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ISSUE -3 OCTOBER-DECEMBER - 2013

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN

VOLUME - 2

October- December 2013

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REINVENTING TEXTILE INDUSTRY PEER REVIEW RESEARCH PAPER EFFECT OF NATURAL DYES ON COTTTON & SILK


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“Success depends Upon previous preparation, and without such preparation There is sure to be failure.� Confucius

National Textile Policy

A

n important recent development concerning the textile industry is the constitution of an Expert Committee under the Chairmanship of Shri Ajay Shankar, Member- Secretary National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council, to formulate National Textile Policy. All said and done, the Textile Industry which employs 10.5 crore people directly or indirectly and earns foreign exchange to the tune of US $ 30- 35 billion (which is expected to cross US $ 50- 55 billion shortly) is extremely crucial to the national economy. It is gratifying that Government is giving due recognition to this industry. After all, from time immemorial India has been the home of cotton. Charka played an important role in the national struggle for independence. India should be proud of its textiles, because it is the epitome of her culture, heritage and tradition. The National Textile Policy is expected to unfold the roadmap for growth and development of the industry. Cloth is the basic necessity of human beings and hence the industry is excepted to meet clothing requirements at affordable prices in adequate quantities. But mere principles lead us nowhere, and hence the following development matrix: 1.

To adopt the best of technology for the manufacture of textile and garments for product development, so that the country wins the international race in and emerges at the top.

2.

To increase production of cotton and man- made fibres in tune with the increased demand, whether domestic or export The earnings of the marginal farmers is always a matter of concern.

3.

To continue TUFS on a long- term basis.

4.

To adopt pragmatic labour policy in tune with the demands of the present time.

5.

To encourage applied research in textiles in a big way so that the industry can be self- sufficient in technology, product development and forecasting.

6.

To organize in the country the manufacture of weaving, processing and garmenting machinery of the current generation by encouraging joint collaborations with reputed machinery manufacturers or otherwise.

7.

To encourage Branding.

8.

To get foreign fashion experts to strengthen fashion technology, in the country.

9.

To organize fashion shows on international scale.

However proper formulation of the policy is only the starting point. What is required is its proper implementation. In 2010 or thereabout, the Ministry of Textiles formulated National Fibre Policy which continues to stay under wraps. The Textile Value Chain requested some experts, who are not directly in the business of manufacture of textiles and garments to give their views on what needs to be done to ensure towering success for the industry. We are glad to present their views to our readers.


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OCT- DEC 2013 ISSUE 9 & 10

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61

Government News

Journey from Textile/ Clothing to Fashion / Lifestyle

Interview : Mr. Rajesh Gawade + Mr. Abhijeet Bham

by Dr. Darli Koshy, ATDC/ AEPC

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11 & 12 Economy News

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13

Pet Bottle Recycling & Non Wovens

Branding Necessity in Textiles

International News

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by Mr. Harish Bijoor, Consultant

14, 15, 16

AGM CORNER : ITTA + ITAMMA

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Corporate News

SRTEPC + FAIMA

PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH PAPER

Alidhara ,Textechno, ATE COVER STORY : REINVENTING TEXTILE INDUSTRY

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Geographical Indication as an Instrument for Sustainable Development

by Dr. Ritu Dewan & Dr. Bharathi Kamath, Mumbai University

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21

Interview : Anup Kumar + Profile of Shri Bhairav Lifestyle

by Mr. K. Chakravarthy, Thermax

22 HR Dimension to textile industry

POST SHOW REPORT : WEAVETECH 13 + SEMINAR ON ENERY AUDIT

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Growth & Strategic Perspective

A Vibrant Future for Indian Textiles

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“ Effect of Natural Dyes on Physio, Chemical & Anti microbial Properties of Cotton & Silk”

68 POST SHOW REPORT : SCREEN PRINT INDIA + TECHTEXIL

69 POST SHOW REPORT : YARNEX / TEXINDIA

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70

Fashion Forecast

POST SHOW EVENT : 6TH CLOBAL SKILL SUMMIT

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71

Mesta Bast Fibre

by Shri V.Y. Tamhane

FICCI : TAG 2013 + TECHNOTEX 2014

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53

Knowledge , Major Hindrance in Technical Textile

CITI News

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Interview: Mr. Mohan Kavrie, Supreme Group

PRE SHOW REPORT : ITMACH 2014 + HEIMTEXTILE

Skill Gap Analysis

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55

Textile Policy Measures to harness full Potential

TRADESHOW REPORT

CornHusk Fibre

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by Mr. S. Chakrabarty, TMMA

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FABRIC REPORT

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Hygienic Wool through Dyeing with Green Tea

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26

Speech of Shri Manikam Ramaswami, Texprocil

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YARN EXPORT PRICE

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28 Opportunity & Challenges by Indian Textile Engineering Industry

GOTS Labeling & Trademark Protection

by Mr. Navdeep Sodhi, Gherzi Textile

EDITORIAL TEAM

Editor & Publisher Ms. Jigna Shah

Chief – In – Editor Ms. Rajul J. Shah

Editorial Advisor Shri V.Y. Tamhane

INDUSTRY Mr. Devchand Chheda – City Editor - Vyapar ( Janmabhumi Group) Mr. Manohar Samuel- Joint President, Birla Cellulose, Grasim Industries Mr. Aditya Biyani- Marketing Director, Damodar Group Dr. M. K. Talukdar – VP, Kusumgar Corporates Mr. Ajay Sharma – GM- RSWM (LNJ bhilwara group)

Advertising & Marketing Md. Tanweer

Creative Head Ms. Rajul J. Shah

Graphic Designer Interactive Technology

EXPERT COMMITTEE FOR OCT-DEC 2013

Dr. Sujata Saxena , Sr. Scientist , CIRCOT Dr. A Desai , Director, BTRA

CONSULTANT / ASSOCIATION

EDUCATION / RESEARCH

Mr. Avinash Mayekar, MD, Suvin Advisor Pvt. Ltd.

Mr. B.V. Doctor - HOD knitting, SASMIRA ,

Mr. Shivram Krishnan, Senior Textile Advisor

Dr. Ela Dedhia- Associate Professor, Nirmala Niketan College

Mr. G. Benerjee, Management & Industrial Consultant

Dr. Mangesh D. Teli – Professor, Ex.HOD & Dean ICT (former UDCT) , Mr. Uttam Jain, Director- PDEXCIL; VP of Hindustan chamber of commerce Dr. S.K. Chattopadhyay,Principal Scientist & Head MPD, CIRCOT

Mr. Jaykrishna Pathak, President, Bombay Yarn Merchant Association & Exchange Ltd.

Dr. Rajan Nachane, Retired Scientist, CIRCOT

Mr. Shiv Kanodia- Sec General, Bharat Merchant Chamber Mr. N.D. Mhatre, Dy. Director, ITAMMA


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ATDC FARIDABAD INTRODUCES INDIA’S FIRST EVER KNITWEAR SPECIALTY TRAINING CENTRE

skill development in the sector which at present lacks supply of skilled hands.

The AEPC-ATDC SMART Bhawan the 4th Permanent Campus building in NCR was inaugurated at the hands of Dr. Kavuru Sambasiva Rao, Hon’ble Minister of Textiles, Government of India; at Faridabad – Haryana. The AEPC-ATDC Bhawan and new concept – Knitwear Specialty Centre launched today is a speaking example of ATDC’s commitment of being ‘Of the Industry’, ‘By the Industry’ and ‘For the Industry’.

The AEPC-ATDC ‘SMART Bhawan’ situated amidst a cluster of Apparel Export Units in Faridabad, which alone boast of Rs 3,000 Crore worth ‘Apparel export’ potential has over 50 apparel export units and 30 fabric processing units employing over 60,000 people in the cluster. The Faridabad Apparel cluster holds a key importance in the Apparel industry in Northern India.

GOVERNMENT NEWS

AEPC-ATDC Smart Bhawan Inaugurated By Textiles MinisterDistributes Disha Adoption Certi cates To Garment Factories

This is the second distribution of the DISHA Adoption Certicate, rst was distributed by Smt. Kiran Dhingra IAS, erstwhile Secretary Textiles, to the ‘DISHA Champions’ in January 2013 at AEPC. It is noteworthy that more than 150 ofcials across India are engaged in implementation of the DISHA programme. This programme has been designed and developed by Indian agencies with an India Centric approach keeping in mind the Indian law of the land.

The Union Minister of Textiles took keen interest in viewing the sewing technologies for woven & knit training programmes on display at the centre and appreciated the efforts of Apparel Training & Design Centre (ATDC) for playing a key role for development of this sector. Acknowledging the presence of domestic & export apparel manufacturing clusters in Faridabad, notching up around Rs. 3000 Cr. exports, he emphasized the need for product diversication and

Sericulture Workers to get MNREGA Benet , TUFS to Generate Investment for Textile Industry The Union Minister of Textiles Dr. Kavuru Sambasiva Rao chaired a Conference of State Ministers of Textiles in Vigyan Bhawan to encourage investment in textile sector in various sectors including handloom, handicraft etc.

Development Shri Jairam Ramesh has agreed to integrate sericulture workers, where the farmers are marginal and small scale with the benets of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Gurantee Act (MNREGA).”

Dr. Rao said that the Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) has been notied. Earlier, approval for continuing the TUFS during the 12th Plan period with a major focus on powerlooms in accordance with the Budget announcement for the nancial year 2013-14. A major feature of the Scheme is that to promote indigenous manufacturing of the textile machinery, Interest Reimbursement (IR) on second hand imported shuttleless looms shall be reduced from 5 percent to 2 percent. On the other hand, for new shuttleless looms capital subsidy would be raised from 10 percent to 15 percent, IR from 5 percent to 6 percent, Capital Subsidy from 10 percent to 15 percent and margin money subsidy from 20 percent to 30 percent with an increase in subsidy cap from Rs. 1 crore to Rs. 1.5 crore.

The Minister added that in the recent past the handicrafts exporters conveyed to him that “they wanted a warehousing facility in one of the countries of Latin America costing about 100-200 crores which would be spent in about ve years.” He added that he has taken up this issue with the Finance Minister “and they are in support of it and I think we will be very soon getting budget for that also and construct a warehousing facility possibly in Uruguay by which the handicrafts exporters have assured me will double the exports from 17,000 to 34,000 crore in less than three years.” Highlighting the issue of skills training, Dr. Rao mentioned that “we should concentrate more on skills training.” He mentioned that the Ministry is “encouraging private institutions and industries” for the same. “We told them that we will give them money for training at the rate of Rs. 10,000 per trainee and they are very happy that they will undertake the training,” informed Dr. Rao.

Dr. Rao said that the Ministry has “decided to increase the production in sericulture from 23 thousand tones to 33 thousand by the end of 12th Plan”. He was also happy to inform that “the production of yarn is beyond the requirements of the nation.” Union Minister for Rural

Continuation of the scheme for Integrated Textile Parks in the 12th Plan and additional grant for apparel manufacturing units

The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has approved continuation of the scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP) in the 12th Five Year Plan and sanction of new projects for utilizing Rs. 717 crore the balance left in the 12th Five Year Plan allocation, after meeting committed liabilities of the sanctioned 61 parks.

progress of the scheme for integrated textile parks had been positive and the scheme had been successful in terms of leveraging private sector investment, employment generation and creation of needbased, product based world class infrastructure for the industry. With the increasing costs of production in established clusters and heightened emphasis on environmental compliances, there is a growing need for establishment of green eld textile parks that would address both these constraints.

The CCEA also approved additional grant of Rs. 10 crore to be given to existing parks for setting up apparel manufacturing units. Rs. 50 crore has been allocated for this purpose. The overall impact and

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TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


GOVERNMENT NEWS

NEW INITIATIVES OF TEXTILES COMMITTEE A.

Government Policy Mechanism, Tax Structure, RTAs/PTAs, tariffs, NTBs, Infrastructure and Other related issues to the industry stakeholders and policy makers. Efforts are also on to prepare the Textile Competitiveness Index (TCI) for accessing our strength and position in global market. The main objectives of the MIT are

Market Intelligence on Textiles (MIT)

The globalization and the framework of WTO have increasingly being integrated through different mechanisms like RTA, FTA & Multilateral Trade Agreements. The integration has brought about intense competition among the textile exporting countries for enhancing their market share in global trade, which is driven by different factors like production, cost, pricing, quality and policy mechanism, etc. The country that is competitive will sustain and may enhance its market share, while the less competitive countries may lose. There is a need to analyse the factors affecting the global trade in textiles at disaggregate level so as to access the position of a country in the global market in a systematic and sustained way. Further, the information available on key trends are also scatter and require further compilation and analyses. In order to bridge the information gap in terms of analysis and dissemination, the Textiles Committee is preparing a comprehensive database on the different facets of the textiles sector so as to share with the trade and industry and govt. for appropriate policy decision in form of Market Intelligence in Textiles (MIT). It will act as one point reference for the sector on various issues pertaining to the Sector.

b. Export Competitiveness Studies: The process of liberalization initiated in 1991 by the Government of India has increasingly integrated the Indian Economy to the world. However, the emergence of multilateral negotiations under the framework of WTO and the signing up of RTA/FTAs, etc. by the different countries has created different challenge and so also opportunities for the sector in terms of export. The constraints arised out of intense competition by different countries like China, Bangladesh, Pakistan in different export destinations with India. These constraints could be converted into opportunities, if the Indian textile enjoys competitive advantage at different product levels in the world market. The advantage may be in form of price advantage, quality advantage or advantage in terms of fashion or preference. The only way to convert the challenges into opportunities is to study the position of the Indian T&C products vis-à-vis competitors in the different export destinations and disseminate to the key stakeholders including the government for appropriate business strategy and policy decisions.

The MIT will provide information on Production, Domestic Demand, Export & Import, Price & its Mechanism, Competitiveness & Competitors, Cost benchmarking,

Keeping these aspects in mind, the Textiles Committee has initiated the “Export Competitiveness Study” in different export destinations .

Golden Jubilee Celebration of the Textiles Committee The Hon’ble Union Minister of Textiles, Dr. Kavuru Sambasiva Rao inaugurated the Golden Jubilee Year of Textiles Committee on 11th October 2013 at Mumbai. Dr. Rao lauded the contribution made by Textiles Committee to the growth of textile industry of the country during last fty years. While congratulating the Committee on the occasion of golden jubilee celebration, he also urged that the Committee has to undertake more proactive work on the areas like skill development, for providing quality manpower to the industry besides generating employment opportunities for the country. He was of the opinion that the development of this sector as well as the economy is possible, when organization like Textiles Committee, undertake more and more research and development in the areas of new products, technology and testing facilities. Appropriate strategy towards the effects of globalisation for capatalising the benets of it is also the need of the hour. Hon’ble Minister also released the Coffee Table Book “A Journey of Growth through Transformation & Commitment”, special Postal Envelope, Market Intelligence in Textiles and Exquisite Handwovens Textiles of Kerala on the occasion of the Golden Jubilee Celebration. He was of the opinion that India can excel in the eld of research and development, when the people having expertise are adequately compensated through productive linked incentives. It not only motivates the researchers already in the job but also attract young talents to the areas of research. He called upon the Textiles Committee, to devise appropriate strategy to motivate the researchers working in this area through appropriate means and submit to the Ministry for TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

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appropriate action. Among the other dignitaries, Smt Panabaaaka Lakshmi, Hon’ble Minister for States of Textiles, and Petroleum and Natural Gas, Ms. Zohra Chatterji, Secretary(Textiles), Shri S.P. Oswal, Chairman, Textiles Committee, Shri A.B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner & Vice-Chairman, Textiles Committee also addressed on the occasion. While welcoming the guest, Shri S.P. Oswal said that the Committee has completed 50 Golden years and has transformed itself from a Regulatory Agency to a Facilitator of growth. The transformation is an important achievement for the organisation during the journey of 50 years. He was of the opinion that in the area of Market Intelligence in Textiles and Economic Research, the Committee has made a great stride for providing support to the Textiles & Clothing industry. Smt Panabaaka Lakshmi, Hon’ble Minister of States for Textiles, and Petroleum and Natural Gas congratulated the Textiles Committee and recounted the contributions made by it in the area of quality and compliance, market analysis and also providing appropriate testing services to the industry. She was of the opinion that the contribution of the Committee in terms of Handloom Mark implementation and Total Quality Management, star rating of ginning and pressing factories is also remarkable. On the occasion, she also launched the Textiles Committee new website and website of Laboratory Management Information System (LIMS) and Star Rating of Ginning & Pressing Factories. Smt. Zohra Chatterji, IAS, Secretary (Textiles) in her key note address lauded the contribution of Textiles Committee for the growth of cotton textiles in the early year of development and to the industry as a whole in the recent years. At last Dr P Nayak, Secretary, Textiles Committee delivered vote of thanks.


Global growth to be 2.9% in 2013 which will increase to 3.6% in 2014 • Growth to be driven more by advanced economies and the emerging markets are expected to be weaker than expected • Risks to forecast remain on the downside. Overview The IMF forecasts global growth to average 2.9% in 2013 below the 3.2% recorded in 2012 and to rise to 3.6% in 2014. Much of the pickup in growth is expected to be driven by advanced economies. Growth in major emerging markets, although still strong, is expected to be weaker than the earlier IMF forecast. This is partly due to: • Cooling in growth following the stimulus-driven surge in activity after the Great Recession. • Structural bottlenecks in infrastructure, labour markets, and investment have contributed to slowdown in many emerging markets. Quite signicantly long-term interest rates in the United States and many other economies have increased more than expected. Although the U.S. Federal Reserve recently decided to not slow the pace of its asset purchases yet and capital outows from emerging markets have subsided somewhat, bond yields remain well above levels of early May. Also there is a distinct risk that nancial conditions will tighten from their current, still supportive levels. Some observations • The impulse to global growth is expected to come mainly from the USA where activity will move into higher gear as scal consolidation eases and monetary conditions stay supportive. In the USA, the projections are based on the key assumption that the ongoing shutdown in the federal government will be short-lived and the debt ceiling will be raised on time. Growth is expected to rise from 1.5% this year to 2.5% in 2014 driven by continued strength in private demand, which is supported by a recovering housing market and rising household wealth. Following sharp scal tightening earlier this year, activity in the USA is already regaining speed, helped by a recovering real estate sector higher household wealth, easier bank lending conditions and more borrowing. • In the euro area, policy actions have reduced major risks and stabilized nancial conditions, although growth in the periphery is still constrained by credit bottlenecks. The region is expected to gradually pull out of recession, with growth reaching 1% in 2014. In the euro area, business condence indicators suggest that activity is close to stabilizing in the periphery and already recovering in the core economies. In 2014, a major reduction in the pace of scal tightening, to less than 0.5% of GDP from about 1% of GDP in 2013, is in the offering. However, the support for activity from the reduction in the pace of scal tightening is dampened by tight credit conditions in the periphery. Thus, growth is expected to reach only

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1%, after contracting by about ½% in 2013. • In Japan, scal stimulus and monetary easing under the authorities’ new policy package—the so -called Abenomics—has enabled an impressive rebound in activity. But the expected unwinding of scal stimulus and reconstruction spending together with consumption tax hikes will lower growth from 2% this year to 1¼% in 2014.

RENROC MGA ECONOMY NEWS

The IMF released its latest economic outlook for the global economy and the main takeaways are:

• China’s growth is projected to decelerate slightly from 7½% this year to 7¼% in 2014. Policymakers have refrained from stimulating activity amid concerns for nancial stability and the need to support a more balanced and sustainable growth path. The forecasts assume that Chinese authorities do not enact major stimulus and accept somewhat lower growth, consistent with the transition to a more balanced and sustainable growth path. This slowdown will reverberate across developing Asia, where growth is expected to remain between 6.25 and 6.5% in 2013–14. • The projections for real GDP growth in India have also been marked down signicantly, with growth foreseen at 3.8% in 2013 and about 5% in 2014. However, this number is reckoned at market prices and at factor cost will be 4.25% and 5% in 2014. • Overall, growth in emerging market and developing economies is expected to remain strong at 4.5–5% in 2013–14, supported by solid domestic demand, recovering exports, and supportive scal, monetary and nancial conditions. Commodity prices will continue to boost growth in many low-income countries, including those in sub-Saharan Africa. But economies in the Middle East and North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan region will continue to struggle with difcult economic and political transitions.

GDP Projection for 2013 and 2014 (%) World Advanced USA Euro Germany France Japan UK Emerging/ developing China India Russia Brazil Asean-5

2011

2012

2013

2014

3.9 1.7 1.8 1.5 3.4 2.0 -0.6 1.1 6.2

3.2 1.5 2.8 -0.6 0.9 0.0 2.0 0.2 4.9

2.9 1.2 1.6 -0.4 0.5 0.2 2.0 1.4 4.5

3.6 2.0 2.6 1.0 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.9 5.1

9.3 6.3 4.3 2.7 4.5

7.7 3.2 3.4 0.9 6.2

7.6 3.8 1.5 2.5 5.0

7.3 5.1 3.0 2.5 5.4

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


AGM CORNER

AGM CORNER ECONOMY NEWS

ECONOMY NEWS

What are the downside risks? 1. The changing global growth constellations have exacerbated risks in emerging market economies. Less U.S. monetary policy accommodation combined with domestic vulnerabilities in emerging market economies may lead to further market adjustment globally, with risks of asset price overshooting or even balance of payments disruptions. 2. Unnished nancial sector reforms in the euro area, impaired monetary policy transmission and corporate debt overhang in some euro area economies, and high government debt and related scal and nancial risks in many other advanced economies, including Japan and the United States are also to be monitored. 3. Geopolitical risks have also resurfaced in recent months which can upset calculations. What needs to be done? 1. The euro area needs to repair its nancial systems and adopt a credible banking union supported by a common backstop. 2. The USA should resolve its political standoff relating to scal policy, and promptly raise the debt ceiling. In addition, the Federal Reserve should carefully manage the process of monetary policy normalization, taking into consideration

prospects for growth, ination, and nancial conditions. 3. Both Japan and the United States need to accomplish medium-term scal adjustment and reform of their social safety net programs. Japan and the euro area should adopt structural reforms to boost potential output. 4. Policymakers should allow their exchange rates to respond to changes in the environment and act as shock absorbers, while avoiding disorderly market conditions. 5. In economies where monetary policy frameworks are less credible, efforts may need to focus more on providing a strong nominal anchor. Financial regulation and prudential actions should be taken to guard against nancial instability. 6. Fiscal adjustment should continue to rebuild buffers, unless downside risks materialize and funding conditions allow scal easing. 7. A new round of structural reforms is a must for many emerging market economies, including investment in infrastructure, to reignite potential growth. 8. China needs to rebalance growth away from investment toward consumption to make way for more balanced and sustainable domestic and global growth. Reference : CARE Rating Report

AGM CORNER

CORPORATE NEWS

LENZING: NEW MARKETING INITIATIVE FOR TEXTILES OF TENCEL®/COTTON Lenzing is presenting “Natural Connection”, the new marketing concept especially for TENCEL®/cotton blends, at the textile trade fairs in Paris. The two cellulose bers, TENCEL® and cotton, are ideal partners. They go together perfectly and enhance each other with their properties. Both bers are from Nature and possess similar properties such as good breathing properties. A blend with 30% TENCEL® gives cotton fabrics a new denition. As a result of adding TENCEL®, the fabric’s hand, moisture management and sheen can be enhanced. Thus the innovation potential for TENCEL®/cotton fabrics is great. Depending on the blending ratio, the look and properties of these fabrics can be changed to suit any need. New marketing tools are now available for manufacturers and retailers to promote goods of TENCEL®/cotton. ”For TENCEL®, cotton is the blending partner! Consumers are interested in natural and high-quality materials. This marketing push is aimed at getting these products the attention they deserve. With this initiative, we are presenting our customers with marketing tools ideally suited to promoting TENCEL®/cotton products at retail,” Andreas Dorner, marketing manager, explains.

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

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The TENCEL®/cotton team Cotton and TENCEL® are used for similar applications. Their main applications are in the clothing sector in shirts and jeans and in bed linens in the home textile sector. In bed linens and shirt applications in particular, quality plays an important role. With a mixture of TENCEL®, the yarn values can be considerably improved with regard to the strength and regularity. These positive effects can be transferred to the nal product and lead to a more attractive fabric with better performance values. Long-staple cotton with TENCEL® is a logical combination. Luxury cotton is in high demand for the nest fabrics and the demand cannot be fullled. TENCEL® can be used in these fabrics as an equal partner. ”Fabrics of long-staple cotton and TENCEL® are unbeatable in terms of quality and visual appeal,” Dieter Eichinger, Vice President of the Textile Fibers Business Unit, is certain. ”There are numerous opportunities to place TENCEL® in relevant products where the added value of a TENCEL®/cotton blend would be appreciated. The combination of both bers gives luxury textile manufacturers and retailers the chance to stand out from massproduced products by means of innovation and marketing,” he explains.


The depreciating rupee value against greenback has boosted the prots of largest textile industry Iin Pakistan. As the listed textile rms prot have jumped by 150 percent to Rs. 30.6 billion in scal year 2013. Industry sources said that the fall of rupee has been seen as a positive sign for exports of Pakistan, as the local currency has fallen 8 percent since the beginning of 2013. With a share of over 50% in the country’s total exports, the textile industry has emerged stronger in scal 2013-14.

challenges in safety concerns of textile workers. Recent re incidents in factories of Bangladesh, where hundreds of workers had died, attracted negative international media coverage.. The listed companies, which cover 85pc of textile sector market capitalisation, are very small compared to total Pakistan textile industry. So the actual prots of the textile industry would be much more than Rs30.6 billion. Strong cotton yarn and grey cloth demand from China and its neighboring countries has contributed to higher units sales while margins increased due to stable cotton prices and 8pc Pak rupee depreciation against US dollar. Leading textile industrialists insist that the rise in gas tariff for captive power plants by 17.4% and electricity rates for industrial units by 57% in recent months are going to hit the protability of the sector in the ongoing scal 2014.

Industry sources believed that Pakistan’s textile exports are going to benet from two major reasons, as China is focusing more on the technology sector instead of textile, but yarn demand from China is growing. Moreover, Bangladesh which is the second biggest textile exporter in the world after China, is not getting the same number of export orders as it was getting a year ago. The country is facing major

Australia and US collaborate on responsible cotton growing A joint programme to raise the awareness of responsible cotton growing practices among producers in Australia and the United States has been developed by Cotton Incorporated and Cotton Australia. The Cotton LEADS programme is aimed at textile brands, retailers and manufacturers committed to sourcing cotton that is grown in a responsible and transparent manner. “Cotton LEADS is designed to assist businesses along the cotton supply chain with their sustainability goals,” says Berrye Worsham,

president and CEO of Cotton Incorporated. “Apparel brands, retailers and manufacturers require large volumes and a reliable supply of responsibly-produced bre, as well as proof of responsible production. Through Cotton LEADS we demonstrate how cotton grown in the United States and Australia can help meet these requirements.” Combined, Australia and the United States account for roughly 17% of global cotton production.

EASY-IMP project to develop smart clothing in cloud computing modelling, product lifecycle management, simulation and virtual reality, is composed of four academic partners (DFKI, Lyon University, LRI, and IBV), seven companies (ATOS, IAW, ATC, HC, Nuubo, Timocco, SLCMSR) and the Federation of European Sporting goods (FESI). According to ofcials involved with EASY-IMP, this infrastructure will enable all interested third parties to offer new services to smart phone and EASY wearable users, resulting in an open platform of literally innite applications in many target markets. First of all, the EASY approach will be validated in three different industrial scenarios, i.e. rehabilitation, sport and games. ATC is one of the main Technology Providers in EASY-IMP, mainly involved in the development and integration of Meta-Product Cloud Services for Supply Chain Management. In particular, ATC is responsible for the analysis, system-level denitions, implementation, technical testing and user evaluation of the core Production Planning Environment (private cloud), which will support the production planning of customisable intelligent wearables. EASY-IMP started in September 2013 and will run for 36 months.

A research project, co-founded by the European Commission, will investigate the potential to create smart clothing with wearable technology in cloud computing. The ‘EASY-IMP’ project proposes to develop a cloud computing enabled framework for the Collaborative Design and Development of Personalised Products/Services. This would then combine embedded sensors and mobile devices with facilities for the joint open development of enabling downloadable applications. The ‘Meta-Products’ consist of intelligent wearables (clothing, footwear, accessories) equipped with embedded networks of sensors. And sensorial data will be communicated to smart phones via Bluetooth or Wi. The required functionality will be congured by the end-users; the design, selection of components, sourcing of materials and sensors, virtual prototyping, as well as production planning and services integration, however, is a collaborative process of all involved companies, designers, sensor producers, software developers and application experts. The research addressed in the EASY-IMP project involves partners from nine countries (Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Slovenia, Belgium, Greece and Israel). And the EASY-consortium, which integrates competences on production methodology, system design and

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RENROC MGA

Depreciating Pakistani Rupee, Appreciating Prot in Pakistan …!!!

INTERNATIONAL NEWS

INTERNATIONAL NEWS


CORPORATE NEWS

LAUNCH: “High Speed Cabler & Twister” for High-Tenacity Yarns Live demonstration of a High Speed & High Efciency solution for Twisting or Cabling of High-Tenacity & Heavy Denier Technical Yarns Showcased at the Techtextil 2013.

Application Industries: Tire Cord, BCF/Carpert Yarns, Industrial Threads, Belting, Filter Fabrics, Geo Textiles, Industrial Fabrics, Composites, Packaging Fabrics etc.

Alidhra Weavetech Pvt. Ltd. had given a live demonstration of it’s High Speed & High Efciency Machine Model: X-500CC for Twisting & Cabling of High-Tenacity yarns for technical applications.

Weavetech Group has a dedicated R&D center in Surat city whose main aim to develop indigenous technologies for Indian markets thus providing the Indian Industry with a competitive edge to respond to global benchmarks of productivity & quality.

Since 25 yrs, Weavetech Group has lead the indigenous developments of most efcient Twisting technologies for Indian markets creating many ‘rsts’ in the process. With the same vision, it has now developed a modular Direct-Cabler, Corder & Twister machine with technologies comparable to global benchmarks for the technical yarn markets. Highlights of Cabler/Twister Model: X-500-CC  Processing Speeds of upto 300 mtrs/min  Individual Motor Driven Spindles  Pneumatic Air-Threading & Cradle Lifting  Conveyor System for package transport  Process upto 12000 Denier @ 30-1400 TPM  Process upto 14 Kg knotless packages  Split Control for each side to process different yarns  Lowest Operating & Maintenance Costs

Automatic tensile, evenness and count tester STATIMAT DS The new STATIMAT DS combines testing of tensile properties, unevenness, and count of yarn and thread in one tester. The three tests on each package presented by the package changer are performed in succession. Optionally it is possible to test unevenness and yarn count in one test run, which enables to relate the results of both measurements to the same tested yarn length.

as control electronics including the PC-based Textechno TESTCONTROL system for the different test modules built in, which leads to a very economic price of the STATIMAT DS compared to 3 separate testing appliances.

A further optional accessory is an optical entanglement sensor to measure interlaces in a multilament yarn.

The operator has to present the test samples (yarn packages) only to one instead of several different testers, which results in considerable time- and labour savings. All measured data are presented in one test protocol, so that the data can be easily interrelated, for example to calculate tenacity from the measured strength- and yarncount values.

