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The Fall of YouTube Rewind




One Piece


Freedoms of the Air

March 2019 Gary Chan

NSBHS Visions

Around the world, 2019 has been politically intense. In the United States, 16 states are currently bringing a legal case in the federal District Court in San Francisco in response to President Donald Trump declaring a national emergency on February 14th 2019 over an alleged crisis at the US-Mexico Border. It has been stated that the $8 billion funding re-allocated to the border wall by this declaration, would be drawn from the Department of Defence’s Drug Interdiction Program and Military Construction Account, the Department of Homeland Security’s Appropriations, and the Treasury Department’s Drug Forfeiture Fund. In the United Kingdom, a no-deal Brexit is growing increasingly likely, and Prime Minister Theresa May has promised to voluntarily stand down by the next general election. Here in Australia, the NSW State Election is scheduled for March 23rd 2019, with the incumbent Liberal Party led by Gladys Berejiklian campaigning on its record of capital works, including the new Sydney Metro. On the opposition, the Labor Party led by Michael Daley is campaigning on an increased focus towards schools and hospitals and a promise to end plans of the replacement of the T3 Bankstown Line with single-decker Metro. In the world of technology, the Samsung Galaxy Fold was unveiled at a price of $1980 USD (around $2800 AUD), setting the scene for the spread of foldable phones. At NSBHS Visions, we also hope you enjoyed the opportunity to explore myNSB Android at our LEAP stall. In this edition, we have an interview with some of our new Year 7s from their first few days at school. We then dive into Blockchain with Sidharth Manoj Kumar. We look at an anonymous writer’s support of the anime One Piece. We then decipher the Freedoms of the Air, a fundamental legal aspect of every international flight in the world. After that, we discuss Maths and teaching with NSB 2012 alumnus Jonathan Kim Sing. Finally, we listen to Sumedh Kundu’s opinion of The Media - A Double Edged Sword. Thank you to our writers, interviewers, editors and formatters for making this edition of The 4U Paper amazing! I also would like to welcome Dominic Cheung and Jonathan Yeo in Year 10 into our 2019 4U Formatting Team. Our entire 4U Team is important to each publication and we couldn’t have done it without them. Do keep in mind the views and opinions expressed in these articles and interviews and do not necessarily reflect those of NSBHS Visions, North Sydney Boys High School or the NSW Department of Education.


The Fall of YouTube Rewind by Jonathan Yeo


YouTube Rewind was meant to be an annual celebration of its creators, YouTube culture, and major trends and events that had occurred in that year. For the most part, Rewind was met with positive critical reception for its representation of YouTube. It became a tradition for YouTube to upload annual Rewinds, and subsequently, it became an honour for YouTube creators to be featured in Rewind. However, 2018’s YouTube Rewind has been met with overwhelmingly negative reception. Within 6 days and 10 hours of its initial upload, it had surpassed Justin Bieber’s ‘Baby’ to become the most-disliked YouTube video in history. As of time of writing, Rewind has reached over 15 million dislikes. A welcomed and celebrated community event has drastically transitioned into a despised and ridiculed video, which felt lacklustre in comparison to previous episodes in the series. To understand this drastic transition, we must first understand YouTube’s relationship with advertisers. As a platform providing free content, YouTube relies on advertisers in order to compensate creators and to generate revenue. Primarily, YouTube is a company about pairing advertisers with content creators. The YouTube ecosystem relies on three main parties: creators, audiences, and advertisers. When one party is pulled out of the cycle, the entire ecosystem collapses and all parties are ultimately affected.

The Timeline of Demonetisation and the Adpocalypse Pre-Adpocalypse (2016 - Early 2017) YouTube began demonetisation as early as 2016, when the first advertiser-friendly guidelines were introduced. Particular content creators could no longer monetise their videos as reliably as before. Demonetisation was usually seen as more of a hindrance for the large majority of content creators rather than a catastrophic risk to their income. On the 9th of February 2017, The Times reported that YouTube was displaying advertisements along videos from terrorist organisations and other hateful content. YouTube responded by implementing additional exclusion options on potentially objectionable or mature content. Content creators who produce videos that are considered not family-friendly (videos that would be considered a mature rating or above) would be open to demonetisation. PewDiePie (Early 2017) On January 11 2017, PewDiePie, the most subscribed YouTuber, uploaded a video, satirical in nature, that was meant to ridicule the extremes that freelancers on Fiverr would take. PewDiePie, known for his amateur and improvisational acts, decided to pay two freelancers from India to hold up an anti-semitic sign in a video.

