Editorial Team Aditya Sapkale Akhila Shankar Mohita Namjoshi Tanvi Hegde Ojasvi Mishra Vaidehi Tendulkar
Design Akhila Shankar
Why The Eye? The eye is the alpha and omega of visual art. With the last few decades art has we know it is becoming increasingly visual in nature. It's becoming more about appealing to the visual senses than any other. In this light much of art today is Visual Art. Even that fancy iced cup cake design is visual art. So is the way you dress. So why a magazine wholly dedicated to everything you see and is beautiful? Well, the answer is simple- it is time we develop a better understanding of things that our eyes perceive as beauty. This magazine is not only for people who understand this, but for those who want to acquaint themselves with any form of visual communication, be it graphic design, typography, photography, cinema or traditional art. We are neither promoters, nor creators. Artists make this world a more beautiful place to live in. We just tell you where to look. Until next time! The Eye 6. Movement to Identity
14. Much Ado about Dokra
9. Japan introduces cricket to India
16. Art in Cinema
12. 12 Areas Of Photography to Watch Out For
19. Remembering Andy Warhol
All rights received through out the world. Reproduction in any manner is prohibited. Printed and Published by abc on behalf of The Eye. Printed at XYZ Pvt. Ltd. K.A Subramanium Road,Sion,Mumbai-400022 5 | The Eye
Movement to identity Akhila Shankar
Art Deco is a statement. It is a reﬂection of aspiration. The height of the movement was when it transcended artistic expression to become a functional tool in engineering an identity. The reminiscences Mumbai’s long-standing aﬀair with this movement. Mumbai congeries memories on innumerable clichés-‘The city of dreams’, ‘The city that never sleeps’ and the less romantic ‘ﬁnancial capital of India’. However, what is often overlooked is that Mumbai is also the second largest hub for Art Deco in the world after Miami, a movement only kept alive today by the architecture that still stands. A unique combination of factors led to the adaptation of the Art Deco style of Architecture in Mumbai. Increase in tourism and travel in the early half of the 20thcentury had made Bombay a cultural hub for western artists. Many touring European ballet, opera, theatrical and musical troops entered the Bombay scene. The social and cultural ambience in Bombay was hence very conducive to the incorporation of Art Deco into what would become quintessentially Bombay.
ment at this time. The Chamber Of Princes was the oﬃcial body responsible for negotiations between the Nawabs, princes and maharajas of India and the British government. These Nawabs, princes and maharajas started building houses here so as to avoid staying in hotels. Almost all of these houses were built in the Art Deco style, creating the appropriate patronage for this style.
The inc re a s i n g number of graduates in Architecture from foreign univ e r s i ti e s brought in the new wave of architecture in a way no one could have thought of and with intellectual ideas ﬂying around Bombay was soon to become the Paris of India. In November 1937 the ﬁrst Architectural Exhibition ever to be held in India which was organized by the Indian Institute of Architects at town hall displayed the modern trends in lifestyle all over the Besides tourists, Bombay was world, and as unsurprising as it also becoming a political hub in would be- Art Deco was everythe pre-independence move- where!
6 | The Eye
The movement’s standing testaments were the new ofﬁce building in the fort, Bungalows on Malabar and Cumballa Hill and Juhu, apartment blocks in Marine drive, Backbay reclamation and most importantly all the then new cinema halls such as Regal Cinema, Eros Cinema and Metro Cinema. Art Deco- A cinematic experience The Regal Cinema was designed by Charles Steven, son of Fredrick Steven (The man behind the design of Victoria Terminus, now CST). For its time Regal was the ultimate epitome of glamour. It was probably the ﬁrst Indian cinema hall with completely air-conditioned theatres underground parking and even a lift. Following this example the idea of cinema being a luxury set in and cinema halls like Plaza Cinema (Dadar) Central Cinema (Charni Road), New Empire Theater etc. followed suit. Art Deco and Cinema reached a peak with Eros, which was rightly termed as the great grandpa of luxury cinema. Designed by Sohrabji Bedhwar, this building still stands today as a living mark of the good old 30s. Like Regal and Eros, Metro was the last word in luxury. The 2,943 square yard plot was formerly occupied by the Air force and was acquired by Metro Goldwyn Corporation on a lease for 999 with a ground rent of Rs.1 per year! Thomas W Lamb, a New York based Architect laid the plans for the Metro. The complete interiors were imported from the Unites States. The most sticking feature of the architecture is large mural paintings on both sides of the auditorium. The introduction of Art Deco architecture to the cinema
culture is probably one of the most important landmarks in our cultural history. The idea of a movie date, the idea of having the red lounge seats at movie halls today, the idea of 5 star service at a movie, delivery at seat amongst many other things dates back to the 30s when the art deco reformation made cinema into more of an experience and less of a medium for common man. Art Deco and culture Art Deco was a cultural statement. If not for the rest of the world, at least for Bombay it was and will be. The luxury which was native to this style was an expression of the lifestyle and culture then. People wanted change, people wanted to move away from the Victorian world (The British Empire as a whole), people wanted to travel, people wanted to exchange culture. People wanted to look forward to a new independent age and Art Deco was just the right style to exhibit this. The way Robert McGregor would put it “There was going to be no more poverty, no more ignorance, no more disease. Art Deco reﬂected that conﬁdence, vigor and optimism by using symbols of progress, speed and power.”