With regard to testing technology and technical realization the STATIMAT DS offers numerous technical and technological novelties – for example a patented new capacitor design for measurement of unevenness –, united with a new design philosophy. Essential advantages of the STATIMAT DS: Common use of all peripheral components of the tester like package changer, threading mechanism for introducing the yarn sample into the test sections, yarn feeding device, waste yarn disposal, instrument housing with protective front panel, as well

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Automatic tensile-, evenness-, and count tester STATIMAT DS


A.T.E. Envirotech, an A.T.E. group company, offers complete wastewater treatment and recycling solutions, including zero liquid discharge. The company has already executed over 200 projects in India and other countries that include USA, Puerto Rico, Zambia, Philippines, Ethiopia, Malaysia and Indonesia.

Mr. Anuj Bhagwati Managing Director, A.T.E. Enterprises Pvt. Ltd.

Most businesses are working to drive down costs while simultaneously reducing their environmental impact. For them, there cannot be a better option than innovative clean technology solutions that offer a plethora of benets: both economical and environmental. A.T.E. not only offers differentiated clean technologies spanning energy, water and air, including remote monitoring, but also domain expertise in application areas, thus distinctly standing apart from a host of other players in the eld.

CORPORATE NEWS

A.T.E.'s rising presence in clean technology

The company undertakes turnkey projects as well as upgradation of existing projects through value added products. The company also undertakes complete project execution and commissioning, re-commissioning, troubleshooting, etc. In addition, it can also take-up comprehensive monitoring and maintenance contracts using innovative remote monitoring technologies. A.T.E. works in municipal infrastructure water and wastewater projects and industry verticals like textiles, dairy, sugar, pharmaceuticals, petrochemical, chemical, healthcare, food-processing and building segment and has a base of satised customers across these verticals.

A.T.E. is a reputed, diversied Indian engineering group, which is on the threshold of celebrating its platinum jubilee (75 years) in 2014. A.T.E. has long operated in the elds of textile engineering, ow technology and print and packaging solutions. The group ventured into the clean technology space in 2006 with its entry into Machine-to-Machine solution business, followed by energy efcient cooling solutions and water and waste water management.

Leveraging its in-house expertise, the company has developed the highly successful “AAA” process that enhances biological treatment efciency and minimizes sludge generation. It also provides VSEP-EVR (Vibratory Shear Enhanced Processing- Evaporation Volume Reduction), a patented membrane based system from New Logic Research (for reducing the volume of wastewater going to evaporators in ZLD plants). While the VRM (Vacuum Rotating Membrane) based MBR systems from Huber, Germany, can handle difcult to treat efuents, the AVR (Anaerobic Venturi Reactor) based biomethanation plants

A.T.E.’s foray into clean technology is propelled by its passion. “I have always been passionate about the environment and wanted to get involved in the environment movement and socially useful businesses, particularly as I was deeply concerned that India is one country that would be badly hit with climate change”, said Mr Anuj Bhagwati, the head of the A.T.E. Group, who is spearheading A.T.E.’s clean tech drive. Here is an overview of A.T.E.’s clean technology businesses: WATER AND WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT:

offer sustainable and trouble free operations. For energy efcient water ow management, A.T.E. offers a wide range of pumping solutions from some of the world’s well-known brands and A.T.E. ’s own ‘BoostStar’ hydropneumatic (HyP) pressure boosting systems. The ‘BoostStar’ system is built with the most advanced features to manage the water ow of high-rise apartments, townships, bungalows/villas, commercial buildings such as malls, hotels and ofce buildings and also for industrial applications.

In the context of the increasing water scarcity, the need for water and wastewater management and recycling cannot be overemphasized. A.T.E. provides a comprehensive range of state-of-the art technology solutions for the management of water, and treatment and recycling of wastewater from within the group as well as from various global leaders that it has tied-up with.

A.T.E.’s customers include some well-known names such as

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CORPORATE NEWS

from outgoing air & pre-cools the fresh air. Since there is no rotating wheel, there will be no wear/tear, no deterioration of efciency over a time & no cross contamination.

Chitale Dairy, Godavari Bio-reneries, Renuka Sugars, Torrent Pharma, Cipla, Jeyavishnu Textile Processors, Indo Rama, Larsen & Toubro, Vatech Wabag, Tata Steel, Voltas, Municipal Corporations of Ahmedabad, Kolkata and Delhi, etc.

Many studies point to the greater health & productivity of people working in ofces as well as in spaces that have signicantly higher fresh air component. The higher air volumes of evaporative cooling systems (compared to air conditioning systems) provide greater comfort at higher temperatures. In such situations, in many climates, two stage evaporative cooling is nding a niche today.

ENERGY EFFICIENT COOLING SOLUTIONS: Cooling is a major contributor to energy consumption and thus a major source of CO2 emission in the atmosphere. About 40% of a building’s energy consumption is from its cooling requirements. With increasing power scarcity, rising electricity bills and mounting carbon emissions, there is a great need to have energy efcient & eco-friendly cooling systems.

The concept of comfort cooling, driven by a commitment for sustainability, is fast catching up in India as is borne out by the impressive list of large corporates who have installed the HMXAmbiators for their ofces and factories. Marquee names include: Volkswagen, Tata Motors, Bosch, ITC, to name just a few. MACHINE-TO-MACHINE SOLUTIONS: “If you can monitor equipment of whatever sort or buildings remotely, then you can ensure that they operate at optimal levels, in turn conserving energy and resources” said Mr Abhay Nalawade, Founder and Managing Director of EcoAxis, the A.T.E. group company in the M2M business. Industrial equipment presents numerous complexities owing to changing technologies, difcult processes, different users, etc., which make the overall equipment optimization a humanly impossible task. This leads to sub-optimization of equipment capabilities and wastage of resources. The machine-to-machine technology platform developed by EcoAxis, precisely addresses this long-standing problem.

HMX Systems, an A.T.E. group company, offers comfort cooling solutions, providing comfort with better economy as well as with lower carbon intensity.

EcoAxis’ product suite, which is called SuperAxis, captures various operational data based on the pre-determined parameters from industrial plants, equipment and utilities and transmits them to a central server, where the data is analyzed and archived. Based on the analysis, the system triggers periodic or emergency notications to the stakeholders on the machine performance and energy consumption. Just as ‘a stitch in time saves nine’, the timely notications help stakeholders to take necessary corrective/preventive action to not only improve the machine performance, but also optimize resource consumption.

The rst of the innovative products developed by HMX Systems was the ‘HMX-Ambiator’. It is a new generation two stage evaporative cooling solution, providing ‘100% freshclean-cool air’ and an energy efcient alternative to conventional air-conditioners with up to 60% energy saving. HMX has subsequently launched HMX-Treated Fresh Air (TFA) & HMX-Economizer. Comfort cooling by the principle of ‘two stage evaporative cooling’ is a concept that is fast catching on. It is a signicant upgrade over air-washer (single stage evaporative cooling) technology in the sense that it either ‘saves power for the same cooling effect as an air-washer’ or ‘provides more cooling and comfort than an air-washer’ for the same power. Further, in case of HMX-Ambiator, moisture addition in the conditioned space is just 50% as that of air-washers. Two stage evaporative cooling is a fresh air solution. So it is optimum for many applications such as factory shed cooling and fringe areas in buildings. Ambiators further protect our environment by not using any ozone depleting CFCs.

EcoAxis' solutions have vast applications, e.g., boilers, distilleries, water and waste water treatment plants, foundries, bottling plants, food processing units, power, water monitoring, carbon monitoring, etc. With resource conservation moving to the top of the business agenda, the demand for this application in utilities is growing rapidly. EcoAxis is a pioneer in introducing this innovative technology in India and has gained widespread expertise over the years with the execution of a large number of prestigious projects, which includes remote monitoring of Thermax absorption chillers, CEO dash board for Godavari Bioreneries, thermal power plant monitoring for KSK Energy Ventures, etc ., while many more such projects are in the pipeline.

HMX- TFA is an innovative technology product to supply ltered-conditioned-fresh air in designated areas. Highly energy efcient solution for once-through and fresh air cooling applications in industries, such as pharma, foods, beverages, automobiles, etc. It can be used in conjunction with AHUs / large chiller installations for energy saving while treating the fresh air intake in commercial buildings. HMX-Economizer is an energy recovery device & in turn lowers the TR load on AC. It helps in recovering the energy TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

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ADVT.


COVER STORY

“Reinventing Textile industry present to you bouquets of articles from different field, areas of expertise people about New Textile the measures required to harness the full potential of the textile industry, which has so far remained tied in knots because of various factors like conflicting claims of different segments of the industry, deficiencies in the economy, need for further government support, adverse headwinds from the developed countries due to economic slowdown. We are confident that our readers will appreciate bouquets of articles we present here. We appreciate your comments and feedback on same.

TEXTILE INDUSTRY-GROWTH AND STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE

faces is overcome.

Dr Ritu Dewan, Director & Professor Department of Economics University of Mumbai

The problems of the textile industry have its roots in a complex set of factors; including government policy, lack of modernization, diversification of company funds by mill owners, the growth of the power loom sector using the facilities and subsidies set aside for encouragement of handloom industry. And thus an industry with huge potential and totally self-sufficient indigenous capacity, e.g. Raw material (cotton), machinery, labour and a vast market, sank into messy crisis.

Dr. G Bharathi Kamath, Associate Professor Department of Economics University of Mumbai

In the year 2010-11, the mill sector contributed 4 percent to the production, the share of Powerloom sector, Handloom sector, Hosiery sector and Khadi / Wool & Silk was 61, 11, 23 and 1 percent respectively. The exports of clothing & cotton textiles together were US $ 21500 of the total US $ 32350 for the year 2011-12. The textile industry employment in the year 2011 was 45.19 million and is projected to reach 52 million by 2016-17. The allied industry is a major source of employment with figures of 60.2 million in the year 2011, projected to reach 69 million by the end of twelfth plan period.

Editorial Note For laying down the roadmap for the growth of the textile industry in the Twelfth Plan, it is necessary to know the views of economists and academia. An article from Dr G. Bharathi Kamath, Associate Professor and Dr Ritu Dewan, Director and Professor, Department of Economics, University of Mumbai emphasizes on larger subsidies and policy support for the informal sector and SMEs. The economists are of the view that, with China emerging as the selfconsuming economy and because of other factors like appreciation of their currency and the increase in the cost of production, India has a good chance in the international market. - Consulting Editor

There is a dominance of the decentralised powerloom and handloom sectors in the textile industry, which are mainly small and medium scale enterprises. In fact, many of the large textile companies are also conglomerates of medium sized mills. Statistics released by the Ministry of Textiles shows a highly fragmented industry, except in the spinning subsegment. The organised sector contributes over 95% of spinning, but hardly 5% of weaving fabric. Small Scale Industries (SSIs) perform the bulk of the weaving and processing operations.

There are no two opinions about the significance of textile industry in India in terms of its contribution towards output, employment and exports. To present a quick over view, the sector contributes 14 percent to the industrial production, 4 percent to GDP and 17 percent to the export earnings of the country. It provides direct employment to more than 35 million people. The growth and all round development of this industry has a direct bearing on the improvement of the economy of the nation. According to the working group of planning commission on textile industry, the potential for significant growth in the Indian Textile Industry is undisputed. •

Textiles is one of the largest component of India’s exports and can grow further and faster.

There are enormous opportunities for employment creation in this sector.

The schemes offered by government for this sector ranges from welfare schemes, e-marketing schemes, skill development, credit and financial packages. Besides providing various schemes, there are various other statutes, including fiscal policies (governing customs, excise, sales tax, etc.), rules, initiatives, incentives, etc through which government extends support to the industry. The paradox that is observed is that inspite of higher contribution of informal sector and SME’s as compared to large industries to production, export earning and employment generation, the extent of subsidies in terms of credit and policy benefits that they actually reap is least and this one major aspect that requires serious and immediate intervention from government.

This is one sector where the competitiveness can be developed quickly at minimal cost. However it is possible only when the multitude of problems and several contradictions that this industry

Lack of finance and poor technology is one of the oft repeated

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COVER STORY

and discussed problems about the textile industry; it is argued that the large unorganized sector has poor capability to raise its productivity, volumes and quality standards owing to poor access to latest technologies and finances. The paradox is that the requirement of the funds could have been easily be selffinanced, but the contradiction is that the newer generation mill owners had diverted funds indiscriminately from textile mills into newer and more profitable industries, without long term business interests. There was hardly any ploughing back of profits into modernising and replacing the old and worn machinery.

be essential for SMEs to align with these firms that can ensure a market for their products and new orders. The focus should be on research and development; India does not have expertise in synthetic yarn manufacturing, which is more durable than cotton and jute and demand for which is growing very fast in the market. Though some interest has been shown by manufacturers in India, it has a huge potential which needs to be tapped. The SMEs in the powerloom and handloom sector will face significant churn in the future. Spinning mills that account for 95% of the yarn and fibre production, will move up the value chain into weaving. This will erode the viability of the hitherto protected powerloom and handloom operators numbering over 400,000, who have remained insulated from competitive forces so far. A possible remedy could be for these weavers to align with bigger players or integrate operations that would ensure off-take of their products.

Another crucial aspect closely related to the former is on the textile mill land, which is a pot of gold. The mill owners claimed that they need to raise money for urgently needed modernization of their outdated machinery. Over years there has been a lot of tussle between the mill owners and workers w.r.t. land issues. The money so raised was never used for the technical progress either in terms of modernization or upgradation of these industries. This had its impact on lower levels of productivity as well as profitability of the industry over years. This is another contradiction that inspite of having a financial capabilities for technological upgradation, due to lack of effective management and timely interventions, an opportunity was lost.

Another aspect in the international market is that China is viewed as a competitor to Indian textile industry. It must be noted that China is the leading sourcing base for textile and apparel with a majority share of about 35% of global exports. However, rising labour cost and fast ageing population is one of the greatest challenges that is being faced by Chinese textile industry. China has also become a self-consuming economy due to increase in per capita income and the consequent increase in domestic demand; also the Chinese currency is appreciating over a period in the recent years. These factors would definitely have a negative impact on its textile exports. Indian industry must take this into account and try and capture the international market.

In the international market, India boasts of a strong raw material production base, a vast pool of skilled and unskilled personnel, sizable supply of fabric, cheap labour, good export potential and low import content as some of the salient features and strengths of its textile industry. This is a traditional, robust, well-established industry, enjoying considerable demand in the domestic as well as global markets. However, at the global level, India’s textile exports account for just 4.72% of global textile and clothing exports. India’s presence in the international market is significant in the areas of fabrics and yarn. Quota constraints and shortcomings in producing value-added fabrics and garments and the absence of contemporary design facilities are some of the challenges that have impacted textile exports from India.

A recent report on “benchmarking study of production costs in India vis-a-vis Bangladesh, China, Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan and Turkey” observes that Indian textile industry has emerged to be competitive over years. The impression that the labour productivity is lower than Bangladesh is false. The textiles sector has witnessed a spurt in investment during the last five years. The industry (including dyed and printed) attracted foreign direct investments (FDI) worth Rs 5,831.02 crore (US& 854.78 million) during April 2000 to May 2013. This trend is welcome and its sustenance over longer period requires conscious effort in terms of provision of sufficient and reliable infrastructure facilities.

The potential size of Indian textile industry is expected to reach $ 220 billion by 2020. Retail sector is one of the potential growth sectors, as several international retailers are looking towards India as a potential sourcing destination. There is a marked shift in consumer preferences towards man-made fibre and this change is attributed to the changes in the level of disposable income and consumption pattern. Buyers need to diversify sourcing risk is another factor which would boost export growth.

There is a bright future for the industry as it stands with a competitive advantage in terms of raw-material and potential to grow and match up to meet the increasing international demand. The industry has to explore strategies to tap the potential possibilities along with the government’s concerted policy effort to seize the emerging opportunities. The approach Paper of the eleventh planning commission on textile and jute industry also suggests that the private sector, small enterprises and the corporate sector have a critical role to play in achieving the objectives of faster and more inclusive growth, and has laid emphasis on policies aimed at creating an environment in which entrepreneurship can flourish. References: 1. http://planningcommission.nic.in/ 2. www.dnb.co.in 3. http://texmin.nic.in/

Another segment in fabric that is fast growing is the hygiene products. The national market is still in its incipiency stage, however, there is a potential once the market penetrates and grows beyond the urban areas. However, the international market is well developed for this segment. On the basis of its strengths and expected growth in potential segments, India can aim to become a major outsourcing hub for foreign manufacturers and retailers, with composite mills and large integrated firms being their preferred partners. It will thus

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

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to a large extent. Other segments like weaving, knitting and processing units still remain fragmented. Thousands of units work in backward conditions without access to efcient processes, equipment or timely credit. This has been an inheritance from the earlier years when several aspects of the textile industry had been reserved for the small scale sector and our processes were not geared up for the export markets. In today’s changed context, to face the onslaught of global competition, Indian units have to hasten the move towards integration. Consolidation will help the industry to operate with economies of scale so that it gets viable to infuse new technology, modernise equipment, increase output and improve quality.

Mr. K. Chakravarthy, Global Vice President, Heating SBU, Themax Limited.

The textile industry has undergone major changes in recent years. From an inward looking industry essentially catering to the domestic market, it has now become a vibrant exporter, bringing in precious foreign exchange. While continuing to be the largest employer in India after agriculture, the industry has also been trying to modernise and invest in plant and machinery to boost output. Though the current economic slowdown in Indian and global markets has slowed the tempo of changes, it is clear that the textile industry is poised on the threshold of an era of transformation.

COVER STORY

A VIBRANT FUTURE FOR INDIAN TEXTILES...!

Automation and modern technology: Several studies have pointed out that by installing modern equipment textile units in India can achieve higher productivity and minimise fabric defects. While the spinning segment has made progress on this front, modernisation is yet to happen in the weaving and related fabric manufacturing, and garment units. Machines to provide higher speeds and wider widths and software to monitor the efciency of operations are prerequisites for units that would like to make their mark in global markets.

The process of globalisation has played its part in ushering in this change. Supplying to global players and addressing overseas markets, the industry today is aware of the need to integrate its value chains and to modernise its operations. Underlining the importance of the textile industry in India’s economic life, the Government has also facilitated several welcome changes. Some of the policy initiatives introduced in recent years include the Technology Upgradation Fund scheme, the Technology Mission on cotton, Scheme for integrated textile park, reduction in customs duty to import modern machinery, setting up of apparel training and design centres, 100% foreign direct investment in the sector, etc. These are bound to have a positive impact in the industry. Several textile players have become respectable brands in the global markets.

Removing infrastructural bottlenecks: Indian textile industry is seriously hampered by infrastructural bottlenecks. Available and reliable power tops the list of infrastructural essentials. Extended power outages have almost destroyed established textile centres like Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu. While existing units are languishing, any talk of modernisation without access to power will be meaningless. Captive power is an option, but the small and fragmented nature of textile operations call for co-ordination and planning among the various units for a common facility. If common efuent treatment plants can work in textile industry clusters there is no reason why the concept of shared captive power plants cannot emerge as a viable option. Textile associations and apex organisations can take the lead, and with the support of nancial institutions, local government and power developers this option can be the answer to the shortages that plague the industry.

For further expansion and growth, the textile industry has several pluses in its favour. In terms of domestic availability of major bres and yarns, India has a strong base in raw materials, being among the world’s leading nations in the production of cotton, jute and silk. As one of the oldest and established industries in India, it has established facilities from spinning mills to garmenting units. It has a rich heritage to sustain the country’s considerable talent in design and fashion. In recent decades, the industry has also gained considerable experience working with global rms.

People focus: As millions depend on this sector for their livelihood, we need measures to make the transition to a modernised industry as painless as possible. Thousands of people continue to suffer as a result of the decline of textile units in several parts of the country, especially in Mumbai. Hence, as we move ahead it is important to consider and resolve people related issues with sensitivity, in all aspects ranging from the choice of technologies and changes in labour laws to skill development and the offer of credit facilities.

However, the country’s contribution to the world’s textile output is about 3%, underlining the fact that there is tremendous scope for growth. The positive changes and modernisation attempts are not uniform across various segments of the industry or over the regional textile clusters of India. The industry has to scale up its exports and it also has to cater to the growing requirements of a prosperous middle class that has the purchasing power and access to global products. This cannot be done by an industry saddled with issues that hinder its growth. Some of these issues that need to be addressed for the Indian textiles to grow to its potential are briey touched upon:

A well planned and comprehensive skill development plan has to go hand in hand with enabling technologies and nancial support for modernisation. Such a programme will prepare the ground for the change in the mindsets of people that is so necessary for transformations. This again calls for an integrated approach involving agencies and people across various sectors.

Consolidation and integration of units: At present, it is only the spinning segment of the textile industry that has been consolidated

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COVER STORY

Ensuring internal efciencies: In the age of globalisation, a host of factors such as sourcing, technology, wage structures, governmental support etc. contribute to the competitiveness of enterprises. However, many of these are dependent on extraneous conditions and in the anxiety to inuence them, often the conditions within the industry and within individual units are neglected. Prudent industrial practices show us that there is immense scope for bringing in internal efciencies that can result in incremental savings and add to the protability of operations.

to bolster efciencies can help units improve their competitiveness. Water, another essential resource, has already become as critical as power both in terms of availability and quality. Again, textile units can make use of technologies to treat efuent and recycle water for their processes. They can drastically bring down the spiralling cost of water and conserve the nation’s depleting stock of ground water. To conclude, as in every country that aims for the revival and expansion of its traditional industries, the Indian textile industry also will continue to need a supportive policy framework. As indicated earlier, from the government there have been several enabling moves in the last decade, though what has been done tends to fall short of what needs to be done. However, as a changed global economic context persuades every industry to look beyond state support and solutions, it is in the interests of our textile sector also to harness its internal strengths and overcome its structural aws for a vibrant phase of growth.

Power shortage is endemic in the country and while grids and captive power plants can alter the overall situation, there is much that can be done internally to conserve this precious resource. On the energy side, fabric manufacturing needs heating, cooling and power inputs and today there are viable technologies like cogeneration and vapour absorption that integrate these inputs to provide optimal efciencies. Energy audits to plug wasteful leaks and targeted retrots and upgrades

HR DIMENSION TO THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

Shri. V.Y.Tamhane

The India’s job scene is quite gloomy. Although the poverty ratio has come down, it is still a frightening gure. The unemployment ratio which had come down to 6.6 Per cent in 2009- 10, after touching a high of 8.2 Per cent in 200405, once again took a U- turn in 20112012, as per NSSO Report.

the mountain, the mountain must go to Mohammed. Cotton textile mills should preferably be located in the midst of a cotton belt. However at such places, the young recruits are bound to be raw hands. Hence, the problem of training will arise. If there is a cluster of a few mills in a cotton belt, it is possible to take a centralized training facility. More often than not, this is not likely to happen. In such cases, individual units will have to adopt TWI (Training within the Industry) method. Under Central Skill Development programme, It is necessary to give suitable grants in both the cases.

When the scenario of job market is bleak, it is difcult to understand why the textile industry has been facing paucity of workers. But the fact remains that unavailability of staff is hampering production at many centers. Why this situation?

The units working on man- made bres could be located at semiurban areas and here also the Government grant is necessary for training purposes.

Many people are of the view that because of the introduction MNREGA, which assures jobs for a certain minimum days in a year at pre-determined rates to at least one member of a family, migration of the workers is reduced. When jobs are available at the doorstep, why should anyone look for pastures elsewhere, at a distant place?

Another solution may be to change the stafng pattern. Instead of selecting persons with a minimum level of education, mills/factories may employ educated persons at a slightly higher level. Such persons may require less guidance of supervisory staff, and to that extent it may be possible to reduce the strength of supervisory cadre. Some factories may like to consider this suggestion.

Another popular argument which makes rounds particularly in the corridors of power is that the least developed or developing states in the Indian Union have undertaken large programmes of industrialization. Hence opportunities are opening in the home state only.

Amendments to Labour Law Women workers are not allowed to work from 10 Pm to 5 am (Next day) as Per proviso to section 66(b) of the Factories Act. There is no point in continuing with this discriminatory provision, as male workers have no restriction. The relaxation can be given, subject to Mills/ factories adhering to conditions to ensure safety and protection and no harassment of any nature to women.

There is onereasoning which is seldom considered. With the right to education, there is a considerable spread of education even in rural and far- off areas. Hence in the ranks of the unemployed, the numbers of those who are unskilled or semiskilled may be going down, while numbers of unemployed educated persons may be increasing.

ILO allows 50 hours overtime per month while Indian law allows 50 hours overtime per quarter. This anomaly needs to be corrected. Mexico works on a 10 hour basis and the workers enjoy a 5 day week. Even when workers operate on overtime, they still have a day off. Further, the trade unions endorse overtime for the workers. The Ministry for Textiles needs to work with the Labour ministry to resolve this issue. The issue of time exibility also needs to be addressed.

Whatever the reason, a solution has to be found out. Solution to the Problem One solution is to start in rural areas. If Mohammed cannot go to

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ADVT.


ADVT.


Consultants have limited knowledge and no practical hands on experience. They claim to have knowledge, but they have conventional textile experience.

Mr. MOHAN KAVRIE MD & Chairman Supreme Group

Center of Excellence have limited resources and knowledge. In most areas they do not have any knowledge.

COVER STORY

KNOWLEDGE IS MAJOR HINDRANCE IN TECHNICAL TEXTILES...!

Conventional textile experts have knowledge due to long history, Industry of teaching courses, research experience, knowledge imparted though various media, channels, etc.

Mr. Mohan Kavrie in his hard hitting interview strongly emphasized that without the availability of knowledge and experienced academic staff, it is difcult to get trained person for technical textiles. This is serious matter & it calls for out of the box thinking to solve the riddle.

The current scenario is that the educated goes to the industry to get deeper knowledge, while a person engaged in the industry goes to educational institute in search of knowledge. TVC : Do you recommend a separate degree course for Technical Textiles, with specialization in different branches like Meditex nonwovens, Sports Textiles etc or a combination thereof, where preliminary knowledge of the particular eld would be imparted?

Technical Textiles is a highly specialized line of production with tremendous potential. India should not miss the bus, which normally happens. The success of Technical Textiles depends upon original research, availability of trained technicians and workmen, domestic availability of required inputs like man-made bres including lament yarns at international prices and statutory support wherever possible.

MK : At international level, very few countries have degree courses in technical textiles. However many have PostGraduate degree courses. Internationally technical textile associations are very strong. They impart knowledge. If we set up degree courses for technical textile, where is a trainer? First trainer should be trained before training / teaching.

India is largely depending on borrowed technology. In such a situation India cannot occupy the place of pride in the eld of Technical Textiles. We give below considered views of renonwed expert Mr. Mohan Kavrie, who is father gure of Technical texile industry.

TVC : What about statutory support? For example, should it not be compulsory to use re- retardant fabrics in cinema theatres?

TVC : How do we create a strong scientic facility for technical textiles? Since the sizes of units are comparatively small, do you recommend Government setting up Research facility or not? Will this require a fund of Rs 400-500 Crore in the 12th plan, if your answer is in the afrmative? Or If your answer is negative, What is your suggestion for creation of a strong Research facility/ facilities.

MK : Yes, it helps TVC : What kind of assistance from Government do you expect for Technical textile? MK : Government already done their work, they developed Centers of Excellence and research facility etc. Now the ball is in the court of industry and educationists.

MK : This is like a chicken and egg situation, very difcult to answer. Even if government funds are available where are the people ie. Human resource to handle it ? Do we have required type of people it in industry? My answer is No.

TVC : Now a days, many industries prefer textiles rather than any metal or other element. What is the reason behind it? MK : Few industry it is mandatory to use Textile, others are for their biological property they use textiles then other elements. In India, civil construction not updated due to corruption.

Industry does not want to share their knowledge and research after spending handsome funds on R &D. Academics, professors, persons with doctorates in specialized subjects only have text book knowledge.

POLYONE TO EXPAND OPERATIONS IN INDIA PolyOne Corporation, a global provider of specialised polymer materials, services and solutions, is to expand its operations in India. The company has begun construction on a new state-of-the-art facility in Pune, India, that will manufacture speciality materials, including solid masterbatch, liquid colorant and additives. The facility will operate development labs and the sales and customer service centre for the region, and it is expected to open in the rst quarter of 2014. "With advanced design capabilities and enhanced manufacturing exibility, we will offer customers in India an even broader array of solutions and improved delivery times," said Vikas Vij, managing director

for PolyOne's operations in India. "Demand for advanced speciality solutions in India is increasing – particularly in automotive, packaging, wire and cable and healthcare – and our expanded presence will position PolyOne exceptionally well to collaborate with and serve our customers." Robert Patterson, executive vice-president and chief operating ofcer at PolyOne, added that consistent with the company’s global expansion strategy, the investment in India augments other recent announcements, including a new joint venture specialty colorant facility in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and plans to begin thermoplastic elastomer production in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Reference : www.wtin.com

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second hand machinery whether it is textile or not while in India such machinery is freely permitted without any restriction. China forced the foreign/European machinery manufacturers to set up their manufacturing facility. As a result, today China is the largest producer of textile machinery producing entire range of hi-tech machinery. Whereas in India, we do not have the entire range of hi-tech machinery. While we are very good in Ginning and Spinning machines, good in Weaving Preparatory and Processing Machines. We cannot produce hi-tech weaving machinery, knitting machinery, garment making machinery, non-woven machinery and other technical textile machinery.

MR. S. CHAKRABARTY, SECRETARY GENERAL TEXTILE MACHINERY MANUFACTURERS’ ASSOCIATION (INDIA)

The Indian Textile Industry (TI) is critically important to the Indian economy as it contributes 4% to India’s GDP, 14% to India’s Industrial production and 17% to India’s export earnings. Decades ago, it was responsible for 33% of India’s export earnings. It is needless to mention that the Indian TI is the largest employer after agriculture employing 35 million people. There was an expectation that India’s textile and apparel industry (domestic + export) would grow from US$ 70 million to US$ 220 million by 2020. In order to help the TI to grow in the expected manner, it is essential that there is a strong Indian Textile Engineering Industry (TEI) which is capable of producing all types of textile machinery qualitatively and quantitatively to make the textile industry competitive in the world market. The domestic TEI should provide state-of-the-art textile engineering solutions to meet the true growth potential of the Indian textile industry.

RCOVER ENROC STORY MGA

TEXTILE POLICY-MEASURES REQUIRED TO HARNESS THE FULLPOTENTIAL OF THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

The Textile Engineering Industry which was the prime mover for the textile industry during 60s, 70s and 80s suffered a serious setback during 90s after the liberalization of import and trade policies of the Government. As a matter of fact, the entire capital goods sector per say was severely affected due to the sudden liberalization. If we look at the developed countries, we will find that the technology and engineering was the prime mover. Every such country has helped their machinery manufacturing sector to grow consistently.However, during the post era of liberalization, the country moved towards import oriented growth, thereby creating a trade imbalance.

The future Textile Policy should be- to facilitate unhindered growth of the textile industry with a balanced long term policy right from the raw material to the finished products in a holistic manner. In the past, it was observed that there had been kneejerk reactions from the Government for different sectors of the textile industry which resulted in imbalance and hampered the growth. Therefore right from the cultivation of cotton, production of cotton, its ginning, other raw materials, spinning to the garmenting, a holistic approach needs to be made.

