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CORPORATE OFFICE: B-301, Oxford Chamber, Saki Vihar Road, Tunga Village, Mumbai - 400 072. (India). Ph.: + 9122-26844222. Email:

Pure silver yarn for Jeans, Pure silver yarn for Suiting / Shirting Pure silver yarn for Dress Material Pure silver yarn for Embroidery






Editorial Success is not the matter of being the best and winning the race. Success is handling the worst and still finishing the race

Spinning, the pride of the Textile Value Chain

Editorial Advisor, Secretary General of MOA

Policy on Infrastructure 08 Cover story : India's Textile Parks, Power and Pollution 12 Cover Story continued... Interviews & Views Views and Interviews by Industrialists from Bombay Rayon Fashions, Chiripal Group, SVG Fashion, Rishabh Metals and Chemicals, and...

New Age Fabric Applications and Architecture 28 Continuation of previous edition's New Age Fibres and Yarns Technical Textiles: SPORTSTECH 36 A look at Artificial Turf. Artificial grass for India's needs


Visual Merchandising

A Study to see its effect on the sale of textiles


Development of Software to Engineer Cotton knitted Fabric

To solve inconsistency issues in Knitted Fabrics


Approaches towards Effluent Treatment in Textiles Need of the hour!!

News: Global / National


12 Interview with Mr. Jaiprakash Chiripal, Chiripal Group & 13 Mr. Sandip Agarwal, SVG Fashions Ltd. 13

Cover story: Interview with Mr. S.N. Todi, Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd..

Interview with Mr. Rishabh Jain, Rishabh Metal & Chmicals Pvt. Ltd & View of Mr. Uttam Jain



Views of Mr. Aditya Biyani, Dr. Talukdar, Mr. Deshbandhu Kagzi, Mr. Kirti Shah Pollution Redressal Policy Fibre : Banana : A Fruit fibre SRTEPC Events brief

20 21


Yarn : Influence of yarn and fabric structures on colour values of textiles



Linen & Chairs / Rattan Glitter presence in exhibition Colour forecast: Fall Winter 2013 Technical textile: News



Skill gap analysis: In Fabric Processing Sector


Skill gap: Setting of Skill development project by Ministry of Textiles College focus: Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science



Career focus: Career Opportunity in textilles with Home science courses Govt. policy: Good Economics is Good Politics Associations News: CITI & FICCI TAI & HCC BMC & MOA ITAMMA Tradeshow details



54 55 56 38

Tradeshow Review: ITME 2012 & Vastra 2012




Levi's® Debuts WasteLess™ Denim Collection Source: San Francisco-based Levi Strauss & Co. has introduced the Levi's® Waste<Less™ collection of denim jeans and trucker jackets made using materials derived from postconsumer recycled (PCR) polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and food trays. The garments, to be featured in the Levi's Spring 2013 collection for men and women, will include a minimum of 20-percent PCR content, with an average of eight 12- to 20ounce PCR PET bottles going into each pair of jeans and more than 3.5 million bottles going into the overall Spring 2013 Waste<Less collection. The PCR materials include brown, green and clear bottles and black food trays; and will be sorted by color and processed into flake and then into fiber. The fiber will be blended with cotton in yarns that Greensboro, N.C.based Cone Denim will weave with cotton yarn into fabric for the collection. Levi's notes that the color of the bottles used will provide an undertone to the fabric and a unique finish to the garment. According to James Curleigh, global president, Levi's brand, the new collection demonstrates the company's commitment to reducing its environmental impact and encouraging others to do the same, while providing products of good quality. "By adding value to waste, we hope to change the way people think about recycling, ultimately incentivizing them to do more of it," he said. "This collection proves that you don't have to sacrifice quality, comfort or style to give an end a new beginning." 3M Geotextile Seaming Cylinder Spray Adhesive introduced Source: GM via 3M introduces 3M Geotextile Seaming Cylinder Spray Adhesive, a new method for seaming geotextile fabrics for uses including, but not limited to, erosion control, and soil separation and subgrade stabilization applications. The adhesive is an extremely versatile, fast-tacking construction-grade spray adhesive with a unique wide-web spray pattern, ideal for bonding geotextile fabrics. With this innovative solution, installers of geotextile fabric can see time-savings of more than 56 percent compared to sewing. 3M Geotextile Seaming Cylinder Spray Adhesive lets contractors create quick, permanent bonds on many geotextile fabrics, and also provides a seam strength that outperforms the fabric strength for many commonly used fabrics in the construction

industry. The adhesive is packaged in a prepressurized cylinder for an easy-to-use, maintenance-free delivery system. Workers simply spray the adhesive on the two fabrics being bonded and apply pressure to the seam. The adhesive dries quickly, further enabling fast and efficient assembly. These simple steps create a bond strong enough to meet the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) M288-06 requirements for seam efficiency for a wide variety of specifications.

In addition to high bond strengths, other key advantages of this product include labor, equipment and materials savings. By eliminating the need for expensive sewing machines and generators, contractors can also avoid unforeseen down time due to equipment maintenance and repair. Additionally, in some cases, use of 3M Geotextile Seaming Cylinder Spray Adhesive reduces the need for a geotextile material overlap from 24" to 6", providing additional material savings.

Pakistan – Textile Sector to Lose US $ 3 Billion Export Orders Source: The Nation via The All Pakistan Textile Mills Association, additional burden of Rs4 per unit of higher while appreciating government proposal of electricity cost to the consumers. restricting CNG fuel only to public transport, He said that the solution to the issue of has said that textile industry would lose $3b gas lies in prioritising industry and power exports if gas curtailment continued for sector and only giving direct targeted support another three months, as gas suspension to to low income group by subsiding cheap fuel industry continued for five days a week. to only public transport. This should also be The leader of textile sector and former regulated so that the advantage should be chairman of the Aptma Gohar Ejaz hailed the passed to common man, besides fair of PM Adviser on Petroleum and Natural transport should also be fixed according to Resources Dr Asim Hussain for supporting CNG rates, he added. longstanding stance of textile industry in public He strongly protested against five days a interest to prevent use of CNG in vehicles week gas curtailment to textile industry by the over 1,000cc and increasing taxes on CNG SNGPL, as the industry would not be able to with a view to bring its price to a level 20 per perform when it is already passing through six cent lower than petrol. hours a day electricity load shedding. He said “Aptma endorses Dr Asim's measures for the industry was unable to understand the fair support of local industry as part of the plan logic behind gas curtailment for five days a to phase out CNG industry, which is eating up week when CNG pumps were on 425 million cubic feet gas per day,” the Aptma countrywide strike against price reduction. group leader observed. He said that long queues outside CNG Because of this usage of 400mmcfd gas in stations show that consumption of CNG has CNG, 3,000MW electricity, which can be increased out of proportions and it is in the produced from this gas, is being produced interest of the country to do away with CNG through furnace and diesel, costing $3 billion as it was wastage of resources. of import of this oil to Pakistan, along with


Joint Venture Mafatlal Forays into towel business in Joint Venture with Girosons Clothing Industry Source: Press Release

Mafatlal Industries Ltd. has forayed into towel business on a massive scale by entering into a joint venture with Girisons Clothing Industry. Mafatlal Towels with high absorbency in various sizes are manufactured with the state-of-the art technology on most modern sophisticated machines Mr. Vineet Jain, Director-Girisons Group stated that the major sale of towels in the country is from unorganized sector where quality is not satisfactory. Big manufacturers of towels are in export business and they supply surplus stock with odd sizes in the market. With the entry of Mafatlal in this field, the consumer will have a wider choice and selection with best of qualities. Mafatlal Towels offer several categories of towels to cater to the demand of discerning consumers. The Oasis range of towels is made from high

Being human to being citizen, need of an hour...!! Source : foundation day of BMC At the occasion of 54th foundation day celebration of BHARAT MERCHANTS' CHAMBER, chief guest Dr. Sri Satyapal Singh, Commissioner of Police, Mumbai emphasized the need for citizens to be vigilant and help the Police to help the people of the city. President Yogendra Rajpuria & Trustee Rajiv Singal praised the effective law and order control during his regime. Honorary Secretary Shiv Kanodia congratulated his smooth and incident free completion of 31st Dec. and equated him to Narayan Murthy of Police Force. Shiv Kanodia enumerated several

quality 100% cotton yarn in a wide range of 11 bright & fresh colours. The Lagoona range of towels is made from premium combed cotton for a softer feel and high absorbency. The Coral range is made from rich combed cotton, which is lint less and available in 11 inspiring pastel, medium & dark colours. The Pearla range is a 100% cotton fancy jacquard towels. Marina range offers a range with stripe designs. Desire range offers a range with polka dot designs. Thus, Mafatlal Towels have set new tradition to enhance the bathing experience. Mr. Vineet Jain, Director- Girisons Group further stated that Mafatlal Towels are introduced initially in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamilnadu and KeralaMafatlal Towels will be available in 14200 retail outlets, within a year consisting of multi brand outlets & Mafatlal Family Shops. Girisons Clothing Industry is a part of 50 years old Girisons Group. The Group Is actively engaged in textiles, garments, travel, real estate, E-education and Ecommerce businesses.

steps like the information system, complaint boxes, regular interactions etc taken by Sri Satyapal Singh for efficient control. The C.P. requested Mumbaikars to be responsible citizen apart from being a good citizen. He clarified that a responsible citizen keeps his eyes, ears & nose open and informs any suspicious activity to the police through anonymous complaint letter, emails, sms, letters etc. He also emphasized the need of teaching moral value system at school, college and even at business chamber level like Bharat Merchants' Chamber. Honorary Secretary Shiv Kanodia appreciated his valuable guidance and assured that he will ensure strengthening of CSR, fair

Beaulieu International Group enters a JV with Lucknow-Based INDTEX International The project entailing an investment of Rs 100 crore would be through a joint venture with its Indian partner Lucknow based, Indtex International. Beaulieu would hold the majority stake in the project. Vice President and CTO, Beaulieu International Group, Guy Verrue along w i t h M a n a g i n g Pa r t n e r I n d t e x International, Iqbal Siddiqui met the Principal Secretary, Infrastructure and Industrial Development, Siddiqui said that they received assurance of full cooperation by the state government and work on the plant would begin shortly. He said that the $1.5 billion, Beaulieu International Group, is a leading global player in floor covering business and is setting up a plant in China with an investment of Rs 250 crores. The plant in UP would come up at Dewa Road near the state capital for which the land has already been acquired by the company. It would manufacture extrusion of PP granules into yarn and weaving carpet backings, said Arshad Iqbal. He said that their product which is currently imported would find ready market among carpet weavers and flooring material manufacturers.

business practice and other programs in co-operation with Mumbai Police. BMC also requested for seat in advisory committee of the Mumbai Police, so that stake holders are consulted before any policy is formulated, and they can recommend the needs of general citizens.


Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Policy on Infrastructure: Textile Parks, Power and CETP Avinash Mayekar MD & CEO, Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd.

Introduction Indian Textile industry is one of the major sectors of Indian economy, largely contributing to the growth of the country's industrial sector in terms of export earnings. However, in order to nourish this industry there has to be facilities like road network, power, water and other infrastructural aspects. Somehow, Indian Govt. has yet not focused on policy framework required by the industry and hence it is being created by the industrialists themselves. However, it means delays in getting land parcels, plenty of bottle necks in the systems and procedures and many obstacles in liaison with Govt. bodies. In order to give a major thrust to the development of textile industry in India, Govt. has now come out with schemes like SITP, which should create good infrastructure with state-of-the-art facilities as per the guidelines. Scheme for Integrated Textile Park (SITP) SITP was launched by merging two schemes, namely, Apparel Parks for Exports Scheme (APES) and the Textiles Centre Infrastructure Development Scheme (TCIDS). The primary objective is to provide the industry with world-class infrastructure facilities for setting up their textile units and facilitate them to meet international environmental and social standards. The total project cost is funded through a mix of Equity/Grant â&#x20AC;&#x201C; from the Ministry of Textiles, State Govt., State Industrial Development Corporation, Industry, Project Management Consultant and Loan - from Banks/ Financial Institutions. The Government of India's (GOI) support under the Scheme by way of Grant or Equity will be limited to 40% of the project cost, subject to a ceiling of Rs. 40 crores. GOI support under the scheme will be generally in the form of grant to the SPV unless specifically decided to be equity. However, the combined equity stake of GOI/State Govt./State Industrial Development Corporation, if any, should not exceed 49%. However, GOI support will be provided at 90% of the project cost subject to a ceiling of Rs. 40 crore for first two projects in the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, Sikkim and Jammu & Kashmir. The pre-requisites for SITP The Integrated Textile Park (ITP) should have atleast 50 units The land area should be minimum 100 acres The aggregate investment in land, factory buildings and plant & machinery by the entrepreneurs in ITP shall be at least twice the cost of common infrastructure proposed for the ITP


The main promoters in the ITP would be Industry Associations/Groups of Entrepreneurs The ITP should have maximum of 8 Separate Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) and shall be formed with the representatives of Local Industry, Financial Institutions, State and Central Govts. The scheme targets industrial clusters/locations with high growth potential, which require strategic interventions by way of providing world-class infrastructure support. An ITP will have components like Land, Common Infrastructure, buildings for common facilities, factory buildings for production purposes and Plant & machinery with flexibility in setting up to suit the local requirements. The following are the elements of the project cost eligible for the grant:

Advantage India Abundant availability of raw material (like cotton, silk, jute etc.), growing domestic market, investor friendly govt. policies and availability of skilled manpower makes India an ideal location for investment in textiles. The major factors affecting the viability of the textile park are availability of raw material and labour in the vicinity, well-equipped infrastructure in and around the park, availability of market and investor friendly govt. policies. Hence while selecting a location for a textile park; we need to consider parameters like logistics, availability of raw material, skilled labour and supervisory staff and nearness to targeted market. Presence of back-end resources, targeting suitable customers, customer profiling, catering to customer needs, creating state-of-the-art infrastructure are some of the differentiating factors for a textile park. Some of the strategies to be adopted to create a techno-economic viable textile park are Conducting market research globally and domestically to understand the current demand-supply situation, assess any gaps in demand-supply, target new market segments and identity key growth areas, key product segments & key business requirements

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


Creating state-of-the-art infrastructure with facilities matching the international standards Determine the product mix of the park with appropriate land location & its details, location analysis, arriving at the most beneficial investment and understand the overall requirement of infrastructure like CETP, power, water, marketing hub and other facilities Mapping the quality of infrastructure provided by the competitors against the price offered by them and positioning ourselves to be competitive Existing parks under SITP Till date 40 parks (Locations of which are shown in the map of India below) have been sanctioned under the 11th Five Year Plan of which 24 have already started operations and have attracted investments of over Rs.18,880 crores. Below is the graph showing the grant in percentage received by the 40 textile parks.

in Rajasthan, 2 each in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and 1 each in Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Tripura, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Jammu and Kashmir and West Bengal. Some of the established ITPs are Islampur Integrated Textile Park (Maharashtra), Latur Integrated Textile Park (Maharashtra), Gujarat Eco-Textile Park (Gujarat), Palladam Hi-Tech Weaving Park (Tamil Nadu), Karur Textile Park Limited (Tamil Nadu), Madurai Integrated Textile Park (Tamil Nadu), Komarapalayam Hi-tech Weaving Park (Tamil Nadu), Baramati Hi-tech Textile Park (Maharashtra), Doddaballapur Integrated Textile Park (Karnataka) and Vraj Integrated Textile Park (Gujarat). Some of the solutions proposed for the Govt. are to understand requirement of the industry, reserve land parcels at appropriate places for Textile parks, and develop schemes for mini parks of about 25 acres which can be developed for specific requirements and to support the industry on merits.

The 40 ITPs is estimated % Subsidy Received by the Parks to have an investment of Rs. 18,425 Crores with combined project cost of around Rs. 4,486 Crores and annual production of Rs. 33,964 Crores. The grant sanctioned to the ITPs is around 1,385 Crores with Rs. 825 Crores of grant released to these ITPs. The total no. of entrepreneurs or units in the ITPs are 1,893 and the total employment generated in the park is 6,16,388 (Direct: 2,82,576 & Indirect: 3,33,812). Govt. has sanctioned Rs. 2,100 crores to set up 21 new textiles wherein ITPs would leverage an investment of over Rs. 9,000 crores, provide employment to nearly 4 lakh workers. Of the 21 units approved, 6 are in Maharashtra, 4

Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) The textile processing industry which takes care of value additions in the fabric is characterized by the high volume of water required at various stages of processing and the range of chemicals required for the various processes. These processes generate tremendous amount of waste, the nature of which depends on the type of textile facility, the processes and technologies being involved, and the types of fibres and chemicals used. The waste generated from these processes needs to be disposed correctly otherwise it causes environmental pollution. This necessitates the need for effluent treatment plant wherein the effluent generated in the process house can be treated to such a level that it can be disposed of without causing any damage to the environment. The best case study to emphasize the significance of effluent treatment plant is the Tirupur textile industry. In Tirupur, the effluent generated from the bleaching and dyeing units was discharged into the River Noyyal & River Nallar. The two rivers are natural drainage courses that only carry water in the monsoon period. During the remainder of the year, they used to carry only industrial effluents that stagnate in the riverbeds and percolate into the groundwater. As a result, the groundwater quality around the cluster of bleaching and dyeing units was polluted to such a level that it was unfit for domestic, industrial and agricultural activities. Due to public pressure (especially the farmers), the court intervened and closed the dyeing units several times since 1997. Recently, in June 2005, this took an ugly turn, when the Chennai High Court ordered complete closure of the dyeing units and slapped crores of rupees of compensation to clean the environment on the dyeing units. This created a furore in the whole textile industry as this lead to more problems when the demand for the processed fabrics was increasing. However, at present all Dyeing & Processing units are using 100% Zero Discharge technology and units in Tirupur

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013



created and generating more than 2000 MW in Wind Mill Energy. Both Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) and Individual units are following this ZLD technology and are meeting the requirements of the trade and servicing the requirements. More than 50% of total units are running, 494 Dyeing units and 162 bleaching units were there before closing down due to court order. There are 16 CETPs under operation out of 18 now. Below is the picture of River Noyyal at Tirupur which looks visibly cleaner downstream of Tirupur (inset) after the city's dyeing factories were shut in February:

CETP is the concept of treating effluents by means of a collective effort mainly for a cluster of small scale industrial units. The main objective behind setting up of a CETP in a cluster is eliminating the need of effluent treatment plants in individual process house which has following advantages: Saving in capital and operating cost of treatment plants Availability of land at ease Disposal of treated waste water & sludge becomes more organized Reduced burden of various regulatory authorities in ensuring pollution control requirements Some of the solutions are suggested to the textile industry for implementation of CETPs. The State Pollution Control Boards should prescribe standards for discharging effluents and conduct regular jar tests and submit to CETP. Govt. should come out with CETPs at most of the State Industrial Development Corporations to facilitate good quality infrastructure. No industrial park should be allowed without CETP. Build–own–operate–transfer (BOOT) should be adopted for CETP as well. BOOT is a form of project financing, wherein a private entity receives a concession from the private or public sector to finance, design, construct, and operate a facility stated in the concession contract. This enables the project proponent to recover its investment, operating and maintenance expenses in the project.

or there is shortage of power. Shortage of power in textile cluster leads to load shedding thereby leading to drop in production. SSI's are unable to sustain in these conditions and this leads to the closure of the units. States

Rs./ Unit





Tamil Nadu








Andhra Pradesh


The combined net profit of BSE Sensex companies in the sector fell from Rs 5,166 crores in 2010-11 to Rs 1,845 crores in 2011-12, which is a decline of 64%. As cited by DK Nair, secretary general, CITI, the financial results of 287 textile companies listed on the BSE for 2011-12 have shown a sharp decline in net profits during the year compared to the previous year, despite a growth in net sales. This is indeed a worrying trend that shows a combination of increasing input costs and declining profits. To balance our demand and supply of power, we must take into account the supply of power from the generation or HT grid to the specific machinery, increase supply by selecting secure & uninterrupted power supply, checking the voltage profile and going for cost effective power. While planning the supply of power, we should also consider the cost of infrastructure required to bring the power from the grid to the factory premises, power losses and any other concern to the environment. We should reduce demand by monitoring and controlling demand, optimizing energy consumption, improving productivity, building capacity and training human resources.

Power Generation and Distribution Electricity is one of the major components contributing to the hassle-free operations of the textile units. Textile industry is bound to suffer if cost of power (diesel) increases


Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


Energy cost is based on two part tariff â&#x20AC;&#x201C; fixed charges and consumption charges. Billing parameters are based on FAC charges, TOU charges, penalties/incentives and electricity duty. If we plot a load curve for the measured power data for entire day for a week, we can observe from the graph that the power variations are with high troughs and crests which indicate fluctuations in the power received by the unit. The energy losses can be reduced by plotting the energy data against production and understanding the fixed energy consumption. One more graph can be plotted by plotting cumulative data of past 12 months of the production against cumulative data of past 12 months of the energy. With the help of these 2 graphs, power factor can be improved. To understand the demand side of power, month wise data of maximum load (KVA), connected load (KVA) should be plotted in to a graph and the actual gap regarding power issues should be identified.

Peak Load Reduction Demand side Management


Re-scheduling of load

Base Load Reduction

Reduce Demand

Technical Intervention

Increase Supply

Energy Monitoring System

Energy Conservation

Energy Efficiendcy PowerInstallation Condition Evaluation


Capacity Building Automation

Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) has been enforced wherein certain % of total power consumed by Obligated Entities should be renewable energy based. If RPO is not complied with, then amount equivalent to the number of RECs at Forbearance Price should be deposited by Obligated Entity. For complying with RPO, three options are available: 1) Invest in Renewable Energy Power Projects, 2) Purchase Renewable Energy Certificates and 3) Purchase Merchant Power. Some of the solutions are suggested for power problems to be jointly considered by textile industry and government bodies. Textile industry should be given continuous and quality power supply. Government should ensure textile industry to have no power cuts and shut downs with uniform rates across country. Various sources of power and new energy development techniques should be explored. We should continuously monitor production and energy consumption and understand our needs. Conclusion Looking at all these concerns, we need to devise a comprehensive strategy for a better Indian textile industry. The infrastructure requirements are huge and we need to

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013

consider various land parcels; all equipped with infrastructure either for textile parks (or mini parks of 25 acres each) or through various industrial corporations. Govt. should give major emphasis on clearing all statutory requirements on fast track basis. In short it can be concluded as: ITP scheme: ITP scheme is industry friendly, easy to implement and can generate interest in the industry. Hence this scheme should continue and generate investment and employment opportunities in the Indian textile industry. It also may have a module of land parcel of 25 acres which can serve as a Mini Textile park which can be created by existing textile entrepreneurs for their own expansions or for giving it to others as well. CETP: Govt. should be completely involved in developing infrastructure. CETP should be made mandatory in any industrial park/ textile hub. CETPs may operate on BOOT principal. Power: Special focus on power sector needs to be given to fulfill industrial need which is 24x7 especially for textile industry. Entrepreneurs should focus on various methodologies to reduce power tariff. Renewable Energy Obligation could be made mandatory in the coming days.


Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited We interviewed companies for their take on SITP's, Power, Pollution and more…Here, we have an Exclusive Interview with Mr. S.N.Todi, Commercial Advisor of Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd. BRFL is a vertically integrated textile company, engaged in the manufacture of a wide range of fabrics and garments from state of the art production facilities. BRFL owns Islampur Integrated Textile Park Pvt. Ltd. (IITPL, near Sangli) and Latur Integrated Textile Park Pvt. Ltd. (LITPL). They are soon going to start work on their 3rd park in Kagal (Kolhapur).

Mr. S.N. Todi Commercial Advvisor of Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd. T.V.C: You throw light on the Govt. SITP's and how it benefits the Common Man? S.N.T.: SITP's benefit everybody and in the end everyone comes out a winner. ŸCommon Man - It generates substantial employment in the vicinity. Moreover, it has a large potential for employment especially for Women in case of Garmenting. ŸTextile industry Entrepreneurs / Owners- It leads to new venturing in the Textile Parks. It motivates them to avail the benefits under the Scheme and subscribe and participate due to ready infrastructure and common utilities and facilities available. ŸGovernment & Associations- The Textile Parks generate and contribute to the exchequer to the Govt. and development in the vicinity and to the bodies associated with training of skills and development amongst the workers T.V.C: Please tell us about BRFL Parks. S.N.T.: BRFL has successfully completed and promoted two parks; one at Islampur (IITP) and the other at Latur (LITP) in Maharashtra. It has also got an approval for one more park at MIDC-Kagal (Kolhapur) and it is ready to take-off shortly

Latur Park

T.V.C: When did BRFL receive permission for the set-up of the parks? S.N.T.: For Islampur Integrated Textile Park Pvt. Ltd. (IITPL) and Latur Integrated Textile Park Pvt. Ltd. (LITPL) we got th rd permission on 29 May, 2008. For the 3 park at Kagal, we got approval on 08.11.2011. We took 3 yrs to complete our projects at Islampur and Latur. We expect the same for the plant at Kagal.


Islampur park

T.V.C: Please tell us about BRFL's factory set-up in the Parks with the production and employment details S.N.T.: In IITP, we have weaving, garmenting, garment washing, and packaging. In LITP, we have garment and garment washing, value-added machines, embroidery plants. In Kagal, it will be Knitting- Yarn based textiles factories. Ÿ Production till date @ LITP Garments: 6.38 lacs pcs, Total value - Rs.1.356 lacs. Manpower: Garment Units -1170, Washing Units - 14, Total Manpower – 1184 Ÿ Production till date @ IITP Weaving: Grey and dyed fabric - 267.92 lacsmtrs. Total value - Rs. 16,872 lacs Garments: 42.93 lacs pcs. Total value - Rs. 9,230 lacs Total product value: Rs.26,102 lacs at the Park. Manpower: Direct employment: 2042, Indirect employment: 130. Total: 2172 T.V.C: What is your take on the Power supply in the Parks or in general? S.N.T.: Power Cuts, failures and disruptions are required to be regulated with modern transmission and distribution systems to reduce the Industry's sufferings and deliver timely results. T.V.C: What are the measures taken by BRFL to be environment friendly since Textile Industry generates plenty of effluents? How can India control and discard hazardous chemicals in area S.N.T.: Yes, sadly Textile Industry generates plenty of effluents while processes like dyeing, processing, printing, sizing and washing of garments. It also generates effluents by way of High BDS in the return water line from boiler and gases/smoke in air pollution by hot exhaust gases. Pollution Control Boards have prescribed norms and limits to treat each effluent and this can only be controlled by regular monitoring and civic sense by all. We have installed a Sewerage Treatment Plant (STP) and Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) at Islampur since we have garment washing in that Park. We also have taken ownership to control and discard hazardous chemicals from weaving and washing operations and are being regulated to dispose such waste in areas as prescribed. We have been trying to build up Green Zones around the Parks. We have planted nearly 5000 trees in the Park at IITP alone and similar at LITP too in the rocky lands.