This is exactly what happened when advertisers pulled out of the YouTube ecosystem, disrupting the entire platform, in an incident known as the Adpocalypse, which we’ll explore later. Advertisers have largely been concerned about brand safety, and YouTube is no exception. Brands want their advertisements to be matched with videos that align with their moral and ethical viewpoints. As a result, YouTube introduced demonetisation, where a video can be restricted from accessing the larger pool of advertisements, reducing the amount of revenue that can be gained on a video. Advertisers can now specifically declare that they do not want to advertise on mature content and instead only on family-friendly content, which shrinks the advertisement pool for mature content creators. 5

PewDiePie was initially criticised upon the video’s upload, but the incident did not gain major traction, as the video was intended for his target audience. This was until the Wall Street Journal released an article entitled, ‘Disney Severs Ties With YouTube Star PewDiePie After Anti-Semitic Posts’ on the 14th of February. WSJ had managed to convince Disney to disassociate itself with PewDiePie and his content. The story then gained major traction and major brands began disassociating themselves from PewDiePie. YouTube cancelled his YouTube Red original series (now YouTube Premium), named Scare PewDiePie, and removed him from Google Preferred. PewDiePie, although criticised by the mainstream media and having major brand deals revoked, had overwhelming support from fellow YouTubers and audiences internationally. He attributed the negativity from the mainstream media to an attempt to discourage advertisers from the platform, and to convince them to advertise on traditional media sources. The Adpocalypse (Early 2017) This was the major killer for many YouTube careers and content creators had to resort to Patreon and crowdfunding as a primary source of income, rather than ad revenue. On the 24th of March 2017, an article by the Wall Street Journal found that advertisements were being displayed on racist content, such as a video entitled ‘Chief Keef dancing to Alabama [n-word].’ This occured a week after YouTube mentioned that they


would take drastic action to ensure brand safety on their platform. As a result, 250 major brands including Coca-Cola, Walmart, AT&T, McDonald’s, Toyota, and Johnson & Johnson, pulled their ads from YouTube. The brands pulled out in fear of potential association with this objectionable content, and in part, to provide them some leverage against YouTube to lower their prices for serving ads. The events following the Adpocalypse were drastic to the creator community, as creators were forced to adapt their content to meet YouTube’s monetisation guidelines in order to acquire ad revenue. Logan Paul (Early 2018) During this time, Logan Paul, along with his brother, Jake Paul, was growing incredibly quickly. Jake Paul’s music video, ‘It’s Everyday Bro’ has currently amassed 223 million views, whilst Logan Paul’s diss track, ‘The Fall of Jake Paul’ has over 220 million views. Needless to say, the Paul brothers were immensely popular on the platform. Both Logan Paul and Jake Paul’s demographic are young children and most of their content can be considered as family friendly, so it was no surprise that YouTube would be promoting them. Giving them both YouTube Red (now YouTube Premium) shows, Google Preferred, and major features in 2017’s YouTube Rewind, YouTube was favouring the Paul brothers as a new face of YouTube, replacing PewDiePie after the incident in early 2017.

That was until Logan Paul filmed a suicide victim in the Aokigahara forest in Japan, and it all went downhill. Aokigahara is infamous for its associations with death and suicide, and is sometimes referred to as the most popular site for suicide in Japan. Overwhelming negativity was thrown at Logan Paul and immense criticism was thrown at YouTube about why his video was placed on the Trending tab. When outrage and controversy on Twitter became prominent, YouTube subsequently put his YouTube Red series on hold and removed him from Google Preferred. After a week of the controversy, YouTube made a statement on Twitter as part of a five-tweet chain. Various YouTubers and vocal critics point out the irony in ‘we acted accordingly.’ Logan Paul’s video reached the top 10 videos on the Trending page, and when it was flagged by users on YouTube, the content moderator team only age-restricted the video and did not remove it. Instead, it was Logan Paul, not YouTube, who removed the video from the platform. This incident illustrates how YouTube has shifted from being somewhat lenient for favoured creators, to being more strict on enforcement of its own community guidelines and continuous demonetisation. Demonetisation that utilises a faulty machine learning algorithm that uses videos, that content creators rely on to generate an income, as their training data.