There is an absolute need that the domestic textile engineering industry should grow, compete and export. It should be able to provide strong support to the Indian textile industry to make it vibrant and competitive. It should acquire technological strength in all sectors as in the case of Ginning and Spinning through FDI and R&D and meet 70-75% of the demand of Indian textile industry for high tech machinery from the current position of 4045%. India should become a manufacturing hub for textile machinery, parts & components and accessories contributing further to employment generation and GDP. At present, the TEI consist of more than 1,400 units with a total investment of Rs.7,800 crores. The total capacity is only Rs.9,100crore and it provides direct/indirect employment to over 250,000 people. More than 85% of the units are SMEs. The TEI is mainly dependent on the domestic demand as a result, itsuffers periodic highs and lows which can be seen from the following statement:-

Some firm policies would be needed for import and export of cotton and yarn which should not be altered except under extraneous emergent circumstances. All sectors of the domestic textile industry should be given complete support to face the international challenges. Every sector needs to get appropriate incentives and financial assistance in a balanced manner for optimization of the overall growth. The industry must have all its inputs such as raw material, consumables, machinery, power and skilled labour, uninterruptedly at reasonable cost. We normally compare India with other countries particularly China and say that why we cannot make ourselves competitive and export oriented like China. The difference between the Indian textile industry and Chinese textile industry is so large and it is not very clear whether we would be in a position to reach the level of 50% of Chinese textile industry. While India has 34 million working spindles, China has above 120 million spindles. In the case of shuttleless looms, we have hardly 1,30,000 shuttleless looms as against 7.20 lakh shuttleless looms in China. The textile production is hardly 10% of the Chinese production of US$ 700 billion. In case of textile machinery our production is at US$ 1 billion as against approximately US$ 10 billion of China. China does not import

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COVER STORY

The TEI is suffering from the issues like lack of level playing field.Duties and taxes are not compensated against imports.Largenumber of SMEs does not have access to funds, lack of modernization and technology upgradation, lack of research & development and skill upgradation, lack of policy supports from the Government. There is an absolute need for modernization of the SMEs in the Textile Engineering Industry. The modernization fund with interest subvention and upfront margin money subsidy is absolutely necessary to upgrade the manufacturing technology of the SMEs to achieve the long term goal. This could be in line with the TUFS for the textile industry.

fund should be created for giving grants for acquisition of technical knowhow from overseas. This would facilitate the availability of technology for high tech machinery. The present policy of the Government does not attract FDI in the textile engineering sector specifically weaving machinery sector,the primaryreason being the import of second hand machinery in large numbers. It should be kept in mind that no foreign machinery maker would like to compete with its own machinery which is coming in second hand/used condition. We cannot expect any FDI so long as this policy remains. China produces low tech, medium tech as well as high tech textile machinery. If we desire to manufacture high tech textile machinery, we need to dis-incentivise the import of low tech machinery from China. It is needless to point out that unless the domestic textile machinery makers are able to compete with the Chinese machinery, it would be a futile attempt for them to go in for production of high tech machinery.

The domestic machinery manufacturers should be encouraged to manufacture high tech machinery for the weaving sector. For this purpose, the import of parts/components spares & accessories of shuttleless looms including electronic dobby, electronic jacquard should be allowed at nil duty without any condition/restriction whatsoever. This would facilitate fast development of high tech shuttleless looms in the country. It should be kept in mind that such critical parts and components if imported cannot be used anywhere other than in the shuttlelessloom itself. Similar approaches should be under taken for the manufacture of other high tech machines which are not being manufactured indigenously.

Competitiveness of an industry comes with a level playing field.Unless the domestic manufacturers are confident to compete, there would be no more investments.Therefore, the future textile policy must have inbuilt provisions for the technological and machinery development in the country so that the cost of investment of the textile industry remains at a reasonable level. One thing is sure, without a vibrant Textile Engineering Industry there could not be a jubilant Textile Industry.

Present infrastructure for R&D is inadequate for the promotion of R&D.There should be more infrastructure facility at different clusters in the country in the form of Common Facility Centres. A

Our Textile Industry by Shri Manikam Ramaswami, Chairman, TEXPROCIL ( THE COTTON TEXTILES EXPORT PROMOTION COUNICL OF INDIA) This article based on speech deliverd by Shri Manikam Ramaswami at the AGM of TEXPROCIL held on 30th September, 2013.

member of the value chain has in discovering the maximum price it can get through global engagement.

Our Textile Industry : Over the years, our textile industry in many ways has been seen as a story of Six blind men & an Elephant!

Towards this end, certain ground rules need to be identified and articulated for maximizing the benefits for the entire value chain.

Setting the Ground Rules:

In this connection, texprocil has articulated certain ground rules as follows :

Texprocil has the responsibility to promote the exports of the entire value chain are the starting point to having a harmonious growth in textile exports.

1.All members of the value chain should have unrestricted ( quantity) access to international markets and prices.

Thus, for the effective functioning of TEXPROCIL, it is important to comprehend the basic nature of the industry, resolving the apparent differences through data and logic, setting ground rules and forging an agenda for action based on inclusive and equitable growth of all the segments of the textile value chain.

2.Each exporting member of the value chain should get its raw material at equal to or lower price, than the international value adding companies ( net of the component of drawback associated with its raw material.)

The Basic Facts of our Industry

If we ensure that the above two are in place, then we would have put in place the safeguards to have

The beauty of the vast textile industry in India lies in the fact that the output of each member of the value chain can be exported. Intermediary products such as ginned cotton, cotton yarn, cotton fabrics are all as much exportable as the finished “cut & sew� products.

For complete speech please log on to : www.textilevaluechain.com and read more about, Studies on benchmarking of production costs, attaining global competitiveness, Export Promotion Schemes: Need for Greater Logic, Showcasing our competitiveness- Evolving Strategy, Need to create positive image.

At each level of the value chain we have in excess of 30% surplus capacity after meeting the domestic needs. Each member of the value chain therefore looks at the world at this market & aspires to have all the advantages that the next

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COVER STORY

OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FACED BY THE INDIAN TEXTILE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY

The global market for textile machinery was estimated at USD 30 billion in 2010 and there has been a steady improvement in the new investments in primary textile manufacturing, mainly in Asia, in the last three years. After China, India emerged as the second largest investor in textile machinery. This trend boosted the competitiveness of the textile industry in terms of productivity, quality and cost.

Mr. Navdeep Singh Sodhi Partner Ghrezi Textile

According to ITMF (International Textile Manufacturers Federation) Shipments of short staple spinning machinery reached a peak in 2010. From a low level of 7.1 million spindles in 2009, shipments reached 14.3 million in 2011 before dropping to 10.5 million in 2012. On an average, India has been adding 2 million spindles in recent years. As a result of constant investments, today over 40% of India's installed spinning equipment is considered fairly modern.

Personal Prole Mr. Navdeep Singh Sodhi is a textile industry economist with 25 years of international experience.His expertise includes strategy, technology and international trade and investment. He consults for international development institutions and the corporate textile industry organizations worldwide. He contributed to the formulation of the perspective plan for Indian textile engineering industry (TEI) and conducted an international benchmarking study to evaluate the competitiveness of the Indian textile industry for TEXPROCIL. Mr. Sodhi is a partner with Gherzi Textil Organisation, Switzerland. Organisation Prole Gherzi is a leading industrial consulting company founded in Zurich in 1929. With its global presence the company offers integrated and independent services to the textile and garment industry in the elds of strategic management, international benchmarking, engineering, technical textiles ,logistics and nance. Gherzi has over 50 years of presence in India which was recently strengthened through its subsidiary Gherzi Consulting Engineers Pvt Ltd.

Investments in downstream processes such as weaving and knitting witnessed a surge in recent years. Shipments of shuttle-less weaving machines jumped 43% from 107,000 in 2010 to 154,000 in 2011 before dropping to 86,000 in 2012. India's investment in modern weaving machines has signicantly improved as reected in increase in shipment of 10,198 machines in 2012 against 3,464 machines in 2009 (ITMF). However, there is still a tremendous potential for India's weaving industry to retool and expand. Worldwide shipments of new circular knitting machines increased from 28,000 in 2011 to 36,000 in 2012, 92 % of which were in Asia. India installed 1200 new circular knitting machines in 2012 preceded by 1470 machines in 2011. This was however dwarfed by China's 29,000 machines installed in 2012. Global competitiveness of the Indian textile industry A recent international benchmarking study conducted by Gherzi Textil Organisation which was commissioned by TEXPROCIL and released by the Union Minister of Textiles clearly established that the global competitiveness of the Indian textile industry had improved in the last ten years. The factors responsible for the competitiveness included factor costs such as power and wages,age of technology and equipment, raw material cost and macroeconomic factors such as exchange rate. The study highlighted the positive impact of government policy, especially TUFS, on improving the industry's long term competitiveness. Evolution of the textile machinery industry The global textile machinery has been evolving in the last one hundred years much like the textile and clothing industry. The industry moved closer to where the production of textiles took place. Historically, England had a strong textile machinery industry to meet the requirements of its large domestic textile industry. In 1900 England had 45 million spindles of the global installed capacity of 105 million spindles. India had 4.5 million spindles and there was negligible industrialized spinning activity in China.Altogether, the spinning capacity was concentrated in the West i.e., UK, Europe and USA. In 1980, when the global installed spinning capacity reached 158 million, spinning capacity in the U.K., had declined to a mere 1.7 million spindles. Fast forward into 2010, China and India had 115 million and 44 million of the world's installed capacity of 240 million spindles. During this period, the textile machinery

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initiatives “committed to eliminate all releases of hazardous chemicals from the entire global supply chain by 2020”. Leading chemical suppliers, such as Huntsman have been a playing a catalyst role in green initiatives. Huntsman is “helping mills to benchmark their processes, optimise their performance and actively participating in the Roadmap to Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals” (Road to Zero). Similar initiatives have been taken by established continuous machinery manufacturers such as Benninger to economise resource consumption in the processing of textile materials. However there are further potentials for innovation in reducing resource consumption in textile materials such as denim fabrics.

Global textile machinery industry today In 2010, the global textile machinery industry was estimated at US$ 30 billion, excluding accessories. Out of this short staple spinning and man-made bre machinery represented two largest segments at US$ 5.2 billion and 4 billion respectively, followed by industrial stitching, knitting and weaving machinery. The accompanying exhibit(Table x) shows the geographical repartition of the global textile machinery industry clearly reecting China's dominant position and showing that hi-tech advanced machinery still being built in EU and Japan.

COVER STORY

manufacturing activity also relocated to Asia. It is worth mentioning here that the gures stated here are in absolute numbers without accounting for productivity differences.

 Automation in manufacturing processes is another crucial factor guiding textile machinery manufacturers. Due to high cost and scarcity of skilled operators and growing reluctance on the part of workers to perform mundane tasks, conventional material transportation processes in textile manufacturing are being automated. Spinning industry has achieved quite a lot in this area whereas research activities in eliminating labour intensive tasks in weaving, such as fabric inspection are in being undertaken. In garment assembly, high end shirting fabric and apparel producer Lu Thai has 'invented' the silhouette shirts with taping or fusing of stiches. The stitch-less shirt is produced using a fully automated apparel assembly process and sans sewing thread.

Indian textile machinery The Indian textile engineering industry has achieved signicant growth in the last ve years although further growth potential exists, especially in the downstream processes such as weaving and knitting. The output of the textile engineering industry increased from Rs.4,400 crores in 2005-06 to Rs.5650 crores in 2012-13 of which 25% was exported .India is self-sufcient in spinning machinery however remains import dependent in weaving, knitting and garmenting machines as well as sophisticated dyeing and nishing equipment. Imports of textile machinery amounted to Rs.8,558 crores in 2012-13. According to the “Vision 2020 Perspective Plan” for the Indian textile engineering industry prepared by Gherzi, the industry has the potential to grow at a CAGR of 6% to achieve a volume of Rs. 12,000 crores by 2019-20 and even greater if appropriate steps are taken by all stakeholders.

Opportunities for the Indian textile engineering industr The Indian textile machinery industry has further potentials to grow to meet the increasing demands for the domestic textile industry as well as exports. The industry has potential to double its output to reach US$2 billion in the next ten years provided all hands are on the deck.

Demand driving trends There are four major trends that are driving the innovation in textile manufacturing processes and guiding the machinery manufacturers in adapting their machines to sustainable industrial development

 The Indian textile engineering industry will signicantly benet from injection of FDI -100% or through joint venture route. The opportunity to tap Western OEM does will not be available perpetually and therefore needs to be pursued with earnestness. China has made strategic acquisitions to maintain a technological edge. Chinese machinery manufacturers have also indicated interest in assembly of textile equipment in India

 Energy conservation is driving innovation in wet processing (dyeing and nishing). The choice of the most efcient process and related equipment could save an important amount of energy. Empirical studies show up to 70% energy saving potential in four key processes such as water removal, heating, reduced material to liquor ratio and heat recovery.

 Although several Indian textile machinery manufacturers have upgraded their facilities most still suffer from obsolete plants. There is a need to modernise and expand these facilities  The government should also consider extension of TUFS to the engineering industry to meet the technological gap and achieve import substitution. Recent government policy initiative to reduce the interest rate subsidy on second hand looms is a step in the right direction (although ideally,no second hand machines should receive any government grants)

 Fundamental changes are taking place in the bre-mix used in production of textile consumption. In the long run ber consumption is forecast to grow at 3% p.a. till 2030 due to increase in population coupled with improvement in living standards in developing countries. The total bre demand is forecast to increase from 85 million tons in 2012 to 137 million tons in 2030 with growing share of man-made bres. In 1950, cotton had a share of 74% in global bre consumption however by 2030, man-made and non-cotton bres are predicted to occupy 79%. The growing demand for synthetic bres, particularly laments, will have a signicant impact on the textile machinery industry in future.

§Textile industry is one of the heaviest users of water. In 2011, Greenpeace published a report provocatively titled Dirty Laundry, unravelling the impact of toxic discharges on pollution in China. The report provided scientic evidence of increase in amounts of hazardous chemicals released in China's main rivers Yangtze and Pearl River deltas. In response, several major brands such as H&M,Addidas,C&A,Nike,Levi Strauss and Uniqlo launched

Textile machinery manufacturers also need to embrace modern management techniques to attract highly talented manpower and professionalise their sales and marketing processes

Mr. Navdeep Singh Sodhi is a partner with Gherzi Textil Organisation(www.gherzi.com) and an international textile industry economist.Gherzi is an international consulting organisation established in Zurich since 1929 and with presence of over 50 years in India, providing consulting services in the area of management and operations, engineering, technical textiles and corporate nance.

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AGM COVER CORNER STORY

JOURNEY FROM TEXTILE & CLOTHING (T&C) TO FASHION & LIFESTYLE (F&L) : FASHIONING A NEW ECO-SYSTEM the spinning industry and has been woefully missed out by apparel industry and also not sufciently used by the textile weaving industry. Completely absent from the scene was the processing part of the chain which has proved to be the Achilles heel in the T&C industry’s forward strides.

DR. DARLIE O. KOSHY, PhD (IIT, Delhi) DG & CEO, ATDC & IAM & Former Director, NID, Ahmedabad and Founding Head of Fashion Management at NIFT

A study by ICRIER (2010) had indicated that availability of power, uctuating raw-material costs, high transaction costs and corruption are major constraints faced by the Indian TextileApparel Industries. Along with macro / micro level constraints there are also rm level constraints which were identied which included insufcient investment in modernization and absence of necessary skilled workforce and lack of international marketing capabilities. Many of the exporters have pointed out also about labour compliance as one of the key constraints, along with lack of sufcient focus and funds for R&D efforts.

The Indian Textile industry is expected to reinvent itself through the scheme for Integrated Textile Parks and there are now 61 such textile-apparel parks across the country. The process of setting-up of the textile parks started in 2005 i.e. immediately after the dismantling of quotas (which ideally should have been initiated at last 5 years before!) with over Rs.4000 Cr. as estimated outlay. Out of the 61 parks, 21 are relatively new projects with an outlay of Rs.2329 Cr. Most of these projects are concentrated in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.

The National Skill Development Corporation’s Textile Sector report for 2022 had interalia projected, the main challenges before the T&C industry as : -

The original textile map of the country as seen from the point of view of employment gures in T&C industry had the following States with maximum textile-apparel clusters : Tamil Nadu (27%), West Bengal (11%), Karnataka (11%), Gujarat (10%), Maharashtra (8%), Haryana, Rajasthan & Punjab (5% each) and so on. If these major traditional textile clusters and new textile parks as hyper activity Centres run to full capacity and stride towards the direction which the Government of India and many State Govts have envisaged, the Indian textile and apparel value chain would have by now made an impact in the Global Textile Apparel Market place. An Evaluation Study report of the scheme (January 2013) has observed that the scheme of Textile Parks has helped in upgrading technologies, and raising more industry support with only 40% grant support coming from Government of India. There are 592 operational units in 26 parks in 9 states and the scheme has been instrumental in developing a wide range of models including green clusters, a 1000 acre FDI driven integrated cluster, 100 acre powerloom clusters, 20 acre handloom clusters etc. In the years from 2009-10 to 201213, Rs.1276 Cr. have been allocated for Integrated Skill Parks and for 12th FYP also over Rs.1900 Cr. have been allocated for further development. Therefore there has been intent, action and funds allocation to revive textile-apparel chain in the country especially from 2005, an inection point in many ways. Then what ails this age old industry and the apparel-led textile value chain which was trumpeted around? Despite attempts to develop such world class infrastructure why is that Indian textile and apparel value chain is not being seen as a dominant global force ?

• • • • •

The report also observed that the share of shuttle less looms in Indian textile industry is only 2-3% against a world average of 16.9% thereby indicating a low degree of modernization in the Indian textile weaving industry. Further, it was pointed out that though Indian spinning sector is relatively more modernized, about 60% of the installed spindles are more than 10 years old and Open End (OE) Rotors account for only 1% of the total installed spindles. In the apparel sectors also, India has considerably lower investment in Special Purpose Machines and IT integration which affect the productivity and cycle times adversely. India with more 1.2 billion population with GDP per capita (on PPP basis) of Rs. 3851.3 in 2012, is undoubtedly a large consuming market. The main reason for lack of visible progress of the industry is the failure to recognize the need to change the perspective from that of ‘Textile & Clothing Industries’ to ‘Fashion & Lifestyle Industries’ eco-system, driven by the Global Fashion Supply Chain with both exports and domestic industry as two sides of the same coin. The Textile Ministry has recently raised an export target for T&T sector to US$ 41 billion from US$ 38 billion for the current year 2012-13 and the recent Rupee depreciation is expected to help the cause to some extent. The trade pact with EU which was seen as a silver lining seem to have receded which will make it tougher to achieve such ambitious targets.

It is abundantly clear that the Preparatory Phase prior to 2005 which was available to the T&C industry was used mostly by

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

Increasing productivity by leveraging technology Enhancing productivity by Investing in IT Improving productivity by Investing in Brand building Advancing competitiveness by focusing on other international markets in addition to US & UK Focusing on Innovation, acquisition or skills etc.

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with various segments of the industry by aligning various schemes which are often seen in conict with each other to move towards a model of ‘fashion eco-system’ in the need of the hour. The fashion consumers in India and overseas should be clearly the focus of the frame. If the whole industry can focus on consumers wherever they are, the entire spectrum of the textile rainbow will be visible instead of the vibgyor.

COVER STORY

India has become part of a global fashion value chain, since the economic liberalization began. However, when it comes to Textiles and Apparel we seem to have lost the plot to achieve a dominant position in the global market place. The industry, Govt. and other stakeholders continue to view the textileapparel industry in a rather fragmented manner. The moment the approach is changed to a sharper focus on the ultimate ‘consumer’, moving away from the current fragmented approach, the industry will be enabled to absorb changes and move forward. In a recent forensic report on competitiveness (2013) made by an AEPC’s overseas consultant it has been reported that India has become expensive in terms of sourcing of garments because of erratic power supply, poor logistics support, dysfunctional labour regulations and that of restraining the garment sector’s growth by conning to SME etc. The report also indicated that in Asia, any increase in productivity is linked to ‘labour skills’ and therefore, the quality and efciency of training are paramount. Of course, the ISDS of MoT, GOI is an effort towards improving the skill levels of the shopoor workforce to a higher level through rigorous training and organizations like ATDC has been in the forefront by training over 65,000 candidates during the Pilot Project Period (20112013) to provide wage employment to over 75% of the trained candidates, while contributing to over 50% of Ministry’s own skilling targets.

2.Upskilling Apparel Sector : The need to provide rightskills for the rural and urban youth cannot but be over emphasized especially to join the Apparel workforce as the industry decongests to work to move rural areas where labour are in abundant supply. All efforts need to be made to reskill the existing labour also as the technologies have changed and the need is to shape a more skilled labour force with industrial work culture. A skilled operator can be a proactive tool for achieving increased efciency and productivity, provided he or she is sufciently incentivized. 3.Unleashing Knowledge Capital : A panel of successful alumni from institutes like NIFTs or other Centres of Excellence under MOT / Ministry of Commerce / HRD could be proactively used for improving the fashion eco-system since the councils most often do not have right technical or fashion trained personnel on its legacy rolls. For instance the Visual Merchandisers from these Institutes could be used to improve the fairs and exhibitions or to create virtual ‘fashion galleries’ on line updated every day or every hour than waiting for projecting garments in one or two isolated fairs or exhibitions.

In addition, there has been a widening hiatus between Indian domestic and export industries. The export industry knows manufacturing very well whereas the Indian domestic industry never really got a grip of assembly line manufacturing of apparel; but on the other hand the domestic industry knows brand building quite well which the export industry does not understand much about ! With such a scenario if the industry and policy makers expect the textile parks or clusters which have been set-up with great hopes to become new manufacturing clusters led-by innovation, the hopes may be belied. Over the decades with ‘turf protection syndrome’, various segments of Textile-Apparel industry had worked sometimes in direct conict or in isolation and such ‘silos’ have cost India’s global leadership position. It is time to correct this through strong policy interventions and by bringing in a new dynamism to this age old industry to reinvent with a focus on developing an “Indian Fashion Eco-system”. Today competing countries like China uses Indian cotton to advance its garment exports and Bangladesh consumes Indian textiles to promote its apparel exports and both the countries have emerged in a stronger position whereas India has remained a marginal player. It is important to have competent technical personnel and highly skilled workforce so that both productivity and efciency can go up. I would suggest the following steps to address some of the challenges and issues addressed in the preceding paragraphs :

4.Technology to the Forefront : The role of technology needs to be placed central to the new strategy of making Indian Fashions Global. Indian demographic dividend i.e. the IT Savy youth population or digital natives’ generation are the key to unleashing a new dynamism to this age old industry in the era of ‘e-tailing’ and ‘android phones’, so that Indian can emerge victorious in ‘time-based’ competition for fashion goods. 5.Academia-Industry Collaboration for Research and Innovation: There are 18 NIFTs set-up in the country apart from the decades old IITs and I was part of the founding faculty team at NIFT from 1987-2000 and our vision was to make Indian fashions stand out in the global market place. There are talents galore but Indian designs still lag behind as designers fear to tread the unknown and create their own styles after detailed reaserch. ‘Incrementalism’ is certainly an enemy of ‘innovation’. More efforts are needed to create a synergy between academia and industry. 6.GenNext Entrepreneurs through Incubation : It will be too much to expect the earlier generation of pioneering garment exporters who have done yeomen service for the industry, to project India in the world scenario any more and, therefore, there is an urgent need to discover the GenNext Entrepreneurs and encourage incubation of ideas through a National Fashion Incubation System.

1.Cohesive Strategy for new Fashion & Lifestyle Eco-system : To bring under one umbrella, the ever combative textile & apparel segments under a joint ‘Coordination committee of Secretaries’ towards creating a more cohesive approach to drive a fashion-lifestyle driven new eco-system. A closer coordination

7. Convergence of Retail and Exports :

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I have been

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


AGM COVER CORNER STORY

involved with Indian textile and apparel industry i.e. both exports and retail arena for a long time and it is very interesting that if you go to attend or speak at ‘Retail Seminar’ you will not nd any exporters in the audience and if you go to any export related conference, you will hardly spot a retailer. Only in India this would happen. For a large consumer market like in India both cannot afford to exclude each other in this manner and the time has come to devise a ‘convergent approach’.

bigger. Brandix have made rapid forward strides by setting up LEED-Platinum rated eco-friendly factories and through other sustainable green initiatives. Though the capital outlay is higher with a 8-9 year pay back in the initial years, the savings from less energy and water consumption etc. and the customer loyalty generated is worth the investment according to MD of BRANDIX. The pay back period is now down to 2-3 years for such investments. Mr. Mahesh Amalean holds that joint ventures have been the main factor behind their success and the same provided ‘access to markets’, latest technologies, and most importantly contemporary nancial management system etc. The leading industry spokesperson of Sri Lanka argue that “Garment Without Guilt” has certainly helped Sri Lanka to counter adverse publicity in the past 2 decades. Mr. Mahesh Amalean has also entered into Indian market with ‘Amante’ brand for women’s lingerie and is expanding fast in the Indian market. Similarly, the Timex group which has grown rapidly has seven retail outlets in India and Sri Lanka called “Avirate” a women’s wear brand focused on ‘today’s working women’. The fact that Sri Lankan exporters are looking at Indian market to promote Brands ‘Made in Sri Lanka’ while other production base also now include India, Bangladesh and even Vietnam and Cambodia etc. Both skill and scope in apparel manufacturing are being successfully pursued by Sri Lankan exporters while attempting to make a presence in SAARC countries. Indian exporters have shown grit and business acumen over the years but the kind of contemporary policies and practices of Sri Lankan exporters as well as their passion to develop own brands to promote in countries like India are a pointer towards the shape of things to come. Sustainable fashion and green factories have become an important focus for Sri Lanka. They also have very pro-active labour policies and they do place the Operator as the key factor for the success giving them various benets. Though Sri Lanka has less than 1.21% market share in the World apparel market having done under about US$ 4 billion, the modern face of Sri Lankan apparel industry since it contributes 27% of their GDP, provides certain signicant lessons for Indian apparel industry to keep in mind while approaching the tipping point in their journey to achieve predominance among the Asian / ASEAN suppliers and in developing Global Competitiveness.

8.Creating ‘Hyper Activity ’ Centres focused on Innovation : As postulated at the very beginning of this article with 61 Govt. supported textile parks and 113 textile-apparel clusters (identied in a study at NIFT), there is enough scope to specialize in different product categories and to be innovation driven to make a true differential impact. Today’s clusters are rather faceless. Unique differential creation can only come through proper Research and innovation driven approach. 9.Aligning Vision and Action : Unfortunately, there is a huge gap between vision and action. There are numerous reports available with Govt., Industry associations / councils and more are brought out every year. However, when it comes to action in there is such a yawning gap between the recommendations and on the ground implementation. We need to develop a sense of urgency if we have to capture a better share in world market and more importantly, imagination to see beyond the ‘silos’ to visualize a Fashion & Lifestyle Eco-system where every person-man, woman, child is seen as a global consumer looking for clothing options including accessories for suit his or her lifestyles. 10.Talent, Tolerance, Technology : It is said that there will be ‘creative class’ emerging where there is talent, tolerance and technology. Fashions like, IT industry follows this norms. India needs to project more cities as ‘creative cities’ to develop more fashion ideas for the world, especially since for the rst time, 500 million youth of India has a chance to inuence global youth fashions. 11. Sustainability as a focus for future of Indian Textile and Fashion Industries : India has the best chance in climbing the ladder of world fashions provided she carries one herself. Mahatma Gandhi’s model of producing sustainable Khadi was an indicative effort which is relevant even today and this needs to be telescoped to create a fashion industry for the future, especially considering that sustainably has become a new vector, redening fashions around the world.

About the Author : Dr, Darlie Koshy is a well known textileapparel industry expert having led textile organizations for over a decade before joining as founding Head of Fashion Management Studies at NIFT in 1987. Dr. Darlie Koshy is a rank holder in MBA and a PhD from IIT, Delhi. Dr. Koshy’s pioneering books Garment Exports : Winning Strategies (Prentice Hall 1997), Effective Export Marketing of Apparel to US, EU & Japan (Global Press 1995) and Indian Design Edge (Roli Books 2008) and numerous articles on the textile-apparel industries over the years have argued on the need for Indian Textile-Apparel Industries, to position itself as ‘Creative Apparel Manufacturer’ rather than imitating China to become a “Factory to the World”. Dr. Darlie Koshy was the Director of National Institute of Design for 2 terms of ofce (2000-2008) before taking up the current assignment as DG & CEO of ATDC & IAM since October, 2008.

CASELET ON SRI LANKAN APPAREL INDUSTRY The interesting features of the current Sri Lankan apparel industry is that after the recessionary trends in 2008-09, many factories were closed but the big ones like Brandix, MAS Holdings, Timex, Star Garments etc. have grown much

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INTERVIEW

as large enough to set aside large funds for branding. How to go ahead in such a situation.

COVER STORY

BRANDING NECCESSITY

Marketing requires money. Branding is a money-guzzler for sure. Companies that aspire to be in the front-ended movement of marketing their own produce, need to invest and need to be ready to invest.

Mr. Harish Bijoor, Brand-expert & CEO, Harish Bijoor Consults Inc.

This investment is really an investment ahead of the curve. ROI in marketing is a slow process. If you are a unit entering this game, you need to be prepared to amortize your marketing spends over a 5-year period. Delayed-gratication is the Branding and marketing norm, as opposed to Instant-gratication when it comes to the manufacturing process. Manufacturing units that step into marketing need to be prepared to see light at the end of a reasonably long and circuitous tunnel. There sure is light at the end of the tunnel of marketing, but you may not be able to see it in those initial years. But then, when you really see it, it might just well be worth your while. It can be blinding in its intensity even!

Editorial Note Shri. Harish Bijoor is a renowned Brand- expert and CEO of Harish Bijoor Consultants Incorporated. He is more known as a pundit of branding. Many well-known corporate houses gure in the list of his clients, which is a virtual who’s, who. The three major segments of the textile industry viz. weaving, processing and garmenting are dominated by the small-scale units. Even in the case of spinning sector, there are a few mills having a capacity of one lakh spindles or more. Since branding is an essential part of modern marketing our representative pointedly asked the guru of branding on feasibility of adoption of branding by the SME sector. The candid replies given by Shri Harish Bijoor should make the decentralized sector seriously think about branding. Here is the response of the branding expert to the grueling questions of our representative.

TVC : Is branding an expensive tool reserved for more afuent companies? HB : Not at all. Not in all cases. Small units with modest ambitions can embark upon a marketing program for their produce. I run several such programs in my company for the SME sector. Marketing that has limited ambition from smaller units to achieve, can be done with smaller budgets and at times it is really not the money you spend. Instead it is the creativity you use to spend a limited amount of money. Marketing can be nifty and marketing can be no-money oriented as well.

Consulting Editor TVC : Production and Marketing are two major aspects of a manufacturing unit. What role is played by branding in capturing the market?

TVC : In an industry like textiles, where emphasis is primarily laid on up gradation of technology for which the industry gets nancial support from Government,

HB : While Production is back-ended, marketing and branding are front-ended disciplines. Needless to say each is important in its own way.

What should be the ideal budget of individual manufacturing unit for branding? and how Government should step in to give nancial support ?

While Production is about standardization, quality, consistency and more, marketing is about offering a front-face to what is produced. Marketing helps add zing to an otherwise boring product even.

HB : Financial support from the government should be for two clear purposes. The rst is for upgradation of the manufacturing process, which is funded forever. The second is for marketing and branding. The industry of textile and yarn is an export revenue earner. Building an India brand in this space is a possibility.

Indian units that manufacture both bre and yarn and nished products of every kind, are very good at the back-end and a bit back-ended when it comes to the front-end of marketing and branding. This is the big gap to ll. Manufacturing units need to adopt and adapt to a totally new mindset on marketing. Marketing is no longer someone else’s core competence and someone else’s business. Marketing is as important a function of a manufacturing unit as any. This is the change in mindset that needs to be cascaded into the industry of the manufacturing unit at large.