7 | The Eye
JAPAN INTRODUCES CRICKET TO INDIA!
be a cricket star. The young protagonist is a left-handed cricket player who aspires to be a cricket star like his father. The original manga series was written by Ikki Kajiwara and drawn by Noburo Kawasaki. It was published from 1966 to 1971. Japan’s TMS Entertainment Anime Studio had adapted Kyojin no Hoshi in an anime TV series in 1968 and now the same company will handle the beginning of the new show’s development which includes the script and the storyboards. Local Indian studios that will also bear half the production cost will handle the latter part of the production. For the start The Land of the Rising Sun presents to India this fall, the new version of the anime will have about 26 to 52 ‘The Rising Star’, an anime on cricket. Based on one of episodes. These will be aired in the autumn of 2012 in the most famous sports comics ‘Kyojin no Hoshi’ (the India. Star of the Giants) Kodansha Ltd., a leading manga publication house is set to launch this unexplored theme in What makes it interesting is that even though the anime our country. Kyojin no Hoshi, originally a 1960s’ manga, is an adaptation of an original series, there are many aland its later adaptation into an anime series, were both terations involved. The creators will not only have to study the rules of extremely popular among the boys in Japan. cricket but they will have to understand in detail the geWhile the story of Kyojin no Hoshi, a weekly shonen ography, the culture and the psyche of Indians. The real manga, revolves around a boy who struggles to grow challenge is to use this knowledge in a way that proves into an ace baseball player, The Rising Star is centered appealing to their audience in India on a poor boy in Mumbai, named Salaji, who strives to he year 2012 marks the 60th anniversary of the Indo-Japanese relationship, strengthening the bilateral ties between the two countries more than ever. With this being the perfect occasion of pride and celebration for both the culturally blessed countries, Japan seems to have decided to gift India an unforgettable memento. With animation from Japan and cricket from India, the event is expected to bring together the best from the two nations.
9 | The Eye
Over the years, the American cartoon culture has been highly inﬂuential in India. The superhero cartoons had taken their toll on almost all the major local stations. Most American cartoons used a lot of science ﬁction and larger than life events. Indian viewers are accustomed to cartoon content that might appear superﬁcial and childish. As far as there are noticeable and comprehendible happenings in the content, the Indian viewers remain contented, notwithstanding the level of depth in the story. There are a few newer cartoons coming along in India, which involve characters from Hindu mythology. The viewers of these shows or at least the supervisors of the viewers are satisﬁed with the matter being shown in these shows. They believe
that content which revolves around their mythological characters is likely to inculcate values among children, thereby encouraging the viewership of these cartoons.
which case it won’t grab eyeballs. They will have to strike the appropriate balance between appeal and precision, which in fact they are good at.