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


Chiripal Group Special interview: Chiripal Group: Directors Jaiprakash Chiripal and Mr. Yogesh Thaker Chiripal Group is a vertically integrated enterprise having manufacturing facilities for POY, Texturising, Cotton Spinning, Denim Weaving, Knitting and Processing, Home Furnishing, Garmenting, Retail and own Vraj Integrated Textile Park Limited (VITPL), Ahmedabad.

Mr. Jaiprakash Chiripal MD of Chiri pal Group

T.V.C.: Could you throw light on the Govt. SITP's and how is it beneficial? JC & YT: These Parks are for SME's and work on “Plug and Play” concept with ready availability of all facilities required for successful functioning of textile business. They offer the user enterprises, benefits of “cluster economies” and great opportunity for SME's to grow together along with the industry and achieve their business goals. T.V.C.: Please tell us about Chiripal Group's Park set-up. JC & YT: We have set-up Vraj Integrated Textile Park Limited (VITPL) in Ahmedabad. We received Textile Park permission in 2006 and completed the park in 2012. The Park is now completely ready. VITPL is designed to set-up garmenting,

Technical textiles, weaving and allied sectors like washing, embroidery etc. We have generated approximately 30004000 employment till now, directly and indirectly through our park. T.V.C.: What is the reason behind choosing Ahmedabad for the Park? JC & YT: Ahmedabad is a mega city and has a long history of textiles. It has excellent resources like excellent rail & road network, air connectivity, hotels, continuous water supply, well spread drainage system and uninterrupted power supply. It is on the path of development with mega projects seeing the light of the day every moment. Gujarat is a raw material hub for cotton, nearness to processing cluster in Narol for weaving and garmenting units. Proximity to city also makes availability of business resources. This is beneficial to the entire city, state and country. As the Industry says, “A true value for money destination for the textile manufacturing sector.”

SVG Fashions Limited Exclusive interview with Mr. Sandiip Agarwwal, MD of SVG Fashions Ltd. Mr Sandiip Agarwwal heads ‘Karma’ the home textile division of SVG. SVG Fashions Ltd. is a part of the diversified SVG that is Shree Venkateshwar Group. It has a vertically and laterally integrated manufacturing set-up with in-house R & D labs and design studios.

Mr. Sandiip Agarwwal MD, SVG Fashions Ltd.

T.V.C.: Could you throw light on the Govt. SITP’s and how is it beneficial? SA: SITP is a Single Window Scheme for SME’s and a cost saving scheme. It is a common platform to share resources, synergise the activity of various stages of production, maintenance, packaging and distribution. It benefits all manufacturers and also professionals related to the industry. T.V.C.: Does SVG own any park or SEZ? If No, is SVG planning to invest in any Parks and why? SA: We do not own a Park yet. We had applied for a Park but still haven’t’ received Govt’s approval. SVG’s presence and interest in setting up a Textile Park is for a good cause. Being skilled players in the value chain in the textile segment makes our company an ideal candidate for setting up an SITP. We have experience across the entire value chain of the textile

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

industry ranging from various types of yarns to sports wear, knits, embroideries, prints, for home textiles and dress materials. Textile Parks are like Malls where everything is available in one place. So textile buyers also get to see vertical and lateral integrated processes for textile products. Everything under one roof makes the park more lucrative and exciting. T.V.C.: Where is SVG looking to set-up a Park and what are the plans for the same? SA: We are looking to set-up Park in Jhagadia village, near Surat and Baroda, Gujarat. Jhagadia is a place where cotton and polyester raw materials are easily available. We have already acquired 50 Acres of land in Jhagadia in GIDC area a year back. If approved, the Park cost is estimated to be around Rs. 60-70 crores. T.V.C.: What type of factories is SVG planning for the intended Park? SA: We are planning for all sectors of value chain from raw material to finished goods. In this manner our park members will get their raw materials and services on time. As we are also into exports, we are aware that reaching export deadlines is sometimes really difficult in a country like India where raw materials and finished goods are far way from each other. Having raw material manufacturers within the park will prove to be a boon for the complete value chain in terms of timely delivery and quality control because feedback will be immediately available to the seller.



Rishabh Metal & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd Special Interview with Mr. Rishabh Jain, MD Rishabh Metals & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. Rishabh Metals & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. (RMC) is a diverse company manufacturing a range of specialty chemicals, equipments for specialized applications in various industry segments including water, waste water treatment, textiles, paper, etc. In Textiles, they treat Waste Water which is Effluent Treatment given after dyeing and washing the fabrics.

T.V.C.: Is your future plan for addressing concerns for being cost effective and modern? RJ: We are planning new range of products; in one, the waste coagulates in liquid form with different combination of chemicals. We have a research laboratory in Jalgaon. We do regular in-house research as well as outsource through various university like ICT, scientists and industry consultants. In this way, we get a great combination of knowledge, guidance and advice.

Mr. Rishabh Jain

T.V.C.: There are always substitutes for any product. Substitute for your chemical is other chemical material like Ozone treatment, amongst many others. Also the biggest machinery agent in India is marketing Biological System where no chemicals are required. How is RMC facing this competition and do you feel chemical treatment is out-dated? RJ: One needs to look at Cost Benefit Ratio. If any machinery provides the same solution, then what is the one time machine cost, instalment cost, adding the running cost (need to calculated fix cost and variable) about other treatment, same cost benefit and advantage and disadvantage of each treatment, etc. So it all depends on buyers' requirements, feasibility, need, urgency, availability and many other factors. We don't fear competition as we are confident about our product.

MD Rishabh Metals & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd.

T.V.C.: What challenges does RMC face? How does RMC intend to address them? RJ: The challenge we face is to give the cheapest product and at the same time be a quality service provider. As per Pollution Control Board strict effluent treatment requires water for treatment. But the industry is still not ready for increase in their budget for the treatment. So solution is 'Be cost effective and be sustainable in the industry'. Our clients are Alok Industries, Welspun, Bombay Rayon and many more... T.V.C.: Industry is passing through a difficult time. Treatment costs have increased. How is RMC addressing this issue? How is RMC handling industry reactions? RJ: Yes, we know, we also understand industry problems and reactions. Globally, chemical costs have shot up by 70%. There is serious competition in the chemical industry; few large players and many small players. Depending upon the chemical, sometimes we bear the cost and sometimes the customer. We are also working on various technologies; treatment balancing cost effectiveness by combing Organic and Inorganic Coagulants which will be 95% cost effective to industry, amongst other methods.

T.V.C.: RMC have certified drinking water plant? RJ: Yes, without certificate we can not supply water to anybody. We have NSF certification, which is applicable across the world including countries like US, Europe and other Asian countries. NSF is US based certification for drinking water. Every year, there is an Audit check by US authorities without any prior notification. If the water and plant are not up to standards, they cancel the certificate. Since the past two years we have a plant in Jalgaon, Maharashtra.

Views of Industrialists regarding SITP's, Power, Pollution and moreâ&#x20AC;Ś Water Pollution: Large-scale garment manufacturing units have several technological options to combat with the pollution problems. Besides having effective in - house Effluent Treatment Plants or using Common Treatment Plants, other process technology options are available where the water used itself is very minimal. In many Industrial areas the effluent water is purified by treatment and recovered over 90% for re-use. Currently, the Reverse Osmosis Technology and other Ion Exchange processes are in vogue. Air Pollution: The major air pollution problem in the textile industry occurs during the finishing stages where various processes are employed for colouring or coating the fabrics. In order to take measures to check the air pollution it is necessary to: Analyse chemicals so that systems can be fine-tuned to


- Mr. Uttam V. Jain, Director of PDEXCIL

deal with them. Evaluation of existing exhaust systems. Consideration of exhaust stream pre-cooling. Consideration, comparison and selection of optimum Air Pollution Control equipment. Dealing with obnoxious odour: The problem with odour is that it is not practically measurable. Odorous molecules attach themselves to the particles of smoke and can be carried great distances from their point of origin, causing complaint. When air pollution equipment has abated the smoke, the odour molecules have no vehicle to carry them. That is why savvy plant managers find that the installation of smoke abatement equipment sometimes solves the odour problem, too. Relatively inexpensive equipment is also available to address the problem directly.

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


Dr. Talukdar, VP of Kusumgar Corporates

Park: Technical Textiles needs separate textile parks in India as their needs are specialized. As of now Kusumgar is not planning for any Park. Pollution: In India, we don't give any importance to pollution. The norms are not clearly specified and hence not strictly followed. Power: There should be uniform policy maintained throughout the country. Stern action should be taken for stealing power. Mr. Aditya Biyani, Marketing Director of Damodar Thread Ltd.

Textile Park: Specialization is the need of the hour. Textile Parks will play a vital role for overall growth of the Indian Textile Sector particularly small and medium Scale industries. Both, sourcing and marketing will become economical, efficient and prompt which will help organisations to use their resources efficiently. Pollution: Right infrastructure needs to be built to treat the effluents released from dyeing and processing units. Serious measures have to be taken very soon. It is not possible for individual organisations to build the infrastructure themselves due to capital constraints. Textile Parks will play a very critical role since it is mandatory for textile parks to have common effluent plants, recycling centres etc. Power: Across India, infrastructure for power is being created. Many companies are now installing their own power generation capacities. It is very expensive for organisations to have plants closed due to power cuts. Mr. Kirti Shah, MD of Textile World, Mumbai

Market Analysis: Textile business is changing with fashion and production is entirely driven by it. People who are technical qualified with fashion will only survive. In today's highly complex and changing consumer marketplace, brands and retailers need to be sure that the products they deliver meet consumer expectations. Along with that, they also need to meet the required safety, regulatory and government standards, domestically and globally. Textile testing is an integral part of it; Good quality can be achieved either by meeting the standard norms as devised by the buyer or passing the complete parameters for further shipping out the goods to the end user. Power and Pollution: Many production centres like Ichalkaranchi, Erode, and Tirupur are facing problems of power and loosing valuable orders. Textile industry is shifting to Maharashtra, Gujarat, Bihar & U.P. Southern mills are shifting to Gujarat & Maharashtra due to power cut problems. In Gujarat, Jetpur is suffering from water problem which is the biggest industry near Rajkot. Govt is not bothered to resolve this. Due to the Central Govt rule for water pollution, in Ahmedabad, all factories remain closed for one month every six months. Nobody is seriously interested in taking actions & regularizing norms. About half of the world's waste water problems are linked to the production of textile goods including many of the chemicals which cause harm. Textile has grown up to the peak of the consumer needs which requires the assured quality & sustainable characteristics to further meet the competency in the market. Shri Deshbandhu Kagzi, President of Hindustan Chamber of Commerce

Textile Parks: SITP's have several benefits as similar types of manufacturing are based at one place. The Common facility Centre at the Parks provides technical solutions to the process with knowledge sharing rather than competing with each other in isolation. They will facilitate good investment opportunity, employment generation and increase in quality textiles production. SITP's are very attractive as the very word of the 'park' is Integrated Textile Park; it definitely helps in backward as well as forward integration for the products. Thus, it is very useful across the value chain. Water Pollution: The Garment Industry is not as polluting as it is made out to be. Majority of the units convert finished fabric into garment without going for garment wet processing i.e garment dyeing and printing processes. Textile industry is one of the leading consumers of water. It consumes about 3.2% of total consumption of water for various processes such as sizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing, printing and other finishing processes. The used water containing various constituents such as dyes, chemicals etc gets contaminated if released directly into the sources of water. This is resulting into water pollution. Nowadays the use of synthetic fibres, polymers and finishes by textile industry is increasing at rapid rate. Since many of these products are resistant to biological degradation, more care is required in their treatment. Pollution Control Boards have norms and methods in place to monitor the ETPs and CEPTs. The awareness level amongst the Textile Industries has considerably increased after the incidences at Tirupur and Rajasthan. Power: Power cuts and high costs are main hindrance in development. It is also the negative aspect of the industrial scenario. The captive power generation units with natural gas are part solutions to the problem. The Central Government has started the National Grid Concept which is yet to materialise in true sense. The Power Tariff and its availability for the industry at any state should be at par to offer level playing field for the entrepreneurs as well as real growth of the Industry. The Centralize system for power distribution will go a long way in industrial growth and healthy atmosphere.