I support an “India-made” branding plan for the Indian Textile product at large. One can seek funds from the India Brand Fund and one can indeed target for funds from the Ministry of Textiles at large. I do believe what is needed is a plan. The right ideas will get the right funding from the government. I think there is no shortage of money with the government for such programs. There is instead a shortage of good ideas that seek funding.

Once there is a buy-in into this mindset, you will see the entire industry morph from being a mere “maker” to an aggressive ‘marketer” as well. Marketing is no rocket science. It is not as alien even. Marketing is a lot of common sense bundled into a science, art and philosophy that is called branding. Except manufacturing of man-made bres and spinning of yarn from bers whether natural or man-made, all other segments of the industry are in the decentralized sector. Even all spinning mills cannot be considered

Let’s remember. Government money and funding must never be seen as money that is given to the industry to buy sh. Instead, this money is meant to be seen as money that is doled out to help you learn the skill, the art, the science and philosophy of shing. Thus far, government money has been used as a way and means to subsidize the spend of individual units. This subsidy mentality needs to go. It is time to understand that life cannot be subsidized

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COVER STORY

forever. If the money is used for skill-development, and the money that is received is seen to be money that is helping upgrade skills that lead to better marketing and better premium realizations, so be it. If not, this is money that is wasted.

India. “Swizz-made” on the other hand means, made by the proud Swiss! “India-made” would therefore mean a different thing altogether than “Made In India”! Let’s think this out! TVC : What is the potential of branding agencies in India ?

The industry needs to sit together, ideate and put a plan that is completely market-centric to the market of consumption rather than the market of production. We have focused in India for far too long on production. Time to pull up our yarn and think marketing and branding. There is joy in this space. There is light in this space. There are prots in this space. None of these are immediate. If you are willing to wait, there is light. If not, there is just darkness all around.

HB : Very good. You need to pick one that believes in thinking out the process well and truly. Branding is thought-leadership at play. Pick an agency that specializes in this kind of leadership! I do believe we are one such! TVC : What measures will you recommend for inclusion in the National Textile Policy 2013, to make branding an achievable goal, despite various constraints, faced by the textile industry.

If you as an industry do not invest in brand-building for Indian yarn and textile and the nished product, we will forever complain of a new destination that is robbing us of prots and margins for our produce. Today it is Bangladesh and tomorrow it may be Vietnam and day after tomorrow it may be Timbuctoo!

HB : Just a few inclusions. 1. Invest in skill-building when it comes to marketing and branding. Allocate a specic fund that can be spent only on skill-building in this arena. 2. Invest in a “India-made” story as opposed to a “Made In India” story”!

TVC : Do you recommend a cooperative model for branding in the case of manufacturing unit which are short of funds. Another strategy is that some agency of Government like Textiles Committee can prescribe a Quality Mark for fabrics. What is sustainable a Quality Mark or branding ?

3 .Invest in the quality mindset of the Indian produce in this space and be totally, totally strict when it comes to penalties on default in terms of quality and delivery. Every default is a negative stroke the industry can ill-afford to bear!

Harish Bijoor is a brand-expert & CEO, Harish Bijoor Consults Inc.,a private-label consulting practice that operates in the realm of brand and business strategy. The company has a presence in the markets of India, Hong Kong, London, Dubai and Istanbul.

HB : A co-operative effort is a good one to make. This way, there are more minds that contribute, more minds that think, and more pockets that bleed in the short-term than a few. Apart from a quality-mark, there is a need to focus on building image of the Indian offering. There is a need to build pride in the Indian offering. One needs to re-establish the India-made mark!

Harish is a public speaker who speaks to Corporate audiences across the globe in the realm of motivation, peoplemanagement issues, brands, marketing and business at large.

In India, we have bandied around the “Made In India” language for decades. It has done precious little to our image. “Made In India” is often seen to be an inferior statement of macro-intent that has failed. Time to change all this.

Email: ceo@harishbijoorconsults.com

Look at Switzerland. The phrase they use is “Swizz-made”! “Made In India” means made in a political geography that is

TEXTILE BRANDING Producers of bers and intermediates for the textiles and clothing industries are under increased pressures from increased price competition. Product differentiation via branding is one way for producers to increase margins and prots. The following reviews the various branding options available to ber and intermediate producers and the typical costs and rewards involved in developing branding programs. A brand can be described as a marketing identity created for a generic product in order to distinguish it from its competitors; in other words, a means of differentiation. A branded product should have additional elements or added values over and above a generic product. In the textiles and clothing sector branding can be applied at various levels, most typically at the clothing level. However, in the last 20 years there has also been an increase in component branding in textiles and clothing, which identies only part of the

nal product such as the ber, nish or fabric. With a clothing brand added value tends to take the form of a brand name which offers customer reassurance and has emotional appeal, an image created through design, promotion and packaging and a design handwriting which marks the product out as unique. However, with a component brand the perceived added value usually takes the form of functional features such as improved performance in use, quality or aesthetics. Examples include: • Stain resistance (e.g. Stainmaster®) • UV resistance • Softness (e.g. Tencel®) • Stretch (e.g. Lycra®) • Moisture management (e.g. Coolmax®) • Waterproofness (e.g. Gore-tex®) • Quality (Harris Tweed, the original consumer branded fabric) Reference : Global bres & feedstock report, UK

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

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ADVT.


THE TEXTILE ASSOCIATION (INDIA) SOUTH GUJARAT UNIT

ORGANISES

11th International & 69th All India Textile Conference at Surat 20th- 21st December 2013 At The Taj Gateway Hotel, Athwalines, Surat. Theme : Indian Textiles Global – Prospectus and Perceptions National and International speakers for their views on:• Present scenario of Textiles

• • • • •

Technology in Aid of Modernisation, Advances in Textile Processes, Innovation in Textile Materials, Value Addition in Textiles, Developments and Modern Trend in Man-Made and Natural Fibers and many other interesting informative topics for textile industry.

Please register your participation as delegate before 15th November 2013 as registration on rst come rst basis as there are limited seats available. The South Gujarat Unit of The Textile Association (India) was established in the year 1967 and presently having more than 800 members. The South Gujarat Unit had a very good experience of organizing successfully the 42nd All India Textile Conference in the year 1985. In Surat, there are over 8 lakh power looms producing over 30 million meters/day in 100 varieties of fabrics per day. Also there are over 500 process houses established to meet with their requirements of local and export market. About 1 lakh embroidery machines have been installed in Surat to help the fabric manufacturers in value addition. Surat Textile industries are also entering into different segments of technical textiles and garment manufacturing. Surat is having about 50,000 wholesalers of grey and nished fabrics and therefore it has become a very big fabric producing and marketing hub. According to the Technopak, Indian textile industry is expected to grow at an average annual rate of 11% between 2011 and 2020 to touch US$ 140 bn. India's share of global textile exports is expected to increase from the current 4% to around 7% over the next three years. Also, the denim manufacturing capacity, which stands at 600-650 m meters per annum, is expected to add another 100 m meters in near future. India is rich in traditional workers adept at value-adding tasks, which could give Indian companies signicant margin advantage. The conference will provide a platform to all those stakeholders who are willing to enter into the competitive global textile markets. During the conference, we expect learned technocrats and experienced industrialists to share their valued experience and knowledge. Foreign speakers like Mr. David Faini, Managing Director of MarzoliSpA, Italy. Dr. Christian Schumacher and Indian speakers like Dr. Kamat, Mr. Arvind Sinha, Mr. Sevalay, Mr. Saini and others have agreed to address the conference. For further details, please visit the website: www.taisurat.org or email to info@taisurat.org or taisgusurat@gmail.com

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Mrs. Mamta Mandke University Dept. of Textile Science & Apparel Design SNDT Women's University

Dr. Sabita Baruah Dept. of Textile & Apparel Design SNDT Women's University

NROC MGARESEARCH PAPER PEERREREVIEWED

EFFECT OF NATURAL DYES ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF COTTON AND SILK

Abstract It has now become fashionable for the textile industry in India to be concerned about environmental issues and pollution. In the new millennium, voicing a deep concern for the environment can dramatically enhance a company's brand image in the urban market. The textile industry is therefore directing its wrath against toxic chemicals used in various manufacturing processes. In this context, natural dyeing now seems to offer some advantages worth examining. These dyes also support the core concept of organic processes that fundamentally converge on the idea of eliminating the impact of harmful chemicals. It has been known widely in industry circles that the growth of microbes cause cross infection by pathogens and development of unpleasant odours where the fabric is worn next to skin. In addition, the staining of fabrics and the loss of the performance properties of textile substrates are often the result of microbial attack. With a view to protect the wearer and the textile substrate itself, antimicrobial nish is often applied to textile materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to dye cotton and silk using natural dye and natural mordants which exhibit the property of reducing or inhibiting bacterial attack. An experimental study was conducted to dye 100% cotton and pure silk with natural dyes. Pomegranate rind and Gall Nut dye were utilized along with natural mordants such as Amla and Black Currants. Further, the natural mordant samples were compared with traditional mordants based on the physical, chemical and antibacterial characteristic of the fabric performed. Finally, the results obtained from the study established that these natural mordant and natural dyes have antibacterial properties without signicantly inuencing the fabric characteristic. Key words: Natural dyes, natural mordants , antibacterial properties 1. Introduction In industrial applications where environmental consciousness seems to be growing steadily, natural colorants can provide several benets to the textile industry in terms of safety and health. Natural dyes typically include dyes or colorants derived from plants, minerals, and invertebrates. The majority of natural dyes are vegetable dyes. They are usually derived from plant sources such as roots, berries, bark, leaves, and wood. Some dyes are also derived from organic sources such as fungi and lichens. Although a lot of work has been done on

the application of natural dyes on textile fabric, in most cases metallic mordants are used which are environmentally objectionable[1].A mordant is an element which aids the chemical reaction that takes place between the dye and the ber so that the dye is absorbed. In addition to the coloring agents of dyes, mordants are often added to keep dyes from fading. They are also sometimes added to brighten, deepen, or dull a specic color. Depending on the particular recipe, and on the desired effect, mordants can be used before, during, or after the dye bath [2].

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PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH PAPER

The inherent properties of the textile bers provide room for the growth of micro organisms. Furthermore, the structure of the substrates and the chemical processes may also induce the growth of microbes. Humidity and warm environments may also aggravate the problem. Infestation by microbes cause cross infection by pathogens. This could result in unpleasant odours where the fabric is worn next to the skin. In addition, the staining and loss of the performance properties of textile substrates are the results of microbial attack. With a view to protect the wearer and the textile substrate itself, antimicrobial nish can be applied to textile materials [3,4,5].

with chemical mordants i.e. Copper sulphate (2%) and Alum (1%). 2.2.3. Dyeing Mordanted cotton and silk samples were dyed with natural dyes i.e. Punica granatum (10%) and Quercus infectoria (10%) on weight of the fabric. The material to liquor ratio used was 1:20.The fabric samples were treated at 80˚C for 30 min and rinsed with cold water. 2.2.4. Soaping Treatment The rinsed samples were given soaping treatment by using nonionic soap at 60˚C for 20 min in Rota dyer. Then the samples were washed with tap water and dried at room temperature. Table.1. Dyed samples using chemical and natural mordant

Keeping in mind environmental and health factors, the present study aims to examine the application of naturally available dyes which also possess antimicrobial properties. The dyes used include pomegranate rind and gall nut dyes using different mordants on 100% cotton, and pure silk. The primary reason for selecting the above dyes was to establish the fact that these natural extracts possessed antimicrobial properties which reduce growth of microbes. The natural mordants used for this study were Indian Gooseberries (which are commonly known as Amla), and Black Currants. Conventional mordants such as alum and copper sulphate were also used for the purpose of comparison with natural mordants.

Fabric Sample

Chemical Mordant

Natural dye (10%)

Cotton

Alum (1%)

Quercus infectoria

Black currant (10%)

Quercus infectoria

Amla (20%)

Punica granatum rind

Copper sulphate (2%)

Punica granatum rind

Copper sulphate (2%)

Quercus infectoria

Amla (20%)

Quercus infectoria

Black currant (10%)

Punica granatum rind

Alum (1%)

Punica granatum rind

2. Materials & Methods 2.1.1. Fabric used For this study Cotton 100% and pure silk fabrics were selected for the study. The cotton fabric was procured from the local market, and pure silk was obtained from Khadi Bhandar, Mumbai. 2.1.2. Natural and Chemical mordants used Indian Gooseberries, commonly known as amla-20% and black current-10%

Silk

Alum-1% and Copper sulphate-2% 2.1.3. Natural dyes used Punica granatum – Pomegranate rind Quercus infectoria – Gall nuts/Downy oaks. Both dye extracts were obtained from Sir Natural's Biotech Pvt. Ltd, Kanpur, India.

Dyed Sample

.2. Methods 2.2.1. Pretreatment and dyeing Cotton fabric was washed in a solution containing 2g/L commercial (Tide) detergent at 50˚C for 20 min, keeping the material ratio1:40. The scoured cotton fabric was thoroughly washed with tap water and dried in room temperature [6]. The silk fabric was soaked in warm water and left overnight then dried in room temperature.

2.2.5. Evaluation of Physico-chemical properties The treated samples were further tested for colour fastness to rubbing as per IS: 766-1956 standard method and wash fastness following IS: 3316-1979 standard method. The water absorbency of treated and untreated fabrics was evaluated by IS: 390-1975 water spray test method. 2.2.6. Evaluation of Antimicrobial properties To evaluate the antibacterial properties of treated fabric sample, two test organisms were selected i.e. Staphylococcus aureus a gram positive and Escherichia coli a gram negative microorganism. The standard qualitative test AATCC 147-2004

2.2.2. Pre-mordanting Cotton and silk samples were mordanted with natural mordant Amla (20%) and Black currant (10%) on weight the fabric. Material to liquor ratio was 1:20. Fabric samples were treated at 80˚C for 30 min, and then dried at room temperature. The same procedure was followed for both the fabrics mordanted TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

38


Table.3. Colour fastness to

PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH PAPER

was carried out to assess the microbial growth. 3. Results & Discussion 3.1. Effect on colour fastness The wash fastness of the dye is inuenced by the rate of diffusion of the dye and state of the dye inside the bre [7]. The results of wash fastness of cotton and silk fabric dyed with Punica granatum and Quercus infectoria extract using natural and chemical mordants showed “excellent” grade (Table.2).The rubbing fastness was also found to be grade “excellent” in case of dry condition and “very good” grade for wet state for all the samples (Table.3).Also, there was no stain found on adjacent fabric used for sandwiching Table.2. Colour fastness to washing of treated samples

Rubbing of treated samples 3.2. Effect on antimicrobial properties The results in Table 4 indicate that the cotton fabric mordanted with alum and dyed with Quercus infectoria showed no growth of E.coli below the fabric sample. Earlier research work [8] also reported that tannin-rich extract of Quercus infectoria dye is most effective. It exhibited maximum antimicrobial activity against common pathogens including Escherichia coli. However, cotton sample mordanted with black current and dyed with Quercus infectoria exhibit less growth of E.coli below the treated sample. Furthermore, cotton sample mordanted with amla, and copper sulphate, and dyed with Punica granatum showed no resistance towards both the test organisms. The growth of S.aureus and E.coli were observed in contact areas as well as around the treated cotton samples.

3.2. Effect on absorbency The results obtained from the water absorbency test of treated cotton and silk sample dyed with natural dyes showed that the absorbency rating of treated cotton fabric is 50 compare to untreated cotton sample of rating 70. However, there is no change in absorbency of untreated and treated silk sample (Fig.1) Fig.1. Effect of absorbency of dyed fabric samples

Average Rating forwater Repellency

80 70 60 50 40

Untreated fabric

30 20

Treated fabric

10 0

Cotton

silk

70 = Partial wetting , 50 = Complete wetting of dyed fabric samples

39

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH PAPER

Comparatively, the silk sample mordanted with copper sulphate and dyed with Quercus infectoria gave better inhibition against S.aureus and E.coli. Also, the silk sample treated with amla and dyed with Quercus infectoria showed no growth of E.coli below the treated sample.

[14]. On both cotton and silk fabric, samples treated with alum as the chemical mordant gave better antimicrobial properties compared to copper sulphate. References

Signicantly, results obtained from the antibacterial test shows that silk sample mordanted with black currant and dyed with Punica granatum exhibits no growth of S.aureus and E.coli below the treated sample. This treatment showed maximum inhibition of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Black Currants are an excellent source of phytochemicals that exhibit antimicrobial properties. Furthermore, Black Currants are rich in both ellagitannins and anthocynins which are polyphynols with anti-inammtory properties [9].Results also indicated that, silk samples mordanted with alum dyed with Punica granatum also exhibited resistance towards S.aureua. Moreover, there was no growth of E.coli in the contact area of the treated sample. Earlier, research reported that the Punica granatum fruit which is used as natural dye, also has medicinal value. The data obtained from modern science research established that the fruit contains anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral compounds. Data obtained from the study also reveal that these activities are attributed to high levels of antioxidants and high total phenolic content in Punica granatum [10, 11, 12 ]. The silk sample mordanted with Amla and dyed with Quercus infectoria dye gave better inhibition in case of gram positive bacteria. It also exhibited maximum inhibition in case of gram negative bacteria. Most signicantly, it was observed that silk sample mordanted with black currants and dyed with Punica granatum dye showed no growth of S. aureus and E.coli below the test sample. Conclusion From the results procured from this study, it can be safely inferred that, both the natural dyes i.e. Punica granatum and Quercus infectoria used for dyeing of cotton and silk also possessed antibacterial properties. This added advantage can be utilized for manufacturing of medical textiles such as those used in hospitals and clinics. They can especially be used for bed covers, hand napkins, towels, and surgical gowns [5]. These dyed cotton and silk fabrics can also be used for apparels. It has been reported that certain synthetic dyes used in garments are harmful to the human body. On the other hand, garments having herbal properties may, in fact, be benecial to human body [13]. Various colour fastness tests indicate that dyed

Bhargwa A, Barhanpurkar S., Roy P.K., and Singh V., Eco-friendly dyeing of cotton with madder and lac mixture by various mordants, Asian Dyer, pp29-34, June July(2011)

2.

Shivankar V.S., Vyas S.K., Ojha and Kedar V.,Extraction of natural dye pomegranate rind and its fastness properties,Asian Dyer, pp 5760, Feb-March (2011)

3.

Teli, M.D. Javed Shaikh, and Kamble,M, “Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial nishing of soya bean protein fabric using catechu and natural mordant”, Journal of Textile Association, vol.73 pp 227-232 (2012)

4.

Gopalakrishnan D and Aswini, R K., www.bre2fashion.com/industry-article/.../antimicrobialnishes.pdf

5.

Adivarekar, R.V, Nerurkar M., and Khurana N., Application of herbal extract for antibacterial property, Journal of Textile Association, Vol. 71, pp.324-330, April (2011)

6.

Kanchana R., Fernandes A., Bhat B.,Budkule S., Dessai S., and Mohan R., Dyeing of textiles with natural dyes-an eco-friendly approach. Int. J. Chem Tech Res, Vol. 5, No.5, pp 2102-2109, JulySept (2013)

7.

Kulkarni S.S., Gokhale A.V., Bodake U.M., and Pathade G.R., Cotton dyeing with natural dye extracted from pomegranate(Punica Granatum) Universal Journ al of Environmental Research and Technology, Vol.1, Issue 2, pp 135139 (2011)

8.

Singh R., Jain A., Panwar S., Gupta D., and Khare S.K., Antibacterial activity of some natural dyes, Dyes & Pigments, Vol 66, Issue 2, pp 99-102, August (2005)

9.

www.activemicrotechnologies.com

10. Chengaiah B., Rao Mallikarjuna K., Kumar Mahesh K., Alagusundaram M., and Chetty Madhusudhana C., Medical importance of natural dyes-A Review, International Journal of Pharma Tech Research ,Vol.2, No.1, pp144-154, Jan-March( 2010) 11. BragaL.C., Shupp J. W., Cummings C. Jett M., Takahashi J.A., Carmo L.S., Chartone-Souza E., and Nascimento A.M.A., “Pomegranate extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus growth and subsequent enterotoxin production,” Journal of Ethno Pharmacology, vol. 96, no. 1-2, pp. 335–339, (2005) 12. Arun N. and Singh D., Punica granatum: A Review on pharmacological and therapeutic properties, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and research, Vol.3, Issue 05 (2012)

cotton and silk fabrics have good colour fastness to rubbing and washing. This would make them suitable for use in clothing and home textiles. Both natural dyes showed antimicrobial properties on cotton and silk. However, dyed silk showed better antibacterial properties than cotton.

13. Kumar D., Srivastava A., Vidyarthi R.,Gupta D., and Kumar A., Herbal textiles: Green business green earth ,Colourage Vol 58, No.4,pp 54-60 April (2011)

The effect of natural mordants used for dyeing of cotton was found to be better than chemical mordants. The use of black currants as mordant for dyeing of both cotton and silk with natural dyes showed decrease in bacterial growth. The decrease in bacterial growth may be enhanced by increasing the level of concentration of natural chemical mordants and dyes. It was also reported earlier that conventional chemical mordants such as, alum and copper sulphate can reduces microbial growth TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

1.

14. Gupta D. and Laha A., Antibacterial activity of cotton fabric treated with Quercus infectoria extract ,Indian Journal of Fibre and Research, Vol.32, pp88-92 (2007)

* * * Kindly Note This Paper Is Reviewed By Expert Committee For Three Time Before Publishing In the TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN MAGAZINE .

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other non-protected cheese. Likewise Italian Toscano Oil is sold at a premium of 20 percent since it has registered as a GI in 1998. Further, many of these products whose names are protected have experienced enhanced exports during postGI period. It has been estimated that 85% of French wine exports and 80% of EU exported spirits use GI’s as a marketing tool for promoting the product both in domestic and export market. The GI has become a lifeline for 1,38,000 farms in France and 3,00,000 Italian employees during postTRIPS period.

MR. T. K. ROUT, Market Research ofcer TEXTILE COMMITTEE, MUMBAI

3.0 Introduction: The economic rationale of IPR protection through GI is closely associated with the perception to link origin as a quality signal for marketing the goods for sustainable development of the producers’ community. It protects the consumers from deception by eliminating quality-price disparity. The registration of the product under the GI Act provides an important legal tool to the proprietors to initiate infringement action against the unethical business practices through judiciary system. It also helps in realising tangible benets for the stakeholders through systematic and sustained brand promotion and market linkage of the designated products in post GI period. Most importantly, GI could be an instrument to curtail the market distortion arising out of information asymmetry between buyers and sellers. It can be viewed as a process, where reputation is institutionalised in order to solve the problem of information asymmetry and unethical free riding on good will associated with the products. The registration acts as a consumer protection measure and also at the same time protects the producers by safeguarding the reputation and quality of the product.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION GI AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A CASE OF POCHAMPALLY IKAT

The studies on regional origins and prices of wine have also given rise to positive impact on the GI registration of the products (World Trade Report 2004). The primary econometric tool used in the analysis is the hedonic pricing model on wine and it allows estimation of the value of such important features as a geographical origin, variety, vintage, etc. whose inclusion bring about an additional premium for the original products. Schamel and Anderson (2003) extended this analysis to the case of Australian wines and found that regional origin has become a more important determinant of prices over the period 1992-2000 as compared to other factors. Their study indicated that the average premium price of the product has increased by 31 percent in 2000 as compared to 1992 for select Australian wines. The Pinot Noir is cheaper by 22 percent compared to a Shiraz from the Barossa Valley, while a wine produced in Canberra is 25 percent more expensive than its counterparts. The difference may be attributed to the guarantee of the quality of the products through GI registration. The trends have pointed out that the products once registered can act as a riding force for free trade. Today Italian producers are calling their “parama ham” as number one ham in Canada because of the protection of the product through GI act and its widespread appreciation and acceptance by the consumers of Canada. Broadly speaking the IPR protection of unique products may give rise to the benets as outlined in the following sections.

3.1 Empirical Evidence on GI benets: Researchers have made attempts to quantify the impact of the IPR protection of unique products & traditional knowledge (TK) through empirical research in order to quantify potential benets of GI as an instrument for socio-economic development of the producers of the designated products. A consumer study organised by the EU Commission in 1999 has estimated that 40 percent of the consumers are willing to pay a premium of 10 per cent for origin guaranteed products (EU Commission 2003). The consumers’ willingness to pay higher premium price to the original products may be attributed to the elimination of uncertainty on the quality and originality of product. A study conducted by OECD highlights a number of factors that inuence the small & rural enterprises dealing with unique products and penetrating the niche markets. The two important factors that have emerged as (a) market access and (b) market differentiation. One approach to address these factors could be to work collectively in order to develop a competitive advantage. The approach is well accommodated with an origin labelled validation strategy conrming the economic rationale for protecting geographical indication. (Bramlay, Bienabe & Kirsten). It can also inuence the rural economy as most of the originlabelled originated from rural area.

3.1.1 GI as a means to protect traditional knowledge Designated GIs are being increasingly considered as an instrument for protecting the traditional knowledge (TK) of the indigenous people in a legitimate way. This component of the TRIPs Agreement includes both the socio-cultural aspects as well as the production process involved in the process of manufacturing the traditional knowledge. In hedonic models the observed market price of a product is the sum of the implicit (unobserved) prices paid for each attribute of the product. The assumption of these models is that the preferences (utility function) of consumers depend on the attributes of a product. Producers in term have cost functions, which depend on the attributes of the product. In equilibrium markets determine the implicit (unobserved) prices of these characteristics.

On product specic studies, the Jamaica Bru Mount coffee received a premium of $14.50 per kg in comparison to benchmark prices of Columbia miles (Rangnekar 2003). The study of EU Commission has further highlighted that GI provides value addition to the producers by facilitating product diversication and maintaining specic quality standards. The French GI designated cheese has sold at a premium of 2 euro per kg over

In the process of production of “handicrafts”, the technical content can be protected as technical idea, while the cultural value as a form of expression and its distinct characteristics can

43

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

the rights cannot be licensed by the manufacturers or its associates based outside the purview of registered geographical area, which is not a case for trade marks or patents. Hence the cultural ethos and traditional knowledge involved in the process of production of these unique products are preserved. At the same time, it is the only IPR, which is free from any adverse socio-economic results of corporate control and accumulation that occurs in other forms of rights. Even if this right provides a collective monopoly to the community as a whole for using it as an instrument for commodication and the brand building of the product, it does not create a monopolistic structure in the market segments. Therefore, GI remains meaningful in enabling people to translate their long-standing, collective and patrimonial knowledge into livelihood and income (Barnad and Merchenay, 1996). The example of Khandua pata is worth mentioning here to illustrate the importance of empowering traditional rights. Historically, this product can be traced to the days of great poet Jayadev, when entire Gita Govinda, the famous work dedicated to the Lord was weaved on a Khandua pata and was presented to Lord Jagannatha. Since then, Khandua patas are worn by the Lord Jagannath and has its popularity in the state of Orissa till today. The GI protection will ensure that the socio-cultural and traditional rights of the weaver community are not neglected and they get a premium for the pro ducts. This will ensure sustainable livelihood for many entrepreneur families with expertise to produce high quality traditional clothes and staves off competition from unethical sources.

be protected through the symbol of a mark or indications. Therefore, perhaps in the negotiating committee of the World Intellectual Property Organisation, while few countries look at different IPRs for protecting traditional knowledge, most of the countries look favourably at GI as the best means for protecting traditional knowledge. It is because of the fact that GI as an instrument possesses some specic characteristics than any other form of IPRs and hence considered relatively more suitable for the customary traditional knowledge of indigenous people. The suitability of GI for protecting the Technical Knowledge can be attributed to the involvement of community ownership for maintaining quality and goodwill of the products. 3.1.2 Community ownership & codication of quality This is the only form of IPR, which stipulates community ownership as most of these products are produced by a particular community. The exclusive monopoly of the ownership lies with the producers’ community and hence, the fear of commodication of traditional knowledge on account of GIs does not apply. Protection gives rise to legal codication of the well established practices, which results in difculties in infringement and mass poaching by unwanted and unethical business practices. In the present structure of globalisation, it may be difcult to safeguard these products unless and until a sustained way of protection is available and in this regards, GI could play a pivotal role. The IPR protection through GI is closely related to the quality parameters of the products. A particular product is protected as long as the quality parameters prescribed in the registration are maintained. As such, the quality aspects of the product have to be identied and codied in the process of registering the products and can act as a catalyst for the development of the product in terms of enhancing marketability and creating condence on the mind of consumers. The codication of the production process also helps the consumers from deception and producers for expanding the horizon of brand value of the product. The example of Darjeeling tea should nd a mention in this context. The aroma of Darjeeling tea can never be matched with its replica variants as the quality of this tea is ensured by the place where it is grown which is characterized by high altitude with corresponding geo-climatic conditions of Darjeeling which is unique. We can also consider Khadi products in this context to elaborate the importance of codication of quality. Though Khadi cannot be conned to a particular geographical location in India, in the context of GI, quality codication in terms of design, pattern, quality of raw-materials, dyeing, and weaving nishing touches should lend ample credence to the cause of this important product. The GI tag should not only ensure that Khadi is commanding a premium price, also it is effectively combating the low cost-lesser quality dubious variants which are unethically ooded to the market to exploit market sentiments.

3.1.4 GI & Information Asymmetry: In economies, this form of IPR plays a crucial role by helping the consumers to distinguish the products coming from specic regions to that of other regions. It safeguards the expectations of the consumers by distinguishing the unique product category. In other wards, GI brings about product differentiation by minimizing the role of market failure called information asymmetry, where it can be described as a situation in which consumers are unable to observe all the characteristics relevant to a good i.e. taste, quality, etc. A relevant classication of goods into three categories on the basis of the degree of information available to consumers while purchasing can be articulated here in the context of GI. In the case of Search goods e.g. garment quality can be ascertained by consumers before purchase. In many cases, the qualities of the products become known after purchasing and using the same. The example is the quality (taste) of a food brought from a restaurant. These are called Experience goods. For other goods certain quality aspects are rarely learned even after consumption e.g. toothpaste. These goods are called Credence goods. In the case of credence goods, the information asymmetry is acute and brings about confusion in the minds of the consumers for which government intervention is often required to reach acceptable supply of product quality. If consumers cannot distinguish the quality of different product varieties before purchasing, they may be reluctant to pay different prices for the products that look alike. For example, in case of red wine all products looks similar and the consumers do not have the reasons to expect that one variety of wine is more qualitative than others. In these circumstances,

3.1.3 Protection for Socio-cultural & traditional rights: This is with respect to collective rights provided by GI opens to all producers in a particular region. Unlike other IPRs, TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

44


producers’ community. These unique products having originated from a particular territory are one of the most important manifestations of regional identity which can be considered as an useful instrument for economic development of the producers community and preserving the local tradition and culture. The effectiveness of GI as a tool for rural development in developing countries could be more prominent as the designated products could enter the niche and lucrative markets of both developed and developing countries to fetch higher premium price for the producers community. The success of GI as a developmental tool, however, depends on exogenous factors like the nature and quality of the product, characteristics of production process, uniqueness and the marketing channels. If these parameters relating to the products are well integrated with the IPR protection through GI, the designated products could effectively serve the purpose and facilitate sustainable rural development. However, the assessment of the developmental impact should not be limited to the standard criteria (high prices, increased sales, rise in employment & income). Instead the distribution of the benets within the rural areas, the level of participation of local actors, reproduction of social system and environmental impact are the factors which should be taken into account to ensure sustainability. 3.2 Economic development through GI: A Case of Pochampally Ikat: It is imperative that the IPR Protection through GI provides much needed protection against infringement and help the consumers from deception besides promoting economic prosperity of the producers’ community. The most important benet from GI is that it reduces, if not completely, eliminates unfair competition, which ultimately benets both genuine producers & consumers. In order to protect the traditional knowledge from infringement and ensure the development of producers, the weavers of Pochampally Ikat registered their hand woven textiles under the GI Act of India in the year 2004. 3.2.1 Protection of Market through GI: The Pochampally Ikat has been registered under the Geographical Indication Act during the month of November 2004. It is presumed that the parameters of market, the supply chain and the organisation of the manufacturing have undergone changes over years. Given this scenario, our attempt is to map the growth trajectory of successful handloom enterprises and locate them in the context of the growth of the handloom industry of Pochampally. The study will also examine the comparative market position of pre and post registration periods, which will document and provide a platform for comparisons. A protected product under GI will have a quality of its own to maintain its reputation, and hence, the consumers of the product will benet from purchasing quality products. Since, the opening of the market has been effective from 1st January 2005 and registration of unique products of textiles and clothing under GI has taken up more recently, this study make an attempt to examine the implications of GI registrations for the manufacturers of Pochampally Ikat.