That way, an already established character comes to the rescue. Japanese animation series are, however, dealt with diﬀerently. They are essentially made to cater to diﬀerent areas of interest. They don’t just make animation for children or adults but for sports lovers, Shakespeare lovers, food lovers, music lovers, Goth lovers, history lovers, romantic comedy lovers, science lovers and for every niche market which is likely to exist. What they put in is meticulous research behind every creation because they are used to targeting specialists of those ﬁelds or potential information seekers. Their magic has logic, their sciﬁes have real science put to use, their detective stories are hard to understand in a go, and some cartoons are an epitome of absurdity. When an anime has a storyline which is as simple as the story of ‘The Rising Star’, they will use their research to make sure that the content doesn’t have loopholes. In their bid to attain perfection, they need to ensure the story doesn’t drag, in
Most Indians love cricket the way no one else does; few Indians love anime, but when they do, it’s to the extent that they can easily compete in the otaku-race, pun intended, in Japan. In the 60th anniversary celebration of Indo-Japan ties, the Japan External Trade Organization, more commonly referred to as JETRO, had organized a Cool Japan festival in Mumbai. The three-day event recorded about 24,500 footfalls. That was the ﬁrst time the city saw the madness of the otaku world that went up several notches when the TMS Entertainment kiosk showed the trailer of The Rising Star on loop. Eyebrows were raised, jaws hit the ﬂoor and a herd of otakus surrounded the kiosk. The upcoming anime was much talked about, and the youngsters present gave a roar of anticipation, clearly declaring their eagerness. Let’s hope that Japan’s ‘Indianized’ anime sets the foundation for a larger number of anime lovers in the country.
10 | The Eye
12 Areas Of Photography to Watch Out For Aditya Sapkale Photography is an expansive art form that includes more than just portraiture, landscape or glamour photography. Both professional and amateur photographers may favor speciﬁc types of photography over others. While a professional photographer may work in photojournalism, an amateur may be particularly interested in macro-photography. Read on to know more! Photojournalism Although amateurs may break into this ﬁeld without formal training, photojournalism is often limited to professionals. One reason photojournalism is generally practiced by professionals is that serious photojournalists must be sure that their shots maintain the integrity of the original scene. Photojournalism requires the photographer to shoot only the facts: no alteration or embellishment of the photo is permitted. Photojournalism pictures are often powerful images that engage the viewer with the news story. Knowing how to take such shots to capture the original emotion is often learned only through years of practice and experience. Documentary Photography Documentary photographs tell stories with images. The main diﬀerence between photojournalism and documentary photography is that documentary photography is meant to serve as a historical document of a political or social era while photojournalism documents a particular scene or instance. A documentary photographer may shoot a series of images of the inner city homeless or chronicle the events of international combat. Any topic may be the subject of documentary photography. As with photojournalism, documentary photography seeks to show the truth without manipulating the image. Action Photography While professionals who take action shots may specialize in a variety of diﬀerent subjects, sports photography is one of the fastest and most exciting types of photography. As with any action shot, a good sports photographer has to know his or her subject well enough to anticipate when to take pictures. The same rule goes for photographers taking action shots of animals in nature or of a plane taking oﬀ. Macrophotography Macrophotography describes the ﬁeld of photography in which pictures are taken at close range. Once restricted to photographers with advanced and expensive equipment, macrophotography is now easier for amateurs to practice with digital cameras with macro settings. Macrophotography subjects may include insects, ﬂowers, the texture of a woven sweater or any object where close-up photography reveals interesting details. Microphotography Microphotography uses specialized cameras and microscopes to capture images of extremely small subjects. Most applications of microphotography are best suited for the scientiﬁc world. For example, microphotography is used in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, biology and medicine.
12 | The Eye
Glamour Photography As the name implies, the goal of glamour photography is to depict the model in a glamorous light. Consequently, many glamour shots carry ﬂirtatious, mysterious and playful tones. Aerial Photography An aerial photographer specializes in taking photos from the air. Photos may be used for surveying or construction, to capture birds or weather on ﬁlm or for military purposes. Aerial photographers have used planes, ultralights, parachutes, balloons and remote controlled aircraft to take pictures from the air. Underwater Photography Underwater photography is usually employed by scuba divers or snorkelers. However, the cost of scuba diving, coupled with often expensive and unwieldy underwater photography equipment, makes this one of the less common types of photography. Similarly, if an amateur has the equipment and the scuba know-how, taking shots underwater can be complicated, as scuba goggles are magniﬁed and distort the photographer’s vision. Portraiture Portraiture is one of the oldest types of photography. Whether the subject is your family or your pet, the goal of portraiture is to capture the personality of the subject or group of subjects on ﬁlm. Wedding Photography Wedding photography is a blend of diﬀerent types of photography. Although the wedding album is a documentary of the wedding day, wedding photos can be retouched and edited to produce a variety of eﬀects. For example, a photographer may treat some of the pictures with sepia toning to give them a more classic, timeless look.In addition, a wedding photographer must have portrait photography skills. He may also have to employ glamour photography techniques to capture the bride and groom at their best. Advertising Photography Because photography plays a vital role in advertising, many professional photographers devote their careers to advertising photography. The need for unique and eye-catching advertising copy means the photographer may work with multiple types of photography, including macrophotography and glamour photography. Travel Photography Travel photography may span several categories of photography, including advertising, documentary or vernacular photography that depicts a particularly local or historical ﬂavor. A travel photographer can capture the feel of a location with both landscapes and portraiture.