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013



Pollution Redressal Policy Mr. C. N. Shivramakrishnan Bsc Tech, C Col FSDC (Chartered Colourist) Senior Textile Advisor

Water pollution control is concerned with the protection of the aquatic environment and the maintenance of water quality in lakes, reservoirs, streams, rivers, estuaries and the seas. The desired or required water quality that must be maintained depends on the uses to be made of the water. Therefore, water quality criteria must be available for alternative beneficial uses if the adequacy of various pollution control measures is to be assessed properly. Domestic water supply, industrial water supply, agricultural water supply, water for recreational use and water for fish, other aquatic life and wild life are well established beneficial uses. Once the criteria necessary for the protection of the various beneficial uses have been established, it is possible to set standards for surface water with the stipulation that no discharge shall create conditions that violate them. These standards are known as receiving water or stream standards. Different states have taken the approach of classifying streams in several categories in accordance with the highest beneficial use to be made of the stream. This use is based, to a certain extent, on existing conditions. Effluent standards pertain directly to the quality of the treated wastewater discharged from a sewage treatment plant. Designing industrial discharge standards should reflect the numerical compromise between what can be achieved to prevent environmental pollution and sustainable development. They should involve categorical limitations for specific sources. Difficulty in enforcing receiving water standards arises when the combined load of several discharges exceeds the self purification capacity of the receiving waters. Micro pollutants represent the major concern for industrial effluents. A micro pollutant- based sub categorization is needed for an effective control of industrial effluents. In recent years different approaches have been discussed to tackle man-made environmental hazards. Clean technology, eco-mark and green chemistry are some of the most highlighted practices in preventing and or reducing the adverse effect on our surroundings. Environmental issues associated with textile industry effluents include:

Ÿ Residual dyestuffs-toxicity,colour, biodegradability Ÿ Halogenated organic compounds (AOXs) Ÿ Heavy metal contamination (Cr, Cu, Zn) Ÿ Salts in effluent which is to be reused for land application Ÿ High BOD levels.


Ÿ Auxiliary agents for dyeing-

toxicity and biodegradability Ÿ Surfactants and synergistic relationship with toxicants Ÿ Finishes - toxicity and biodegradability Ÿ Elevated temperatures Ÿ High levels of total oxidized sulphur (TOS)

Waste water characteristics: Waste water quality can be defined by physical, chemical and biological characteristics. Physical parameters include color, odour, temperature, solids (residues), turbidity, oil, and grease. Solids can be further classified into suspended and dissolved solids (size and settle ability) as well as organic (volatile) and inorganic (fixed) fractions. Chemical parameters associated with the organic content of wastewater include the biological oxygen demand (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and total oxygen demand (TOD). BOD is a measure of the organics present in the water, determined by measuring the oxygen necessary to biostabilize the organics (the oxygen equivalent of the biodegradable organics present).Inorganic chemical parameters include salinity, hardness, pH, acidity, alkalinity, iron, manganese, chlorides, sulphates, sulphides, heavy metals (mercury, lead, chromium, copper and zinc) nitrogen (organic, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate), phosphorous. Bacteriological parameters include coli forms, fecal coli forms, specific pathogens and viruses. Water and energy requirements during the processing and manufacturing of cotton textiles are tremendous. It can take up to 200 litres of water to produce, dye and finish one kilogram of textile. Wastewater from textile production is often difficult to treat as it contains high concentration of dyes, BOD, total organic carbon, dissolved solids and high content of toxic metal (chromium, copper, cobalt, lead, zinc, etc.) Colour removal technologies: Considerable amounts of water and energy are used in the processing of different materials in the textile production chain. Water is also used in huge quantities during cotton cultivation. An area of great environmental concern is about the amount of water discharged and the chemical load it carries. Other important concerns are energy consumption, air emissions, solid wastes and odours, which can create significant problems to environment. Air emissions are usually collected at their point of origin. Because they have long been controlled in different countries, there is good historical data on air emissions from specific processes. This is not the case with emissions to water. The various streams coming from the different processes are mixed together to produce a final effluent whose characteristics are the result of a complex combination of factors such as, the types of fibres and makeups processed, the techniques applied and the types of chemicals and auxiliaries used. Total water management: Conventionally, water coming into a process plant, which generates effluents, are treated and discharged. In Total Water Management (TWM), the effluents are treated and recycled. Water and valuable byproducts are reclaimed and reused. Physical, chemical and biological treatments are given to the effluents. The advantages of TWM are multifold. The inlet water quantity and the effluent discharge quantity are reduced. So through

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


TWM, by recycling the effluent for process requirements, the discharge is also minimized considerably. Developing a treatment strategy: A set of cost effective onsite unit operations and processes can be installed in areas which require effluents treatment. These remedial techniques consist of preliminary and primary process equipment, instrumentation and control units related to the textile processing and the waste water characteristics. Common outlets for waste water discharges are as follows: Discharge to surface water: Effluent from waste water treatment operations is piped directly to a surface water body and is subject to local regulations. Effluent limitations depend on the ambient water quality criteria, the conditions of the receiving stream and the amount of mixing available. Discharge to surface water is usually a viable outlet for

effluents containing benign contaminants or being treated to a level guaranteeing that the receiving stream is not impacted. Discharge to sewer: Effluent wastewater treatment operations are sent to the sewer, which is connected to the common effluent treatment plant. The wastewater is subject to municipal pretreatment containing constituents that the CETP can effectively degrade. Offsite disposal: Effluents and other residues (sludge) from wastewater treatment operations are transported to an offsite treatment facility. The handler determines the level of pretreatment required for off site disposal. This method is appropriate for low volume, high toxicity effluents and residuals. Effluents and residuals in this category are usually prohibited from discharge through other outlets. Criteria for selection of an ETP system

Effluent Character 1 Characteristics of raw effluent 2 Design and treatment unit size (m3/day and m3/hour) 3 Method of flow measurement at final outlet 4 Scheme descriptions with flow chart 5 Characteristics of treated effluent

Tentative cost of Treatment Plant 1 ETP Cost 2 Disposal cost 3 Electrical & mechanical equipment cost

Selecting appropriate treatment technologies: The environmental impact of the textile industries is associated with its high water consumption as well as by the color, variety and amount of chemicals which are released in the wastewater. Waste waters from dyeing and finishing operations in the textile industry are generally high in both color and organic content. The waste water from the textile industry is known to be strongly coloured with presence of large amount of suspended solids, broadly fluctuating pH, high temperature, besides high chemical oxygen demand. Colour is the first contamination to be recognized in this waste water. There are several methods for colour removal like Adsorption, coagulation, flocculation, precipitation, polyelectrolyte, biological process, ionizing/ gamma radiation. Although there are many options, each one of the technologies has its limitations, hence combination of technologies is generally preferred for cost effective colour removal. Before implementing any in plant controls or pretreatment alternatives, the industry should first explore ways to reduce production of specific pollutants and then examine the feasibility of recycling or reusing the wastewater generated during production. For example, the concentrated solution obtained from cleanup operations can be recycled as part of starting materials for the next production run. Additional steps for reducing wastewater requiring treatment include good housekeeping practices, spill control measures such as spill containment enclosures and eliminating wet floor areas. The principal pollutants affected by modifying industrial manufacturing processes and in plant treatment methods are as follows:

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013

Details of ETP Recurring Expenditure 1Quantity of chemicals for treatment & cost per day 2 Power (Electricity-KWH) & cost per day 3 Manpower cost per day 4 Total treatment cost.

Ÿ Insoluble substances that

Ÿ Substances separable by degassing or

can be separated physically with or without flocculation. Ÿ Organic substances separable by adsorption Ÿ Substances separable by precipitation Ÿ Acids and bases

stripping Ÿ Substances requiring a redox reaction Ÿ Substances that can be concentrated by ion exchange or reverse osmosis Ÿ Substances that can be precipitated as insoluble iron salts or that can be chelated.

Substances treatable by Biological methods: Effluents require some form of treatment prior to disposal to sewer, river or sea. Prior to the installation of any end-of-pipe treatment method, it is essential to carry out segregation of the effluent streams to separate the contaminated streams from the relatively clean streams for treatment. This results in a more effective treatment system as a smaller volume of waste water is treated (resulting in lower capital and operating costs) and it allows for the use of specific treatment methods rather than trying to find one method to treat a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The segregated clean streams can then be reused with little, or no, treatment elsewhere in the factory. There are two possible locations for treating the effluents, namely, at site or at common effluent treatment plant. The advantage of treatment at the factory is that it could allow for partial or full re-use of water. The following technologies can be used. Zero Discharge Concept: In the past few decades plenty of progress has been made in the area of waste treatment. Chemical engineers are focusing on environmental concerns in the textile plant, mostly on monitoring the chemical content of waste water. Today, most waste water treatment



Classification of treatments followed in textile effluent: Primary Screening and sedimenting:Equalization Secondary Aerated lagoon: Trickling filtration Tertiary Oxidation:

Electrolytic precipitation

Neutralization Activation of sludge

Membrane separation

Coagulation Oxidation

Electrochemical process Adsorption

Treatments Sequence

plants work well and the focus is shifting towards additionally minimizing the energy needed to run. The aim is to prevent the treatment of local emissions from causing damaging the greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to looming global warming. In safety and environmental technology research, the focus of attention has shifted from local to global concerns over the years. Water losses which need to be considered are disposals coming from the clean drains system of the water/steam cycle. The Zero Discharge Concept is designed to collect all kinds of clean drains and blow down routing it to the condenser respectively the condensate polishing plant. The regenerated condensate is fed back to the water/steam cycle. The result is a plant with minimum water consumption. The concept of zero discharge signifies that the process water utilized in dyeing and bleaching operations are recovered for reuse to an extent that there is no discharge of effluent into the environment. A zero discharge treatment system design in textile processing should consider the following things:

1. Quantity of the effluent to be treated. 2. Variability in time of the quantity as well as quality of the effluent. 3. Unit processes suitable for achieving desired purposes (such as removal of total suspended

Anaerobic digestion

solids (TSS), reduction in biological oxygen demand (BOD) for a given effluent. 4. The upper and lower limits of performance of each unit process. 5. The durability of the system to be adopted.

Ion exchange Thermal evaporation

6. The feasibility of establishing suitable collection and conveyance system in the case of a common treatment facility.

Regardless of the treatment technology to be adopted, following parameters are necessary to achieve zero discharge. 1. Removal of grits and suspended limits solids 5. Complete removal of colour 2. Removal of oil & grease, scum 6. Recovery of reusable water and other suspended matters 7. Treatment of reject (from reverse osmosis 3. Equalization and adjustment of pH system/blow out from evaporator). 4. BOD/COD levels are in control 8. Solid waste disposal and management.

Conclusion: Fresh water is fast becoming scarce, forcing us to plan for recycling of treated waste water. Most industries are generating wastewaters that are difficult to treat and are staring at stringent discharge norms which are difficult to meet with conventional technologies. Conventional effluent treatment plant (ETP) has an array of equipments and chemical treatment process. Latest technologies ensure that all the effluent treatment processes like equalization, aeration, settling and decanting are carried out in a single tank. The final treated effluents need stringent discharge norms with respect to carbon oxidation, nitrification, de- nitrification and bio-phosphorous removal in line with European standards. Our biosphere is under constant threat from continuing environmental pollution. Impact on its atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere by anthropogenic activities on water, air and land have negative influence over biotic and abiotic components on different natural eco-systems. We need to act before it is too late.

News: Tirupur first to adopt Zero Liquid Discharge Technology Source: Apparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC) via Dr. A Sakthivel, Chairman of AEPC, recently announced that Tirupur is the first textiles cluster in India to arrive at the Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) Technology. He further proudly added on behalf of Dyers Association of Tirupur, “I also declare that we created and generated more than 2000 MW in Wind Mill Energy. That way too we are helping to achieve Green Field Technology in power sector.” It is to be noted that due to the High Court order, the Dyeing & Processing Industry in Tirupur had appalling problems and many units had to be shut. More than 50% of total units are running. Approximately 494 Dyeing units and 162 bleaching units were there before closing down due to court order. There are 16 CETPs under operation out of 18 now. Now both Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) and Individual units are following this ZLD technology and are successfully meeting the requirements of the trade and servicing the requirements. On the problem of water shortage, Dr. Sakthivel said: “As far as water is concerned, we are not facing any problem since we are re-using the water up to 90%. Moreover, due


to this ZLD technology, some marginal percentage was being used after colour processing - in the form of salt water as concentrated salt solution - called BRINE Solution re-use.” He further informed that, on the energy front, we are facing problem in running the units. “We are incurring more operational cost due to heavy load shedding and due to usage of diesel gensets,” he added. On the Tirupur business acumen, Chairman AEPC said that, “People here are very determined. They are very strong in continuing their established business. They will explore various ways and means to live-up to the expectations of their sourcing people both domestic and international, even if they have to do business with minor losses / minor margins, since this is a temporary phase and we have to continue with textile business to go a long way. Tirupur traders are well bent people to achieve their goals in spite of all the bottlenecks - like sudden increase in yarn prices, sudden close-down of the Dyeing & Processing units and to add to that economic slowdown in our traditional markets i.e., USA & Europe.

