPCd (The Industrial Pollution Prevention and Control Directive) emissions constraints placed on the site. All emissions legislation addresses nuisance. The local authority or the NIEA can intervene to effect remedy if nuisance is caused - even if technically, emission limit values are met. The minimum chimney height for Clean Air Act compliance only will be dictated by the HMIP 1993 ‘Guidelines on Discharge Stack Heights for Polluting Emission. Technical Guidance Note D1 (Dispersion)’ It is further necessary to comply with emission limits to obtain Renewable Heat Incentive payments. The requirement for compliance with RHI minima - limits of 30g/GJ particulate matter and 150g/GJ oxides of nitrogen expressed as nitrogen dioxide were implemented in September 2013.

Project size matters For most smaller installations, the Sale of Goods and Services Act may generally be sufficient for contractual protection. For here if the boiler fails to operate as offered or is subject to an unacceptable degree of breakdown/failure then the contractor could be required, under contract, to remedy, replace or refund the purchaser. For larger and more complex projects a slightly more complex procurement route and developed terms and conditions of contract will be appropriate. There are numerous potential contractual arrangements but by


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Biomass specialist Rural Energy’s Herz range of boilers now have Ofgem’s Renewable Heat Incentive Energy Performance Certificate – which means they qualify for the Government’s green energy cash boost

far the most common is a turnkey system provision. Unless the client or the purchaser has very specific design skills and is willing to accept the legal responsibilities derived from the CDM2007 regulations, then this turnkey approach is the best. The design may still be influenced by the client/purchaser but the contractor is accepting the turnkey responsibilities. Actually the law requires the contractor to liaise with the purchaser/client to ensure safe design and site safety. If on hand-over the client/purchaser is intent on operating the plant, then it is incumbent on the client/purchaser to ensure the safety of employees. In turn this requires that the design, however evolved, and the eventual installation, have been deemed as safe by a competent party.

Assessment to show fit for purpose The installer should CE mark the system having conducted electrical safety checks and having conducted a PUWER (Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations) assessment to ensure the plant complies with the provision and use of work equipment regulations.

For most small installations it is typically the contractor that provides the Purchaser with a design and installs the system. The contractor is duty bound to meet the legal provisions for design, and M&E standards in the UK and must provide an assessment ensuring the system is safe. In commercial non-domestic projects, and in limited circumstance, the purchaser may conduct the design and subsequently instruct installation works. However for the purchaser to have undertaken the design, places a legal duty of care as designer on the purchaser with incumbent legal obligations. In house design and build and or in house design with third party supply and installation is not a common or recommended alternative – not least because of the shared responsibilities for reliability and performance. The installation would necessarily have to comply with planning, building control, emissions constraints and other regulatory requirements otherwise the contractor would have not complied with their legal duties of care defined for a designer. It is important to realise that whilst it is essential to have procured all planning, building permits etc, some of these will likely require input from a prospective contractor e.g. for chimney height. Where practical, all legally required permitting should be in place before contracting to install. Some contractors will not be aware of their duties of care as designers and this would raise a question mark over their competence.

Read the Ts & Cs with care However generally the contractor would work to their own standard terms and conditions of contract. These should be read with care and ensured as acceptable. Notwithstanding any offer of works, performance and reliability etc will constitute part of the contract made with the contractor – It is therefore essential that as much information as possible regarding fuel, boiler and reliability are established in the letter of offer, for example: • A full description of the system and its intended function • The maintenance requirements and the cost of maintenance • The hours of operation • The availability • The fuel • The fuel quality and methods of establishing fuel quality • The definition of any allied service works • The full scope of works under the contract • The programme of works • The procedure for disputes • Details of the guarantees. • A detailed explanation of warranted performance The Sale Of Goods and Services Act is powerful legislation used on more than one occasion to have a biomass contractor replace several tens of thousands of pounds worth of equipment. Although there is a reasonable expectation of what a boiler is intended to do – it is easier to enforce remedy if important characteristics are documented as part of the offer - forming part of the contract.

Biomass has become an established element of the UK’s fuel mix

It is important to note that a good offer letter will protect both the purchaser and the contractor.