13 | The Eye
Much ado about Dokra Tanvi Hegde
ost who donâ€™t know much about India, consider it is a mystical land of elephants, cows and snake charmers who somehow co-exist with the high tech world of computer geeks and call centres. In the art world, contemporary Indian art is synonymous with the old vanguard of M F Hussain, Raza and Tyeb Mehta, these days, Subodh Gupta (who some term the Indian Damien Hirst), Riyas Komu, Atul Dodiya are making waves at international auctions. The traditional arts of India are so diverse that even most Indians are not aware of the many myriad hues and forms that traditional India has to oďŹ€er. This vast subcontinent is divided into states, communities (over 600), districts, dialects, tribes; which has given rise to a rich diversity in art forms as well.
using the lost-wax casting technique. This sort of metal casting has been used in India for over 4,000 years and is still used. Its name comes from the Dhokra Damar tribes are the traditional metalsmiths of West Bengal. The tribe extends from Jharkhand to West Bengal and Orissa; members are distant cousins of the Chattisgarh Dhokras. A few hundred years ago the Dhokras of Central and Eastern India traveled south as far as Kerla and north as far as Rajasthan and hence are now found all over India. What is so special?
The USP of Dhokra metal craft is that no two pieces of Dhokra art are alike. Each and every single piece of Dhokra craft is unique. The product of dhokra artisans are in great demand in domestic and foreign markets because of primitive simplicity, What is Dhokra? enchanting folk motifs and forceful Dhokra is nonâ€“ferrous metal casting form.
14 | The Eye
Dokra craft is so coveted by collectors is because of its powerful form, charming folk motifs and primitive simplicity – all of which let you explore and peek a glimpse into the indigenous folk culture of India and particularly Bengal. Intricate designs and every ﬁne detail on each article holds its unique and distact identity. This individualistic touch is due to the hand crafted dexterity and skill that these Dokra artifacts boast of. However, although metal casting is used in Dokra craft, they are diﬀerent from other types of metal craft. Although it is mostly brass scrap and bell metal that are used to manufacture Dokra craft, there remains a hollow core inside the metal casting consisting of a clay core. How to make your Dhokra art piece? The process of making Dhokra art piece is even more interesting. Dhokra metal crafts follow the traditional method of lost or vanishing wax technique. First the clay core is designed and then is layered by wax, resin and nut oil. Wax is then carved and every ﬁne detail is given again this is covered by clay it works as a mould for metal art piece. Clay is then cooked and wax comes out from the drain ducts. Molten metal is poured inside the mould. After the netal has taken shape and has cooled down, outer clay layer is
tion of motifs. The line of products has undergone sea change and there has been a sudden burst in manufacture of beautiful napkin rings, serving sets, good quality vases etc. The proliferation of new design developments along with the latest technologies have enabled the Where is Dhokra now? Dhokra craftsmen to bring out lines Dhokra craft so far, was dying a slow, of Dhokra products that are usable nevertheless steady death due to and which can be put to good use by lack of patronage and government clients in the contemporary world encouragement, however the huge markets. demand for Dhokra craft along with other types of brassware handicrafts A new design artist called Mukul in foreign shores has resulted in a Goyal is helping out the Dhokra ﬂourishing, resurgence and resur- craftsmen in their endeavor to derection of this ancient art of metal velop altered and contemporary crafting. The reasons for this are ranges of Dhokra art and Dokra plenty. Dhokra craft, just like any craft. The Dokra craftsmen are also other type of Indian handicrafts, was being helped by Mr. Goyal in the dying a slow death. Even a few years marketing of Dokra items in foreign back, it was diﬃcult to ﬁnd quality markets. These people have toor even accomplished Dhokra crafts- gether developed and brought out men and metal smiths. The dearth 10 new ranges or product lines. or paucity of skilled labor resulted in Some of those items in the product dwindling supplies and the prices of lines are door handles, ﬂower vases, the end products sky rocketed up- napkin rings, lamps, food grade etc. wards. Naturally, the demand also There are however limitations to the went down because of the escalat- art, as practiced by these Dokra ing prices. Even the designs and pat- craftsmen. All the Dokra art pieces terns on Dhokra items had become are hand crafted, and so the ﬁnishoutdated. But there has been a turn- ing isn’t of excellent quality. So, around for this industry, which was those Dokra products which have to nothing short of a wonder. And this be exported have to undergo detailwonder has been brought about by ing and ﬁnal ﬁnishing by machines in latest and advanced technology, some other place. adoption of latest product designs and patterns and newness/innovachipped oﬀ. Metal art piece is then polished and ﬁnished. Thus this method has a big disadvantage that mould can be used only once and hence two pieces will not be exactly the same.