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013



Banana : Utilization in Textiles Yarn

Dr. R. P. Nachane Retired Scientist of CIRCOT

Banana is one of the important fruit crops grown almost in every state of India (8 lakh ha). Apart from fruit, it generates huge quantity of biomass as waste in the form of pseudostem, leaves, suckers etc.,, of these on an average about 60 to 80 t/ha is pseudostem alone, which presently is absolute waste and does not find any commercial applications. In some cottage industries, fibres are extracted from pseudostem for preparations of handicrafts. The fibre extraction is being done mostly by hand where the fibre output is about 0.25kg/day/man. In order to mechanize the fibre extraction, research was carried out at Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai and modified fibre extraction machine "Raspador" was developed. After initial experiments some refinement and modifications were carried out in Raspador machine as well as procedure for extraction. These modifications improved the productivity of machine to 20-25 kg/day. Under NAIP-Banana project entitled "A Value Chain on Utilization of Banana Pseudostem for Fibre and Other Value Added Products" in all 24 Raspador machines were procured and operationalized at Navsari Agricultural University (three at NAU and Twenty one are given to banana farmers through Banana Co-operatives). About 20,300 kg of fibres were extracted by farmers and sold to NAU at the rate of Rs.80/kg, so net income of Rs.10,17,800/- was gained by them. During the fibre extraction four components are obtained simultaneously i.e., fibre(600 kg/ha), Scutcher waste (30-35 tonnes/ha in wet form), Sap (15,000 to 20,000 l/ha) and Central Core (10-12 tonnes/ha). It was realized that apart from fibres, remaining components can be used to prepare value added products. Vermi-compost and paper can be made from scutcher waste. Sap can be used as liquid fertilizer or mordant in textile dyeing and candy can be prepared from central core. Farmers can get net additional income of Rs.27,800/ha by selling vermi-compost.

Processing of Fibre to yarn



Using fibres extracted at NAU two large scale trials of yarn making were conducted at Kolkata on jute spinning system. The yarn produced is of about 1s cotton count having tenacity of 10g/tex. CIRCOT has fabricated banana fibre processing assembly for conversion of fibres to yarn. This is a laboratory scale spinning unit exclusively for spinning of banana fibres and requires certain modifications to improve the quality of yarn. This work is under progress and is expected to be completed in near future. About 2.5 tonnes of banana fibres extracted by the farmers in and around Navsari was converted into nonwoven fabric by needle punching method. Fabrics with surface density of 450, 700 and 900 gram/sq.m (GSM) were prepared with 2 levels of thickness for each GSM. Mechanical properties of the fabrics are quite good. Some exploratory work on use of these fabrics as geo-textiles has shown that these fabrics have more life under ground vis-Ă vis similar jute fabrics, i.e., degradation of these fabrics is at a slower rate as compared to that of jute. This is an advantage over jute fabrics particularly for agro/geo-textile applications where bio-degradation of fabrics should be at a reduced rate. Different end uses and product development are being attempted for these fabrics. After attending training at NAU, one farmer, Mr. Upendrasinh Patel, of Rajpipla taluka Nandoa of Narmada district started fibre extraction using one unit of Raspador. In due course he has extended the activity to establish a small scale cottage industry in GIDC, Rajpipla. He got an additional income of Rs.1,68,000 from fibres and approximately Rs.10,000/- and Rs.10,000/- is expected income from Vermi-compost and Vermi-wash respectively. Setting up of an ancillary industry in banana growing areas for extraction of banana fibres and utilization of other bio-mass could help in enhancing the farmer income, increasing the rural employment, creating a raw material for industry and efficient disposal of the waste there by creating environmental benefits. Reference : innovation project at CIRCOT


Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


Synthetic Rayon Textiles Export Promotion Council (SRTEPC) 1. New elected members for year 2012-2014 Shri Rakesh Mehra (CA), Elected as Chairman of Banswara Syntex Ltd. For period of two years. Shri Anil Rajvanshi Elected Vice Chairman, a Senior VP & Head Corporate Development Group, Reliance Industries Ltd. 2. Export Award Function “SRTEPC Chairman requests for a level playing field for man-made fibre textiles”

Export Award Function on 26th November 2012 at Jamshed Bhabha Theatre, National Centre for Performing Arts, Mumbai and Shri Nikhil Meswani, Executive Director, Reliance Industries Ltd. gave away the awards to exporters of synthetic textiles for their outstanding export performance for the year 2011-12. Best Overall Export Performance (Gold Trophy) was won by Reliance Industries Ltd., Grasim Industries Ltd. received the Silver Trophy and Indo Rama Textiles Synthetics (I) Ltd. received the Bronze Trophy. Lifetime Achievement Award was conferred on Shri Virender Kumar Arora, Chairman & MD of D'décor his outstanding contribution to the man-made fibre textiles industry. Shri Nikhil Meswani, quoted Shri Dhirubhai Ambani's words “Pursue your goals even in the face of difficulties, and convert adversities into opportunities.” Indian man-made textile industry is comparatively young, vibrant and growing and is the only country which is self-sufficient across the entire textile value chain, he observed. However, India accounts for just 2% of the global man-made textile exports. Growth in non-apparel application will continue to outpace growth in apparel and margins will be led by nonapparel segment going forward. More than 75% of incremental growth in fiber demand will be catered by the man-made fibers. China has started to import large quantities of spun yarn in the last few quarters and is expected to be the net importer of yarn and apparel while it will continue to be a net exporter of fabrics. to achieve the targeted growth the exporters need to think beyond the traditional markets, outdated products and archaic processes and embrace innovation to enjoy above average margins. He stated that by end of the 12th Five Year Plan in 2016-

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013

17 as per Planning Commission Projections exports of manmade fiber textiles are estimated to touch US$ 9 billion. This he said can be achieved only by enhancing competitiveness by way of quality up gradation, moving up the value chain, expansion of our product basket and introduction of more niche products. 3. Organized Exhibition in Pakistan The first-ever exclusive Indian Textile Exhibitions (INTEXPO) in Pakistan was organized and were held in Karachi on 30th November & 1st December 2012 and Lahore on 2nd &3rd December 2012. The Exhibitions were organized in association with the Karachi Chamber of Commerce & Industry and Lahore Chamber of Commerce & Industry and with the support of the India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO), India. 34 member companies and their 58 representatives participated in the Exhibitions and showcased their latest range of products: yarn, fabrics, made ups, accessories, etc. The Exhibition in Karachi was inaugurated by Mr. Siraj Kassam Teli, Chairman, Business Group & Former President, Karachi Chamber of Commerce & Industry (KCCI).Mr. Teli said that the recent developments indicate strengthening of economic and commercial ties between India and Pakistan and added that the improving economic ties shall help in resolving the larger political issues which obstruct cordial relationship between the two countries and lead to peace and prosperity to the region. Shri Ladia said “I would like to assure you that we have come here not as competitors but as “collaborators”. This is specially so, as we feel there are complementarities between the Pakistani and Indian textile industries and in view of the geographical proximity and regional accumulation advantages, our textile industries can co-exist, prosper together and can become a force on the global textile scenario” Orders to the tune of Rs.14 crores were booked onthe-spot and orders under negotiation amounted to Rs.125 crores during the Exhibitions in Karachi and Lahore. Pakistan's textile and apparel industry is the single largest contributor its economy. Pakistan imported around US $ 3 billion worth of textile in the year 2011 of which the US$ 1.5 billion were man-made fibre textiles. Pakistan has emerged as the leading market for Indian man-made fibre textiles and exports to Pakistan amounted to Rs.2341 crores during 2011-12 almost double as compared to the previous year.

Lahore, Pakistan inauguration


Fig. 1: Ring yarn sequence system

Our Products Plain Fabrics Linen Fabrics Cotton Check Fabrics Filafil Fabrics Cationic Fabrics Polycotton Fabrics Printed Fabrics


Ratan Glitter Industries Limited Ms. Rupal Shah, Owner of Linen n' Chair Covers, USA, Trader of Made ups, Home textiles, Accessories, many more decorative items. She has visited India in Vastra 2012 as Buyer

Glimpse of Vastra 2012 organized by FICCI, costumes by Ratan Glitter Industries Ltd.

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013



Glimpse from Vastra 2012 Organized by FICCI at Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Mr. Paresh Shah, MD of Ratan Glitters Industries Limited with Buyers

Glimpse from INTE EXPO 2012 Organized by SRTEPC at Lahore and Karachi, Pakistan.


Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013



New Age Fabric Applications and Architecture Rajul J. Shah MFA in Textile and Fashion Design

Continuing from previous edition's cover story, New Age Fibres and Yarns, we carry on with fabric and garment innovations, applications and their future. Today's textiles are customized materials with entirely new qualities. They can be formed or combined with other materials and used in ways never imagined before. Textile design is today a high-tech area that demands a broad multidisciplinary research foundation; anything from material science, computer science, sensor technology and textile technology to development work and experiments in textile and fashion design. In this article we look at innovations and applications at different stages. 1. Nano Technology: Recent developments in nanotechnology have prompted speculation that we may be embarking on a new technological revolution, every bit as significant as the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, involving the redesign of materials on the atomic scale. Making composite fabric with nanoparticles or fibres allows improvement of fabric properties without a significant increase in weight, thickness or stiffness as was the case with previously used techniques. Laminated Neolon速 is a firm neoprene for the more active patient, with an improved long-wearing bamboo fabric cover. The covering is made from activated bamboo charcoal. This gives orthotics the outstanding cushioning of Neolon and a top cover that is long-wearing, ecological, antibacterial, antifungal and deodorizing. BambooLon is embedded with nanoparticles of naturally grown bamboo charcoal and is made without allergy-inducing chemicals. It is highly porous, breathable and incredibly durable. Aspen Aerogels速 has brought nanotechnology to outdoor apparel, footwear, and other gear. Aspen's aerogel insulation is nano-sized air pockets that block cold and heat and offers higher thermal performance than any other widely used insulation material - at a fraction of the thickness and weight. Aspen Aerogels速 has proven its aerogel insulation in boots, jackets, and sleeping pads tested in the most challenging environments on Earth - from the frigid summit of Mt. Everest to the blistering floor of Death Valley. 2. Weave: Reiko Sudo works on kibiso-based fabrics. Kibiso is an unusual silk made from waste silk. The kibiso outer portion of the sericin-rich silk cocoon was previously discarded as waste, useful Kibiso, Japan, 2010. Reiko Sudo with the Tsuruoka Cooperative


only in protecting the finer silk beneath. It is sometimes used as a natural amino acid in non-textile industries such as cosmetics and pet food manufacture. The material has now been found to provide, in a natural form, qualities that are useful for clothing, such as moisture and UV filtration. In Kibiso Bookshelf and Futsu Crisscross, the Japanese designer combines the material with their natural materials such as raw silk and cotton. The weaving process brings together the handmade (the kibiso fibre must be slit by hand) and the technical in the final weaving of the cloth. Schoeller Textil AG, Switzerland, make fashion fabrics that are breathable and water and wind repellent. Copper: Polyester PU polyamide

Misty: 60% polyamide 30% elasthane 10% elasthane

Jeans Steel: 45% metallic yarn 30% cotton 20% polyamide 5% elasthane A 2-way stretch fabric

3. Sandwich Structures: A sandwich structure is where two or more different materials are placed on top of one another and joined together to form a new single material. The individual structures are usually different and both textile and non-textile materials can be brought together in this way through a variety of joining processes, including heat, stitch and adhesives. Applications vary, ranging from geosynthetics to clothing. These structures are common in geosynthetics industry where they are sued for road and soil reinforcement as well as filtration.

Inside of a Transhield layered fabric

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


USA based company, Transhield produces layered fabrics that can protect fragile goods in transit against corrosion. The system offers a patented vapour corrosion inhibitor (VCI) delivery system to offer protection against corrosion. The outer layer of Transhield is a white polyethylene shrink/ stretch film followed by a central layer with an olefin hot melt adhesive, which is solvent free. The inner layer is a soft non-abrasive hydro-entangled polyester nonwoven. The covers are made with drawstrings to fit the goods. Once it is fitted, it is manually heated to shrink the fabric so it is a better fit for the boat, machinery or other objects being moved.

Memory Chair, Tokujin Yoshioka, Japan, design for Italian furniture designers Moroso.

Engineering, Imperial College London, Fabrican technology has captured the imagination of designers, industry and the public around the world. The technology has been developed for use in household, industrial, personal and healthcare, decorative and fashion applications using aerosol cans or spray-guns, and will soon be found in products available everywhere.

Parka-Air-Mattress. Manufactured by CP Company, Bologna

In the Memory Chair, cotton and recycled aluminium are brought together to create a sandwich structure. This is then formed into a dome shape which is placed over the chair structure like a sleeve. The user creates the final form to fit their body shape as the metal can be reformed by sitters to suit their shape and posture. 4. Fabric Architecture:

Dai Fujiwara (Japan), Trampoline and Gemini. Made by the Miyake Design Studio

5. Treatment:

Manel Torres (Spain), FabriCan is a spray-on, non-woven fabric.