Third party role in large projects Larger public or private sector projects may be let directly to a contractor as design and build – however in the private sector that would almost certainly involve a competitive tender procedure. As projects become larger (financially) there may be merit in commissioning third party conceptual and developed designs with a formal specification. This route is routinely used throughout the UK for larger projects where the purchaser appoints a third party to perform feasibility, design, specification, tender review and subsequently, project management. Historically, this party might have been known as the purchasers engineer who would provide third party impartial advice. The formal role of purchasers engineer has all but been subsumed by the provisions of the Construction Design and Management regulations 2007 – A far reaching regulation which places onerous duties of care on all parties. Notwithstanding this there is often merit in the commissioning of an independent third party to provide feasibility, specification and subsequently project management. Larger projects are inherently still subject to basic consumer laws in the UK but for larger projects it would be typical to develop a set of custom terms and conditions of contract which were somewhat more exacting in definition of plant and contractual performance. These terms and conditions might typically address: • General provisions of the Contract • The way in which the contract will be administrated • Staff and labour, plant, materials and workmanship • Issues pertaining to commencement, delays and suspension, tests on completion, employer’s taking over, defects liability, tests after completion • Measurement and evaluation or variations and adjustments, contract price and • Payment terms and schedules • Termination by employer, suspension and termination by

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


contractor, defaults • Risk and responsibility insurance • Force majeure, acts of God etc • Procedures for claims, disputes and arbitration In the UK the FIDEC (International Federation of Consulting Engineers) model form contracts are used extensively. For most biomass installations the FIDEC short form of contract will be satisfactory (Green Book) – For more complex projects involving extensive multidisciplinary works then the FIDEC Yellow book contract may be more appropriate. The Institution of Mechanical Engineers also produce what is called Model Form 1 which can also be used for larger and generally more complex projects. By client choice, or typically for larger or more complex projects the clients engineer or architect might typically draw up a technical specification and terms and conditions of contract. Together with the form of contract, any warranties and guarantees, bonds and payment schedule will form the contract documentation. Designers must be competent – this is a legal requirement. For larger and more complex projects it may be beneficial to employ a skilled architect or engineer to provide a design and a specification. If the appointed third party provides a design then the contract might typically be let as a supply and install contract. Much of the responsibility for correct operation and function would then lie with the architect or engineer. An improved situation can usually be obtained where the architect or engineer provides the basic feasibility and evolves a conceptual design (observing legal requirements and interactions for the design) and where subsequently a design and build contractor is used to develop and detail the design and install the equipment. Here the architect or engineer may produce a semi prescriptive design and build specification that affords the contractor the largest degree of design innovation and latitude whilst stipulating basic project conceptual minima, performance expectations and design standards. For most projects and where an experienced contractor is used, simple terms and conditions of contract, a developed and clear letter of offer and the Sale of Goods and Services Act will suffice.

Additional contractual protection may be needed Where the project is complex, of significant financial value, or where it is foreseen that there could be contractual complication then it may be necessary to put in place additional contractual protection. For example a bond may be put in place to cover the costs of plant replacement or remedial works should the Contractor default or where the plant cannot be accepted in accordance with the terms and conditions of contract because it does not meet specified performance standards. In addition to a bond which may extend through the contract period until the works are taken over and the purchaser becomes the legal owner, there may also be clauses which specify damages for underperformance thereafter. The standard terms and conditions of contract will require the contractor to have in place third party liability and employers


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

“Anyone who has applied for the Renewable Heat Incentive since September 24th 2013 must have a commissioned boiler with either a Renewable Heat Incentive Energy Performance Certificate or an environmental permit,” says Paul Clark, Managing Director, Rural Energy

liability insurance and very often to insure the works and materials – usually until hand over, but for larger and or complex projects the client/purchaser might also consider an all risks insurance policy. The purchaser/client as an employer has a legal duty of care to ensure that plant and equipment and in particular complex machinery (a biomass system legally constitutes a complex machine) is safe to use and operate. At the very minimum, the client/purchaser should expect and require the supplier of a biomass system to be inspected for electrical safety and the installation to be certified as complying with the wiring regulations. In addition, the contractor providing the biomass system should have undertaken diligent design, ensured that the plant constitutes a safe system of work and has conducted a competent inspection and ensured the plant complies with the “Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations” As a minimum the entire system (not simply individual component parts) should have been assessed as above and the contractor issued a Certificate of Conformity.