15 | The Eye
Art In Cinema Vaidehi Tendulkar
n Indian Art magazine without Indian cinema in it is unrealistic. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating or indoctrinating citizens. Film making is also an “ART”. You need talent and foresight to make a movie. Talent of making ﬁlm a piece of art work and foresight for knowing how much will it be loved by the audience. Intuitively, some ﬁlms qualify as artworks and others do not. All ﬁlm is art, though some of it is better art or higher art. This, it turns out, is not just a question for those with a special interest in ﬁlm. It has interest for aesthetic value more broadly, because ﬁlm can serve as a test case for deﬁnitions of art. A ﬁlm can be termed as masterpiece only when all the aspects in the making of the ﬁlm are on dot. These aspects are the story, the sets, the costume, the cinematography and lot others. This is not to say that a work becomes art when it’s taken up by an art-consuming audience. Moreover, audiences do not transform works into art; rather they discover that a works deserves to be regarded in that way. If this intuition is right, the key to understanding what makes a ﬁlm count as art is what goes on in this discovery process. India is well known for its commercial cinema. Almost every Indian is well versed with onscreen “running around the trees singing songs”, the ﬁght sequences, twins meeting each other after years, topped with some dose of mush and lots and lots of spice. These
movies are made completely to entertain the Indian audience. India is full of art and that is depicted in Indian movies. Whether commercial or non commercial movie, both need art.. Both have got distinct way of describing art through movies. There are a number of genres and styles of Indian cinema that a viewer encounters, such as, romantic comedies, gangster ﬁlms, horror ﬁlms, westerns, melodramas, musicals and historical ﬁlms. While some of these genres are present in Indian cinema, often as a consequence of the impact of the western ﬁlms, the Indian ﬁlmmakers have also created some styles of their own, that are acknowledged as their own. This is clearly discernible in the popular tradition of ﬁlmmaking in India. These movies spend a lot over creating huge sets, making dancers dance in the background, give audience too many colors, emotions and entertainment. The Indian Art Cinema has had a humble beginning. This genre doesn’t boast of foreign locales, hopelessly expensive clothes or the big star cast. The sole strength of these kinds of ﬁlms is the story.
mercial cinema. From the 1960s through the 1980s, the art ﬁlm or the parallel cinema was usually government-aided cinema. Such directors could get federal or state government grants to produce non-commercial ﬁlms on Indian themes. Their ﬁlms were showcased at state ﬁlm festivals and on the government-run TV. These ﬁlms also had limited runs in art house theatres in India and overseas. The Art ﬁlm-makers have done it all. It’s amazing to see how some of the very talented ﬁlmmakers have gifted their audiences with some of their magniﬁcent work. The generation today are more intelligent and open to a wide variety of topics. At the end of the day the purpose of the ﬁlm and the audience should be served. From the very inception of this genre, there has The Indian Art Cinema has beauti- been a diﬀerence between art fully transformed and re-invented and commercial cinema. The auitself. From socially relevant topics dience wants a good story and a of Child Marriage, Dowry, Female really good way of putting it and Feticide, Widow Re-marriage to a that’s what the ﬁlm makers are simple love story. A true admirers supposed to do. Yes masala ﬂicks of cinema and a person who con- are welcome but too much of sider movie-making as an art call masala can cause acidity! A good it the “Offbeat” or “The Art House mixture of masala movies and inCinema”. Many people in India telligent cinema is what the audiplainly call such ﬁlms as "art ﬁlms" ence wants. as opposed to mainstream com16 | The Eye
In this new context of arthouse appeal to the mainstream, “of limited box-oﬃce appeal” is striking, if not, perhaps, inaccurate. On the other hand, general conceptions of “art house” have come to describe ﬁlms simply on the basis of their production outside the Bollywood system, regardless of their status as conventional dramas or slightly offbeat comedies. However with changing times this gap has been bridged. The themes of art movies have witnessed a change. The audiences today look out for “good” ﬁlms rather than the serious or popular ﬁlms. Hence once a while a multistarrer movie bombs and a small budget movie like Aamir is much appreciated by the cine goers. The need for better subjects, the desire to watch something more feasible on the screen and the boredom that has set in with the regular candyﬂoss cinema are some of the reasons for this apparent change. If this trend continues then the day is no far when there will be no commercial cinema or art cinema, but just good cinema and bad cinema. The knowledge of Indian cinema gives you an opportunity to enter into the thoughtworlds and performanceworlds to the people interested in this art. Many Indian ﬁlm directors, right from the pioneers such as Dadasaheb Phalke to the modern ones like Yash Chopra, have deployed their creativity along with traditional forms of dance, folk & classical music to enhance the communicated experience. Indian popular cinema has evolved into a dis-