FabriCan consists of fibres and a binder; users can control the thickness of the fabrics they want to achieve by using the spray can in a particular manner. The fabric is formed by the cross-linking of fibres, which adhere to one another, to create an instant non-woven fabric that can be easily sprayed on to any surface, even directly on the body or mannequin. Its properties can be tailored to meet the needs of each user. From its base at the Department of Chemical

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013

5A. Coating: 3XDRY速 manufactured by Scoeller textile AG was developed in conjunction with Ciba Speciality Chemicals AG. The shirt was designed to overcome sweat-soaked armpits, a problem with poly-cotton shirts. The cloth is finished in such a way that it displays both hydrophilic (moisture absorbing) and hydrophobic (water-repellent) properties. The material allows sweat to wick away from the body comfortably and invisibly. 5B. Colour Change Textiles: Visualize a painting that changes colour. Imagine making your own designs on a regular basis without actually any effort. This is now



happening in textiles and it is possible using thermochromic inks or dyes. These inks are temperature sensitive compounds, developed in the 1970s, that temporarily change color with exposure to heat. Earlier applications were in flat thermometers, battery testers, etc. -Upholstery


A single coloured tablecloth was made out of thermochromic screen print and the idea of using external objects to make patterns. By making the tablecloth “do it yourself” the textile pattern starts to do something more than a traditional textile pattern does. Various patterns can be done including playing games like tic tac

(b) Linda Worbin (Sweden): (a)“Do it yourself” ; (b) “Tic Tac”

The tablecloth (a) looks like an ordinary, boring tablecloth. But when hot objects are placed on top the pattern not only seems to disappear; some (a) patterns actually appear (b). The design of this tablecloth got inspiration from traditional embroidered tablecloths. To hide a pattern within a pattern, printing needs to (b) be done with two Linda Worbin (Sweden), different pigments but mixed in the same colours Rather Boring Table Cloth (in this case a grey thermo-chromic and a grey pigment colour). Accuracy in designing and printing is very important to achieve good results. -Medicinal This collection of masks is designed to give an aesthetic warning if the wearer is running a fever or the concentration of allergens in the air exceeds a certain threshold. The pattern printed with thermochromic ink changes colour when the exhale exceeds 27′C. The collection comprises of a series of different prints and different shapes of masks: the traditional surgical style, a wrap-around-scarf, and a full-face sinus mask. The latter also senses temperature increases of the forehead as well as around the mouth. The idea is to create a stylish early-warning system at least for other people if not for the wearer.


Exhibited at: Swedish house in USA, April. 2010 and Textile museum in Borås, Sweden, Dec.2010 Researcher: Marjan Koorshnia, Photographer: Henrik Bengtsson

6. Future: While there are no serious substitutes for textiles in sight in the conventional application fields of clothing and interior decoration, textiles or textile-based composites are predicted to replace many of today's metal and plastic materials used in the automotive industry, ship building or aeronautics, in the machinery and machine tools industry, in the electronics, electro-technical and medical devices sector, in construction or agriculture and to a lesser extent wooden or leather materials in furniture, sports goods and other smaller application areas. With a growing world population, and rapid growth in textile consumption in developing countries, a whole range of new application areas for textiles and constantly rising user requirements in terms of functionality, variety, precision, performance, reliability, user and environmental friendliness of textile products, textile production in both volume and value is set to rise. On a global scale, it will mean that the industry that produces fibres, textiles and textile based products will evolve and grow. A significant part of this growth will take place in those regions of the world that experience the fastest growth rate in conventional textile consumption i.e. Southern and Eastern Asia and Latin America. These opportunities can be harnessed by building on Japan's and Europe's existing strengths which are innovation, creativity and scientific excellence with the diversified industrial capacities, labour and corresponding skills of the developing countries. We will continue with Smart/ Intelligent Textiles in our next edition. Do keep a watch… Reference: 1. Textiles Today – chloë Colchester 2. Advanced Textiles for Health and Well-Being – Marie O'Mahony 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 11. 12.

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


Colour Forecast – fall / winter 2013


AUBERGINE The on-going interest in food and nutrition and living a healthy existence is inspiring a number of seemingly unrelated trends. One such trend is the Colour nuances that emerge from the so-called super-foods: açaí, grapes and berries. These luscious shades deliver a sense of tropical escape mixed balanced by the austerity and straightforwardness of the winter season.

PANTONE® 18-3615 TCX

PANTONE® 19-3915 TCX

PANTONE® 17-1710 TCX

PANTONE® 19-2430 TCX

PANTONE® 19-2520 TCX

PINK MAROON Red continues to be an essential part of the winter palette. For the fall/winter 2013 season however, we are seeing the ecstatic shade take on a more winter-appropriate and sophisticated turn, allowing for pink and brown hues to influence its final Colouration. In-between Colours are on the rise, amid changes in the consumer's perception of the world – unbiased, ever-flexible opinion and uncertainty in choice are a driving factor in the creation of these “undefinable” Colours. PANTONE® 18-14363 TCX

PANTONE® 19-1761 TCX

PANTONE® 17-1623 TCX

NEO-INDIGO The authenticity and depth and indigo are inspiring an evolution of the historicallyimportant Colour. Purple-tinted shades are inspired by the natural yet have a profoundly man-made feel to them. Shades of purple in high and low contrast offer depth and variety for fall. The Colour purple continues to evolve from yellow-kissed shades to this season's cooler shades saturated in magenta.

PANTONE® 19-3830 TCX

PANTONE® 19-3952 TCX

PANTONE® 19-3628 TCX

PANTONE® 12-0304 TCX

PANTONE® 16-3817 TCX


BLUE POETICS Blue creates an emotive response that the consumer subconsciously demands, especially in emotionally and socially challenging times like today. Blue invites the calm and spiritual side of life to awaken, while the sense of hope and promise guides though to better times. The Colour' poetic qualities are redefined season after season and for fall/winter 2013 the focus will be on rich, true blue shades alongside purple-kissed hues. PANTONE® 16-4020 TCX

PANTONE® 18-4245 TN**

PANTONE® 19-3952 TCX

MYSTIC BLUE The man-made and the natural inspire this autumnal blue direction. The known side of the ocean, the sky and space inspire these washed-out, almost-grey shades of blue that come as a replacement for more traditional neutral shades. The mystic associated with blue is replaced by a realistic overtone of dull, worn-out tonality.

PANTONE® 19-3929 TCX*

PANTONE® 19-3926 TCX

PANTONE® 18-4434 TCX*

UN-REALITY Artificial brights are counter balancing the allnatural Colour offerings for the fall/winter 2013 season. The need for balance between the unreal and real is resulting in fresh, almost unexpected, shades of hyper-real Colours. The soft, pigmented quality of bright Colours is transitioning into vibrant, yet familiar, shades.

PANTONE® 15-5516 TCX

PANTONE® 18-1651 TCX

PANTONE® 18-3949 TCX

WINTER PASTELS Sun-kissed brights are transitioning into the fall season in a dustier, less prominent offering. Pink continues to evolve from season to season, establishing itself in both the commercial and directional sides of the business. These soft pastels will continue to pop in winter and overtake the Colour palette in summer.

PANTONE® 16-3116 TCX

PANTONE® 13-2802 TCX*

PANTONE® 12-0418 TCX


NEO-TEAL Winter teal shades recall the summer days and reflect them enveloped in subdued turquoise Colours. Teal, turquoise and alpine green create a fresh hybrid for the winter. The appeal of teal lays in its connection to past times, recalling the 1970s. The new seasonal teal Colours are more sophisticated and are moving away from the playful, tropical seafoam shades.

PANTONE® 19-0509 TCX

PANTONE® 19-5350 TCX*

PANTONE® 16-5425 TCX

PANTONE® 12-4607 TCX

FOREST GREEN Green shades evoke a feeling of familiarity and rest. The Colour of nature is inspired by the on-going interest in utilitarian wear and the need to blend in with the environment. For the fall season we are seeing renewed interest in duller, almost worn-out shades that draw inspiration straight from the woods. The current interest in bright, almost neon-like Chartreuse shades will evolve into a more subtle and sophisticated acid green shade. PANTONE® 18-5621 TCX

PANTONE® 16-5109 TCX

PANTONE® 19-0915 TCX

PANTONE® 13-0630 TN**

AUTUMNAL GOLD Sun-filled yellow shades will brighten up the summer horizon. These supple, playful shades recall summer days spent in the tropics. The need to escape is still lurking in people's minds and they respond positively to Colours that a momentary journey to distant land. Warm yellow shades transition from orange and sepia.

PANTONE® 16-1360 TCX

PANTONE® 13-0947 TCX

PANTONE® 12-0826 TCX

PANTONE® 15-1049 TCX

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SPORTSTECH Mr. Anil Kumar MD of Great Sports Infra

What is Artificial Turf? In recent years, many of you may have come across lush-green lawns at a home, restaurant or office that seem absolutely perfect all around the year, or a large school playground of flawless turf. Or for those who watched the first-ever FIFA International Football match in India last year at Salt Lake stadium and marvelled at the beautiful, world-class grass. If you are wondering how difficult it must have been to create and maintain such beautiful landscapes and sports fields, how much water, pesticides, and general maintenance it may will be surprised that none of those assumptions are true. Welcome to the new world of next-generation artificial grass! Unlike the old-generation "Astroturf" (as many people know it as), the current artificial grass products are grass-like in appearance; need virtually no-maintenance, are lush-green for over 15 years, and various varieties have been engineered to suit purposes not only like landscaping but meeting the stringent criteria for each sport like football, rugby, golf, hockey, cricket pitches etc.

This "next-generation" turf was invented by FieldTurf in the early 90's with the objective of creating artificial turf that mimics natural grass in as many aspects as possible (look-nfeel; bio-mechanics of ball movement and body movement) and yet, with the advantages that it can be used for years and years with virtually no maintenance, can be relatively injuryfree, dust-free and provide world-class sports surfaces at far lesser cost of ownership. As world renowned Architect and Landscapist Mr. Kishore Pradhan says, “Its about as much like grass, as you can have a synthetic surface be”. How is Artificial Turf Prepared? The product is usually made of UV-resistant PE (polyethylene) yarn, though some varieties are of PP (polypropylene), and to an even smaller extent, Nylon. The yarn is extruded, and then tufted into a latex or PP backing. The kind of yarn, the density of the tufting, stitch gauge, pile height are the various factors that determine what is the ideal application for each variety of these artificial turfs. Apart from the above factors, it is equally important that the gaps between the fibres are infilled with suitable material (typically silica sand and rubber granules) in a correct ratio and quantity. This infill provides the exact cushioning that replicates the playing properties expected of an ideal natural grass sports turf.

Some varieties of turf have 2 shades of green alternately tufted so that it gives a more natural hue. The yarn is also available in multiple colours (white for line marking; various colour combinations for logos; the recent Olympics Hockey field using Blue turf for the play area and Pink for the run-off area), etc. Even more recent advances in this industry include turf which does not need infill (but obviously suitable only for very light usage or almost no foot-traffic). There is an additional yarn (typically of sandy colour) also called "thatch" that is very short and is intended to substitute the need for sand and rubber. Though it is not as effective as the real infill, it is useful in applications where infill is not possible (sloped surfaces, compact indoor surfaces etc). Why Artificial Turf? Apart from player comfort (in terms of restitution energy, "give", GMax rating) it also meets the stringent standards of say FIFA in terms of ball bounce, ball roll, shock absorption, vertical rebound etc. In fact, this is the method followed to test each field before certifying that it meets the FIFA standards to host National or International level matches. The many Benefits of Artificial Turf are listed below: Ÿ Virtually ZERO-maintenance

Ÿ Aesthetically very pleasing

Ÿ No-watering, mowing, weeding, fertilizing

Ÿ Lush Green even with daily, extensive usage

Ÿ No Herbicides and pesticides

Ÿ Up to 8-Year warranty; life 15 years+

Ÿ Non-toxic, non-abrasive, non-allergic

Ÿ UV Treated to resist fading; outdoor grade

Ÿ No thatching and aerating

Ÿ Fire-retardant

Ÿ Environment- friendly

Ÿ Use of Recycled Materials

Ÿ Structurally safer

Ÿ Safer for children to play


Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


Presence in India India has had the old-generation Hockey turf for over 30 years now. But those could be used only for Hockey, needed a water-sprinkler system during use and basically had very limited, expensive usage. The next-generation artificial turf was introduced into India (or rather, SAARC region) in late 2004. By 2005, there were dozens of homes, offices, showrooms, children's play areas that installed these turfs and there was a very positive response. Users could see that the turfs could deliver all that it promised. By late 2005, SAARC region's first artificial turf football field was installed at Chowgule College, Goa. It attracted nation-wide interest especially among the football community. The national football team and various I-League Clubs started using this facility for practice and with positive results. In 2009, India's iconic Salt Lake stadium also installed this turf and went on to host the Argentina-Venezuela FIFA match, which also saw one of the greatest-ever football

players - Lionel Messi - playing on artificial turf. Now over a dozen stadiums in India have these turfs and most of the ILeague matches are also played on these. Many states have found such great acceptance of these fields that they have installed multiple fields. Today, in India, there are over 5,000 landscaping installations and over 200 sports facilities with the next-generation artificial turf. Compared to the hard dust-bowls a generation ago, children get to play on injuryfree, dust-free, world-class turf. Artificial Turf in Landscapingâ&#x20AC;Ś Rooftop gardens / Balconies Atriums, Courtyards Jogging / Walking Tracks / Playgrounds / Cafeteria Road Medians, Traffic Islands Hotels, Resorts, Clubs, Malls Club Houses, Party Lawns Wherever it is difficult to grow grassâ&#x20AC;Śor impossible to maintain it.