3.1.4 Protection against free ride by third parties: When a product is registered under the GI Act, it prevents unauthorized producers from using the designated GI and thus protects from free riding on reputation of the authentic produce, that have been produced over the period of time. The guarantee that products carry conrms originality and origin from a specic area also conveys information on certain product characteristics to the consumers. Production in the respective region may lead to specic qualities that are essentially attributable to geographical origin, for instance, in relation to climatic factors. But it may be the case that the intervention of individual producers from the area has an additional impact on the characteristics of the nal product. For example, through the specic method used to transform silk into special weave as in case of Banaras Brocades sarees of India. Further, Regional producers sharing a distinctive signature product need to agree on certain characteristics of the nal product or the production techniques to be used if the signature product is to remain relevant to consumers. Given that, typically, more than one producer has the right to use the same GI, the potential of free-riding also exists within the relevant producer group. It can be addressed through registration, where producers’ association, for instance, are able to nd a way to ensure that the signicance of GI is not ruined by the opportunistic behaviour of individual members. The producers through coordinated approach can also maintain quality of the product. As a result, the economy as a whole benets from higher product quality and a larger product variety. 3.1.5 GI as a stimulating factor for Price: It is believed that the products protected under GI Act or contemporary Acts are fetching higher premium price as compared to similar products which are not registered. Some studies have even indicated that the consumers are willing to pay higher premium for the GI designated products than others because of the elimination of uncertainty on the quality and origin of the product. The consumers are assured that these products come from the right region with desired qualities. Schamel and Anderson (2003), in their study, analyse the case of Australian wines and found that regional origin is more important determinant of prices over a period of time (1992-2000), with average premia of up to 31 percent which the Australian wine commanded in the year 2000. 3.1.6 GI as a facilitator of free trade: The trends of some GI designated products points out that the products once registered can act as a riding force for free trade. Today Italian producers are calling their “parama ham” as number one ham in Canada because of the protection of the product through GI act and its widespread appreciation by the consumers of Canada. 3.1.6 GIs as an instrument for Rural Development: Most of the designated products and traditional knowledge of different countries are closely associated with rural areas. The products have also a close afnity to socio-cultural ethos of the

45

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

instead of thinking about the quality aspects and the originality, the consumers may prefer to the cheaper one. This may be a case for all original products. In these circumstances, GI can serve as an instrument for product differentiation and facilitate a desirable level of premium price for original and unique products.

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

3.2.2 Market Analysis of Pre & Post GI Registration Periods:

early years of 21st century because of large scale infringement by the mills and other manufacturers.

Pochampally hand-woven textile weaving centre in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India is known for famous hand-woven silk and cotton saris, Ladies Dress Materials (LDMs), furnishings, etc over last 200 years. The Ikat textile is woven by using tie and dye techniques of yarn, which is the specialty of the centre. In this process, wherever colour is not required in the yarn, the yarn bundles are tied with rubber strips before undergoing the process of dyeing. Two different processes like vat and napthol dyeing are used in the dying process as per the requirement. The products are produced in the traditional pit looms and the products bear legacy for generations. Around 5000 artisan households work in the centre, the Ikat weaving is a way of life and source of their livelihood. This unique product experienced many difculties during last 50 years due to wide spread infringement by the large mills. The marketability of the product reduced due to availability of cheap infringed products in the market, which gave rise to reduced demand for the original product. The decline in demand of the products resulted in low income for these artisan families and subsequently most of them diverted to other occupations bringing the product to the stage of nearextinction. In such a situation, the enactment of GI Act of India provided a platform to this unique craft for protection. Subsequently the artisans successfully registered the product in 2004 under the Geographical Indication (GI) Act, 1999 of India.

The key trends explained in Table – 1 indicates that the production of the selected samples have increased from Rs.11.94 crores in 2004 to Rs.22.94 crores in 2009, indicating a growth of more than 14 percent from the year of protection. It is important to mention that prior to protection; the turnover had a negative growth due to declined demand leading to low income of the artisans. It has also induced the skilled and unskilled artisans to divert to other economic activities like agriculture, rickshaw pullers, etc. As such, the registration has brought about a turnaround in the production activities to this famous craft, which is denitely an important experience to the producers. Similarly, the employment for the sample enterprises has also grown by about 8.46% over a period of 6 years in the Post-IPR Protection period, which appears to have a demonstrative effect on the economic activities of the region. It may be because of the various factors like the exodus of the working population from this part of the rural India has been minimized due to the economic prosperity of the artisans associated with the product. Similarly, the economic activities of the area other than agriculture has increased, which could have a important spill over effect on the area as a whole in terms of increased activities on retailing, support services to the product like dyeing, nishing and packaging activities, etc. One of the import ndings of Table. 1: Trends in Key indicators of the products Year Growth (Production, Productivity & Employment)

It was believed that with the IPR protection of the product the demand for Ikat has increased and so also the other key variables like price, productivity, employment and the overall income of the artisan households. In order to quantify the benets of the protection to the product and the producers, a study on comparative market analysis of pre & post GI registration period was conducted. The result of the study gives a promising picture to the product as a whole. The analyses of the data collected from a sample of 256 Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) out of 3000 enterprises, the cooperative societies and the producers & trading associations during the pre and post registration period has indicated that the key variables of the product like price, quality, productivity, employment, income of the producer has increased in the post registration period. The producers have also undertaken product diversication in the post IPR protection period so as to cater the growing demand of the consumers. However, it is also noted that the structure of the industry though has changed drastically in the post GI period; the size structure doesn’t seem to have changed radically. It is may be noted that change in the size structure will need large investments, the entry of new artisans joining the industry and the extent of perceived demand for the Ikat will play its role on the mindsets of these cottage-industry manufacturers.

Parameters Production (value) (in Rs. crore) Employment (No) Productivity (in mtr) Sales Turnover (in Rs. crore)

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009 Rates

11.98

12.89

13.27

15.93

19.12

22.94

14.09

452

456

464

614

619

628

8.46

190.53

210.54

217.22

238.94

262.83

289.11

8.47

9.61

11.44

11.68

14.37

17.68

21.74

17.33

of the study, is the enhanced productivity during the past registration period. The productivity has also experienced more than 9 percent growth in the Post IPR protection period. In hand woven textiles, the productivity is generally low due to intricacy involved in the process of production. The designs and intensevity of the work further makes the process more complicated and hence low productivity. However, the increased demand for Ikat products due to protection, branding and other related activities might have provided rich dividend to the artisans in terms of higher motivation and enhanced income, which ultimately may have brought about a rise in productivity. No doubt, the trend could be an eye opener to the thousands of unique textile producers across the country. The most famous product of the Pochampally Ikat is Pochampally Saree and Telia Rumal. Even if the centre is famous as silk production centre, off late, the artisans also tried to weave

Moreover, the trend of the key variables has given rise to a new hope for this unique textiles, which has experienced a decline in production during last decade of 20th century and

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

2004

46


2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Growth rate

1443.15

1505.51

1600.23

2000.29

2500.36

3125.45

17.38

Cotton Saree (Rs/pc)

360.50

380.00

380.00

456.00

547.20

656.64

12.99

Cotton LDM (Rs/pc)

233.75

236.25

242.50

291.00

349.20

419.04

12.99

66.00 1405.68

68.00 1466.12

68.00 1558.01

81.60 1946.38

97.92 2431.62

117.50 3037.89

12.62 17.33

Products Silk Saree (Rs/pc)

Cotton Fabrics (Rs/mtr) All

The price of the silk saree, one of the traditional products of the centre has increased by more than 17 percent during the period, where as the price of diversied products like ladies dress material (LDM), fabrics has increased by about 13 percent. The post registration period has also given rise to a big boost to

the production activities of the centre. As such, the positive effect of GI Registration is clearly visible in the trends of the key economic parameters of the production centre. 4.0 Conclusion: The paper has tried to analyse economic rationale for protecting geographical indication in the context of a theoretical framework. The theoretical explanation has further validated by a case study of a registered product called Pochampally Ikat. It is evident that providing protection for the designated products through GI is more than just monopolization rather the economic rational is based on the consideration of the value addition and market differentiator that arises from this IPR. It is pertinent that the protection of unique products can give rise to sustainable development of the products if and when the protection is effectively converted to tangible benets for the stakeholder’s thorough brand promotion and market linkage. In case of Pochampally Ikat of India, the producers have already experienced the developmental angle of the GI as they are able to harvest the tangible benets in terms of enhanced premium price and rise in employment. However, from the policy perspective, much empirical studies need to be taken up to quantify the direct and indirect implication of geographical indication particularly with reference to the developing countries.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

cotton sarees, homefurnishings, ladies dress materials, etc. to cater the ever increasing demand for these products. It is evident that the process of product diversication and so also the trend from silk to other bre products accelerated during the Post-IPR period, the artisans have resorted to product diversications and weaved ladies dress materials, home furnishing like bed cover, curtains, pillow covers, bedspreads, wall hanging, etc. These products have also attracted both the domestic and overseas buyers. As such, the price of the products in the Post Registration period has also experienced a robust growth as shown in Table – 2.

“Feels like Cotton and looks like Linen” … is the Mantra of Aryan Silk Mills.

Head Office : Andheri East ,Factory : J-2, 2nd Floor,Shree Arihant Complex,Kalher, Bhiwandi, Thane - 421302. Tel - 02522-646969 / 646901 | Mobile - 09324778264, email id : aryan.silkmills@gmail.com 47 TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013 Contact Person : Mr.Vineet Arya : 9324525002

ADVT.

Aryan Silk Mills


INTERVIEW

Interview with Founder & Owner of of original research and analysis. It took me 4 years to reach here.

Mr. ANUP KUMAR

TVC : How style globe is different from leading international trend forecast agencies which are present in India ?

DESIGN SURGEON & TREND SPY founder & owner

AK : STYLE GLOBE is very different than other leading trend agencies. The Macro Trend Predictions and Research Data is simplified here without compromising in quality. Even a beginner in apparel & clothing business can understand it. This will provide a clear report on WHAT TO INCLUDE or WHAT TO AVOID in terms of key colors, key details, key items, materials, trims and accessories for the season ahead, at least 12 months in advance. This will be an extremely useful resource at a very competitive price which is only Rs.1Lac for two seasons. In past 2 years more than 1500 design students have been trained , how use fashion trend forecast information for product development by me and now January 2014 onwards I am planning to start training program for industry people (designers & merchandisers) pan India. For emerging designers and design colleges the price is just Rs.60,000 a year only for two issues.

TVC : What Is Style Globe ? AK : STYLE GLOBE is India's first trend forecast resource, born in India by an Indian. Having closely worked with Domestic Brands, I understand them and their requirements very nicely and the same is translated in STYLE GLOBE. Currently, STYLE GLOBE will focus on Menswear & Womenswear only. Yearly there will be two issues i.e., Spring Summer and Autumn Winter. We are starting with AW14/15. TVC : From designer to trend forecaster …tell us about yourself? AK : started my career with a menswear brand MUFTI, then became the part of LEE COOPER design team in 2006. I did lots of freelance projects for domestic & international brands. In 2011, I started my own Menswear Designer Label UBHOBYANUPKUMAR. In due course, I realized that all Indian brands were looking for the original concepts. They have wonderful eye for details and to understand emerging trends. For concepts and ideas they frequently travel abroad. Moreover, in the industry, due to time constraint, it is very difficult for the designer to do extensive research. This gave me an idea to work upon STYLE GLOBE in the year 2009, as a solution for them, in terms of providing future fashion directions and trend reports on the basis

TVC : Whom are you targeting to ? AK : Domestic & International Brands, Export Houses, Designers and Fashion & Textile Design Colleges. How do you see the scope of fashion trend forecast service in India ? Its very bright. With the increasing presence of international brands in India, competition is extreme today and will be more intense in years to come. All the domestic brands will have to prepare themselves to compete with them. Original, Real and FOR THE CUSTOMERS are going to be the dominant attitude. All these brands will require Trend Forecast Services in order to foresee the changes in advance and to act accordingly. Check Forecast of Style Globe at Page no. .50

New Brands Introduced in Fabric Market…!!!

Shri. Sohan Raj Danti Shri.Rohit Danti

Shri.Rajeev Danti

Shri.Rohit Danti is in textile business from last 14 years, in continuation with his experience he has establish his company by name "Shri Bhairav Lifestyle Pvt. Ltd." by introducing 58" width shirting fabrics in textile market under "SHADES" and CHERRY" brands. According to Shri.Rohit Danti under CHERRY brand all types of plain range ,100% cotton, cotton/linen, linen, p/c, ramie, oxford falafel, twill chamber, satin and all type of fancy plain qualities. And in SHADES brand, fancy concept was introduced in the market. Company is also getting good response from market in sober lining, designs in small checks, fancy stripes, bigger checks and designs in fancy panels. As per Shri. Danti in both the brand company is manufacturing 58" width shirting fabrics with mill pattern quality and designs and supplying in all textile mandies through agents and dealers throughout India. Company's Young and Dynamic Director Shri.Rohit Danti handling company's production, planning, designing and new product development. Company has given the responsibility to younger brother Shri.Rajeev Danti who is linked with the textile market from last 4 years handling sales and marketing of both the brands. In their

48

business they are getting guidelines strong support from their father who is having vast experience of 40 years from yarn stage to nished fabric, their father is doing business from last 40 years in metropolitan cities in India. They are planning to do business at every district level and at the same time to link distributors, agents and dealers with their textiles business. Company's main motto is providing top quality products with large variety of designs at very reasonable prices so that they can build up strong channel with their customers. At present company is supplying 58" width fabric in 100% cotton white and dyed, 100% linen, plain semi linen, P/C, P/V ,dull cotton checks, fancy stripe, white stripe and top dyed falafel, chambre italian denim, china cross, netaji white starch,plain satin, twill dobby and jacquard etc. For both garment base and store line. Company is also manufacturing programmed based in 100% cotton and ladies bra- panties in P/C to exporters in large varieties. Company is getting good demand from north and south India regions. Company is planning to increase marketing network in all over India. Company is also capable to manufacture suiting fabrics on programme basis. At the same time company will be in touch with customers by providing latest happenings in both the brands from their both the ofces. I.e. Mumbai and Bhiwandi. Company has already started appointing agents, and dealers to increase marketing network all over India. Interested parties should contact directly to the company management. TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


ADVT.


neo-artisan

4

preserve

3

2

co-exist

6

surfeit

1

THE BLANK SLATE

COLOUR FORECAST

THE BLANK SLATE

AGM CORNER FASHION FORECAST

MACRO TREND 1

COLOR DIRECTION

PANTONE 19-1118 PANTONE 14-0452

In the urge to achieve everything that we desired for or dreamed once, we walked the path, which has brought us at a junction where we need to rethink and justify,not to others but to oneself.....,it's the time to evolve as a global human....to write a new history...to cast a new world....it's a BLANK SLATE.

PANTONE 18-4330 PANTONE 13-0746

PANTONE 16-5810

2

PANTONE 18-2527

PANTONE 19-0810 PANTONE 17-5936

PANTONE 17-1341

PANTONE 18-1561 PANTONE 19-3520

IMAGE CREDIT (1) Bryan Olson (2) Sco Marr, DMT 2011, Pyrography, (3) Christophe Nancey,Spiral Bowl 2, 2012 (4) www.toddhale.com (5) Bryan Olson (6) Christian Burchard, Journey #1, 2011, Madrona Burl

PANTONE 15-1062

PANTONE 19-3920 PANTONE 18-4005

PANTONE 19-3920 PANTONE 17-1417

PANTONE 17-4433

PANTONE 17-1547

1

2

5

covetable

3 1

IMAGE CREDIT: (1) Bea Kwan Lim, Sehnsucht2012 (2) liquid dynamics by Peter Pribylinec (3) Mayumi Tsukuda, Nature Dancing, 2006

50

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


An Overview of Different Retting Methods for Mesta (Hibiscus Sabdariffa)

jute in production. It is an alternative to jute and plays an effective role in supplementing the short supply of jute in jute industry. In recent years, Mesta crop is gaining the attention of industrialists since it is also used as a raw material in the paper industry substituting Bamboo and Eucalyptus (Managooli, 2009).

Ms. JUHI AGRAWAL Dept. of Textiles & Fashion Technology Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science PG Department SNDT Women's University Juhu Mumbai

FIBRE FOCUS

MESTA BAST FIBRE

India had to loose about 80% of total jute production area at the time of partition of the country during 1947. The jute crop needs a specic set of climatic conditions, therefore, the cultivation of jute could not be extended beyond the states of West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Orissa, and parts of U.P. and Tripura. As a result the production of jute fell below the requirement of mills. Mesta can, however, be grown even in those areas where jute is not grown under wider climatic and soil conditions with much less care. This helped the country to expand more area under mesta. At present Mesta is grown in an area of more than 26 lakh hectares with a production of more than 12 lakh bales (D.P.Singh).

Dr. Ela Dedhia

ABSTRACT Retting is the main problem encountered during the processing of bast plants for the production of long bres. Water Retting and dew retting are the traditional methods used for separating the long bast bres. Both methods require 14 to 28 days to degrade the pectin, hemicellulose and lignin. Even though the bres produced from water retting can be of high quality, the long duration and polluted water have made this method less attractive. A number of other alternative methods such as mechanical decortication, chemical, heat and enzymatic retting have been investigated for this purpose with mixed ndings (Tahir et.al 2011). This paper reviews different types of retting processes used for Mesta bre(Hibiscus Sabdariffa). Mesta bre apparently has some advantages as low cost of production, high bre yields and greater exibility as an agricultural resource over other bast bres. The bres extracted by chemical retting are much cleaner and yields less gum whereas microbial retting has a higher residual gum content (Hongquin Yu and Chongwen Yu, 2010) whereas Tahir et.al proves a combination of chemical and microbial retting to be the most effective method for bre separation.

Area of Jute, Kenaf and Allied Fibres in Major producing Countries (1 Hectare = 2.471 Acre) AREA (in 000 Ha)

INTRODUCTION Bast bres are produced and used to manufacture a wide range of products like textiles, ropes and nets, carpets and mats, brushes and mattresses, cordages, sacking material in addition to paper and board material. They can be used in many ways for instance in the form of ne powder as in saw dust, short bres as in random and non woven mat, or even long bres as in woven mat for making various kinds of biocomposite products. Some composites made from natural bres have useable structural properties at relatively low cost ( Mohanty et. al 2001).

Bangladesh

China

India

Myanmar

Nepal

Thailand

2011-2012

620.2

19.0

790.0

8.2

10.6

1.4

2010-2011

587

18

800

12.6

10.6

1.4

2009-2010

485.8

30

773.7

8.9

11.7

1.5

2008-2009

408.1

30

785.6

14.3

11.6

1.5

2007-2008

500

33

952

20.4

11.7

1.2

2006-2007

533.4

31

931

46.5

12

2.3

2005-2006

466

31.1

931

41

12.2

3.1

2004-2005

418

32

916

35.4

11.8

16.6

2003-2004

499.8

41

1000

44.1

11.9

20.4

2002-2003

436.2

56

1025

58.7

11.7

27.2

2001-2002

519.6

52

986

53.5

11.3

19.2

2000-2001

448

50

873

31

14.5

19.2

Source: FAO(Food and Agricultural Organization) in '000 Tonnes (1 tonne = 1000 Kg) PRODUCTION Year 2011-2012 2010-2011 2009-2010 2008-2009 2007-2008 2006-2007 2005-2006 2004-2005 2003-2004 2002-2003 2001-2002 2000-2001

Bast bre or skin bre is plant bre extracted from the phloem the “inner bark” surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonic plants. Most of the technically important bast bres are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, for example Flax, Hemp or Ramie, Jute, Kenaf, Mesta, Okra and Soybean. The bers are separated from the xylem material “woody core”, and sometimes from epidermis. The process is called retting, and is performed by microorganisms either on land or in water, or by chemicals or by pectinolytic enzymes and natural retting. In the phloem, bast bres occur in bundles that are glued together by pectin and calcium ions. More intense retting separates the bre bundles into elementary bers whose length is measured in centi meters.

(in ‘000 tonnes) Bangladesh China 1 323.1 70.0

India 1 980.0

Myanmar 3.8

Nepal 15.0

Thailand 1.3

1 404.5 839.6 931.0 1236.8 1186.4 965 810 963 793.4 924.7 814.7

1 800.0 1620.0 1476.0 1782 1800 1530 1350 1620 1980 1890 1620

7.8 8.0 12.9 19.1 43.6 36.9 33.6 42 41.9 50.8 27.8

14.4 17.7 17 16.8 17.1 17.7 16.9 17 17 16.4 15.2

1.7 2.0 2.9 2.2 3.6 4.6 35.7 41.3 46.4 29.5 29.7

69.0 75.2 80.0 86.8 86.8 82.8 86.9 99.8 130 136 125.9

The above reports from Food and Agricultural Organization clearly indicates That India possess the maximum area under cultivation and dominates the production of Jute, Kenaf and other allied bres over other countries.

Mesta is one of the important bast bre crops and stands next to

51

Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013


FIBRE FOCUS

From the economic standpoint, mesta bre production offers distinct advantage over other crops specially for developing countries because of following:

Bast bres are cemented to the adjacent cells inside the stem with pectin (a form of carbohydrate), which can be extracted by retting processes. Retting is sometimes termed as degummimg. It is a chemical process for removing non-cellulosic material attached to bres to release individual bres. After harvesting, stems are usually kept either in the eld or under water for 2-3 weeks during which the pectinous substances that bind the bre with other plant tissues are softened and degraded by micro organisms (Tahir et. al). The quality of bre is largely determined by the type of retting and the duration of retting. Below are some techniques of retting employed for the extraction of Mesta bre:

(I)

Mesta is potentially protable crop that is not in world surplus. (ii) It provides as a domestic resources, the raw material for industrialization. (iii) It can be grown on uplands providing a greater cash return than other crops. (iv) It requires less labour than jute and can be produced more cheaply. (v) The bre is one that is used in varying amounts in all countries. (Singh D.P.) Mesta is advantageous over the traditional reinforcing bres such as glass and carbon include low cost, low density, high toughness, acceptable specic strength properties, improved energy recovery and biodegradability. With the increasing consciousness of preserving the environment and the need to recycle there has been renewed interest in composite sector using natural bre as partial replacement for synthetic carbon, glass or aramid bres. The long bres are transformed into threads or yarns that are used to join, connect or attach each other. According to Sur (2005) any textile bre should be made up of long-chain molecule so as to ensure continuity and strength along the length of the bre axis. The homogeneity of this long bre depends very much on the technique of producing the bre bundles, which is known as retting or degumming process.

1.Water Retting- Also known as ‘Steep retting’ it is one of the most widely used method in almost all mesta producing countries. The steep retting consists of the bundling of mesta plants after the harvest in the convenient sizes. The bundles are stacked in standing position in 50 to 60 cm deep water for nearly 3 or 4 days. This helps in retting of the hard lower portion of the bark. In some cases a few plants of Sesbania bispinosa (Dhaincha)or sunnhemp are inserted in the bundles of mesta. Since dhaincha and sunnhemp are bit softer they decompose early as compared to mesta and help in activating the microbial process needed for retting. After 3 to 4 days the standing bundles are laid down horizontally in the retting water and slightly drowned (nearly 10cm) in water with the help of some weights made of cement or stones. Some grasses like water hyacinth is also put on the lying bundles to cover them. Care should be taken not to put any weighed material which release tannin and iron. The tannin makes the bre black in colour when it comes in contact with iron. After a few days a part of the submerged plant is taken out and tested for the loosening of bre. If the bre comes out from the wood retting process is taken as complete. (Singh, D.P.)

FACTORS AFFECTING RETTING

Advantages: Produces bre of greater uniformity and better quality

Retting is an important process in the life cycle of mesta for bre production. The process helps in separating bre from the plant with the help of certain bacteria and fungi. The retting, however, depends on various factors which are described below -

Disadvantages: Excessive stench and pollution arises from anaerobic bacterial fermentation of the plant, has high cost and decaying smell, environmental problems and production of low grade bre, requires high water treatment maintenance (Tahir et. al).

(I) Volume of water The retting is perfect in slow moving clean water. The bacteria in such water eat up protein and release pectin, tannin and other gummy substances. In slow moving water these released impurities are removed and the ne bre is left. While in the stagnant water they remain in the retting water. The ratio of retting water to the plant material should be 20:1.

2.Enzymatic Retting- This traditional method is mainly achieved by the pectin enzymes produced by bacteria. During retting, the bacteria multiply and produce extracellulose pectinases, which releases the bast bre from the surrounding cortex by dissolving the pectin. In this method, enzyme such as pectinases, xylanases etc. are used to attack the gum and pectin material in the bast. The process is carried out under controlled conditions depending upon the enzyme used.

(ii) Temperature of water It has been found that the temperature of retting water should be around 34°C. At this temperature the retting can take place in 12-15 days easily. The pH of the retting water should be around 6.5 - 7.0

Advantages: Smooth rening particularly for pulping purposes that degrades and provides selective properties for different applications. The enzymatic reactions cause a partial degradation of the components separating the cellulosic bre from non-bre tissues. The process is faster and cleaner.

(iii) Age of crop Immature crop or early harvested crop rets faster than the mature and late harvested crop.

Disadvantages: Produces bre with low strength (Tahir et. al). 3.Chemical Retting- The chemical retting is affected by certain chemicals like ammonium oxalate, sodium oxalate, sodium hydroxide, sodium benzoate, hydrogen peroxide etc. the chemicals remove gums, pectin and lignin without affecting the quality of the bre. Advantages: It is effective and produces clean and consistent long and smooth surface bast bre within a short time. Disadvantages: The bre retted in more than 1% NaOH has

(iv) Fertilizer applied to the crop The crop where higher doses of fertilizer is used, takes less time to ret. (Singh D.P.) Types of Retting Techniques

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

52


4. Mechanical Retting- Here, the bres are separated mechanically by a hammermill or a decorticator.

References

Advantages: Produces massive quantities of short bre in short period of time.

1.

Disadvantages: High cost and low bre quality. 5. Dew Retting- Plants are cut or pulled out and left in the eld to rot. Here de-seeded jute and mesta was retted during winter season at about 24-26 degree celcius using Rhizopus sp. And Mucor sp. The fungi were isolated from the retted jute stems. Advantages: Pectin material could be easily removed by bacteria.

2.

Disadvantages: Produces bre with reduced strength, low and inconsistent quality. It is restricted to certain climatic change and product contaminated with soil.

3.

6. Ribbon Retting- The bark of the green plants is extracted with the help of a ribboner and the ribbons are retted in the retting water. Ribbons may also be retted by chemical method since less quantity of chemicals is required for retting purpose.

4.

Advantages: Ribbon retting offers certain advantage in the sense that all the residues are left in the eld, upto 70% less weight is transported, less water is required for retting, retting time is shortened and bre washing is easier. (Singh, D.P.)

5.

Disadvantages: It is labour intensive and incurs high cost.

6.

Conclusions The retting method still remains the major challenge in the application of mesta bres in textile Industry. Among all these methods, bres extracted by the chemical retting is the most effective method, yielding least gum whereas microbial retting has higher residual gum content (Hongquin Yu and Chongwen Yu). As far as environmental protection is considered Microbial retting is more feasible. According to Tahir et.al the most efcient method of retting is the combination of chemical and microbial retting. The

7.

8.

Akter, F., Alam, S., Haque, S., Asaduzzaman, M., Eshaque, A.K.M.(1992). Dew retting of jute (Corchorus olitorius var. 0-4) and mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. HS24) by Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp. Bangladesh Journal of Jute & Fibre Research, 125-128; Retrieved on June 14, 2013 from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db =wta&AN=WTA1933842&site=ehost-live Food and Research organization statistics retrieved on Sept 05, 2013 from http://www.jute.org/statistics_02.htm Hongquin Yu and Chongwen Yu(2010), Inuence of various retting methods on properties of kenaf bre, The textile Institute, 101(5), 452-456 Managooli, V.A. (2009, Sep). Dyeing mesta (hibiscus sabdariffa) bre with natural colorant. Retrieved on Jan 15,2013 from http://etd.uasd.edu/ft/th9943.pdf Mohanty, A.K., Mishra, M., and Drzal, L.T., (2001), Surface modication of natural bres and performance of the resulting biocomposites, An overview, Composite Interfaces 8(5), 313-343 Paridah Md. Tahir, Amel B. Ahmed, Syeed O.A. Saiful Azry and Zakiah Ahmed(2011), Retting Processes of Some Bast Plant Fibres and its Effect on Fibre Quality:A review, Bioresources, 6(4), 5260-5281 Singh, D.P. Mesta- Hibiscus cannabinus & hibiscus sabdariffa. N.d. Retrieved on Jan01, 2013 from http://assamagribusiness.nic.in/mesta.pdf Sur, D., (2005), Understanding Jute Yarn, InstAnindita Sur, Kolkata, p.254itute of Jute Technology,

Mr. Prem Malik stated that cotton yarn is an industrial product and its production has been increasing substantially in the country. Since the domestic demand has not kept pace with the increasing production, there has been a decline in cotton yarn prices in the domestic market in recent weeks. He stressed that India is the most competitive yarn producer in the world at present and therefore there are increasing export opportunities opening up for our cotton yarn.

CITI NEWS

RESTORE EXPORT BENEFITS FOR COTTON YARN, CHAIRMAN, CITI Confederation of Indian Textile Industry has requested government to restore export benets under Focus Market Scheme and Incremental Export Incentivisation Scheme on cotton yarn. Reacting to the Notication No.43(RE-2013)/2009-2014 dated 25th September 2013 issued by DGFT withdrawing these benets on certain products including cotton yarn, Mr. Prem Malik, Chairman CITI observed that there is no export restriction or export duty on cotton yarn. There is only a requirement of registration of export contracts with the DGFT which is only for the purpose of data collection on exports. Thus, withdrawing the export incentives on the ground that there is restriction on export is incorrect in this case, he added.

FIBRE FOCUS

current worldwide interest in using environmentally benign bers makes it urgent to seek an industrial retting method that overcomes the disadvantages of the traditional retting methods. This paper suggests the possibility, but further research on largescale application in the textile industry is demanded.

lower tensile strength. Chemical retting leads to unfavorable color and high processing cost of the bre. (Tahir et. al) (Singh, D.P.)

Referring to the urgent need to bridge the Capital Account Decit, Chairman, CITI observed that textile products, including cotton yarn, have increasing demand in the overseas markets and it will be logical to encourage export of cotton yarn from the point of view of bridging the CAD, in addition to creating additional employment.