Gasification of household waste: Water tube boiler with four SAACKE SSB burners with 40 MW each Fuels: Natural gas and gasification gas with a calorific value between 4.6 and 5.2 MJ/Nm3 Emission values in mg/Nm3: Natural gas CO < 50; NOX < 200 Gasification gas CO < 50; NOX < 300

Lowest emissions, highest efficiency Combustion technologies made by SAACKE From flexible standard models to customised systems, we plan, develop and manufacture combustion technologies for thermal processes â&#x20AC;&#x201C; for the industrial sector as well as for ship and offshore installations. Whether the integration of burners and boilers, retrofit applications and additional management tools, or a turnkey solution â&#x20AC;&#x201C; our services and products are always focussed on our four core competencies: SAFETY, ENERGY, EFFICIENCY and EMISSIONS. In Lahti (Finland), for example, we won over general contractor Metso Power with our highly efficient combustion technology. Now the first large-scale pilot project for household waste gasification with combined heat and power generation is located there. The SAACKE SSB burner ensures stable combustion at the lowest possible calorific values and high volume flows.

SAACKE Combustion Services Ltd // Langstone Technology Park, Langstone Road Havant Hampshire, PO9 1SA // United Kingdom // Tel. No. +44 (0) 2392-333900 // CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


CEA Members guide AB Sugar Sugar Way, Peterborough PE2 9AY Tel: +44 (0) 1733 563171 Fax: +44 (0) 1733 563068 Email: Web: Alain Grangeret CEng MEI Combustion Engineer 76 Middleham Road, London N18 2SD Tel: +44 (0) 7876 127164 Email: Alistair Nicol Elements Consultants Ltd 45 Breckenhill Road, Ballyclare County Antrim BT39 0TB Tel: +44 (0) 1577 830050 Email: Web: Aquanet International Limited Unit 8, The Galloway Centre Hambridge Lane Newbury RG14 5TL Tel: +44 (0) 1635 580680 Fax: +44 (0) 1635 522121 Email: Web: ARI Armaturen UK Ltd Energy House, Shannon Place Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire GL20 8SL

Byker District Heating Newcastle City Council 142a Raybe Street Newcastle upon Tyne NE6 2BY

Why switching to LNG weighs in your favour...

Tel: +44 (0) 191 278 8600 Email: Web: Bosch Thermotechnology Ltd Cotswold Way, Worcester WR4 9SW

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Tel: +44 (0) 1733 563171 Fax: +44 (0) 1733 563068 Email: good Seven reasons to make the switch to Liquefied Natural Gas, Web: saving your business time, money and inconvenience Byworth Boilers Compared to oil fuel costs, converting to LNG Parkwood can cut anBoiler energy bill Works by c.10-15% Parkwood Street Savings generated, typically allow Keighley, West investments to beYorkshire repaid within 1-2 years BD21LNG 4NW delivers greater financial stability too.

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Armstrong International SA Manchester Business Park 3000 Aviator Way, Manchester M22 5TG

Certuss Steam Generators Unit 5, Gravelly Industrial Park Birmingham B24 8TG

Tel: +44 (0) 161 2662279 Fax: +44 (0) 161 2661001 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 121 3275362 Fax: +44 (0) 121 3282934 Email: Web:

Autoflame Engineering Ltd Unit 1-2, Concorde Business Centre Airport Ind Est, Wireless Road Biggin Hill, Kent TN16 3YN

Charlie Edward

Tel: +44 (0) 7887 631796 Email:


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

5 6

A guaranteed supply of lower cost LNG can fuel business growth by reducing operating costs


Your business does not have to invest in a pipeline connection to the gas grid to reap the cost, carbon and clean burning rewards that Natural Gas delivers over other fuels

There are significantly less health and safety risks. Buried pipes are better protected and there is no (highly expensive) risk of water or ground pollution, resulting from potential spillages

Calor Gas Limited To learn moreAthena contact Kevin Houlden on: Athena House, Drive Tachbrook Park, Warwick 07803 021760 or CV34 6RL Tel: +44 (0) 1926 318764 Email: Web:

Aylan Associates Netherclose, 15 Langwith Road Collingham, Wetherby LF22 5DH

LNG with System Upgrade

British Sugar Sugar Way, Peterborough PE2 9AY

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Finance Options

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Tel: +44 (0)1463 248148 Chris Newton Steam Services Geraint Cottage Geraint, Llangollen LL20 8AA Tel: +44 (0) 1978 860578 Email: Web:


CEA Members guide Cochran Ltd Newbie works Annan, Dumfries & Galloway DG12 5QU Tel: +44 (0) 1461 202111 Fax: +44 (0) 1461 205511 Email: Web: Controls 4 Steam UK Ltd Suite 15, Blackburn Rovers Enterprise Centre Ewood Park, Blackburn, Lancashire BB2 4JF Tel: +44 (0) 1254 841769 Fax: +44 (0) 1254 841799 Email: Web: CPIBS Industrial Boiler Services 108 Gloucester Avenue Grimsby, N.E Lincs DN34 5BT Tel: +44 (0) 1472 488089 Email: Web: D S Smith Paper Ltd Wansborough Paper Mill Watchet, Somerset TA23 0AY Tel: +44 (0) 1984 631456 Web: Dalkia Elizabeth House, 56-60 London Road Staines, Middlesex TW18 4BQ

Deep Water Blue Business & Technology Centre Bessemer Drive Stevenage, Herts SG1 2DX Tel: +44 (0) 870 460 2780 Fax: +44 (0) 870 460 2988 Email: Web: Duncan Moncrief fe Core Mechanical Dunphy Combustion Queensway Rochdale Lancashire OL11 2SL Tel: +44 (0) 1706 649217 Fax: +44 (0) 1706 655512 Email: Web: Ariston Thermo UK Ltd (Trading as Ecoflam UK) Suite 3, The Crown House,Blackpole East, Blackpole Road, Worcester WR3 8SG Tel: 01905 788010 Fax: 01905 788011 Email: Web: Web: Emerson Process Management Ltd Meridian East, Leicester LE19 1UX

Tel: +44 (0) 1784 496200 Fax: +44 (0) 1784 496222 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 116 282 2822 Fax: +44 (0) 116 282 2730 Email: Web:

Danstoker UK Ltd 2 Studio Court, Queensway Bletchley, Milton Keynes MK2 2DG

EMK Education & Environmetal Services Ltd Prospect House, 2 Sinderland Road Altrincham WA14 5ET

Tel: +44 (0) 7966 099124 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 161 929 0430 Email: Web:

Darren Collins Senior Consultant Engineer FM Global, Anchorage 2 Salford Quays, Manchester M50 3YW

Emvertec Ltd Millenium Works Valletta Street, Hull HU9 5NP

Tel: +44 (0) 161 455 2822 Mobile: +44 (0) 7919 481121 Email: David Graham 30 Ballaquark Walk Douglas, Isle of Man IM2 2EZ Tel: +44 (0) 1624 614742 Email:

Tel: +44 (0) 1386 831582 Email: Web: Endress+Hauser Ltd Floats Road, Manchester M23 9NF Tel: +44 (0) 161 286 5000 Fax: +44 (0) 161 998 1841 Email: Web:

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


CEA Members guide Energy & Environmental Solutions Nithsdale, Broadway Road Windlesham GU20 6DA

GEMChem Ltd 1 John Street, Bristol BS1 2HR

Tel: +44 (0) 1276 472354 Mob: +44 (0) 7860 600477 Email:

Tel: +44 (0) 117 922 5544 Fax: +44 (0) 117 917 7011 Email: Web:

Energy Technology & Control 25 North Street Lewes, East Sussex BN7 2PE

Geof frey Robinson Ltd Macklin Avenue, Cowpen Industrial Estate Billingham TS223 4ET

Tel: +44 (0) 1273 480667 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 480652 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 1642 370500 Fax: +44 (0) 1642 370600 Email: Web:

Enersol Flomar Fletcher House, Marlsborough Drive Fleckney, Leicestershire LE8 8UR

Gestra - Flowserve GB Ltd Gestra - Power Division Euro House, Abex Road Newbury, Berks RG14 5EY

Tel: +44 (0) 116 240 3430 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 1635 46999 Email: Web:

Enspec Engineering (UK) Ltd Corrosion Consultants & Forensic Engineers Hamilton House, 11 Dawpoole Drive Bromborough, Wirral, Merseyside CH62 6DE

Global Energy Associates Ltd Gardeners House, South End Great Rollright Chipping Norton, Oxon OX7 5RR

Tel: +44 (0) 151 334 3821 Fax: +44 (0) 151 334 0525 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 1608 730878 Email: Web:

ES Pipelines Ltd Hazeldean, Station Road Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7AA

Guernsey Electricity Electricity House, PO Box 4 North Side Vale Guernsey, Channel Islands GY1 3AD

Tel: +44 (0) 1372 227560 Fax: +44 (0) 1372 377996 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 1481 200700 Web: Hamworthy Combustion Engineering Ltd Fleets Corner, Poole, Dorset BH17 0LA

Facultatieve Technologies Moor Road Leeds, West Yorkshire LS10 2DD

Tel: +44 (0) 1202 662700 Fax: +44 (0) 1202 665333 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 113 276 8888 Fax: +44 (0) 113 271 8188 Email: Web:

Harris Pye Marine Ltd David Davies Road, No. 2 Barry Docks Barry, Vale of Glamorgan CF63 4AB

Fulton Boiler Works (GB) Ltd 5 Fernhurst Road Fishponds, Bristol BS5 7FG

Tel: +44 (0) 1446 720066 Fax: +44 (0) 1446 700801 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 117 972 3322 Fax: +44 (0) 117 972 3358 Email: Web:

HeatSol Technology Ltd HeatSol House, 28 High Street Droitwich Spa, Worcestershire WR9 8ES

Gavin Hoole 3 Dayley Thompson Way South Lambeth, London SW8 3DA Tel: +44 (0) 20 7498 9734 Mob: +44 (0) 7813 37519 Email:


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Engineering operations

Tel: +44 (0) 1905 773377 Fax: +44 (0) 1905 773399 Email: Web:

CEA Members guide IHEEM 2 Abingdon House, Cumberland Business Centre Northumberland Road Portsmouth PO5 1DS Tel: +44 (0) 23 9282 3186 Fax: +44 (0) 23 9281 5927 Email: Web: INCINER8 International Unit 2, Canning Road Industrial Estate Canning Road, Southport PR9 7SN Tel: +44 (0) 1704 884020 Fax: +44 (0) 1704 532400 Email: Web: J & S Engineers (EUR) Ltd 35 Barrington Road Sutton, Surrey SM3 9PR

Lubron Water Technologies Lubron House, 8 Challenge Way Hythe Hill, Colchester CO1 2LY Tel: +44 (0) 1206 866444 Fax: +44 (0) 1206 866800 Email: Web: Jason Roberts Tel: +44 (0) 7967 747336 Email: Martin Campbell Tel: +44 (0) 7812 201964 Email: MCL Energy Ltd Metcalfe House, Park View Langwith, Nottinghamshire NG20 9DE

Tel: +44 (0) 20 8641 2217 Fax: +44 (0) 20 8644 1703 Email:

Tel: +44 (0) 1623 741940 Fax: +44 (0) 1623 744693 Email: Web:

JBC Industrial Services Ltd Howley Park Road East Morley, Leeds LS27 0SW

MK Mechanical Services 10 St Hildaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Terrace Whitby, North Yorkshire YO21 3AE

Tel: +44 (0) 113 220 3830 Fax: +44 (0) 113 252 1407 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 1947 600677 Email: Web:

Johnsons Apparelmaster Pittman Way Fulwood, Preston, Lancashire PR2 9ZD Tel: +44 (0) 1772 662555 Email: Web: Kaye & Associates Ltd Albion Mills House, 5 Marlborough Close Charlton Kings, Cheltenham, Glos GL53 7RY Tel: +44 (0)1242 513747 Email:

MWA Technology Ltd Wharton Street Industrial Estate Birmingham, West Midlands B7 5TR Tel: +44 (0) 121 327 7771 Fax: +44 (0) 121 327 1117 Email: Web: MWW Engineering Inspections Ltd Email: M&M Training Fletcher House, Marlsborough Drive Fleckney, Leicestershire LE8 8UR

Kiwa Gastec at CRE The Orchard Business Centre Stoke Orchard, Cheltenham, Glos GL52 7RZ

Tel: + 44 (0) 116 240 3430 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0)1242 677877 Fax: +44 (0) 1242 676506 Email: Web:

Neil Riches Little Orchard, 40 Mount Road Penn, Wolverhampton WV4 5SW

Limpsfield Combustion Unit 10, Airport Industrial Estate Wireless Road, Biggin Hill, Kent TN16 3BW

Tel: +44 (0)1902 345233 Mob: +44 (0) 7710 444842 Email:

Tel: +44 (0) 1959 576633 Fax: +44 (0) 1959 576644 Email: Web:

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


CEA Members guide NHS Grampian Estates Office Aberdeen Royal Infirmary Forest Hill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZB Web: Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Site 4, Renaissance Way Liverpool, Merseyside L24 9JW Tel: +44 (0) 151 705 5000 Fax: +44 (0) 151 705 5018 Web: Nu-way Enertech Group Ten Acres, Berry Hill Industrial Estate Droitwich, Worcestershire WR9 9BP Tel: +44 (0) 1905 794331 Fax: +44 (0) 1905 794017 Email: Web: Orbital Gas Systems Ltd Cold Meece, Swynnerton Nr Stone, Staffordshire ST15 0NQ Tel: +44 (0) 1785 857000 Fax: +44 (0) 1785 857001 Email: Web: Palm Paper Limited Popular Avenue, Saddlebow Industrial Est Kings Lynn, Norfolk PE34 3AL Tel: +44 (0) 1553 782222 Fax: +44 (0) 1553 782223 Web: Peter Pearson Tel: +44 (0) 7717 200916 Email: Reach Power Ltd 15 Ridgeway Acomb, York YO26 5DA Tel: +44 (0) 1904 795743 Email: RG Combustion Ltd Unit 12, Newport Business Park Barry Way, Newport, Isle of Wight PO30 5GY Tel: +44 (0) 1983 526111 Email: Web:


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

Robertson FM Robertson House Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TZ Tel: +44 (0) 1786 431600 Fax: +44 (0) 1786 277788 Web: Rural Energy Unit 21 Burrough Court Burrough-on-the-Hill Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire LE14 2QS Tel: +44 (0) 20 3189 0654 Email: Web: SAACKE Combustion Langstone Technology Park Langstone Road, Havant, Hamps PO9 1SA Tel: +44 (0) 23 9233 3900 Fax: +44 (0) 23 9233 3901 Email: Web: SempCorb Utilities (UK) Ltd PO Box 1985, Wilton International Middlesbrough, Cleveland TS90 8WS Tel: +44 (0) 1642 212798 Fax: +44 (0) 1642 212690 Email: Web: Sita UK Ltd Diamond Street Huddersfield, West Yorkshire HD1 6BZ Tel: +44 (0) 870 421 1122 Web: SMC Pneumatics (UK) Limited Vincent Avenue Crownhill Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK8 0AN Tel: +44 (0) 1908 555170 Fax: +44 (0) 1908 555064 Web: Spirax Sarco Ltd Charlton House Cirencester Road Cheltenham Gloucestershire GL53 8ER Tel: +44 (0) 1242 521361 Fax: +44 (0) 1242 573342 Email: Web:

CEA Members guide Stopher Associates Ltd 34 Ickwell Road Northill, Biggleswade Bedfordshire SG18 9AB Tel: +44 (0) 1767 626330 Mob: +44 (0) 7582 733930 Email: Web: Stream Engineering Solutions Ltd 3 The Wiend, Port Sunlight Wirral, Cheshire CH63 7RG

Unilever Deutschland GmbH Dammtorwall 15 20355 Hamburg Germany Tel: 49 40 34932417 Fax: 49 40 35547072 Email: Web: University of Dundee Nethergate Dundee, Scotland DD1 4HN


Tel: +44 (0) 1382 383000 Web:

Swan Analytical UK Ltd Unit 3, The Steading, Copthill Farm Uffington, Stamford, Lincs PE9 4TD

Vital Energi Century House, Roman Road Blackburn, Lancashire BB1 2LD

Tel: +44 (0)1780 755500 Fax: +44 (0)1780 755508 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0)1254 296010 Email: Web:

Tata Steel UK Ltd PO Box 1, Brigg Road Scunthorpe, North Lincs DN16 1BP Tel: +44 (0)1724 404040 Email: Web: Tate & Lyle Sugars Limited Thames Refinery, Factory Road Silvertown, London E16 2EW Tel: +44 (0) 20 7540 1009 Web: TLV Euro Engineering UK Ltd Star Lodge, Montpellier Drive Cheltenham, Gloucester GL50 1TY Tel: + 44 (0) 1242 227223 Fax: + 44 (0) 1242 223077 Web: Torishima (Europe) Projects Ltd Torishima House, Brook Lane Westbury, Wiltshire BA13 4ES Tel: +44 (0) 1373 858143 Email: Web: Torque Engineering Limited 22 Moorland Way, Lincoln LN6 7JP