Clients in India include the Who's Who of corporations (Hero Honda, Reliance, NSE, Infosys), hotels (Taj Mahal Palace & Towers, Sheraton, Radisson), celebrities (Mukesh Ambani's office & home; AP Governor & CM, VVS Lakshman, Rajan Bharti, Chiranjeevi), Indian Air Force, Apollo Hospitals...Globally, the market size is a few hundred millions sqft annually. In India, the cumulative installed area is estimated to be about 5 Million Sqft and annually at about 1 Million Sqft now and growing each year. While this is not a very large number, it has to be seen in the perspective that in 2004, it was zero. The entire supply of artificial turf in India is Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013

still primarily imported. It is mainly manufactured in China, Middle East, Europe, Australia and USA. India is just about beginning to start production of these turfs with a couple of facilities having trial production currently. Overall, there is no doubt that these new-generation artificial grasses are here to stay in India and will play a larger and larger role in our lifestyle. In the near future, we will have tens of thousands of installations of every type and application. Author views are personal.



TECHNICAL TEXTILE NEWS Technical Textiles and Nonwovens industry is definitely booming and this was evident from the presentations and discussions that were held at the two-day Techtextil India Symposium held on 30 – 31 October 2012 in Mumbai. Amongst the industry doyens were the policy makers such as the Chief Guest, Shri Sujit Gulati, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Textiles, the Guest of Honour Shri A.B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles and Mrs Shashi Singh, Executive Director, Indian Technical Textile Association (ITTA). Mr Michael Jänecke, Director of Techtextil, Messe Frankfurt GmbH was also present representing the largest exhibition in the industry around the globe. Mr Sujit Gulati said, “Making mandatory use of Technical Textiles and Nonwovens in a government agency is imperative. New initiatives in the Nonwovens and Composites segments are also essential to set standards and to ensure a good momentum of growth.” As per him, India is about 50 years behind in comparison to other developed countries. Mr A. B. Joshi added, “Even if India is decades behind developed nations it still has a growth potential like none other. India is an untapped market and has a strong raw material base. Technical Textiles and Nonwovens industry will see a 20% growth of Rs 158000 crore by 2016-2017 from Rs 63,000 crore in 2011-2012.” On the basis of the growth potential in India, the symposium began with 'Global Scenario and Opportunities'. Mr Francesco Marchi, Director General, European Apparel and Textile Confederation (EURATEX), Belgium said, “There are three things that go hand in hand contributing to the growth of the industry, namely, legislation, standards and good partnerships. Presently the consumption of Nonwovens in India is 100 grams per capita whereas, in

developed markets the per capita is 3.5 kilograms. Estimated that 2040 the per capita consumption will rise to 4 kilograms per capita and by 2050 India will surpass U.S.” He also stressed on the importance of having sound knowledge of the end use of products. Each speaker insisted that Technical Textiles and Nonwovens industry is a knowledge driven industry. In order to grow & survive in this industry one needs patience, passion to consistently innovate, Strong R & D is the key. Optimistic about the industry, Mrs Shashi Singh, Executive Director of Indian Technical Textile Association (ITTA) summed up “According to our assessments high-end products will see growth later whereas, the commodity market will witness sound growth. In order to progress of the industry & bring regulations, we are submitting a white paper to the Ministry of Textiles & related ministries on the regulations across world. Mr Kusumgar conveyed opportunities available in india. If we reduce import and increase exports. Accreditation and certification of products will help in the long run. The industry needs to have intensive curriculums and degree courses in the Technical Textiles and Nonwoven Industry.” Techtextil India Symposium closed on a high with growth momentum of the industry. This race to the peak of success will be continued at the Techtextil India exhibition which will be held from 3 – 5 October 2012 at Bombay Exhibition Centre, Mumbai.

ITAMMA (The Indian Textile Accessories & Machinery Manufacture Association 1. B2B Meeting & MOU ITAMMA held Business to Business meeting at ITME which also saw the exchange of Memorandum of Understanding between the associations, represented by its President, Mr. Naresh A. Mistry and International Textile Manufacturer's Association represented by director General, Dr. Christian Schindler. National committee member Kaizar Z. Mahuwala said” this gives a platform for an Indian companies & foreign companies and association to set up technical collaboration and Joint ventures” ITAMMA claims to be the world's largest association of Textile Machinery & accessories manufacturer with 500 members. 2. ITAMMA puts one step- ahead in Cluster Development Activities ITAMMA Lean Manufacturing Forum (Ahmedabad) signs Tripartite Agreement on 29th October, 2012 ITAMMA took initiatives under the umbrella of its Cluster Development activities and received an approval “in


principle” from National Productivity Council for forming DPG to take part in the Lean Manufacturing Competitiveness Scheme (LMCS) for Textile Machinery & Accessories Manufacturing Cluster at Ahmadabad. For implementing Lean Manufacturing (LM) Competitiveness Scheme on Pilot Basis (100 Nos.) in India was received from National Monitoring & Implementing Unit (NMIU) of NPCL, New Delhi; informing about the details of the appointed Consultants and the procedures for undergoing Tripartite Agreement. Mr. N.D. Mhatre, Dy. Director General (Tech.) informed that the suggestions made by Lean Manufacturing / Design Clinic Team for the development or designing of any assembly or parts or machines if are in the category of energy conservation, then ITAMMA can perform a role of catalyst for submitting the project for such developments to the Government authorities like DST / PCRA, etc. for part funding the project.

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013



Visual Merchandising & its Effects on Sales Dr. Sabita Baruah Department of Textile & Apparel Design SVT College of Home Science SNDT Women's University

Introduction Retailing is on the verge of a great future. Consumerism is driving society to become increasingly brand conscious while being obsessively mindful of fashion trends. As foreign clothing brands make a foray into the upscale urban Indian market, retailing is poised for a major makeover in India. Shopping malls and department stores are springing up in major cities and towns to create a magical ambiance that is intended to make everyday shopping a pleasurable preoccupation. In the clothing industry, mass production based on the economics of scale invariably results in surplus production that markets cannot easily absorb. Therefore, retailers have to fiercely compete with each other for consumer attention and loyalty. In this rat race for survival, many retailers seem to be mimicking each by utilizing similar strategies for mass marketing, and offering merchandise that is shockingly identical. Therefore, the retail space is in dire need of innovation that can effectively highlight the distinguishing characters of specific brands and products. To enhance consumer appeal, retailers need to present a clothing product's uniqueness in a more intelligent manner. For this, retailers need to turn to revolutionary and creative visual merchandising. The present study wishes to assess the

Materials & Methods A sample of 100 garment retailers from various suburbs of Mumbai was randomly selected for the study. From different suburbs of Mumbai, 210 consumers were selected. Based on their economic background as either middle class or upper middle class, the consumers were further divided into two categories. These two categories were then further classified into 3 age groups; 18-25yrs, 25-40yrs and above 40yrs. Questionnaires and interviews were used as research tools for data collection. Based on the above classification, the data collected was analyzed and the results were interpreted by use of statistical methods. Results & Discussion Retailer's opinion: It was found that 92% of the respondents believed that effective window displays were essential for survival in today's market. In their opinion, window displays were important as competition from local brands and foreign brands was intense. However, 5% of the respondent expressed the opinion that visual merchandising was, indeed, an important promotional tool, but not essential for surviving in the market (Fig:1).

It was also found that 85% of the respondents believed that visual displays played a major role in attracting the attention of consumers. However, 9% of respondents felt that visual displays were essential only during the festive season, and that such displays were not necessarily a major influencing factor (Fig: 2) at other times of the season.

Window display

importance of visual merchandising in today's competitive market, and redefine its boundaries in the process of â&#x20AC;&#x153;saleâ&#x20AC;?. The research study is based on a survey to find out the impact of visual merchandising on the consumer's psyche. This survey report also presents first hand information on the expert opinions of retailers and consumers towards visual merchandising. Data from the survey also reveals the effectiveness of visual displays in increasing the sales, while factors such as price, brand image, and festive sale occurrences remain in the foreground.


The data obtained from the survey also revealed that, 67% shopkeepers received impulsive buyers often, while 25% of the retailers received such consumers only occasionally. The rest 8% of the consumer priorities were budget, design, and quality. Last category of consumers was categorized as shopping planners rather than impulsive buyers (Fig: 3). What was now significant was that 71% of the respondents reported that the increase in sales was due to the display of the garments or textile products. They also

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


expressed the view that products had to be displayed in an appropriate manner to attract customers into the store. A window display was being interpreted as the face of the shop, and had the power to make the first impression on potential customers. However, 9% of the retailers mentioned that it had no effect in sale of the textile product, as they had a guaranteed pool of regular customers of the retail outlet (Fig:4). Consumer's Opinion: The report obtained from the survey indicates that 60% of customers from the middle class strata who engaged in window shopping were female customers. These female customers were from the 18-25 years age bracket. From the upper middle class social strata, 63% of the same sex and age group frequently indulged in window shopping. From the data (Fig:5) it was also evident that 94% of the customer constantly observed window displays while moving around casually near shopping areas. Maximum respondents from both the categories i.e. middle class and upper middle class showed similar trend of behavior (Fig:6). However, college going teens were more strongly influenced by brands, advertisements, and attention grabbing window displays. The data also confirms that both the categories of respondents from the two different economical strata have similar shopping inclinations. This leads us to conclude that more than 60% consumers with age group of 18-25yrs enter shop by seeing the display. It was also found that consumers from first two age groups of both categories of economical background believed that window displays were the most effective promotional media. In contrast, consumers aged 40 and above felt that television was the most effective media, as it succeeded in informing them and influencing them the most. However, consumer aged between 25-40 years from both the categories of economical background planned their shopping often and were frequent window shoppers. Consumers aged above 40 years gave first preference to the quality of the garments and textile merchandise. Colour and pattern followed much later. However, the most significant factor found in consumers between the age of 18 and 25 years from both economical

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013

backgrounds was that they were impulsive buyers who were strongly influenced by the window displays and interior ambiance of the store. Apparently, consumer from all 3 age groups and two different categories of economical backgrounds showed a very high degree of interest in window displays. This was followed by colours, styles, and brands. Conclusion The textile marketing scenario in India is rapidly changing. Retailing is now read as “detailing”. Good location of the store, good products, visually pleasing interiors, wellcoordinated visual merchandising props, and quality of customer service go a long way in enhancing the shopping experience. It is not only the product that is important to a consumer, but also the entire shopping experience. Therefore, the retailing industry might have to follow some of the norms of the hospitality industry, where quality of service is important. In the retailing business, presentation of clothing products is more than just arranging product as lifeless exhibits. Products need to flaunt their very best character in a comforting ambiance that enhances their appeal though an inner emotional connect. At one level, the present study was undertaken to ascertain consumer preferences in the context of visual merchandising and the strategies utilized to grab the attention of consumers. At another level, the study wished to examine the impact of window displays on the sale of clothing products. The study reveals that visual displays play a crucial role in attracting customers and possibly initiating a sale at the retail level. Customers of all the age groups are attracted towards the display, although their criteria for purchase and choices differ according to the age and income groups. Furthermore, the self-help window displays in retail outlets or a boutique makes it easier for customers to select the right product. Meanwhile, innovations evolving in e-commerce platforms and technologies are also changing the scenario of retailing. References 1.Mills and Kenneth, Applied Visual Merchandising, Prentice Hall Inc publishing, New Jersey,(1988) 2.Singh, D., “Art and Science of Visual Merchandising”, Images Retail, Vol.7, No.1.pp.60-80,(2008) 3. Anon, “Step to effective visual merchandising”, Home Fashion, Vol.9, No.3, No.6, pp.12-13(2009) 4. Dalal, M., “Mechanics of visual merchandising”, Apparel, Vol.30, Issue7, pp130-164(2010) 5.Bapna.M.,“Window shopping”, Apparel,Vol.30,issue2,pp.70-73(2010) 6. Anon, “Visual merchandising: key to better retail sale” Home Fashion India, Vol.9, No.4.pp.64-67(2010) Websites


Yarn Dyed Fabrics

Indigo Shirting

KLASSIC FABRICS 75/79, PK Building, Shop No. 15, 1st floor, Old hanuman lane, Kalbadevi, Mumbai- 400002. Direct : +91-9820120561 Contact Person : Mr. Jitendra Kanabar


Tel : 022-22000099, 022-22000077, email :


Development of Software to Engineer Cotton Knitted Fabric Kalyan Roy Dept of Textile Eng., Punjab Technical University Giani Zail Singh Campus