YouTube Rewind 2018 (Late 2018) Now, with an in depth understanding of demonetisation and YouTube’s strained relationship with advertisers, you can begin to understand YouTube’s perspective and standpoint. YouTube wanted to convert YouTube Rewind into a corporate promotion and showcase for advertisers, displaying family-friendly YouTubers and events that screams ‘brand safety’ in your face. Undoubtedly, many advertisers would be watching YouTube Rewind, as it amasses hundreds of millions of views each video, making it the perfect opportunity to encourage more advertisers onto their platform. Large negativity has been directed towards YouTube and their inability to adapt to the requirements of their own audience, content creators, and advertisers. YouTube must maintain a balance between them in order to maintain its operability. However, many content creators and advertisers have already given up on the platform, instead moving to rivals such as Twitch. The backlash to YouTube Rewind 2018 was caused by YouTube converting Rewind into a shameless promotion for advertisers, in a time where advertising revenue on each video is low, as a result of the Adpocalypse and constant demonetisation. However, by doing so it angered and disappointed its main audiences by demonstrating intentional ignorance to major events and creators prominent in that year.


Year 7 Showcase


What primary schools did you go to? William: Holsworthy Primary School. Jayden: I went to our Lady Help of Christians Primary School in Epping. Matthew: I went to St John’s Primary School. How was your primary school? William: Boring, the work wasn’t challenging and it was often tedious. Jayden: I liked it from Kindergarten to Year 4, but it got a little hectic in Year 5 and 6. What was your favourite subject? William and Jayden: Maths!! Matthew: I liked English. What made you enjoy that subject? Jayden: I liked it because it is always a straight answer. It has to be either right or wrong. I’m looking forward to Science though, because I have always been interested in how everything works. I am also looking forward to doing experiments in the lab with bunsen burners.

Matthew: I hear the practical aspect of Science is fun and interesting. I’m looking forward to that too. English was engaging to me, because one of my passions is reading. How have you settled into NSB William: It has been pretty easy with quite a large number of friends and help from peer support. Jayden: I like NSB and I have received a lot of support from my peer support leaders. Matthew: Alright. I’m making friends and I’m starting to get used to the routines. Did you look forward to coming to NSB William: I was excited, but also a little bit nervous and scared as I was coming to a bigger school. There would be new experiences and a totally different system of lessons. Matthew: I was proud that I got into NSB but I was also nervous as I was changing schools and I wouldn’t have all my old friends.


BLOCKCHAIN by Sidharth Manoj Kumar


What is blockchain? Blockchain is a way of keeping information secure, and to prevent anyone from making unauthorised changes to the information stored. Blockchain was designed to replace the traditional way of paying and receiving money, that being banks and companies who link a buyer with a seller like PayPal and Google Wallet. Blockchain technology was created to provide a much more secure and safe alternative to these financial institutions. Instead of a third party keeping track of your money, a whole society of people will actively track how much money everyone has. This may sound like it isn’t very private as you will be disclosing your identity to people who may not be honest. However, that is not the case at all as you will see later on.

Blockchain vs. Centralised Payment Networks What do PayPal, Google Pay, Stripe and Amazon Pay all have in common? They are all the exact opposite of blockchain. They are all centralised networks meaning that all users of these platforms must connect to a central server or host computer. This server is liable to being hacked and since it is not being monitored by anyone, it is more likely to be affected by corruption which can cause a massive problem in society. If a person trusts a bank with all their money and the bank shuts down, the person does not have their money anymore. Blockchain is the ideal solution to these problems. All information on the blockchain is stored in sets of information called ‘blocks.’ Every

ten minutes or so, the block gets ‘mined’ by another user of the chain after validating that all transactions on that block are genuine. The ‘miner’ usually gets some sort of cash reward for mining the block. For Bitcoin, the reward is Bitcoins, which – as of the time of writing - are worth around $8958 (AUD) each. A blockchain is an example of distributed ledger technology, so everyone has a record of how much money everyone else has. This means that no one can claim to have more money than they actually do. This, combined with the other security capabilities of blockchain, make blockchain a very powerful and secure addition to the internet.