Watkins Hire Ltd Ward Industrial Estate, Church Road Lydney, Gloucestershire GL15 5EL Tel: +44 (0)1594 840025 Fax: +44 (0)1594 837463 Web: Weishaupt (UK) Ltd Neachells Lane Willenhall, West Midlands WV13 3RG Tel: +44 (0)1902 609841 Fax: +44 (0)1902 633343 Email: Web: Wellman Thermal Services Ltd Newfield Road Oldbury, West Midlands B69 3ET Tel: +44 (0)121 543 0000 Fax: +44 (0)121 543 0101 Email: Web: Zeeco Europe Ltd The Woolfox Building Great North Road, Rutland LE15 7QT Tel: +44 (0)1780 765077 Fax: +44 (0)1780 757121 Email: Web:

Tel: +44 (0) 1522 697614

CEA Yearbook 2014/2015


GEMchem Water treatment

Experts in Energy Efficient Solutions for Steam Boilers

T: 0117 922 5544

1 John Street | Bristol | BS1 2HR

Our Mechanical fitter/Supervisor will visit your business and talk you through all of your options, as well as giving you support on how you could improve your business energy efficiency and introduce you to the latest technologies. We can provide support for you to take control of your energy use and assist your business in saving energy for the future. Saving the environment and money in the process.

The EU Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) will be rolled out across Europe from July 2014. The Emerson Sustainable Energy Efficiency user guide has been expressly developed with the EED standards in mind and is designed to present a best practice methodology for process industry users, which is consistent with and more than meets the requirements of the EED.

Professional holiday cover and operational support.

Request your free printed copy from Sam Thiara, Marketing & Sales Manager Emerson Process Management Ltd Email: Tel: +44 (0) 7825 862 808

London Based Engineer. Experienced mechanical fitter and foreman in Steam and HVAC operations and CHP operations. HVAC/Steam plant operations.

Gavin Hoole—

Engineering operations

Tel – 07813375196 02074989734

Dip BOM. Mechanical foreman. CEA member.

Changing your world by changing your words A wide range of public relations services for the engineering sector: • Advertising • Brochures • Contract publishing • Databases

• Direct mail • Email marketing • Graphic design • Media relations

• Social media • Video and animations • Websites

• White papers

To find out how to get winning results from your marketing, please contact us at: Armitage Communications Ltd Mill House, Wandle Road Beddington, Surrey CR0 4SD Tel: 020 8667 9660 Email: Web:


CEA Yearbook 2014/2015

armitagecommunications CONTENT



Why switching to LNG weighs in your favour...

Finance Options

75 Years Experience

10% Savings & Lower CO2

CO2 Running Costs

Reduced Maintenance

Current Fuel & System

LNG with System Upgrade

Seven good reasons to make the switch to Liquefied Natural Gas, saving your business time, money and inconvenience

1 2 3

Compared to oil fuel costs, converting to LNG can cut an energy bill by c.10-15%


LNG is good news for CO2 reduction. Recent projects have cut carbon by between 15-20% over some common fuel oils

Savings generated, typically allow investments to be repaid within 1-2 years LNG delivers greater financial stability too. It doesn’t suffer the volatile price fluctuations that are typical of oil prices

5 6

A guaranteed supply of lower cost LNG can fuel business growth by reducing operating costs


Your business does not have to invest in a pipeline connection to the gas grid to reap the cost, carbon and clean burning rewards that Natural Gas delivers over other fuels

There are significantly less health and safety risks. Buried pipes are better protected and there is no (highly expensive) risk of water or ground pollution, resulting from potential spillages

To learn more contact Kevin Houlden on: 07803 021760 or

LNG CEA Yearbook 2014/2015



Unity is the intelligent system that monitors, controls and operates the diďŹ&#x20AC;erent parts of your boiler house from one central point.

From water treatment, right through to the steam header, Unity gives you an unprecedented level of visibility and control in one easy to use interface. 01535 665 225

Byworth Boilers Parkwood Boiler Works Parkwood Street Keighley West Yorkshire BD21 4NW

CEA Yearbook 2014/15  

The Combustion Engineering Association Yearbook

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