53

Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013


SKILL GAP & ANALYSIS

SKILL GAP & REQUIREMENTS - ICRA Management Consulting services Ltd. ( IMaCS), www.nsdcindia.org Table 1: Illustrative focus areas for NSDC for Skill Building

Over the many TVC issues, after discussing the sill gaps and requirements across various stages of clothing lets see the skill pyramid and the NSDC focus areas for skill building. 1. Skill Pyramid for the T&C industry Given that the industry would require a varied prole of skill sets, the following gure presents an overview of the prole of skill requirements as derived from human resource requirements across different sectors of the T&C industry.

Segment

Course type

Content  areas for Skill Building

Fabric Manufacturing

Power loom Operations

Garmenting

Apparel Manufacturing

Garmenting

Fashion Design

Garmenting and Fabric Manufacturing

Quality Assurance

Garmenting

Knitwear Manufacturing

  Operations of rapier looms, water jet looms, high speed looms, synthetic silk looms  Skills of dobby loom weaving, operations of jacquard loom, loom threading, loom pattern  changing  Regular maintenance – preventive and  schedules  Quality compliance.    Pattern making   Garment Construction   Quality Control   Time and Motion studies Production Planning and  Control     Computer based tools.   Fashion styling and illustration Basics of costing     Pattern making and draping Merchandising     Design studio activities Portfolio presentation.    Pattern making and garment construction Quality Control processes and inspection     Fabric and Garment defects and remedies Technical audit and computer skills     Pattern making for knits   Quality Control   Time and Motion studies Production Planning and Control   Computer based tools.

Garmenting and Fabric Manufacturing

Production Supervision and Quality Control

Garmenting

Sewing Machine Technician

Figure 1: Skill Pyramid within the Textile and Clothing Industry Level -4 0.5% - 1% R & D Executive

Level -3 3% - 3.5% Manager Level -2 10% - 11% Supervisor

Level -1 85% - 86% WORKER

Source: Industry inputs, IMaCS analysis

The skill pyramid, in summary, captures where the T&C industry stands relatively in terms of skills (a function of activity, educational requirements, and amount of ‘preparatory’ time required to inculcate a specic skill) as compared to all other industries. As can be observed, the lower portion of the pyramid, ‘Skill Level 1’, has the highest incremental requirement of human resources. It requires persons who are minimally educated, yet can handle simple and/or repetitive tasks (persons employed in activities such as basic machine operations, knitting, cutting, and stitching/sewing, etc.). Such skills can also be obtained in lesser time duration as compared to engineering or ITI courses. As many as over 15 million persons are required across skill levels 1 and 2 outlined above.

Garmenting

  Inspection methods   Quality Systems   Sewing and Supervision skills.    Maintenance and operation of high speed sewing machines   Chain stitch, button stitch, etc. Maintenance and precautions.      Basic sewing machine control Threading     Sewing of different shapes   Quality standards Maintenance of sewing machine.   

Sewing Machine Operators

Source: Industry inputs, ATDC, and IMaCS analysis

3. Key Skill Sets The demand for key skill sets across the Mainstream sectors of the T&C industry is indicated below.

Segment

Supervisors and Technicians

Operators

Total

Fabric Manufacturing

0.58

5.09

5.67

2. Focus areas for NSDC for Skill Building

Fabric Processing

0.03

0.28

0.32

As evident from the discussion above, the primary focus areas for NSDC for skill building in the T&C

Garmenting

0.93

8.13

9.06

Total

1.55

13.50

15.05

sector should be as follows:  Machine Operators in Fabric Manufacturing and Processing  Stitching and Sewing Machine Operators in Garment Manufacturing. Based on discussions with stakeholders, we outline the following broad areas of skill building in the T&C industry where NSDC can specically focus its energies.

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

Source: Industry inputs, ATDC, and IMaCS analysis

The above skill sets and specic focus areas outlined earlier will be the major drivers of human resource requirement in the Textile and Clothing industry in the horizon till 2022. Skill building in these areas would be key to industry competitiveness going forward. As is evident, this involves the humungous task of skilling about 15 million persons till 2022 – about 1 million persons per year.

54


The corn husk was air dried at room temperature and stored in a properly ventilated room followed by alkali treatment to extract corn husk bre as shown in Fig. 3. Extracted corn husk bre

Maheshwar Singh, Nidhi Sisodia and Archana Singh Northern India Textile Research Association Sector-23, Rajnagar, Ghaziabad

FIBRE FOCUS

CORNHUSK WASTE TO TEXTILES

Dr. M.S.Parmar,

Introduction: The role of natural bres is immense in the emerging “green” economy which focuses on concern for the environment, the wellbeing of bre producers & consumers, and the conditions of workers in the textile industry. During processing, they generate mainly organic wastes and leave residues that can be used to generate electricity or to make ecological housing material. And, at the end of their life cycle, they are 100% biodegradable.

The extracted bre was spun in to yarn by blending it with cotton, acrylic and polyester separately on various proportions (Fig. 4) and nally converted in to fabric using rapier loom. The complete cycle, from raw cornhusk to garment making is shown in the

Cornhusks show great potential in providing large quantities of natural cellulose bres with signicant economic benets than any other agricultural by-product. The economic feasibility of developing cornhusk as an alternative to natural bres also looks promising, especially when compared to the potential availability and production cost of other natural bres. “Cornhusk ber comes from nature, and completely returns to nature in the end" therefore cornhusk ber is "the natural, green, and eco-friendly new-type textile bre of 21st century". However, these benets cannot be realized unless cornhusk bres are suitable for various applications, especially for textile materials. In India at present corn husk is mostly treated as a waste and burned to get rid of this. No systemic work has been done on this bre in India. Keeping this challenge in mind an attempt has been made in this paper to extract corn husk bres from corn husk and explore the possibility of its application in the textiles eld. NITRA Study: Corn husk as shown in Fig 1, was collected from Aterna village in Panipat (Haryana). The fresh husk was medium-dark green in colour and soft in touch Fig. 1: Corn Husk bre

Fig 4: Yarn samples from corn husk bre Cornhusk/Cotton (30/70) Ring spun)

Cornhusk/Polyester (30/70) (Hand spun)

Cornhusk/Polyester (30/70) (Ring spun)

Cornhusk/Acrylic (30/70) (Ring spun

Fig 5: Cycle of converting waste cornhusk to Garments

CORN HUSK YARN

FABRIC OF CORN HUSK

CORN HUSK FIBRE CORN HUSK WASTE

Fresh cornhusks

Dried cornhusks

CORN HUSK WASTE

The garments were designed and constructed using fabric developed out of various blends of corn husk is shown in the Fig.6.

The cornhusks were cleaned manually to remove any external impurities and rotten leaves and cut into lengths ranging 3-5 inches as shown in Fig. 2. Cleaned and cut cornhusks

Cleaning of cornhusks

Cleaned cornhusks

GARMENT FROM CORN HUSK

Fig.: 6 Garments out of Corn Husk Fibre

55

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors are thankful to Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India for sponsoring this project. TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


ADVT.


Wool is an important protein bre for application as textiles. However the lack of antibacterial properties of such protein containing bre is held as a severe limitation for its applications in hygienic textiles and the need to make it antibacterial is quite intense. Green tea is considered to be a good antioxidant and can act as natural dye for dyeing of wool.

receding due to an increased environmental awareness and harmful effects because of either toxic degraded products or their non-biodegradable nature. In addition to above, some serious health hazards like allergenicity and carcinogenecity are associated with the synthetic dyes. As a result, a ban has been imposed all over the world including European Economic Community (EEC), Germany, USA and India on the use of some synthetic dyes like azo dyes which nally triggered active research and development to revive world heritage and traditional wisdom of employing safer natural dyes [5]. Consumers nowadays are becoming more and more concerned about environmental issues and hence are demanding natural products incorporating natural ingredient. Thus natural dyes are gaining increasing importance as they are obtained from renewable resources and they present practically no health hazards and some of them sometimes act as a health care products too [6].

In the current study, dye was extracted from green tea using aqueous extraction method. Wool fabrics were dyed using green tea extract using metal mordants and evaluated for dyeing properties like colour values and fastness as well as antibacterial properties. The dyed wool fabric displayed satisfactory colour values and good fastness properties as well as antibacterial properties against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The results clearly indicated the advantages of using such dye with metal mordants both in case of obtaining dyeing and antibacterial functionality to wool.

However, natural dyes in general, with few expectations are non-substantive and hence must be used in conjunction with mordants. Mordant is a chemical, which can x itself on the bre and also combines with the dyestuff. The challenge before the natural dyers in application of natural colour is necessity to us metallic mordants which themselves are pollutant and harmful. Due to the environmental hazard caused by metallic mordant while dyeing of textile fabric, manufacturer’ have to nd out safe natural mordant for application of natural dyes.

Keywords-Green tea; Natural dyeing; Antibacterial properties

There are many benecial aspects of green tea to human such as it is anti-carcinogenic anti-aggregant,anti-allergic,antibacterial,anti-mutagenic,and anti-oxidant. Besides these benecial aspects,it has been reported that green tea ingredients,especially polyphenolic families ,have some UV protection property both in vivo and in topical application[7].

Prof. M.D.Teli, Dean, SA&HRD,ICT Former HOD, Textile Department Javed Sheikh and Monika Mali Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology Prof. M.D.Teli,

Abstract

INTRODUCTION Textiles, especially those made of natural bers, are an excellent medium for the growth of microorganisms when the basic requirements for their growth such as nutrients, moisture, oxygen, and appropriate temperature are present. The large surface area and ability to retain moisture of textiles also assist the growth of microorganisms on the fabric [1] which intern results in inicting a range of unwanted effects not only on the textile itself but also on the wearer. These effects include the generation of unpleasant odor, stains, discoloration in the fabric, a reduction in the tensile strength of the fabric and an increased likelihood of contamination [2]. In the last few decades, with the increase in new antimicrobial bre technologies and the growing awareness about cleaner surroundings and healthy lifestyle, a range of textile products based on synthetic antimicrobial agents such as triclosan, metal and their salts, organometallics, phenols and quaternary ammonium compounds, have been developed and quite a few are also available commercially [3]. Even though the excellent antimicrobials are available, their effect on ecology is always a question. Under this backdrop some of the natural dyes reported to possess antimicrobial properties, attract the attention of the researchers in this eld.

PROCESSING FOCUS

HYGIENIC WOOL THROUGH DYEING WITH GREEN TEA

The tannins in green tea interact with proteins and are astringent and also have antioxidant activity. One of the polyphenols in green tea-epigallocatechin galate(EGCC)is thought to be more powerful than vitamin E for neutralizing free radicals.It contains caffeine as well as triterpene saponins,carotenoids and non-protein amino acids(thyeanine,2-amino-6-ethyamidoadipinic acid). Green tea is often included in anti-ageing skincare products for the antioxidant properties contained in the herb [8-10]. Tannins are astringent and antimicrobial in nature and metal salts are also known for such properties. Hence combination of metal mordants and green tean as a natural dye can impart antibacterial functionality to wool apart from the colour. The application of green tea using metal mordants hence can act in dual way of natural coloration and antibacterial nishing for wool. In the current work, the simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial nishing of wool fabric has been carried out using metal mordants and green tea. The colour values, fastness properties and antibacterial efcacy of the dyed material were evaluated.

On the other hand the development of synthetic dyes taken place at the beginning of the twentieth century has come a long way and led to a more complete level of quality and more reproducible techniques of application. Due to wide applications on variety of bres, and the economies of scale, considerable reduction in the dyestuff costs per kg of dyed goods has been achieved [4] making their application economical. But, during the last two decades, the use of synthetic dyes based on red listed chemicals is gradually

MATERIALS Wool fabric was purchased from the market. Green tea was purchased from the tea factory (Ooty, Tamilnadu). All chemicals used were of laboratory grade.

57

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


PROCESSING FOCUS

METHODS Preparation of mordant

Determination of antimicrobial activities of dyed fabrics The antibacterial activity of the dyed fabrics was estimated by AATCC Test Method 100-2004 [13]. The reduction in number of bacterial colonies formed with respect to the untreated control sample was estimated by using following equation,

The 1% stock solution of metal mordants (alum and CuSO4) was made by dissolving 1 gm of mordant powder in 100 ml water. The stock solutions were used for mordanting of wool fabric as per the concentration required (on the weight of fabric). Extraction of dye

R =

B where, R = reduction in bacterial count (%), A = the number of bacterial colonies recovered from the inoculated treated test specimen swatches in the jar incubated for 24 hr contact period;

The 1% stock solu on of the green tea was prepared by boiling 10 g of dry tea powder in 1000 ml water for 1 h. The extract was filtered and made to 1000 ml and used for dyeing. Mordanting and dyeing of wool

B = the number of bacterial colonies recovered from the inoculated untreated control test specimen swatches in the jar immediately after inoculation (at “0” contact time).

The mordanting of wool fabric was carried out in rota dyer (Rota Dyer machine, Rossari® Labtech, Mumbai) keeping the liquor to material ratio of 30:1.The fabrics were introduced into the mordant solution at room temperature and slowly the temperature was raised to 95oC. The mordanting was continued at this temperature for 30 min. After mordanting, the fabric was squeezed and dyed using green tea extract as a dye. The mordanted fabrics were introduced in dyebath and dyeing was continued at 900C for 1h. After dyeing, the fabrics were squeezed and washed with cold water.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Optimization of mordant and dye concentrations The dyeing of wool using metal mordant alum and CuSO4 was attempted and results are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. The wool fabrics were dyed using different mordant and dye concentrations. At the constant dye concentration, the increase in concentration of alum resulted in increase in colour values of wool till 20%. Hence 20% alum concentration was taken as an optimum concentration. For a constant alum concentration, K/S values were found to be increasing with green tea dye concentration from 5% to 20%. The colour value thus obtained, in the case of natural dyes is a combined contribution of the effect of mordant and the dye. Hence the K/S was improved with mordant and dye concentration initially till the equilibrium was reached. The increase in concentrations of either mordant or dye beyond optimum concentrations did not signicantly contribute in the improvement of the depth of dyeing which is reected in K/S values. Hence 20% dye concentration was taken as optimum.

Colour value by reectance method The dyed samples were evaluated for the depth of colour by reectance method using 10 degree observer and Spectraash K/S =

(1-R) 2 2R

SF 300 (Datacolor International, U.S.A.) equipped with reectance accessories. The K/S values were determined using expression; where, R is the reectance at complete opacity, K is the Absorption coefcient & S is the Scattering coefcient Dyed fabrics were simultaneously evaluated in terms of CIELAB colour space (L*, a* and b*) values using the Spectraash SF300. In general, the higher the K/S value, the higher the depth of the colour on the fabric. L* corresponding to the brightness (100= white, 0= black), a* to the red–green coordinate (+ve= red, ve =green) and b* to the yellow–blue coordinate (+ve =yellow, -ve =blue). As a whole, a combination of all these enables one to understand the tonal variations.

Table 1: Effect of alum and Green tea concentration on colour values of Wool fabrics Alum (%)

Washing fastness Evaluation of colour fastness to washing was carried out using ISO II methods [11]. Rubbing fastness Evaluation of colour fastness to rubbing (dry and wet) was carried out using “crock-meter” with 10 strokes of rubbing. Light fastness Dyed fabric was tested for colourfastness to light according to ISO 105/B02 [12]. The light fastness was estimated using articial illumination with Xenon arc light source, Q-Sun Xenon Testing Chamber with black standard temperature 65 0C with relative humidity of the air in the testing chamber as 40% and daylight lter, wavelength, k= 420 nm. The samples were compared with the standard scale of blue wool ratings. TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

100 (B – A)

58

5 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 15 15 15 15 20 20 20 20

Green Tea(%) 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20

K/S

L*

0.2716 0.2957 0.3171 0.3691 0.2809 0.3158 0.3277 0.3354 0.3426 0.3431 0.351 0.4081 0.292 0.3871 0.3769 0.5662

31.764 31.827 30.807 30.199 31.713 30.933 30.729 30.431 31.119 30.364 29.616 29.912 31.414 30.66 30.203 31.603

a* 4.558 4.491 5.444 6.041 4.695 5.179 5.649 6.004 4.968 5.6 6.143 6.313 4.513 5.66 5.957 4.331

b* 19.095 18.505 20.188 21.532 18.472 19.914 20.401 21.611 19.515 20.755 21.805 21.355 17.756 20.682 21.415 20.358


to removal in presence of various agencies are evaluated and results are summarized in Table 3. The results in Table 3 indicate the good to excellent fastness properties of the dyeings obtained using various mordants.

Table 2: Effect of CuSO4 and Green tea concentration on colour values of Wool fabric

The washing fastnesses obtained varied in the range of very good to excellent grade. The rubbing fastness was also found to be of the grade very good to excellent. Light fastness seemed to be dependent on the colour values and was distinctly higher in case of CuSO4 as a mordant. The light fastness properties were improved for mordant concentration 20% as compared to that for 5%, for both the mordants, as a result of increased colour values.

CuSO4 Green tea (%) (%) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 1 1 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2

5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20

K/S

7.9413 10.986 14.776 14.926 8.512 12.256 13.20 15.169 8.86 12.36 14.458 15.593 9.475 16.09 16.148 16.72

L*

48.8 42.38 35.95 35.37 47.33 40.04 39.2 36.26 46.97 40.17 37.11 34.87 45.50 35.13 34.21 34.01

a*

6.09 8.36 8.74 9.08 7.29 8.38 8.10 8.81 7.55 8.84 8.88 9.36 7.65 9.23 9.39 9.27

Table 3: Fastness properties of the dyed wool fabrics Mordant Mordant Green conc. Tea Conc. (%) (%) Alum 5 20 20 20 CuSO4 0.5 20 2 20

b*

21.9 21.52 19.31 19.21 22.26 20.75 20.67 19.94 22.59 21.23 20.28 19.35 22.03 19.91 19.06 19.37

Fastness Properties Washing

Rubbing

Light

4 4-5 4-5 4-5

4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5

4 5 6 7

PROCESSING FOCUS

Results in Table 2 clearly indicate the increase in K/S values with increasing CuSO4 concentrations from 0.5 to 2%. For a constant mordant concentration, K/S values increased with increasing dye concentration. The higher K/S values resulted using higher mordant and dye concentration. However the colour values got almost levelled- off for 2% mordant and 10% green tea concentration (refer Table 2). The colour values obtained using CuSO4 as a mordant were distinctly higher than those compared with that of alum as a mordant. However the different shades were obtained using different mordants and dye combinations enabling one to have wider choice of hues from the gamut of different shades obtained in case of natural dyeing.

A. Antibacterial activity of green tea dyed wool fabrics The quantitative antibacterial assessment was made using AATCC-100(2004) test method and the results are presented in Tables 4 Table 4: Effect of mordant type and concentration on antibacterial properties of dyed wool Mordant

Alum

CuSO4

The fastness properties which are the indication of resistance of dye to removal in presence of various agencies are evaluated and results are summarized in Table 3. The results in Table 3 indicate the good to excellent fastness properties of the dyeings obtained using various mordants. Results in Table 2 clearly indicate the increase in K/S values with increasing CuSO4 concentrations from 0.5 to 2%. For a constant mordant concentration, K/S values increased with increasing dye concentration. The higher K/S values resulted using higher mordant and dye concentration. However the colour values got almost levelled- off for 2% mordant and 10% green tea concentration (refer Table 2). The colour values obtained using CuSO4 as a mordant were distinctly higher than those compared with that of alum as a mordant. However the different shades were obtained using different mordants and dye combinations enabling one to have wider choice of hues from the gamut of different shades obtained in case of natural dyeing. The fastness properties which are the indication of resistance of dye

59

Mordant conc. (%)

Green tea

Bacterial Reduction (%)

conc. (%)

S.aureus

5 20 5 20 0.5 2 0.5 2

20 20 20 20

45.60 55.75 87.90 95.45 60.50 75.50 91.30 99.50

E. coli 45.50 55.50 88.25 96.65 61.25 78.75 93.50 99.75

In order to conrm the antibacterial activity of green tea as a dye, the antibacterial activity of only mordanted and mordanteddyed sample was evaluated. The antibacterial activity of only mordanted sample was lower, in both the mordants, than that of mordanted-dyed wool fabrics which indicates the positive contribution of green tea towards antibacterial activity. The dyed fabrics which were earlier mordanted showed excellent antibacterial activity against both S.aureus and E.coli bacteria. The antibacterial activity improved for higher mordant concentration in case of both the mordants. CONCLUSION Ecofriendly dyeing and antibacterial nishing of wool fabric was successfully carried out using metal mordants and green tea as a dye. The dyed product displayed good colour strength, although it was distinctly lower for alum than those obtained using CuSO4 as a mordant. The dyed wool also displayed superior fastness properties which were distinctly better for CuSO4 mordant. The natural mordanted-dyed samples displayed broad spectrum and efcient antibacterial activity. The role of green tea in imparting antibacterial functionality was also conrmed through the current research. The concept of natural dyeing of wool fabric using green tea as a dye and metal mordants with an aim to produce gamut of shades and the same time impart antibacterial property seems to be indeed promising one. TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


PROCESSING FOCUS

[7]

REFERENCES [1 ] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

[8]

Su, W., Wei, S., Hu, S. and Tang, J., Journal of the Textile Institute, 102, 150-156 (2011). Gao, Y. and Cranston, R., Textile Research Journal, 78, 60-72 (2008). Joshi, M., Ali, S. W., Purwar, R. and Rajendran, S., Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research, 34, 295-304 (2009). Bechtold, T., Turcanu, A., Ganglberger, E., Geissler, S., Journal of Cleaner Production, 11, 499–509 (2003). Kumary, J. K. and Sinha, A.K., Natural Product Letters, 18(1), 59–84 (2004). Prabhu, K.H., Teli, M.D. and Waghmare, N., Fibers and Polymers, 12(6), 753-759(2011).

[9] [10]

[11] [12] [13]

Anderson, B., Creative Spinning, Weaving and Plant Dyeing, Angus and Robinson, 24 28 (1971). http://www.scribd.com/doc/59595926/Dyeing-of-WoolFabric-With-Dye-Extracted-From-tea. http://resources.metapress.com/pdf preview.axd?code=size=largest1lw40162x6837g68& h t t p : / / w w w.  b r e 2 f a s h i o n . c o m / i n d u s t r y -article/19/1875/green-i s-good- organic-clothing-andherbal-dyeing1.asp Trotmann, E.R.. Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres, England: Charles Grifn and Company ltd, 1984. ISO technical manual, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006. American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists.

AATCC Technical Manual 2007, 76, Research Triangle Park, NC: AATCC.

GOTS LABELLING AND TRADEMARK PROTECTION “GOTS augments its commitment against logo misuse; Indian company banned for two years for misconduct”

registered GOTS logo (or the lettering ‘Global Organic Textile Standard’), the GOTS label grade (‘organic’ or ‘made with organic’), a reference of the certication body and the license number and/or name of the certied entity (see labelling sample).

With the increased recognition and value of GOTS logo and certication program, GOTS is also facing an increase in the number of trademark violations, false references to GOTS (certication) and fraudulent presentation that a company or its products are GOTS certied.

• Only a GOTS certied entity is authorised to apply theGOTS label to a product following approval and release by their assigned GOTS certier. • To avoid confusion and misleading consumers the GOTS labelling conditions do not offer use of the GOTS label (or reference to GOTS certication) on the garment / nal textile product if the GOTS certication is only valid for intermediates (such as yarn or fabric). A precondition for onproduct label use is that the whole value chain and the nal product are certied. Accordingly, claims used on textile products such as ‘this garment is made from GOTS certied cotton or yarn or fabric’ are self-claims of the seller and are neither veried nor allowed in the GOTS certication process.

The International Working Group investigates such transgressions and is concerned to take appropriate actions such as corrective and/or legal action and/or publication of the transgression so as to safeguard the credibility of the GOTS program and its labelling system. A company in Tirupur, India was banned for two years starting 10th July 2013. The reason was continued use of GOTS logo, certication reference and license number after being resigned from certication and ignoring corresponding notications and deadlines. Its GOTS certicate expired on 20th March, 2012 and has not been renewed since then.

• B2B traders must participate in the inspection and certication program before nal products can be labelled as GOTS certied. Traders having an annual turnover with GOTS Goods less than 5.000€ do not need to become certied but must register with an Approved Certier.

In order to avoid such implications and considering that most cases of unauthorised trademark use or false references are obviously based on lack of knowledge about (certain aspects of) the GOTS labelling system and the related certication requirements we would like to clearly state the following key features:

• Retailers who do not have a B2B trade activity and do not (re)pack or (re)label the GOTS Goods do not need to become certied but must assure that their seller (a trader or manufacturer) of the

• Correct and complete GOTS labelling shows the trademark

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

60


TVC : What about statutory support? For example, should it not be compulsory to use re- retardant fabrics in cinema theatres? RG : re retardant fabric is one example, but Government can also make policy for other areas also where few products are compulsory to use in particular situation. This will increase the usage and market size of that product and Indian technical textile will grow in tremendous height. TVC : What about standardization of products? What about enforcement of stipulated standards? RG : Standardized Certied products having more value in international market. So surely we should opt for same with consultation team of Consultants, Lab, Industry leaders & professionals. TVC : What kind of assistance from Government do you expect for Technical textile? RG : Government should form a team. Many Entrepreneurs are diversifying business looking at potential growth of technical textiles. New comers in industry expect subsidy, Technical support, International JV, infrastructure, many more. TVC : As technical textiles are still at nascent stage in India even from the point of usage. How will you like to promote enhanced usage of technical textile. RG : Marketing communication is needed for same. Today world is so fast with click of button or in ngertip need all information. As Indian adopting quickly new technology. TVC : Nin recent times, many industries prefer textiles as compare to metal or any other elements, what is reason behind it. RG : In industry like Automobiles, due to weight and cost textiles is better than any metal. Indian manufacturing of same is will be cost effective due to delivery and price.

Mr. Rajesh Gawade, Director of International Caliber Representative of Klieverik, The Netherlands

The company is active in Textile Machinery for many decades. Mr. Gawade very keen to expand himself in Technical textile industry. TVC is in conversation with Mr. Gawade. TVC : How do we create a strong scientic facility for technical textiles? What is your suggestion for creation of a strong Research facility/ facilities. RG : In India there are few key customers specialized in technical textiles. Few SMESs gaining knowledge of technology & product know how, growing towards potential of Technical textile market. Strong research facility need by Government along with private players/ leaders in Technical textile manufacturing. Research facility should have competent machinery, skilled, knowledgeable staff. Technical textiles have tremendous potential in local and international market. Though today we import many technical textile products from China. TVC : Do you recommend a separate degree course for Technical Textiles, where preliminary knowledge of the particular eld would be imparted? RG : There are well known colleges in India who can start special technical textile degree along with the conventional textile course, surely it makes life easier for technical textile manufacturer also. TVC : What about the availability of skilled workers in current situation. RG : Availability of skilled workforce is big challenge in this industry. Though if we properly guide and educate current degree holders of textile, they will be fruitful for future growth of industry.

IN CONVERSATION WITH ...

MR. RAJESH GAWADE, DIRECTOR OF INTERNATIONAL CALIBER

MR. ABHIJIT BAM, CHIEF NETWORKING OFFICER customers in the Textile space irrespective of their size or scale. If an organization has any business challenge then we already have a solution or we will help nd a solution. Our ecosystem partners play a critical role in this entire business model. The Textile Hub Divisions We offer services across the following 12 divisions: Business Advisory, Research, Technology, Finance, Marketing, Sales, Events, Training & Education, Publications, Industrial Tours, HR, Production, Production Support, Infrastructure and Trading. The Direction Ahead Currently 95% of our businesses is services and about 5% is product focused. In the next 3 years we see a gradual shift from being a pure service provider to becoming a multiple products centric rm. 3 years from now 30% of our revenue would be services and 70% of our revenue would be through products. We are currently based out of Mumbai and are rapidly looking to expand within India and internationally through a partner network.

The Textile Hub is a Business Concierge for organizations only in the Fibre to Fashion Textile space. We intend to create strategic impact for organizations in the textile space through a range of our services. For all the Textile rms we are positioned as “Aapka Business Saarthi”. The Textile Hub is a one stop shop to help nd solutions to business challenges for organizations in the Textile Supply Chain. Along with our 70+ strong and growing partner ecosystem we have helped over 200+ Textile organizations achieve their business goals. The Textile Hub Vision Our actions create value for our employees, clients, partners, investors and make the Indian Textile Community globally competitive. Our mission is to be involved in the growth & all round development of the Indian Textile Industry and thus have a direct bearing on the improvement of the economy of the nation. The Textile Hub Business Model The Textile Hub Business Model revolves around adding value to

Contact:l: Website: www.thetextilehub.com

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TECHNICAL TEXTILES

PET BOTTLE RECYCLING & NONWOVENS

material in the production of carpet ber. PET is the most widely recycled plastic in the world. PET can be recycled multiple times and used in a variety of products. Recycled PET is used for many end products including ber, berll, carpet, strapping, food and non-food bottles, and thermoformed packaging such as cups and take-out containers. PET reclaimers wash, grind and further process PET containers for re-use in new products. PET thermoform manufacturers are using increasing amounts of recycled PET in their packaging, up to 100%.

Mr. Avinash Mayekar, CEO & MD Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd.

Introduction Latest trend that is catching up in the textile industry is the recycling of PET bottles for manufacture in to bres. PET bottles recycled into bres and other applications not only help us in saving energy but also in reducing carbon emissions. This market is growing at a relatively faster pace globally as well as in India as the PET recycled bres can replace most of the applications in which polyester bres can be used. The recycled PET bres can even be used in the manufacture of various types of nonwovens for high-end technical use.

PET recycling not only saves energy and reduces emissions, it creates domestic jobs. On an average, it takes 70% less energy to produce a product from recycled plastic than from raw materials. For every pound of recycled PET ake used, energy use is reduced by 84%; greenhouse gas emission by 71%. Conversion rates of bottles are as follows: 5 PET bottle of 2 Liter 5 PET bottle of 2 Liter 19 PET bottle of 2 Liter 20 PET bottle of 2 Liter 35 PET bottle of 2 Liter 60 PET bottle of 2 Liter

PET Bottle Recycling & Their Benets Polyethylene terephthalate or as it is more commonly known PET or PETE is a polymer resin that is part of the polyester family. Polyethylene terephthalate is a transparent, lightweight, strong, safe, shatterproof and recyclable packaging material with an inherent barrier, making it suitable for a wide array of product applications. It has a wide range of uses including synthetic bers, food, beverage and other liquid containers. Average 60% of global production of PET is used in the manufacture of synthetic bers. Bottle production accounts for about 30% of the PET produced.

1 T-shirt 1 Ski-jacket 1 Sweater 1 Filter 1 Sleeping bag 1 m2 Carpet

Globally the collection rate of PET bottles is at an average of around 36%. Asian region has the highest collection rate of 78.2%. China has the highest collection rate of almost 90% whereas India is second to it with around 75%. The collection rate in India has appallingly grown to this rate from negligible in last ve years. The collection rates in North America and South America is around 30% and 37.5% respectively. Approximately 1.5 billion pounds of used PET bottles and containers are recovered in the U.S. each year for recycling, making it the most recycled plastic in America. In Canada, PET container recycling rates range from 60–80% depending on the province. In Toronto, single-use PET bottles comprise less than 1% of the city's municipal solid waste.

PET is simply referred to as polyester when it is used in textile applications. The name PET or PETE is used mainly in packaging applications. The most common use of PET as a packaging material is its use as a raw material for bottles and other containers of consumer goods. Some of these are used in bottles for soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, edible oils, pharmaceuticals and detergents. PET is one of the most common plastics being used by consumers.