Current Financial System vs. Blockchain - The trust difference How would you feel lending money to someone you don’t trust? All the transactions that we make are based on trust. We trust that the banker isn’t stealing our money. We trust that the company isn’t going to fail, so we invest in it. However, by not having trust in people we don’t know, we are also losing a world of opportunities. Blockchain will bring that world of opportunities fully into our grasp. Transaction records put on a blockchain, announce to the world that money has been paid and that the service has to be provided. In the case of an untrustworthy service provider, an entire society keeping track of the chain would exert social pressure on the provider, forcing him to either provide the service or permanently lose his reputation as a trustworthy individual. In this way, trust can be created, opening up more opportunities that are available to the users of the Blockchain.


Chain Immutability, Privacy and Further Security - All With Hash Functions Imagine a worldwide database, where once data is added, it can never be removed again. This is a blockchain. Any kind of data, in numerical form or otherwise, is still data which can be put on a blockchain. After it is put on the blockchain, it can never be changed. Blockchain and cryptography experts call this chain immutability. This is done by linking each block with the one before it, using something called a hash. A hash is an unreadable alpha-numeric code which is generated by processing the data in a block and the hash of the previous block. This is called a SHA256 function. Every combination of characters produces a different hash. If someone wants to undertake the ridiculously complex procedure of hacking into the chain, they will have to recalculate the hash of every single block on the chain, change the data of the desired block, and do all of that on every single computer on the chain simultaneously. Even then, there is no guarantee of the hacker not being caught. It’s not just the data which is hashed. Every single user identity will be hashed, and to prove that they are the actual person whom they claim to be, they have to input the right ‘key’ to get the same hash.


How does this all apply to the internet? Internet now vs. Web 2.0 Now, the answers to the questions that you’ve been asking since the beginning of this report. How will blockchain be integrated into the internet, and why should I care? Right now, the internet is mainly being used to share information. When you send someone a Word document or a PowerPoint presentation, you’re actually sending them a copy of it, while retaining the original. This is great, because it democratised information, as you still have the intellectual property rights, due to your original copy. However, in a transaction, this is not what we want. If someone gave you $10,000 as a prize, it is very important that you have the actual currency, and that they do not have the $10,000 themselves. This brought on the need for ‘trusted’ middlemen who ‘safely and securely’ transfer money in between bank accounts. In fact, these middlemen can be as dishonest and unfair as a black-market trader. With blockchain and distributed ledger technology, we can cut out the potentially untrustworthy links. We do not even need banks anymore, since we can all link our cash to our public hash code, which is like a user ID. With all the registered cryptocurrencies out there, we won’t even need solid cash! With blockchain, the financial internet could be revolutionised, forming a transparent, trustless, secure, and transaction friendly Web 2.0.

One Piece ‘Reaching Number 1 is much easier than keeping it’ and yet in the millions of volumes of manga sold every year, one series rules them all. For the past eleven years, it has never been beaten in sales. It is the third highest selling comic series of all time, behind Batman and Superman. Both series have gone on for fifty years more and yet it still is about to overcome Batman in sales and slowly catching up to Superman. That series is Eichiro Oda’s One Piece and yet after more than twenty years of publication, why is it still so highly loved to this day? How does One Piece dominate? The story follows the travels of a boy called Monkey D. Luffy, who after becoming a pirate inspired by his hero, Red Haired Shanks, sets out on a journey to find a famed treasure called One Piece and become the Pirate King. The appeal of One Piece is its understanding of two things. The idea of exploration and the idea of the journey.

Every island that they stop at holds something to discover and explore. Be it a massive sky island, a country filled with sentient toys, or even a massive chain of islands full of sunshine, happiness and all sorts of sweet food. One Piece’s core themes are about freedom and exploration. Exploration of the different, weird and wacky Islands and the exploration of the complete world in the search for One Piece. To this day, One Piece grabs the reader by the collar and never lets go, traversing the magnificent world that Oda has created. With Oda’s brilliant storytelling that consistently improves, twenty years after his first chapter, he keeps every arc new and refreshing and better than every other previous arc. One Piece dominates. And for good reason. The author wishes to remain anonymous.