tinctively Indian mode of entertainment by imaginatively amalgamating music dances also and because of the works of veteran directors like V.Shantaram. Guru Dutt and Raj Kapoor. So, through Indian cinema one can also enter the larger world of Indian aesthetics. Film makers like Ketan Mehta has made a movie on the life of 19th century painter Raja Ravi Varma named it as Rang Rasiya. It’s a very artistic movie showing us the reality of the society in the 19th century. He had also directed Mangal Pande which was again very artistic from the sets to costume everything gave you the feel on the 18th century. Aushitosh Gowarikar’s Jodha Akbar is another epic story in which art played a very important role. To add on the list is devdas Sanjay Leela Bhansali did a brilliant job with art direction. Indian cinema has presented a detailed version of India from its diﬀerent historical movies to its present scenario movies. The distinct genres of ﬁlms depicted by the diﬀerent ﬁlmmakers have helped in the study of India from a diﬀerent and distinct angle of vision. Thus, one cannot help but realize the fact that indeed it has been the old traditions and the cultures that have actually framed the Indian cinema, which have been an encouragement to uplift India and make it one of the renowned countries in the world. By seeing the cultures and traditions of the distinct societies, people can examine their own country`s culture with fresh eyes and with a special vision and approach. 17 | The Eye
very beautifully quoted, “I love it when you ask actors, ‘what are you doing now?’ and they say, ‘ I’m between roles.’ To be living ‘Life between roles.’ That’s my favourite.”
“To be living life between roles” – Andy Warhol Everyone wants to go trendy. Everyone wants to make a statement. If there was one man who knew who to make it, it was Andy Warhol who is largely credited to be the pioneer of the pop culture movement. Pop art started way back in the 50’s and the 60’s. It was the moment of visual art which characterized the sense of optimism during the post war consumer boom. It included diﬀerent styles of painting and artistic works from various countries but the most common factor in all was the interest in mass media and mass culture. Pop art made it very easy to convey the message to the youth as it inﬂuences the mass culture and the youth the most. Pop culture later became the medium of expression. It was easier for people to express their views, opinions and stands through pop art. Even after 20 years of his death, Andy Warhol remains the heartbeat of pop and art culture. The unforgettable artist still inspires many of his professional counterparts thanks to his creative imagery and cultivated celebrity. His impact as an artist is far deeper and greater than his one prescient observation that “everyone will be world famous for ﬁfteen minutes.”
Warhol’s most remebered paintings 1950 was the year when he began exhibiting his work. This picture is the Velvet Underground album cover by Andy Warhol. 1950s Warhol, as an advertisement illustrator used assistants to increase his productivity. By 1960, he became a very successful commercial illustrator. 1950s Warhol, as an advertisement illustrator used assistants to increase his productivity. By 1960, he became a very successful commercial illustrator.
1950s Warhol, as an advertisement illustrator used assistants to increase his proThe man that was Warhol ductivity. By 1960, he became a very sucThe youngest child of three, Andy was born Andrew cessful commercial ilWarhol on August 6, 1928 in the working class neighlustrator. bourhood of Oakland, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Hit at an early age with a rare neurological disorder, the young Andy Warhol found solace and escape in the form of popular celebrity magazines and DC comic books, imagery he would return to years later. Work came quickly to Warhol in New York, a city he made his home and studio for the rest of his life. Building on the emerging movement of Pop Art, wherein artists used everyday consumer objects as subjects, Warhol started painting readily found, mass-produced objects, drawing in his extensive advertising background. In one of his interviews he
18 | The Eye
19 | The Eye