In Europe, PET is the largest plastic material recycled, with the equivalent of more than 60 billion bottles recycled in 2012. From a sustainability perspective, European industry has achieved an overall collection rate in 2012 of more than 52% of all post-consumer PET bottles available in the region.

The PET package is simply discarded by the consumer and becomes part of the waste stream as post-consumer waste. In the recycling industry, this is known as post-consumer PET. Most thermoplastics can be recycled and PET is no exception. PET bottle recycling is also more practical and more easily executed because they are more easily identiable in the recycle stream since most soft drink and water bottles are made exclusively of PET. PET has the resin identication number 1.

In Africa-Middle East region, the collection rate of PET bottles is around 13.9%. As per PET Plastic Recycling Company (Pty) Ltd. (PETCO) and its' 28 signatories, post-consumer plastic beverage bottle recycling in South Africa grew by 18% year on year in 2012. The recycling rate rose from 42% in 2011 to 45% in 2012, while the local market consumption of PET grew from 145 000 to 166 000 tonnes. According to PETCO, this amounts to the recycling of over 1.9 billion PET plastic beverage bottles in 2012 – that's an astonishing 5.3 million bottles each and every day.

The sorted bottles are rst broken down into small akes and compressed into bales which are easier to transport and are then used to make new bottles or other products such as textile bers. PET is easily recycled and since there is abundance postconsumer PET in bottle form it is becoming a preferred source of TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

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With the global economy strengthening, raw-material consumption is projected to reach 9.574 million tonnes by 2015, with a CAGR of 8.5% for 2010-15. This is up on a 6.1% CAGR for the 2005-10 period. Polypropylene polymer is by far the single largest raw material used in nonwovens, accounting for 37% of all raw materials for nonwovens in 2010 and Smithers Apex expects this share to exceed 40% by 2015. PET bre is the second largest consumed of the raw materials for nonwovens with around 18% share.

Globally, the production of recycled PET stands at 9.5 mn. tons in 2012 and is growing at a rate of 7% whereas in India, the production of recycled PET is 0.35 mn. tons growing at a rate of 12%.

NONWOVEN INDUSTRY

TECHNICAL TEXTILES

reached the level of 18,97,748 tonnes and 55,740 million square metres in 2011.

Globally, around 72% of recycled PET is converted to bre whereas the other products manufactured from recycled PET are PET sheets, strapping, Bottles-non food contact, bottles-food contact etc. In India, the conversion rate of recycled PET is around 95% for use in to textile application and other applications are strapping etc.

As per EDANA, nonwovens are unique, high-tech, engineered fabrics made from bres and which are used across a wide range of applications and products. Nonwovens are innovative, versatile and

indispensable. The production of nonwovens can be described as taking place in three stages, although modern technology allows an overlapping of some stages, and in some cases all three stages can take place at the same time.

Market gains in developing parts of Asia, Eastern Europe, the Africa/Mideast region, and Central and South America will outpace gains in the US, Western Europe and Japan. Product sales in developing areas will be fueled by above-average economic growth, ongoing industrialization efforts and rising living standards. China alone will account for almost half of additional global volume demand through 2015. Lowervolume markets such as India and Brazil are also expected to achieve growth above the global average.

Following are the three stages of nonwoven manufacturing: According to a new study by Smithers Apex, the global nonwovens market is projected to reach $40.1 billion by 2015 with a CAGR of 8.5% over a ve year period. Driving this gure is the high growth Asian market with forecast CAGR of over 14% for the same period. Currently, the demand in North American region is the highest in the world. However, owing to the rapid growth, Asian markets are bound to be the highest consumer of nonwovens by 2015.

In India, the consumption of nonwoven fabrics has increased by 12.7% per year in constant dollars to USD 390 million by the end of 2012. These dollar sales represent nonwoven product that is produced within India and nonwovens that are imported in roll good forms or in a converted state, such as baby diapers or modied bitumen roong materials. Driving this growth is the rising standard of living as the country industrializes. The rising consumption of nonwoven materials versus other nations is illustrated in the gure on the following sheet.

In terms of consumption, there are 2 types of nonwovens – durable and disposable. The market share of durable markets is around 60% of the total nonwoven market whereas the disposable market is around 40%. As has been the case for most of the 2005-10 period, disposable nonwovens are expected to continue their loss of market share to durable nonwovens in everything but value through to 2015.

India's disposable markets accounted for 35% of the total whereas the durable markets account for around 65% of the total market. The major durable markets are interlinings, bedding and upholstered furnishings, automotive, geotextiles, building construction, agriculture and landscape, carpet components and coated/laminated substrates. Absorbent hygiene products, wipes and some medical/surgical are some of the largest segments within the disposable market. The other disposables segments are fabric softener substrates, oil and

EDANA, the International Association Serving the Nonwovens and Related Industries, in its public summary of its annual statistics on Nonwovens Production and Deliveries for 2011 has shown a growth in production volume for 2011 of 5.7%, with several market segments recording their best output ever in both tonnage and square metres, including baby diapers, medical, personal care wipes, civil engineering, automotive and agriculture. The total deliveries

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TECHNICAL TEXTILES

the use of nonwoven in different applications. The other difculty which investor faces is in huge capital investments in case of high-end technical products and in requirement of huge working capital. Also the investor being a novice in the eld of technical textiles nds it difcult to get a joint venture partner for selling of his/her products. Absence of existing norms and mandatory requirements of technical textiles for specic end applications makes it difcult for the investor to understand the actual requirements of the market.

chemical sorbents, sterile and non-sterile packaging materials, courier envelopes, miscellaneous airlaid pulp markets and numerous other small and emerging markets. Driving this growth has been the industrialization of India that has resulted in the growing purchasing power of consumers. The rising number of woman working outside the home in new industries is increasing disposable family incomes. This continues to have a signicant impact on raising consumer spending on many products that use nonwoven materials.

Summary About 20,000 plastic bottles are needed to obtain one ton of plastic. The process of a recycled plastic bottle is energy saving and green. It has wider applications and can replace all the conventional products including nonwovens which are used in geotextiles, agrotextiles, automobiles, medical textiles, consumer goods etc. The challenge is collection of bottles and segregating it based on colour, grade and foreign materials.

Recycled PET in Nonwovens Polyester is today the second most used bre in nonwovens both in terms of production and consumption. Polyethylene terephthalate or polyester is made by condensation polymerisation of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid followed by melt extrusion and drawing. It can be used in either continuous form or as short staple of varying lengths. The popularity of polyester largely stems from its easycare characteristics, durability and compatibility with cotton in blends. Its very low moisture absorbency, resilience and good dimensional stability are additional qualities.

Recycling of PET bottles is increasing across the world in order to reduce carbon emissions from the virgin polyester manufacturing. With classical Indian tradition of reuse and recycle, any form of waste into various applications has automatically diverted attentions of many entrepreneurs to look at the opportunity of PET recycled bres & yarns. This has resulted into one of the largest PET recycled country to the tune of 75% after China. The process of converting bottles into bres & yarns is relatively easier and has a cost advantage. The cost of such bres & yarns is 10-20% cheaper than the virgin polyester.

Polyester is used in variety of application of nonwovens like geotextiles, agrotextiles, automobiles, medical textiles, consumer goods etc. In geotextiles, polyester based nonwovens can be used in variety of applications like drainage systems, roadway separation / railroad stabilization, asphalt overlays, geomembrane protection, landill leachate collection, hard armor underlayment etc. In agrotextiles, polyester nonwovens can be used in variety of applications like mulch mats, crop covers etc. In automobiles, polyester nonwovens can be used in applications like carpets, acoustics, ceilings, seat covers, interim trim etc. Some of the medical applications of polyester nonwovens are wipes, surgical gowns, masks etc. These are just some of the applications wherein polyester nonwovens can be used. There are many more applications in sectors like construction, clothing, home textiles, industrial textiles etc.

Recycled PET can be used in all segments of technical textiles in one or the other form and has wide range of application. One of the major signicant uses of recycled PET is in nonwoven industry which is still in nascent stage in India. The trend of consumption of nonwovens has been established with respect to average purchasing power of the country and as we know that India's purchasing power has started growing and will lead to increase in per capita consumption of nonwovens. With the increase in consumption of nonwoven, recycled PET will lead to increased consumption in various applications.

The polyester bres obtained from recycling of PET bottles is similar in properties of virgin polyester. The difference between virgin PET and Recycled PET is indistinguishable. Hence, nonwovens from recycled PET bres can be used in most of the above mentioned applications where strength is not the major parameter for its application.

It can also be blended with cotton, viscose etc. and can be used for apparels and made-ups. In short, it has no limitations in terms of applications. It can replace almost 40-50% of virgin polyester products. Recycled PET will reduce the pollution and improve energy conservation as compared to manufacturing of virgin polyester by chemical process as recycle process is nothing but depolymerisation and reorientation of polymer chain. This industry is creating a huge indirect employment for collection of bottles and provides self-sustainability to poor laborers. It will also help to reduce the waste and directly and indirectly helps society, nation and environment.

Challenges faced by the Nonwoven Industry in India There are various challenges faced by the nonwoven industry in India. India is not witnessing many investments in this industry even though the market is growing at a decent rate. One of the major constraints for the investors to enter this sector is the complex marketing aspect of the applications of nonwovens. The nonwovens are used into both consumer and industrial applications. There is wide range of consumers from hospitals to railways to automotive industries to agriculture to road infrastructure. Hence, to have a common mantra for marketing of nonwovens becomes a bit difcult for the industry. The marketing strategy for each and every product will differ depending upon its end use.

References : 1) Plastic News 2) Relpet Newsletter, Reliance Industries Limited 3) European Disposables and Nonwovens Association (EDANA) 4) Smithers Apex 5) Handbook of Technical Textiles edited by A R Horrocks and S C Anand

Also the raw material, machinery and equipment differ from application to application. Hence, the difculty rises in generalizing

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The 3nd Annual General Meeting(AGM) of the Indian Technical Textile Association(ITTA) was held on 27th September 2013 at Mumbai Cricket Association(MCA) Club, Bandra Kurla Complex, Mumbai. The highlight of the AGM was interactive session on the theme of “Role of ITTA in the growth of technical textile industry”. The members actively participated in the discussion and many new points emerged for taking forward ITTA for the growth of the industry. The ITTA also announced the new Board of directors and in the rst meeting of the reconstituted Board, the Board of directors elected the new ofce bearers. The reconstituted Board and new ofce bearers are as follows: Board of Directors and ofce bearers of ITTA 1. Shri Pramod Khosla, , Chairman 2. 3. 4. 5

and decided to create a separate identity of technical textiles industry in terms of exclusive HSN codes for taking up with government for providing incremental incentives under various schemes particularly export schemes like Focus Product Scheme(FPS), Focus Market Scheme(FMS), Duty Drawback and Interest subvention etc. the Board has also decided to work proactively for increasing the consumption of technical textiles in the country and make efforts to place Indian technical textile industry as a signicant player in the global arena.

Chairman & Managing Director, Khosla Prol Pvt. Ltd. Dr. K. S. Sundraraman, Vice Chairman Executive Director, Shiva Texyarn Ltd., Shri V. Kannan, Finance Director Vice President, Reliance Industries Ltd. , Shri Amit Agarwal, Hon’ Secretary Chairman, CTM Technical Textiles Ltd. , Shri Chandrakant M. Khetan, Joint Secretary CMD, Entremonde Polycoaters Ltd. ,

AGM CORNER

INDIAN TECHNICAL TEXTILE ASSOCIATION ( ITTA)

3rd AGM of ITTA(27th September 2013)

In its rst meeting held on 3rd October 2013 the Board observed that the technical textiles is a knowledge based industry different from conventional textiles and requires focused attention from the government agencies and other stake holders. The Board also observed that there is ambiguity in terms of technical textile products

Meeting of reconstituted Board of ITTA in progress (3rd October2013)

INDIAN TEXTILE ACCESSORIES & MACHINERY ASSOCIATION ( ITAMMA) ITAMMA’s 70th AGM meeting was held on 20th September, 2013 at M.G. Ghia Hall, Colaba, Mumbai. AGM well conducted by Mr. N.D. Mhatre, Sec. Gen of ITAMMA. Past President Mr. Naresh Mistry welcomed all and spoken about activities, development done by association during last one year. It includes participating ITME 2012 tradeshow, various social service activities, international tie up, all activities which are of benets to ITAMMA members. He had welcome new incoming President Shri Diven Dembla. AGM Guest of Honor was Shri Prakash Bhagwati, chairman of TMMA. He Congratulated and thanked ITAMMA team for inviting him. He had given detail views on Textile engineering sector in india and international competitiveness that textile engineering sector requires. As still major part of Textile industry dependent on importing Textile Machinery. As lack of technology innovation, research, manufactures are in this sector. His eye opening speech with Conviction to do something unique in Textile engineering industry made all members thrilled. AGM Chief Guest, Shri. Sushil Jiwarajka, Chairman of OMC Power, Excellent Speaker. He took away all members attention and concentration till 45 minutes. His vision, international experience, case studies on different industry Innovation and development, made all think where we are in Textile as compare to other industry…!!! Innovation is way to Growth, Something Unique &

different is Life ….!!! After his speech, ITAMMA Export Excellence Awards for 2012-13 given to all respected compnies who had achieved excelled in business. Few companies got awards are Precision Rubber industries, Lakshmi ring travelers, Supertex Industries, Maksteel Wire Healds Pvt. Ltd., Gurjar Gravures Pvt. Ltd. Sunita impex, Samruddhi Engineering, Century Inks Pvt. Ltd End of interesting speech, Awards, Committee member of ITAMMA thanked all to be part of AGM..!!!

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AGM CORNER

SRTEPC Exports of MMF textiles on path of recovery is a urgent need of acceleration in modernization and capacity building in Fabrics, processing & Technical Textiles.

Shri Rakesh Mehra, Chairman, The Synthetic & Rayon Textiles Export Promotion Council in his address at the Annual General Meeting in Mumbai on 12th September 2013 said that exports of MMF textiles which had achieved consistent growth in the last 10 years witnessed negative growth in the last six quarters. However, he stated that the exports of MMF textile were on the path of recovery and expressed condence that the target of US $6 billion set for the year 2013-14 shall be achieved.

Dwelling on the Council’s Promotional Programmes, Shri Mehra mentioned that the Council had successfully organized Exhibitions/Fairs in various countries recently including exclusive Exhibitions in Pakistan and Iran which went a long way in boosting exports to these markets. Shri Mehra further informed that the Council has chalked an ambitious promotional programme for the year 2013-14 with Exhibitions being held in markets such as Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Mexico, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Sudan, South Korea, China, Burma, Cambodia, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. The SRTEPC Chairman sought the active participation of member companies in the promotional programmes to achieve the export target of US$ 6 billion set for the year 2013-14.

The SRTEPC Chairman was optimistic that the scenario during 2013-14 would be better. He mentioned that the US economy and Eurozone were showing signs of recovery which is expected to bring about stabilization in the global economy. He stated that the weakness in the rupee has come in at an opportune time and is likely to aid efforts to boost exports. He further remarked that exports of Indian MMF textiles during July 2013 witnessed a growth of 13 % as compared to the same month in the previous year. The year 2012-13 was a challenging year for the Indian manmade textile exports according to Shri Mehra. He added that during the year, exports of Indian man-made bre textiles declined by 9% compared to the previous year to US$ 5374 million and the decline was witnessed in all the product groups except for made-ups which registered a growth of 3.34%. The SRTEPC Chairman welcomed the enhancement of interest rate subvention from 2 to 3% across the tariff lines for MSMEs and some select tariff lines in made-ups. However, he mentioned that he has further requested the government to allow subvention benet to all the tariff lines of MMF textiles which he believed would reduce interest burden on exporters during these difcult times. Talking about the TUF Scheme, the Chairman said that he was glad that the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has given its approval for the Technology Up-gradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) to be operated during the 12th Plan Period. The total budget outlay of the Scheme during the 12th Plan Period will be about Rs.11,900 crore, out of which Rs. 2,400 crore have been allocated for the nancial year 2013-14. He thanked the Government of India for continuation of TUF Scheme, as there

Shri Rakesh Mehra, Chairman, The Synthetic & Rayon Textiles Export Promotion Council (SRTEPC) addressing the 59th Annual General Meeting of the Council on 12th September 2013 in Mumbai. Also seen in picture from l to r Shri E. L. Paulo, Acting Executive Director. SRTEPC; Shri Anil Rajvanshi, Vice Chairman, SRTEPC; Shri Ganesh Kumar Gupta, former Chairman, SRTEPC; Shri R. L. Toshniwal, former Chairman and Shri Nitin Jhaveri, auditor.

The 12th AGM of Faitma been held at 6.30 PM on Friday, 27th Sept 2013 at Hotel Mirador. AGM meeting started with opening note of dignitaries. Shri Ramesh Poddar, in his presidential address, complemented textile industry for sustained efforts to achieve higher degree of growth. FAITMA had been keen on growing industry economy, we predicted for brighter future to come. The Chief Guest on the occasion Shri M.S. Unnikrishnan, MD & CEO , Thermax Ltd., his speech was continuous ow of knowledge and wisdom. The entire audience was spell- bound through his speech. A new website inaugurated by Chief Guest Shri M.S. Unnikrishnan. Website has been designed to get reliable source of information on capacity & new achievement of the members & efforts made by them in the direction of products diversication with the facility of free access. Website expected to become strong aid for successful tool for marketing products of members. TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

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VOLTAS, EAT India. Economy model of looms were present with options by Laxmi, and Chinese manufacturers. Thus the visitor had a chance to compare looms from a range of 2.5 Lakh Rupees to 30 Lakh Rupees under one roof. An unique opportunity that was appreciated by all. The well planned layout not only included the weaving machines but also the preparatory machines and accessories need to operate them well.

POST SHOW REPORT

Sharad Tandon of Standon consulting is pleased to announce the successful second edition of Weavetech. The rst of its kind concept in exhibition at manufacturers door step started in year 2012 focussing on the major textile cluster of Bhiwandi. Also it focussed on the specic sector of weaving which is one of the major areas of potential growth and modernisation. Following the encouraging response to the concept and execution from both Exhibitors and visitors Weavetech13 was organised on 21st September 2013 at Hotel Tip Top, Thane. Once again the event was hailed for its smooth and professional functioning and arrangements. Being a one day Exhibition focus

The exhibition saw an attendance of 275 visitors, majority of them unit owners and decision makers interested to put up new units or expand. Exhibitors were happy with the quality of enquires and they expect to close business with some of them shortly. As always the media lent a supportive hand and TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN was present as media partner.

was more on quality rather than quantity. Once again cream of Exhibitors from all over world and India were present and showcased their products. Among loom manufacturers ITEMA, DORNIER, PICANOL, TSUDAKOMA, TOYOTA were present in the high end segment. Also present were products from China in the medium range segment as displayed by ATE,

SEMINAR ON IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY AUDIT BY SHRI S.V.MOHILE, OFFICER IN-CHARGE, SADMIRA POWERLOOM SERVICE CENTER

Seminar held on 21st Sep, 2013 at Sasmira Powerloom Service Center, Bhiwandi, to know how the energy audit is carried out in weaving industry in Bhiwandi and how it will be benecial in commercial manner.

Day-by-day the energy cost will be increasing and it will be necessary for all of us to think over it to reduce the usage of electricity, or some measures are required to be adopted to improve the power factor. The scope of energy audit:

Energy Audit is a systematic approach for decision making in the areas of energy management. It quantities the energy usage according to its discrete functions. Energy audit is an effective tool in dening & pursuing comprehensive energy management programme. This will help to understand more about the ways energy & fuel are used in any establishments & help in identifying the areas where waste can occur.

1] Analyse the present consumption and past trends in details. 2] Consider sub-metering 3] Compare standard consumption to actual, etc. So in brief the energy audit is an in-depth study of a facility to determine how and where energy is being used or converted from one form to another, to identify opportunities to reduce energy usage, to evaluate the economics & technical practicability of implementing these reductions & implementing measures to save energy.

The energy required in our loom shed is to run the loom as well as machines like warping, winding,etc. In the factory we also use tube lights and air conditioner. It is necessary to look for better power factor. Energy Audit helps us to improve the power factor.The energy audit would give a positive orientation to the energy cost reduction, preventive maintenance & quality control programme, which are vital for production & utility activities.

While concluding Mr. Mohile said that the energy audit is the translation of conservation ideas to realities, by blending technically feasible solutions with economic & other organizational considerations within a specied time frame.

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POST SHOW REPORT

SCREEN PRINT INDIA 2013 Devang N. Sheth, Director, Aditya Expositions, the event organisers, extended a warm welcome to this very special 2013 edition of the Screen Print India show. “Four decades ago, the Screen Printing industry was only known for was stickers and stationery. Today, there is hardly any aspect of our lives that Screen Printing does not touch. From T-shirts to automobiles, cell phones to supermarket labels, its everywhere and the potential for further growth seems almost limitless. Every printer is looking to go beyond the basic clients and domestic markets to take up complex assignments for global brands. One has to compete with not just the local printers and suppliers of machines/ materials but with those across the world.

11th edition, Screen Print India 2013.” Responding to this overwhelming demand, after 10 hugely successful editions in Mumbai, the dedicated exhibition, Screen Print India, made its way to NSIC Exhibition Complex, Okhla, New Delhi from September 19-22, 2013. The event was inaugurated by Shri A K Sinha, Directorate of Printing, Govt. of India. Mr. Vimlesh Arora, SGAI ofce bearer & MD of JN Arora & Company (P) Ltd. and Mr. Rajeev Arora, Chairman of J N Arora & Co. (P) Ltd. were the other dignitaries at the inauguration ceremony, along with Mr. Virendra Malik of Sumi Publications. The Exhibitor Prole at Screen Print India 2013 encompassed Technology Drivers, Knowledge Transferees, Manufacturers, Distributors, Dealers, Service Providers and Allied, contributing to any process of Screen Printing, Textile Printing and Digital Printing. Visitor Prole will comprise leading Industrial Screen Printers, Technicians, Consultants, Professionals, Entrepreneurs, Products or Service Providers to End-Users who are employing Screen Printing, Textile Printing and Digital Printing as a substantial part of their process. Squadron Leader Suri spoke on Kirgistan and how he is training people in screen printing there. He invited those gathered to visit and see how the industry can be developed even in remote places. Thanking everyone for making Screen Print India 2013 a grand success, Devang N. Sheth shared that the next edition Screen Print India 2014 would be held in Goa. Extending an invitation to all members of the screen printing fraternity to participate and attend the forthcoming event.

So it is essential to be updated with the latest developments in technology and methods.” We extended Screen Print India to North India for the rst time. We hope our efforts have had the desired impact and you have all beneted by participating in this

TECHTEXIL 2013 The much awaited Technical Textile Tradefair “Techtexil 2013” organized by Messe Frankfurt Tradefair India Pvt. Ltd. which was held on 3rd to 5th Oct 2013 at Bombay Exhibition Center, Mumbai, spread across 6000sqm. The tradefair hosted 182 exhibitors from 11 countries & 5 international Pavilions of Belgium, China, France, Germany & Italy. Tradefair attracted visitors across India & globe.

really means that India is growing. We have lot of leaner who can learn & teach about this new Unconventional Textile Industry.

New Product Launched & showcased in exhibition, few companies details as follows:  Georg Sahm Gmbh & Co. introduced a compact winder for technical yarns.  Sidwin fabric Pvt. Ltd. Introduced reective coated nonwoven fabric insulation barrier and new brand of agriculture nonwoven products “ Agriwin”.  ANDRITZ presented new production lines for nonwovens such as needlepunch, spunlace, wetlaid, spunlaid nishing.

The Show was inaugurated by Mrs. Shashi Singh, Executive Director, ITTA ; Mr. Suresh Kannan, Vice President, SRF Ltd.; Mr. Stephan Buurma, MD, Messe Frankfurt Asia Holding Ltd.; Mr. Raj Manek, MD, Messe

Overall show was a great success, Exhibitors left with lots of order and with hope that once they come after 2 year in 2015, the wind of Unconventional / Technical textile would have been changed. Messe Frankfurt announced next show on 24th to 26th Sep, 2015 at same place.

Frankfurt Trade Fairs India Pvt. Ltd. Show is visited by various categories of people like Leaders, industrialist, Entrepreneur in technical textiles, Educationist, Students, Consultants, Association, Conventional Textile Entrepreneur, Curious Learner, Media & many more. By looking at diverse crowd it TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

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It was on a very positive and optimistic note that the three-day twin shows Yarnex / TexIndia 2013 concluded at Tirupur on 21st September 2013. The show with around 76 exhibitors attracted 4711 top visitors, the highest turnout ever. The last few years, India's yarn and textile industry has been crisis ridden, surviving one crisis after another - from volatile cotton prices, power crisis, to weak overseas demands. But all of a sudden, for the rst time in many years, there seems to be a silver lining around the clouds in the sky. The last two months alone has seen China buy 140 million kg of yarn from India, about 75 percent more than usual. With China's appreciating currency and rising labor costs, yarn spinning in that country is becoming uncompetitive forcing it to look elsewhere for supplies. A number of importers from China and the inquiries they made at Yarnex conrmed this trend. The twin shows were being held in the background of this exciting news. The weakening rupee and the fact that the US, a major buyer, is still holding on as a consumer were the other positive factors for India.

been quite good. This is an opportunity to meet new customers as we are reaching out to a wider customer base.” Mr Pankaj Bhardwaj, AGM (Dyed Yarn Marketing), Vardhman Polytex Ltd., Ludhiana “An excellent show! We are completely satised. The quality of customers and the overall atmosphere at the show was very positive.

POST SHOW REPORT

TWIN SHOWS YARNEX / TEXINDIA ENDS WITH AN OPTIMISTIC NOTE

Mr Alakan K., Head – Marketing, Pallavaa Group, Erode “The visitors who we wanted to meet were here. There were buyers not only from Tirupur and the surrounding areas, but also from countries like UK, Thailand and Germany. This event gives us a chance to meet our customers and also get a few new faces each time. We also get an opportunity to display all our new launches as well as some of our other products under one roof. The Long Laast poly cotton has been well received in the market.” Mr Faisal Malkani, Director, Netex (India) Pvt Ltd, Mumbai

The event was inaugurated by Mr Chandran N., Chairman and Managing Director, Eastman Exports and Vice President, Tirupur

“All the three days have been good. Till date, we have not seen such a response at any of the shows we have attended. A lot of quality visitors had come and we even managed to get spot orders too. We had overseas visitors from places like UK and we feel we will be able to convert Visitors came in not only from the neighboring towns of Tirupur like Salem, Erode, Coimbatore, Madurai, etc., but also from far ung areas of India like New Delhi, Panipat, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai, Surat, Ichalkaranji and Ahmedabad, amongst others. This year also saw a large number of overseas visitors from places like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, South Korea, UK, USA, Finland, Germany and China.

Exporters Association along with other distinguished guests Mr Ahil Ratnaswamy, President, Knit Cloth Manufacturers Association, Mr A. C. Eswaran, President, SIMA and Mr Elangovan, Chairman and Managing Director, SNQS International buying house at Tirupur. Said Mr Chandran: "Every year, I see the show growing and improving. I see a lot synthetic blends which should help Tirupur manufacturers an opportunity to further their exports. At present India exports 80 percent cotton and 20 percent synthetics and blends. Even if we increase the share marginally, we will be gaining a lot." Mr Elongavan noted that the shows enabled them to learn a lot about the new developments in the industry. For example, he said, they found a lot of new varieties of warp-knitted fabrics besides micro bers like polyester and nylon and spandex. The show was lled with visitors from the morning itself of day one. Exhibitors expressed their satisfaction with many of them opting for bigger stalls next year. Exhibitors at Yarnex: Mr Amir Sheikh, Marketing, Indorama Industries Ltd, Chandigarh “We are participating at Yarnex for the rst time and we used this forum to present our new spandex ber Inviya. The visitors were happy that they are able to get a good product and the response has

69

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


SKILL GAP & ANALYSIS

POST EVENT REPORT : 6TH GLOBAL SKILL SUMMIT 2013 6th Global Skill Summit (GSS) was organized by FICCI in association with the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Ministry of Labour & Employment and National Skills Development Corporation. Ernst & Young Is the knowledge partner and New Zealand Is the partner country. on 4th to 6th September, 2013 at Federation House, New Delhi. Objective of summit is to improve Skill development in every sector. As getting right skill is major challenges we face in India. Three days summit was highly informative and successful with many JV's with International Education systems.

this is the right time to focus on skills development to minimize wastage and improve productivity. I urge the industry to whole heartedly support the Sector Skill Councils to become more effective. Through the Sector Skill Councils, India Inc. needs to reach out to the aspiring unemployed.” She also emphasized the need for leadership in the sector. Private players and NGOs must stress on developing skills of their employees. Without leaders, who can drive this mission, it will be very challenging for India to maintain its leadership position in the world, she added. The FICCI Chief said that for facilitating the skilling process and for industry to participate whole heartedly, conducive policies are required. "We need to create a pull factor both for the youth and industry participate. Recently, some of the notications received on the issues of removing private training partners afliated to NSDC from the negative list of service tax and the industry getting left out of the provisions of section 35 CCD need to be reviewed. The enthusiasm now being shown by industry to take the lead should not be dampened," Ms. Kidwai cautioned. the following recommendations that can be taken up:

Inaugurating the Summit, Dr. Pallam Raju, Union Minister for HR Development called for concentrated efforts to create an ecosystem that assigns dignity to vocational education. “This will go a long way in addressing the current aspiration mismatch where everyone aspires for a qualication, but qualications alone don't lead to jobs,” he said and added that a massive campaign is required to ensure that youth in India take up vocational education and technical training as a serious career choice and not as a chance. At a local level, the industry could enforce it by ensuring that their ancillary services like drivers, housekeeping and security are certied skilled, besides ensuring that the people at the shop oor are certied skilled.

·

Enhanced industry participation to increase quality and relevance · Setting quality standards, · Designing course and curriculum and delivery methodology · Assisting in capacity expansion · Making skills development a part of the CSR initiatives · Helping in mobilizing funding · Incentivizing industry players to design their own programs and delivery methods · National skills qualication framework needs to be formulated and adopted as soon as possible to enable seamless migration between vocational education channel and formal education channel · Employment-linked skill development initiatives need to be conceptualised and initiated for achieving targeted outcomes in a time-bound manner · Private sector development · Encouraging private participation in all aspects of economic and social activities and having a favourable regime for attracting investments · Incentivizing MSME sector growth and formalization by increasing access to capital and reducing the costs of formality · Integrated delivery platform/decentralized program management · Incentivizing women to take up vocational education Mr. RCM Reddy, Chairman FICCI Skills Development Forum, MD and CEO IL&FS Skills and Education, said that when it comes to skill development policy initiatives, availability of jobs, supply side management and demand side issues were some of the major challenges ahead for India.