We all know Luffy will find One Piece just like how we knew Naruto would become Hokage. It’s about the journey and Eichiro Oda understands that perfectly. 13

Freedoms of the Air by Gary Chan


The Freedoms of the Air are a set of rights that countries can choose to give an airline. These rights are fundamental to almost every flight in the 21st century.

This means international flights can arrive in another country from the airline’s own country.

1. The right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State or States to fly across its territory without landing. This is almost always granted, but countries can charge overflight fees for this Freedom and the use of their radar services. For example, the United States charges $60.07 per hour for flying over their country.

4. The right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State to take on, in the territory of the first State, traffic destined for the home State of the carrier. This means international flights can depart from other country to the airline’s own country.

2. The right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State or States, to land in its territory for non-traffic purposes. This means that flights are allowed to conduct emergency landings or refuel in another country. In the 20th century when the USSR did not grant the first Freedom of the Air, the United States granted the second Freedom to flights from Japan to Europe, allowing refuelling in Anchorage in Alaska.

5. The right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State to put down and to take on, in the territory of the first State, traffic coming from or destined to a third State. This means that an airline can fly outside of its registered country, as long as the flight stops at its registered country at some point. The difference between this Freedom and the Second Freedom is that here, the airline is allowed to book passengers not continuing onwards to the registered country. For example, Cathay Pacific Flight 888 flies from Hong Kong (HKG) to Vancouver (YVR) where more passengers can board, before continuing onto New York (JFK).

3. The right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State to put down, in the territory of the first State, traffic coming from the home State of the carrier. 15

6. The right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, of transporting, via the home State of the carrier, traffic moving between two other States. This is essentially a formal way of allowing airlines to transfer passengers between flights and is almost universal.

7. The right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State, of transporting traffic between the territory of the granting State and any third State with no requirement to include on such operation any point in the territory of the recipient State. That is, the service need not connect to or be an extension of any service to or from the home State of the carrier. This means that a foreign airline is allowed to fly between two foreign countries directly. For example, Air France flying between Sydney (SYD) and Auckland (AKL), even though it has no flights to either of those cities. This is almost never granted because it negatively impacts local airlines. However, nowadays with the rise of 20 hour flights, this is no longer necessary. One of the only places that this freedom is found is with Qantas and their Sydney to New York flights which due to how far planes can fly is currently impossible direct, so Qantas uses this freedom to stop in Los Angeles and then carry onto New York.


8. The right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, of transporting cabotage traffic between two points in the territory of the granting State on a service which originates or terminates in the home country of the foreign carrier or (in connection with the so-called Seventh Freedom of the Air) outside the territory of the granting State. This allows airlines to fly between two cities in a foreign country while continuing onto its own. In the 20th Century, this was relatively common, due to limitations with how far a plane could fly. For example, the famous Kangaroo Route between Sydney and London having up to 7 stops.

9. The right or privilege of transporting cabotage traffic of the granting State on a service performed entirely within the territory of the granting State. This Freedom is even more rarely granted to airlines, allowing them to fly directly between two cities in a foreign country. An example of this would be if United Airlines based in the US were to fly directly between Adelaide and Perth. One of the only places that this is found is within the European Union as they have a single aviation market and airlines such as Ryanair can fly domestic routes like Berlin to Munich and Manchester to London.


Jonathan Kim Sing Class of 2012 17

Can you please introduce yourself? My name’s Jonathan Kim Sing. I am an ex-NSB student who graduated in 2012. Currently, I’m working as a Maths teacher at Galston High School in the Hills District. What was your experience at NSB like? I have really fond memories of NSB actually. I think at NSB, we were really fortunate to have so many opportunities to be in a part of school life. When I was there, I got to be a part of Senior Band, the School Orchestra, Peer Support and ISCF, so there were a lot of things we could do around the school. There are also so many opportunities to take you to all sorts of places. I went to New Caledonia for a French excursion, Hawaii for a band tour, and Melbourne for Crawford Shield. I think they were really good memories. After going through all these kinds of schools, what characteristics did you find common to effective teachers? Learning is really different for every student, and teachers have all sorts of different ways in recognising that and trying to address that. A good teacher


understands that everyone learns differently and tries to adapt their teaching style to the students’ learning style. Going around different schools, the students come from all sorts of different backgrounds. Really good teachers recognise ‘How can I take what I’m trying to teach someone and really try to make it relevant to them?’ I think when teachers are asked ‘What do you teach?’ they respond with something like Maths, English or Science. When we’re teaching students, being able to relate with and connect to students, is really important. The common saying is ‘Students don’t care how much you know, until they know how much you care.’ I think it’s very true. If you can’t connect students with what you’re teaching, then it’s really difficult to get them on board with what they’re learning. I guess that’s not to say that we should throw content and knowledge out the window, but they do need to work hand in hand. It’s a chicken and the egg situation, and they have to work together. Do you have any inspirations in your teaching? For me, I’ve really valued how each teacher has impacted me in a whole variety of ways. The way I think of it is that a single grain of sand doesn’t make a beach, until if you have a whole heap of grains. Back in high school, I had a History teacher, who had a big focus on critical thinking rather than rote-learning

and memorising, and that’s really different to most HSIE subjects where you’re just meant to memorise essays for every single response. Instead, you need an intuitive understanding of each civilisation and society so you can adapt your response to each question. She had a big focus on having us think and work hard instead of spoon feeding, and that did frustrate me as a student because I just wanted to know the answer and have this recipe I could just use and take for every single thing. Even in Mathematics for example, when I reflect back to Mathematics as a student, I would see a question and think ‘Here’s the formula, I’m just going to apply it,’ and that’s how I solved these questions without realising and understanding it. Do you find any similarities and differences between your students now and when you were a student? For me, Mathematics was actually kind of a rollercoaster. In primary school, I really enjoyed Mathematics, but in high school, I did struggle a lot, because NSB is a community where you’re with the best students. It doesn’t feel at it at the time, but even when you’re average, you’re still at the top of the state. That was my situation, where I struggled with Maths during high school. When I think to back then, and then see students who struggle with Mathematics, I can empathise with them because I know what it’s like to have the feeling that I don’t understand and aren’t following that teacher. I really try to harness that with the students I have now. With Mathematics, it’s really important because you have these building blocks leading up to a single point, and if you just have one of those blocks missing, it’s very difficult to keep building. I think that’s where having a genuine understanding of the concepts is very important because if you don’t have that, it makes it very difficult to actually dive deep and start answering those trickier problems. I think that’s the thing most students are missing right now. How did you get started on your YouTube channel? I think this is a really exciting time to get involved in education because the sphere is really changing dayto-day. There’s a lot of individuals and companies in online education, like for example, Khan Academy and Eddie Woo. I watched some of Eddie Woo’s

videos, and I found that intriguing because that was a different approach to Mathematics I had never seen before. I think one thing that jumped out to me was his calculus video. When I was trying to learn it in high school, we looked at patterns in how to differentiate different functions. However, the first thing that he started was not any of that, but instead looking at the history of it. I found that quite surprisingly and thought ‘Hang on, why are we doing history in Maths?’ A simple thing like spending one lesson giving meaning to a problem actually sparks curiosity and makes you want to follow the story of how these ideas were developed rather than just getting a formula. For me, I really wanted to showcase my own approach. For example, I made a video of Maths Aerobics on my YouTube channel. I wanted to showcase to people my perspective on why these Mathematical ideas are interesting and really different. Another great thing about the YouTube channel is that you’re going to get feedback as well, whether positive or negative. I think even just for myself, I can watch the videos and say ‘I think I can do it a bit better.’ 19

What do you like about Maths? Like I said earlier, my relationship with Maths has been a bit of a rollercoaster. Thinking back to primary school, a large part of the reason I enjoyed Maths was that I was successful, I was getting good marks. There’s nothing wrong with that. Everyone wants to feel success in the area they’re good at. The problem with attributing my love of Maths to getting good marks was what happened when the marks stop. I think that’s what happened in high school. Throughout high school, I was probably below average in terms of Maths results, which led me to believe I wasn’t a Maths person, thinking ‘Look at all these people around me doing so much better than me. They can look at a textbook, read it and understand it, whereas I struggle with that understanding.’ I think it’s only now that I step back and have the time to look at concepts and see how they’re beautifully related to each other. Some parents have a negative perception of teaching as a career because of the pay. Did you have that issue? I saw this meme in ‘subtle Asian traits’ about how education is the foundation of your future, and it’s really important that you work hard. Then there is a student who wants to become a teacher with the Surprised Pikachu meme of the parent’s reaction. It does make choosing a career hard when you have all these choices, but they don’t all meet with what we call prestigious careers. 20