The Minister said the skilling challenge is further magnied by the fact that 70% of this population falls in rural and tribal India. The numbers are huge and solving the same is almost impossible unless there is integration of skill development and the formal education system. It demands a collective effort by varied government initiatives, PPP initiatives to set up schools and training institutes (Public Private Partnership), National Skills Qualication Framework and large and small private players. The scale and speed at which action must be taken in this regard makes this one of the great opportunities for private players. The need of the hour is to synergize the efforts and resources to provide a feasible platform for vocational education and skill development. The ideal way forward will be to seek partnerships that will strengthen the process of quality and inclusive education, he pointed out. Dr. Raju said, “We are working towards achieving national goal of skilling 500 million Indian by 2022. While doing so, we have a larger challenge at hand and that is to excite and engage the youth of the country to participate without inhibitions.” A larger effort is needed to percolate the same feeling in the community, since in our case the unorganized sector offers more employment than the organized sector. Mr. Agrawal agged some issues that needed immediate attention of the stakeholders such as decreasing employability in the organized sector, increase in the percentage of educated unemployed, only some states have taken initiatives to skill the workforce and set up training and vocational centers, low presence of vocational training institute infrastructure, lack of quality assessors, high attrition, too many certications and mismatch between the demand of economy and aspiration of youth. Ms. Naina Lal Kidwai, President, FICCI, in her address said, “In view of the difcult economic situation that we are in, I believe

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

70


POST EVENT REPORT TAG 2013 also take initiatives on their own such as setting up of captive power plants, training facilities and R&D centre with the help of central and state government.

‘I truly believe this is the golden period for the Indian textiles industry’ stated Dr. K S Rao, Union Minister for Textiles, while inaugurating the 5th edition of FICCI-TAG 2013 summit in Mumbai. Dr. Rao further mentioned that although the textile industry is facing certain challenges in terms of skilled manpower, uninterrupted power supply and uctuation in prices of cotton and yarn, he suggested that the industry should

FICCI NEWS

‘Golden Period for Indian Textiles Industry says Union Minister of Textile, Dr. K S Rao’

Dr. Rao added that labour laws need to be revised and 24 hrs work shift and night shift for women should be permitted in T&A Industry as permitted in IT & ITeS Industries. Smt. Zohra Chatterji, Secretary-Textiles, Ministry of Textiles said that the continuation of key government schemes such as Technology Upgradation Funds scheme (TUFS), with an additional allocation of Rs 11,952 crores as per the 12th Five Year Plan will propel investment of more than Rs 2 lakh crores. Ministry of Textiles has also launched Integrated Skill Development Scheme (ISDS), with a target of training 10 million people by 2022 in the textiles industry. Mr. Suresh Kotak, Chairman, Subgroup on Textiles of FICCI Maharashtra state council suggested that in order to maximize the incentives being given by central government for Technical textiles, a clear distinction between technical textiles items from conventional textiles should be done on the basis of HS codes. He also suggested that the latest industry standards should be put in place for technical textile items in order to instil condence in consumers’ purchase.

Photograph (L-R): Amit Gugnani,Senior Vice President, Technopak; Dr.Arbind Prasad, Director General, FICCI; Manoj Saunik, Principal Secretary-Textiles, Government of Maharashtra; Rashesh Shah, Chairman, FICCI-MSC; Dr. K S Rao, Union Minister, Ministry of Textiles, GOI; Zohra Chatterji, SecretaryTextiles, Ministry of Textiles, GoI; A B Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles; Suresh Kotak, Chairman, Subgroup on Textiles & Technical Textiles, FICCI

The Union Minister along with the other dignitaries also released the FICCI-Technopak report on the Textile Industry which focused on ‘Building Competitive Advantage: Challenges & Way Forward’. Shri. A B Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textile also attended this highly interactive event on textiles and apparel.

PRE SHOW REPORT :TECHNOTEX 2014 jointly by the Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India and FICCI is hosting its 3rd edition from March 20-22, 2014 at Mumbai. The event has the support of many Industry associations. The Technical Textile industry is at the threshold of rapid growth with the Government of India providing an atmosphere of support and encouragement. One of the most important objectives behind organizing the Technotex series is to highlight the investment possibilities in the country’s Textile industry. Leading companies from all over the world particularly from China, Taiwan, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Japan, Russia, USA, and South East Asian countries are participating both as exhibitors and visitors. The event would also play host to a galaxy of eminent speakers and leaders from India and abroad.

Curtain Raiser Ceremony of Technotex 2014 in the presence of Smt. Panabaka Lakshmi, Hon’ble Minister of State for Textiles on 31st August 2013 in Mumbai Curtain raiser ceremony of Technotex 2014, the 3rd edition of the largest international exhibition and conference of the Technical textile industry in India was presided by the Smt. Panabaka Lakshmi, Hon’ble Minister of State for Textiles at ‘The Taj Mahal Palace’, Mumbai today. The annual event jointly organized by the Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India and Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) has become a agship platform for the Indian Technical textile industry to showcase its capabilities, strength and opportunities to the global Textile community.

The theme of the Event is ‘‘Technical textiles: Accelerating Usage and promoting investments’. Besides showcasing the strength of Indian Technical Textile industry, Technotex 2014, would also serve as major platform for one to one business meetings between foreign and Indian companies, renewing past relations and generating new business such as joint venture collaborations, technology exchanges, enhancing export and import ties and of course, attracting investment in the Indian industry.

The Crtain Raiser began with the welcome addresses by Dr. Arbind Prasad, Director General, FICCI which was followed by a short lm on Indian Technical Textile Industry and Technotex 2014. Dr. Arbind Prasad welcomed the esteemed dignitaries and briefed the industry about the various initiatives of FICCI for the Textile industry and the progress of Technotex 2014.

Maharashtra has been unanimously chosen as the ‘Host State’. Major states of India like Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and North Eastern States would be Partnering with the event and participating as a partner states showcasing the strengths, Investment opportunities and fruitful models for the Industries.

A Brief on Technotex 2014: Technotex 2014 would be the largest International Exhibition & Conference of Technical Textiles in India. The annual event, organized

71

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013


PRE SHOW REPORT

BHIWANDI TO HAVE ITS OWN TEXTILE MACHINERY EXHIBITION The booming powerloom mega cluster Bhiwandi to host its rst textile machinery exhibition in January 2014. ITMACH 2014 scheduled from January 22-24 will showcase wide range of latest textile machinery and technology at Indian Corporation premises in Bhiwandi on the National Highway 3 at the periphery of India’s commercial capital Mumbai. Bhiwandi, in spite of being among India’s largest weaving cluster have not received its due importance due to its unorganized structure in the past. However, with the change in business dynamics in textile trade, the cluster has taken up huge modernization of technology off late, thanks to the entrepreneurial skills of the business community and government support in terms of Technological Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS). The growth of the textile manufacturing in Bhiwandi has also helped developing textile industry in the surrounding areas like Ulhasnagar, Badlapur, Ambernath, Dombivli, Tarapur etc that house knitting, processing, embroidery, garmenting, and specialty yarn industry. Also, the area got boost in manufacturing as the industry moved out of the erstwhile textile manufacturing powerhouse Mumbai. With the TUFS being on the avail again after the Cabinet

the upbeat mood for investment. ITMACH 2014 would offer a platform for the technology suppliers to showcase their products and to meet potential customers face to face. The event would be the meeting place for business discussions for a wide spectrum of potential and existing customers from western India covering Bhilwara in the north and Belgaum in the south which includes large textile clusters like Ahemadabad, Surat, Malegaon, Dhule, Burhanpur, Ichalkaranji, Islampur, Kolhapur, Sholapur and covers entire textile manufacturing value chain. The event is organized by Textile Excellence and supported by leading industry associations, industry stalwarts and industry journals. Further details of the event can be found in the website: www.ITMACH.com

Committee’s approval on late August, the industry is again on

HEIMTEXTIL INDIA 2014 TO BE THE FOCAL POINT OF THE INDIAN HOME TEXTILE MARKET platform perfectly tailored to highlight the depth, quality and consistency of the home textiles industry in India.

With the new event in India, Messe Frankfurt expands its worldwide portfolio of fairs for

Manufacturers, distributors, suppliers and designers along with institutional buyers, sourcing houses,and large and standalone retail outlets will have access to the latest trends, technologies, designs and developments in interior and contract textile products, classied into the nine, all-encompassing product categories of: Bedroom, Bath linen, Table linen, Kitchen textiles, Window decorations, Furniture fabric salon, Textile oor coverings, Walls of the world and Design & technology.

the textile sector After launching successful trade fairs for the technical textile and nonwovens sector, the lighting industry and most recently the automotive aftermarket, Messe Frankfurt will draw focus to India as a pivotal market for home textiles with Heimtextil India 2014. To better address the home décor needs of a dynamic, expanding domestic market, the trade fair will be held from 19 –21 June, the buying season in India, in Hall 11 of Pragati Maidan, New Delhi.

“Heimtextil India is a much needed industry platform that will put the Indian market on a global stage. Besides serving as a trend and technology barometer, companies looking to expand their customer base and develop new markets will nd Heimtextil India the prefect platform from which they can attain these business goals. The new Heimtextil India will convince by innovation and comprehensiveoffer,” exclaimed Mr Raj Manek, Managing Director, Messe Frankfurt Trade Fairs India.

One of the largest in the world, India’s home textile market plays a major role in the country’s economy. Household incomes and the sale of apartments are constantly on the rise. An increase in purchasing power parity has resulted in substantial investments in the home decor and furnishings segments across all economic classes, thus expanding the domestic market. With all the favorable conditions needed to become a global leader in the sector, it has become essential for India to have a globally renowned trade and networking arena to address the needs of the domestic home and contract textiles market.

Since the show’s announcement, Heimtextil India 2014 has garnered tremendous domestic and international support with expected country pavilions from China,the UAE and several other countries/regions. With the early bird discount available till 31 August 2013, bookings for exhibition space are pouring in, providing a positive outlook for a very successful edition of the show.

As a brand, Heimtextil has captured the attention and imagination of the home textile industry the world over. Deriving the same business opportunities, Heimtextil India 2014 will be a vital business TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

72


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TRADESHOW FROM OCT 2013 TO JAN 2014 FIBER TO FASHION 2013

GARKNIT X KOLKATTA

Date: 7th to 9th Dec, 2013 Venue: SIECC , Surat Organizer name: The Southern Gujarat chamber of Commerce & industry Contact details: www.ber2fashion.sgcci.in Exhibitor's prole: : Manufacture of Fiber to Fashion industry caters to Region

Date: 13th to 15th Dec 2013 Venue: Milan Mela Complex, Kolkata, India Organizer name: Vardaan Events Pvt. Ltd. Contact details: www.vardaanevents.in Exhibitor's prole: Manufacturer of Apparel , Knitting technology, Machinery

TEXFAIR 2013

58TH NATIONAL GARMENT FAIR 2014

Date: 13th to 16th Dec 2013 Venue: Codissia Trade Fair Complex, Coimbatore. Organizer name: Southern India Mills Association, Coimbatore Contact details: www.simamills.com Exhibitor's prole: Manufacture of Fiber to Fashion industry caters to Region

Date: 6th to 8th Jan, 2014 Venue: Bombay Exhibition center, Mumbai Organizer name: CMAI Contact details: www.cmai.in Exhibitor's prole: Manufacture of Local Domestic Garment Brands

INFASHION 2014

ITMACH 2014

Date: 16th to 18th January, 2014 Venue: Bombay Exhibition center, Mumbai Organizer name : Images Multimedia Pvt. Ltd. Contact details: www.indiainfashion.com Exhibitor's prole: Manufacture of Fabric Brands

Date: 22nd to 24th Jan 2014 Venue: Indian corporation Premises, Bhiwandi Organizer name : ITMACH INDIA Contact details: www.itmach.com Exhibitor's prole: Manufacture of Textile Machinery

TECHNOTEX 2014 Date: 20th to 22nd March, 2014 Venue: I Bombay Exhibition center, Mumbai Organizer name : FICCI Contact details: www.technotexindia.in Exhibitor's prole: Manufacture of Technical texiles

Conference Detail

TAI SURAT

Date : 20th & 21st Dec, 2013 Venue : The Taj Gateway Hotel, Athwalines, Surat. Organizer Name : TAI, Surat Contact Details : www.taisurat.org

TECHTEXIL 2014 Techtextil Russia 11 – 13 March 2014 Location: Expocentre Fairgrounds, Moscow Techtextil North America 13 – 15 May 2014 Location: Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, USA Cinte Techtextil China 24 – 26 September 2014 Location: Shanghai New International Expo Centre (SNIEC), Shanghai, China


FABRIC REPORT

GREY EX MILL FABRIC PRICE * Kindly please note all prices are indicative.

COUNT

REED PICK

WIDTH IN INCHS

40 x40

132 x 73

63

POWERLOOM

69.5

40 x40

92 x 88

63

51

40 x40

92 x 88

63

AUTOLOOM

57

60 x 60

92 x 88

63

POWERLOOM

51

60 x 60

92 x 88

47

POWERLOOM

36

60 x 60

92 x 88

63

MILL MADE

57

80 x 80

92 x 88

63

POWERLOOM

50

80 x 80

92 x 88

63

AUTOLOOM

56

60 x60

132x108 1/1

63

AIRJET

84

20 x 10

108x54

63

RUTIC

72

20 x 300

108x54

63

67.5

20 x 300

124 x 56

58

RUTIC

89

20 x 16

108 x 56

63

RUTIC

72

20 x 20

56 x 56

63

RUTIC

43

30 x 150

124 x 64

63

RUTIC

62

45 PC X 45PC

102 X 76

60

CIMCO

56

Report Given By :

Mr. Kirti Shah TEXTILE WORLD Write for more queries : info@textilevaluechain.com

LOOM

PRICE

* Kindly please note all prices are indicative. COUNT

REED PICK

WIDTH IN INCHS

WEAVE

PRICE EX FACTORY per meter

CANVAS

ne 20/16Ly

108x56

67

3/1 Drill

96

ne 20/16Ly

108x56

67

Broken Drill

96

COUINT

REED PICK

WIDTH

ne 20/16Ly

108x56

67

2/1 twill

96

2/10 x 2/10

44 x 32

60

Ne 30/10

144 x 64

63

31 drill

94

2/7 X 2/7

42X26

60

Ne 30/16+16 ly

144 x 56

69

4/1 satin

105

Ne 30/16+16 ly

144 x 56

69

Broken drill

105

3/10 X 3/10

42X26

60

Ne 30/20+20ly

144 x 68

69

4/1 satin

113

Ne 40/30 +30Ly

144 x 68

69

4/1 satin

113

Ne 40/20

165 x 74

63

4/1 satin

94

Ne 40/30

185 x 85

63

4/1 satin

101

Ne 40/30

185 x 90

63

4/1 satin

104

Ne 40/40 +150D

112 x 66

63

1/1 plain

60

Ne 40/40

124 x70

63

1/1 plain

67

Ne 40/40

124x96

63

1/1 plain

81

Ne 40/40

132x 72

63

1/1 plain

70

Ne 50/50

165 x 104

63

2/1 twill

99

Ne 60/60 +80D

132 x 96

63

1/1 plain

71

Ne 60/60 +80D

165 x 104

63

4/1 satin

90

Ne 60/60 +80D

165x120

63

4/1 satin

99

Ne 60/60

175x116

63

4/1 satin

99

Ne 60/60

180x115

63

4/1 satin

99

Ne 60/60

196x108

63

4/1 satin

99

Ne 60/60

196x110

63

2/1 twill

100

Ne 80/80

165 x 114

63

4/1 satin

94

75

* Kindly please note all prices are Open

3/8 X 3/8

36 X 26

60

3/7 X 3/7

36 X 26

60

* Kindly please note all prices are indicative.

Construction

Inch Weave

40*40/132*72 40*40/124*70 40*40/124*96 40*30/185*90 60*60/165*104 40/30+30ly 173*76

63" 63" 63" 63" 63" 69"

Rate

1/1 plain 68.00 1/1 plain 65.00 1/1 plain 79.00 4/1 satin 101.00 4/1 satin 89.00 4/1 satin 109.00

TEXTILE TEXTILE VALUE VALUE CHAIN CHAIN | Oct| Oct -Dec-Dec 2013 2013


FABRIC REPORT

GREY EX MILL FABRIC PRICE * Kindly please note all prices are indicative. Sr. No.

QUALITY

COUNT

REED PICK

GSM WEAVE PRICE EX. MILL

39

10 x 10

38 x 34

67”

185

Plain

50

40

10 x 10

40 x 36

50”

197

Plain

40

per Meter

41

10 x 10

40 x 30

80”

180

Plain

56

42

2/20 x 10

38 x 34

50”

185

Plain

44

43

2/20 x 10

38 x 34

67”

185

Plain

57

WIDTH IN INCHS

1

10X06

76X28

63

515

DUCK

77

2

16X08

84X28

47

270

DUCK

46

3

16X08

84X28

63

365

DUCK

60

4

16X12

84X26

47

235

DUCK

42

5

16X12

84X26

63

315

DUCK

56

6

16X12

96X48

63

415

DRILL

76

7

16X12

108X56

63

470

DRILL

85

8

16X16

60X56

63

300

PLAIN

57

9

2/20X10

40X36

48

240

PLAIN

46

10

2/20X10

40X36

63

315

PLAIN

58

11

20X20

60X60

63

245

PLAIN

48

12 13 14

20X20 20X20 20X20

60X60 60X60 60X60

67 72 78

255 275 300

PLAIN PLAIN PLAIN

53 56 60

15

20X16

108X56

63

360

DRILL

68

16

20X20

108X56

63

335

DRILL

65

17

30X30

68X64

63

177

PLAIN

46

18

30X30

124X64

63

260

TWILL

69

19

10 x 6

76 x 28

63”

320

Duck

73

20

10 x 6

76 x 28

67”

320

Duck

77

21

10 x 10

76 x 28

63”

270

Duck

65

22

16 x 8

84 x 28

47”

225

Duck

43

23

16 x 8

84 x 28

50”

225

Duck

47

24

16 x 8

84 x 28

63”

225

Duck

57

25

16 x 8

84 x 28

67”

225

Duck

62

26 27

16 x 8 16 x 8

84 x 28 84 x 28

72” 84”

225 225

Duck Duck

66 78

44

2/20 x 10

38 x 34

72”

185

Plain

62

45

2/20 x 10

38 x 34

76”

185

Plain

65

46

2/20 x 10

38 x 34

80”

185

Plain

69

47

2/20 x 10

38 x 36

82”

190

Plain

72

48

2/20 x 10

40 x 36

63”

197

Plain

56

49

2/20 x 10

40 x 36

72”

197

Plain

65

50

2/20 x 10

40 x 36

84”

197

Plain

76

51

2/20 x 2/20

40 x 36

63”

197

Plain

64

52

2/20 x 2/20

40 x 36

72”

197

Plain

73

53

2/20 x 2/20

40 x 36

80”

197

Plain

81

54

20 x 20

60 x 56

48”

150

Plain

41

55

20 x 20

60 x 56

49”

150

Plain

42

56

20 x 20

60 x 56

72”

150

Plain

57

57

20 x 20

60 x 56

80”

150

Plain

63

58

16 x 16

56 x 56

63”

180

Plain

56

59

30 x 30

68 x 68

72”

117

Plain

59

60

40RSK x 40RSK

52 x 36

57”

57

Plain

29

61

40RSK x 60RSK

68 x 68

81”

73

Plain

65

62

40RSK x 60RSK

68 x 68

82”

73

Plain

65

63

40RSK x 60RSK

68 x 68

84”

73

Plain

67

64

40RSK x 40RSK

68 x 44

63”

73

Plain

38

65

40RSK x 40RSK

64 x 44

67”

70

Plain

40

66

60CMP x 60CMP

92 x 86

63”

78

Plain

61

67

10 x 10

68 x 38

50”

275

Drill

54

68

10 x 10

68 x 38

63”

275

Drill

67

69

10 x 10

68 x 38

72”

275

Drill

77

70

16 x 12

108 x 56

63”

295

Drill

81

28

16 x 8

76 x 27

63”

210

Duck

54

29

16 x 8

76 x 27

67”

210

Duck

58

71

16 x 12

96 x 48

63”

258

Drill

72

16 x 12

96 x 48

67”

258

Drill

77

30

16 x 8

76 x 27

72”

210

Duck

62

72

31

16 x 10

84 x 28

63”

210

Duck

55

73

16 x 12

96 x 48

72”

258

Drill

83

32

16 x 10

84 x 28

72"

210

Duck

63

74

20 x 20

108 x 56

63”

212

Drill

67

33

16 x 12

84 x 26

47”

192

Duck

39

75

20 x 20

108 x 56

67”

212

Drill

71

34

16 x 12

84 x 26

63”

192

Duck

52 76

20 x 20

108 x 56

80”

212

Drill

85

35

16 x 12

84 x 26

67”

192

Duck

56

36

16 x 12

84 x 26

72”

192

Duck

60

77

40CRS x 40CRS

124 x 64

63”

122

Twill

70

37

20 x 10

76 x 28

63”

170

Duck

47

78

10 x 10

40 x 36

63”

197

Waffle

50

38

10 x 10

38 x 34

63”

185

Plain

46

79

20 x 20

108 x 52

63”

207

HB

67

* Kindly please note all prices are open. COUNT

REED PICK

BLEND

PROCESS

WEAVE

40 X 30

178 X 78

97% Cotton 3% Lycra

Dyed

Lycra Satin Lycra Satin

40 X 30

178 X 78

97% Cotton 3% Lycra

Rfd

2/50 x 150

142 x 88

70% Cotton 30% Polyester

rfd peach

2/1 twill

2/40 x 300

134 x 56

70% Cotton 30% Polyester

Rfd

2/1 twill

30 x 10

152 x 68

100 % cotton

Rfd

3/1 Drill

30 x 30

132 x 68

100 % cotton

Bld

2/1 twill

30 x 30

124 x 64

100 % cotton

Dyed

2/1 twill

16 x 12

116 x 56

100 % cotton

Dyed

3/1 twill

16 x 12

116 x 56

100 % cotton

Dyed peach

3/1 twill

20 x 20

116 x 56

100 % cotton

dyed

3/1 twill

2/40 x 300

134 x 56

70% Cotton 30% Polyester

bld peach

2/1 twill

30 x10

152 x 68

100 % cotton

Bld

3/1 Drill

20 x 10

122 x 56

100 % cotton

Bld

2/1 twill

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN | Oct -Dec 2013

76


Inch 63" 63" 63" 63" 63" 63" 69" 63" 69" 63" 69" 67"

Weave 4/1 SATIN PLAIN 4/1 SATIN PLAIN PLAIN PLAIN PLAIN 4/1 satin 4/1 satin 4/1 SATIN 4/1 SATIN 2/1 TWILL

Rate 99 82 89 72 n/a 65 89 98 109 91 109 99

FABRIC REPORT

Construction 60COMP*60CBD-196*108 60COMP*60CBD-148*108 60COMP*60CBD-165*104 60COMP*60CBD+80D-132*96 2/50*30CBD-74*58-= 40COMP*40CBD-124*72 40COMP*40LYCRA -106*68 40c*30c-185*85 40*30lycra-173*76 40c*20ring spun -165*74 30COMP*20+20LYCRA -144*68 20OE*16LYCRA -108*56

COTTON LYCRA CORDROY: DYED FINISHED FABRIC: EX- MILL PRICES QUALITY

WIDTH

WEAVE

RATE

SATIN LYCRA

56’’

TWILL LYCRA

Rs. 185

SATIN LYCRA

56’’

SATEEN LYCRA SUITING

Rs. 190

SATIN LYCRA

56’’

SATEEN LYCRA

RS. 175

CORDROY LYCRA

56’’

14 WALLES COTTON

Rs. 183

CORDROY LYCRA

55’’

21WALLES

Rs. 187

CORDROY LYCRA

48’’

24 WALLES

Rs. 162

CORDROY LYCRA

46’’

24 WALLES

Rs. 202

CORDROY LYCRA

55’’

17 WALLES

RS. 187

CORDROY LYCRA

55’’

18 WALLES

Rs. 191

CORDROY LYCRA

54’’

COTTON LYCRA Velvet

Rs. 195

CORDROY LYCRA

54’’

COTTON POLY

Rs. 190

CORDROY LYCRA

54’’

26 WALLES VISCOSC LYCRA

Rs. 190

COTTON LYCRA

55’’

17 WALLES

Rs. 187

COTTON LYCRA

54’’

COTTON LYCRA VELVET

Rs. 187

TWILL LYCRA

54’’

Rs. 187

REPORT:  Fabric Market is not coping fast. Hoping market will soon be improved after Diwali season. Not got any orders but mills started their program.  Bottom Lycra Rs. 15-20 reduced. Price of same will not be increase in near future.  Presently 100% Linen & Cotton Linen is in demand.  Dyed fabric Rs. 170 & white Rs. 160 with width of 56'' in demand.  Yarn dyed checks : 40X 40/ 120x80 price reduced to Rs. 130. If Quantity order than Mill gives in Rs. 125 – 126.  Power loom, grey Quality: 40x40 /172 are at Rs. 105. Processing cost appx Rs. 10 / mtr.  Fabric sales also depend upon design., good design good order & sales. Copied Designed not accepted in market.  Yarn Dyed 40x60 / 144x 84 has good demand, if good Design.  One Program Mills accept 1200 meter.  60 x 60 Cambridge RDF ( Ready for Dyeing ) with 58 width has good demand in Export. Grey's width of 66 at Price is Rs. 58  40 X 40 /132 X 72 white selling at Rs. 80 . Grey Price Rs. 76- 78.  China's fabric demand is reduced.  Payment is not coming on time. Only 30% balance payment gets from customer.  For Garments, Not getting workers for factory. Workers generally migrated from UP & Bihar for employment opportunity in different states in Gujarat, Maharashtra and southern market. But as now workers get Employment opportunity in their own state, nobody wants migrate, leaving their family.  Residents of same state workers are not in mindset to work in factory. Eg. Gujarat, Maharashtra.

77

TEXTILE TEXTILE VALUE VALUE CHAIN CHAIN | Oct| Oct -Dec-Dec 2013 2013


YARN EXPROTS REPORT

YARN EXPORTS RECOVER SHARPLY- YNFX EXPORWATCH REPORT realization averaged US$3.49 /kg was, US cents 31 lower than the realization a month ago and US cents 7 higher than last year.

OVERALL EXPORT JUMPS DOUBLE-DIGIT India’s export growth jumped double-digit for the second consecutive month of August while imports declined marginally narrowing the trade deficit to a five-month low. Exports grew 12.97 per cent to US$26.13 billion in August 2013 - the highest growth in the last two years – while imports shrank 0.68 per cent to US$37.05 billion, led by a sharp fall in gold imports. This resulted in trade deficit declining to US$10.9 billion during August.

Cotton yarn accounted for 88 per cent of the all spun yarn exported from India in August, while manmade fibre yarn, comprising polyester, viscose and acrylic yarns, contributed 4.7 per cent and blended spun yarn accounted for the remaining 7.8 per cent. In August, spun yarns were exported to 86 countries as against 87 in July 2012, implying no major change in destinations. But only two countries accounted for more than 50 per cent of all spun yarn exported from India. They were China and Bangladesh.

PROPOSAL TO IMPOSE A 10 PER CENT DUTY ON COTTON EXPORT

Cotton yarn export was valued at US$367 million (Rs. 2,255 crore) implying unit price realization of US$3.54 a kg on an average in August 2013. This was US cent 1 lower than previous month and US cents 2 up from previous year’s level. Combed cotton yarn export was at 52 million kgs accounting for 56 per cent of the all cotton yarn exported during the month in terms of value. Carded yarn export was at 40 million kgs. Their respective unit value realization was US$3.94 per kg and US$3.26 per kg. Open end yarn export was at 8 million kgs. Cotton yarn was exported to 76 countries in August 2013, of which, China and Bangladesh together accounted for close to 60 per cent of Indian cotton yarn exports with total volume at 65 million kgs worth US$220 million.

A Group of Ministers (GoM) will look look into the Ministry of Textile’s proposal to impose a 10 per cent duty on export of cotton beyond a declared/revised exportable surplus. The Cabinet has not taken any decision on this and the proposal has been referred to a GoM, which will look into all aspects. In addition to the Minister of Agriculture, the GoM would comprise of Textiles Minster K Sambasiva Rao and Commerce Minister Anand Sharma and others. Under the Cotton Distribution Policy, the Textiles Ministry is recommending imposition of a 10 percent ad valorem export duty at freight on board (FOB) or Rs. 10,000 per ton, whichever is less, for all cotton exports exceeding the declared/revised exportable surplus.

Export of spun yarns made of man-made fibres continued to decline in August. A total of 7.75 million kgs of man-made fibre spun yarns were exported in during the month, comprising 2.99 million kgs of polyester yarn, 2.29 million kgs of viscose yarn and 0.65 million kgs of acrylic yarn. About 0.83 million kgs of unspecified synthetic yarns were also exported. Polyester spun yarn export was valued at US$8.41 million with a unit price realization of US$2.82 on an average. Polyester spun yarn was exported to 43 countries with Turkey topping the list. Viscose yarn export was valued at US$7.43 million, implying average unit price realization of US$3.24 per kg, US cent 19 lower than last year. Belgium continued to be the highest importer of Indian viscose yarn valued at US$2.94 million followed by Iran with imports worth US$1.56 million. Around 23 countries imported viscose yarn from India in August 2013.

The proposal is aimed at putting in place a stable, transparent, production and tariff driven cotton market to balance the interests of stakeholders in the entire value-chain. Major Destinations

SPUN YARN EXPORTS JUMPS IN AUGUST

In August 2013, 119 million kgs of spun yarn was China exported valued at US$419 43% million or Rs 2,575 crore. In t e r m s o f Yo Y g r o w t h , Porugal 3% volumes were up 60 per cent Turkey 3% Colombio while US$ value increased 63 Bangladesh 10% 3% Egypt South Korea per cent reflecting a decline in 3% 3% unit price realisation since Rupee appreciating 2 per cent against the US$ in the comparable months. Overall unit price Others 33%

In August 2013, blended spun yarns exports aggregated 9.61 million kgs valued at US$32.59 million. They mainly comprised 5.24 million kgs of PC yarns and 3.22 million kgs of PV yarns. USA was the largest importer of PC yarn from India in August 2013 while Turkey continued to be the largest importer of Indian PV yarns during the month. For More Information Contact us : sales@ynfx.com

AMID WEAK MARKET SENTIMENTS, SPINNERS DECREASE YARN PRICES As the country's biggest man-made fabric(MMF) industry is passing from a tough phase due to recession, the yarn manufacturers have been forced to decrease the prices of polyester filament yarn (PFY).

per kilogram. The phenomenal hike in the yarn prices have already increased the production cost for the weaving community in the city. The MMF hub in the city weaves around 3 crore meter of grey fabric per day and that the total turnover of the finished fabrics is pegged at Rs 100 crore per day.

Industry sources said that the spinners or yarn manufacturers on Tuesday reduced the yarn prices at Rs 3 per kilogram as the weavers have been staying away from purchasing yarn following the market recession.

Ashok Patel, a weaver in Pandesara said, "The spinners have actually derived benefit of the weakening rupee against dollar by increasing the yarn prices. The market sentiments are very weak ahead of the Diwali festival and thus we are in no mood to purchase new yarn stock."

In the past couple of months after the weakening of rupee against dollar, the spinners had increased the yarn prices by almost Rs 25

78


ADVT.


advt.


ISSUE -3 OCTOBER-DECEMBER - 2013

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN

VOLUME - 2

October- December 2013

2

3

80

REINVENTING TEXTILE INDUSTRY PEER REVIEW RESEARCH PAPER EFFECT OF NATURAL DYES ON COTTTON & SILK


ISSUE -3 OCTOBER-DECEMBER - 2013

TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN

VOLUME - 2

October- December 2013

2

3

80

REINVENTING TEXTILE INDUSTRY PEER REVIEW RESEARCH PAPER EFFECT OF NATURAL DYES ON COTTTON & SILK

Tvc oct dec issue 2013  

Issue contains articles on New textile policy by different fraternity outside & inside textile industry, peer reviewed research paper, fabri...

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