There are a lot of students from North Sydney Boys who will study commerce, engineering, medicine, and law, as these are the things that people will value highly in society. Education or becoming a teacher might not necessarily be at that level, and as you said, maybe a reason is that of pay and salaries and things like that. When you are looking to choose a career, there are a lot of things you could consider. What is the salary like, what are the hours like, what kind of benefits will I get, what kind of colleagues will I have? There are all these questions you can ask, and I think one question I’ve tried to ask myself is ‘All these hours you are putting into this, all this effort, what is it for? What is it going to amount to?’ That kind of question is like ‘What is your legacy?’ After all that has been said and done, at the end of your career, when you look back, what are you going to leave behind? And I think for me, education is one of those things which is really appropriate for me in that sense. When you are working with students, you get to see what you are doing directly, and you can see the impact. One thing I love about teaching is that every day is different because every student is different. I’m never bored in a sense, working with those students and seeing them learning to grow and mature. I think the government is trying to do things to try and boost our reputation, so increasing teacher quality, and raising teachers’ salaries. Those are all things that will help in some sense, but one of the biggest ways

that we get our impressions of teachers or a career as a teacher is what’s happening at home. How do parents and students react to teachers, do they respect them? Those kind of conversations are really what is going to strike us and have more of an impact.

one defining factor of how you progress through life, but it’s definitely not the only way. I’ve seen students at my school who are successful. If you want to make lots of money, there are many jobs that provide that, that aren’t just through tertiary education.

Since you were a student at a selective high school and are teaching at a comprehensive high school, what are the main differences you notice?

What are your fondest memories of NSB?

Everywhere you go, kids are kids and students are students. Most people would say the biggest difference between selective schools and comprehensive schools is this innate desire to succeed academically, and I think that is definitely true. But teaching at this comprehensive school which is in a very different area and different upbringing, I’ve really widened my experience in terms of different backgrounds. At the school where I’m teaching now, it’s a predominantly Anglo demographic. Students from a whole variety of exit scores, so wealth indicators. You’ve got people from the top quartile, people from the bottom quartile as well, and it’s been very refreshing to see that there are so many different students around NSW. Some of the students I teach live on large plots or properties of land, and they call them acreages because they are acres wide, so their hobbies are going horse riding or driving their quad bikes around their farms or something like that. I think it’s really eye-opening to see that there is a world outside of Crows Nest. North Sydney views academics as the

I think my fondest, most vivid memories are just the things that you can’t take for granted, and you never think that you’ll remember them. Like rushing for the buses at the end of the day, with that gate that everyone tries to get through, and going to Thai Emerald at lunch. A big deal at the time was that you had to wear the right tie, because everytime Crawford came around, we swapped ties, and we always had to hide, because we weren’t meant to wear those Crawford ties. I do have two distinct memories. One time in a Year 12 class, we had a Maths teacher who shall remain unnamed. One of the students was on their phone, and the teacher took it. Everyone jokingly told them to chuck it out the window, and the student who had it confiscated also was like ‘Yeah, just chuck it out.’ So they just threw the phone out of the window, that sticks in my mind. The other one was in our PASS class in Year 9 or 10, and we had to do a project for different skill levels of certain sports. They asked me to do one for basketball, and I already knew enough about basketball, so like 21

that rather amateur skill level. I’m happy to admit that, but even I wasn’t prepared for what happened next. We had to do a layup, so run up to the ring and chuck it up and try to get it in. So when I was doing it, I got a bit excited and ran too far. As I threw the ball up, it hit the backboard, bounced off it and hit me square in the face. I think I even surprised myself with that one, and that still haunts me till today. Can’t really do layups without thinking of that traumatising experience. As a final question, what advice do you have for students who want to go into teaching? The first thing I would say is that there are a lot of different parts in teaching. A lot of teachers that I talk to had career changes, but particularly for those who are thinking about going into teaching straight out of high school. I was very fortunate as I had a lot of experiences where I could feel what it would be like to work with students. I was a peer support leader, and I found it really gratifying to work with students not just in their academic lives, but in all aspects. One of the previous Ministers for Education once said that the one question that future teachers should ask themselves is, ‘Do you like children.’ It’s a very tongue in cheek kind of question because that isn’t the only way you can determine whether you would

be a good teacher, but I think it’s a start. Is working with students who are younger than me something that I’d really love to do? Something that’s thrown around a lot when choosing a career is if it is something you are passionate about, and I think it’s really tricky for a high school student because, for most of their lives, they’ve been told you have to study this subject. Even when they can choose subjects, they are still met with ‘Studying this subject is better than studying that subject.’ So I think it’s very difficult for a student to find their passion. A better piece of advice would be that passion is formed over time, so trying something and sticking at it for a lot and seeing things that you love. When you find a job, you won’t love every aspect of it. For me, teaching is something that is rewarding overall. Even if you don’t choose to become a teacher when you finish, but is something that’s at the back of your mind. Nowadays there are a lot of people who have gone through a degree or have already started working in another industry, and teaching is still something at the back of their mind. I think there are still pathways to that. Even for those students who didn’t choose it outright but are thinking about it later down the track, that’s somewhere that they would like to go. There are always pathways for them.

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The Media

A Double-Edged Sword by Sumedh Kundu ‘The media is responsible for the demise of politician after politician, sportstar after sportstar and actor after actor.’ In the last eighteen years, only one Prime Minister in Australia has held office for a full term. You might remember Malcolm Turnbull losing his job as Prime Minister last year. Many people around Australia wanted to know why. Peter Dutton was one of Malcolm Turnbull’s closest ministers, so why did Dutton suddenly become a wrecking ball in Parliament?

The media may have played a part in this as well. Fairfax Media (now owned by Nine) published an article stating that it would be impossible for Malcolm Turnbull to win the 2019 election despite being preferred Prime Minister by over 20% and only trailing the Labor Party 49-51 in the polls. Back in 2016, the Liberals had two-party preferred polls of 4852 and yet still won. With these statistics, I struggle to understand why the more right-leaning faction of the Liberal Party would want to knife their own leader in the back.

Some say this was because of the Liberal Party’s loss in Longman, but Longman has never historically been a safe seat for the Liberal Party. Some say it was orchestrated by Tony Abbott, but in the end, there were many different causes.


The media applied pressure on the Liberal Party after they lost 30 news polls in a row, which had been the catalyst for the challenge on Tony Abbott in 2014. While each of these factors along with his controversial stance on climate change all contributed to the demise of Malcolm Turnbull, these factors also involved the media. The second incident I would like to talk about is the ball tampering incident last year. I believe the twelve month bans handed to Steve Smith and David Warner along with the nine month ban to Cameron Bancroft, were not fair to any of the three players. What is often forgotten in this discussion is that ball tampering happens very often in cricket. In fact only one month after the events in Cape Town Dinesh Chandimal and the Sri Lankan team were found to be ball tampering in a test match against the West Indies cricket team. Dinesh Chandimal didn’t receive a fine or a ban. Why was there a disparity between these players’ punishments? My answer, again, is the media.


Before the bans were handed out to the trio, the media had published articles stating the leadership position of Steve Smith was untenable and he should face a life ban as he had thrown a fellow teammate, Cameron Bancroft under the bus. Cricket Australia held an investigation into the matter and came up with a ruling which I feel was influenced by the media. When Steve Smith returned to Sydney, he was in tears. That was what it took for the media to finally have a positive outlook on Smith. The world has changed and the media has enabled everyone’s opinions to be altered just by looking at a screen. The media is a double-edged sword and everyone needs to be mindful of that. Do keep in mind the views and opinions expressed in articles submitted to The 4U Paper do not necessarily reflect those of NSBHS Visions, North Sydney Boys High School or the NSW Department of Education.

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The 4U Paper - March 2019 (Issue 37) Designed by Matthew Tsang, Dominic Cheung and Jaiden Gill With thanks to: Gary Chan, Rodger Liang, Jonathan Yeo, Sidharth Manoj Kumar, Eric Li


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The 4U Paper: March 2019 (Issue 37)  

The 4U Paper: March 2019 (Issue 37)