Introduction The problem of unpredictable shrinkage of cotton knitted fabrics is a serious and recurring one. Like any engineered product the dimension of a knitted fabric is mainly influenced by the constructional variables like yarn count, twist, wales and courses per unit length, stitch length, etc. In a knitted structure, these variables keep on changing from the grey fabric stage in machine to grey relaxed state and to the finished state after dyeing and finishing due to relaxation of fabric which alters the stitch length (or loop length) which is the basic unit of a knitted fabric. This problem is more pronounced with cotton fabrics than fabrics manufactured with thermoplastic synthetic yarns since cotton cannot be heat-set making the problem more pronounced. The knitters and garment manufacturers specify two basic parameters of a knitted fabric, namely, shrinkage and fabric weight (in g/m2 or GSM). While the GSM changes with shrinkage rendering the two parameters interrelated, it is rather difficult for the knitters to satisfy the garment makers in absence of the knowledge about the exact relationship between the two since an intolerable high value of shrinkage means serious problems in size and fit of the garment. Frequently, the knitters set the machine and constructional parameters by trial and error from their experiences which lead to customer complaints of high shrinkage of garments and difficulties in cutting during garment manufacturing. Moreover, the overseas customers may not tolerate the delay and quality problems. The objectives of the present study are exploring a reliable relationship to predict the fabric dimensions (and therefore, shrinkage) and fabric weight (or GSM) and, based on this relationship, developing a software to obtain the machine and fabric constructional parameters quickly and reliably to satisfy the garment manufacturers and specially the overseas customers. 2. Methodology and experimental procedure Munden(1) established that stitch length is the most fundamental variable in a knitted fabric and the fabric dimensions are influenced by the stitch length through the relationships:Wa l e s p e r i n c h = k w / l , …………….(1) Courses per inch = kc/l …………….(2) 2 Stitch density = ks/l ..…………….(3) where l is the stitch length and kw, kc and ks are constants of proportionality. a

Corresponding author, e-mail: Munden determined these relationships after considering the empirical data from a large number of knitted fabrics at grey relaxed and finished relaxed states. Heap, et al.(2) put forwarded the concept of 'Reference State' in which the substrate assume a dimension when it will

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013

not shrink any further and this state is achievable after one cycle of washing and tumble drying followed by four cycles of wetting and tumble drying. Subsequent researchers(3,4,5,6) have confirmed these relationships in the reference state, although, the exact values of kw, kc and ks, commonly known as k-factors, have been a matter of contention. Some workers(7,8,9) have reported different values of k-factors for different materials, like wool, cotton, polyester, etc. However, it is generally recognized(10) that the dyeing and finishing routes have their roles to determine these values and the above relationships work satisfactorily for a particular group of wet processing machines for a particular material. With these understandings, it can be said that the values of k-factors remain constant for a particular material and group of wet processing machines and, if material and wet processing route change, the values of k-factors will change, thereby, necessitating the establishment of k-factors by individual knitted fabric processor/ manufacturer for a particular wet processing route and material. In the present experimental programme, 288 cotton plain fabric samples are knitted (144 for dyed and 144 for bleached variety) with four different counts of yarn, three twist multipliers, three machine gauges and four stitch lengths and finished by identical compaction process. These samples are brought to reference state by the repeated washing and tumble drying processes and their wales per inch, courses per inch and stitch lengths are measured. The values of k-factors are shown in this table.

K-factor Kc Kw Kc/Kw

Plain bleached fabric 5.78 4.41 1.31

Plain dyed fabric 5.84 4.23 1.38

The scatter plots of wales per cm (wpcm), courses per cm (cpcm) against reciprocal of stitch length (cm) and stitch density against reciprocal of square of stitch length (cm2) are given in Fig.1. The co-efficient of regression obtained are very high.

Fig.1: Scatter plots for plain cotton knitted finished fabrics in reference state. In the present experimental set-up, the relationships for wales per cm (wpcm) and courses per cm (cpcm) becomes:- For bleached fabrics, wpcm = 4.41/l and cpcm = 5.78/l - For dyed fabrics, wpcm = 4.23/l and cpcm = 5.84/l The fabric weight is introduced in the programme by the relationship:Fabric weight in g/m2 or GSM = wpcm x cpcm x stitch length (cm) x tex/10………..(4) where, tex is the linear density of the yarn and obtained by tex = 590.5/count. In order to obtain fabric weight, a new constant of proportionality, ky, is introduced using Eq.(4) GSM = ky x tex/l ……………..(5) and the following relationship is established after subjecting the fabric samples in reference state in the present study:GSM = 21.44 x tex/l …………(6) The scatter plot drawn by the calculated values of fabric weight (or GSM) obtained by Eq.(6) in the y-axis and the measured values of fabric weight in the x-axis is shown in Fig.2.



3. Details and demonstration of software The software is developed with the help of VISUAL BASIC 2008 platform after analyzing the nature of the problem of shrinkage and fabric weight (GSM) in the shop floor of the industry. The basic Fig.2: Association of calculated and measured values of weight (in g/ m2) plain cotton fabrics in reference state

Fig. 3: Screen display with initial set of data consisting of shrinkage% and stitch length

consideration is that the kc, kw and ky factors are unique for a knitting and finishing plant which are required to be established for a particular combination of material, knitting machine and wet processing route and parameters by every plant. 3.1 Material, knitting machine and fabric specifications It is desired to produce a 100% cotton single jersey fabric on a 24 gauge knitting machine of 24 inch diameter with1800 needles using a 30s Ne (or 29.5 tex) combed yarn at a stitch length of 0.11 inch. The targeted width and weight for the fabric after bleaching and finishing will be 23.5 inch tubular and 140 g/m2 with shrinkage of 5% by 3%in length and width. The wet processing route consists of scouring and bleaching in a soft flow machine, followed by hydro-extraction and pole drying and compaction in the final finishing step. 3.2 Features of display screen Fig.3-5 shows the display of the screen. The programme permits the parameters of gauge, diameter, needles, yarn count, stitch length, the values of kc, kw and ky to be entered as given values shown in the upper portion of the screen. The course length required to be produced for one revolution of knitting machine for specific stitch length is calculated and displayed below the stitch length, if desired, with the click of SHOW button. The software can calculate the REFERENCE STATE values of fabric width (tubular in inch), wales per inch (WPI), courses per inch (CPI) and fabric weight in g/m2 (GSM) and show under method A on the left hand bottom corner. Below the DELIVERED section, method A displays the width (tubular), WPI, CPI, and GSM as obtained after bleaching and finishing on entering the desired shrinkage values together with the parameters already entered. The values under method B and method C, both in REFERENCE STATE and DELIVERED section are described the following text. The buttons of RESET, RESET ALL and EXIT are provided to erase the data in case of a wrong entry or after completion of whole cycle of operation and to log out from the programme. Fig.3 displays the screen with the data entered for an existing machine in which the experiment is conducted with yarn of count 30s, stitch length 0.11 inch and desired shrinkage of 5% and 3% in length and width. The machine is set to give the course length 198 inch with the help of a course length meter. In the present experiential programme, the values of kc, kw and ky are determined beforehand and entered in the screen. The specifications of the fabric that will be manufactured is displayed in the DELIVERED segment under method A with the click of SHOW button under this column.


The data shows that with the specified stitch length and yarn count, fabric GSM of 143.49 at 23.56 inch tubular width will be delivered to give shrinkage of 5% and 3%. It is pertinent to mention that this fabric is not acceptable since, a fabric with GSM of 140 and width 23.5 inch tubular is specified to be produced. In the next attempt, the method B is used in which the targeted width of 23.5 inch is entered into the programme with the same desired shrinkage of 5% by 3%. Based upon these delivered width and shrinkage, the method B shows that the required stitch length has changed to 0.105 inch. However, the targeted GSM is not reached. This is shown in Fig.4.

Fig.4: Screen display with shrinkage and targeted delivered width

Fig.4: Screen display with shrinkage and targeted delivered width

In the method C in the DELIVERED section the targeted width (tubular) and GSM are entered and, obviously, the shrinkage values change to 7.31% and 4.51% in length and width. This is shown in Fig.5. Therefore, the present software provides various options, which are: 1. If the shrinkage and stitch length are specified, method A is suitable, 2. If the shrinkage and delivered width (tubular) are specified, method B is suitable, and 3. If the delivered width and GSM are specified, then method C ...continued on pg53 is appropriate.

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013



Skill Gaps and Requirements in Fabric Processing ICRA Management Consulting Services Ltd. (IMaCS), Continuing with our section of Skill gap Analysis, we carry on with Fabric Processing. Fabric Finishing/ Processing Units Fabric Finishing Units include dyeing, printing, and other cloth preparation prior to the manufacture. This subsegment is also dominated by a large number of independent, small-scale enterprises. These units can be broadly divided into following three segments: Processing facilities attached to composite textile mills (Hi-Tech Segment) Non-SSI independent power processing units (Medium to Advanced Technology) Small scale processing units (Hand operated / motor operated primitive technology locally fabricated / power operated low technology machines) The census of the power processing units by the Textiles Committee during the year 2005 has revealed that there were 2,510 power processing units in the country compared to 2,324 units in 1999-2000.Out of the 2,510 power processing units, 59 units are composite, 167 semicomposite and 2,284 the independent processing units. The major clusters of processing units are Mumbai, Surat, Ahmadabad, Delhi, Ludhiana, Amritsar and Tirupur. Production processes involved in fabric processing The various activities involved in fabric processing are shown in the following figure: Preparetory




Production processes in fabric processing

1. Preparatory Preparatory processes include the following: o Shearing: Removal of loose and broken threads. These loose threads give a shabby look to the fabric and interfere in the process of dyeing/printing of the fabric. The fabric is passed through shearing/ cropping machine consisting of a

set of spiral blades whereby such loose threads are cut and separated. o Singeing: Removal of threads/protruding from the surface by application of heat. o Desizing: Removal of the sizing agents added during fabric manufacturing. The sizing agents are hydrophobic in nature and hence interfere in dyeing/printing. o Scouring: The fabric is treated in alkaline conditions at boiling temperature and/or under pressure whereby saponification and emulsification makes such fats/waxes are removed from the fabric. o Bleaching: Bleaching agents are used to improve the whiteness of the fabric. 2. Dyeing The dyeing process can take place at different stages of the fabric development. However, dyeing of fabric is the most common dyeing method. Dyeing is performed in continuous or batch modes. In the continuous dyeing process, the fabric is passed through a dye bath of sufficient length. The dye is fixed to the fabric using chemicals or steam followed by washing to remove any excess dyes and chemicals. The batch dying process is similar, though the dye application stage occurs in a dyeing machine where the textile and dye solution are brought to equilibrium. The use of chemicals and/or heat optimises the batch process. This is followed by washing. Jiggers are commonly used for batch dyeing. There are several different classes of dyes used in textile dyeing and printing operations. The most commonly used dyes are reactive and direct dyes for dyeing cotton and disperse dyes for dyeing polyester. An important property of a dyeing is its levelness i.e. same depth of colour all over the material along with good penetration of the dye. 3. Printing Unlike dyeing, where the whole fabric is dyed, printing involves one or more colours in certain parts and in particular patterns. 4. Finishing Finishing is performed to improve the appearance, texture or performance of a fabric. Qualities such as softness, lustre, durability and sometimes water repelling and flame resistance of fabrics are increased with finishing processes. Both chemical and physical methods are used to finish fabrics.

Skill requirements and skills gaps in Fabric processing




Level Production Manager/ Shift In charge/ Supervisor

Skills Required

Skill Gaps 타 Inadequate

Technical competence- Very strong understanding of both fabric and chemicals.

knowledge of both textile manufacturing and chemistry in combination

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013




Skills Required Process improvement skills waste control, finding solutions to maintenance and engineering related problems as most of the units do not have a dedicated R&D for process improvement. Ÿ Need for understanding quality requirements of customers Ÿ Problem solving skills, good communication skills to manage shop floor workers who are mostly minimally educated. Ÿ Knowledge of vernacular language Ÿ is essential to communicate with the

Skill Gaps



Ÿ Inadequate of

cross-functional knowledge especially knowledge of effluent treatment processes. Ÿ Insufficient soft skills to manage shop floor personnel.




Ÿ Operating knowledge of bleaching and

Ÿ Insufficient availability of

colouring, jet dyeing machines, jiggers, soft flow dyeing machines etc. Ÿ Knowledge of various type of Chemicals used in processing. Ÿ Ability to identify and differentiate colours. Ÿ Need for Certification of skills - The operators working on boilers need to have certification. Ÿ Understanding of waste treatment operations

personnel who can work in boiler operations. Ÿ Inadequate knowledge of various machines and chemicals. Ÿ Insufficient knowledge of effluent treatment processes Ÿ Inadequate knowledge of CNC machines.

Ÿ Understanding of the customer

Testing / Quality

requirements and communicating the quality parameters to Lab assistants. Knowledge of international standards is desirable. Quality assurance/ Ÿ Knowledge of in line and final quality testing procedures. Quality control Ÿ Ability to understand and prevent defects such as shade variations, patches, etc. For e.g. in case of dyeing, loose threads in the fabric would impact the quality of the dyeing.

Lab Assistants

Ÿ Inadequate

understanding of the buyer requirements and their relationship to quality parameters. (translation of buyer requirements to quality parameters).

ŸKnowledge of laboratory outines & practices. ŸInadequate knowledge of ŸMaintain records of testing results, routine logs

and laboratory notes, etc. ŸKnowledge of various chemicals and dyes.

various chemicals vis-a-vis processing of fabrics.

In our next issue we will continue with Skill Gap Analysis in the Clothing/ Garmenting Sector which is the final stage of the textile value chain. Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013



Setting up of Skill Development Project for Textile Industry The Government has a scheme namely, Integrated Skill Development Scheme (ISDS) to cater to skilled manpower needs of Textile and related segments through skill development training programmes. The scheme envisages participation of training institutes associated with the Ministry and the private sector as implementing agencies. The scheme has two Components – Component-I for training Institutes within the Ministry and Component II for private sector. The Government meets 75% of the total cost of the project with balance 25% to be met by the implementing agencies with a provision of enhanced level of government assistance in certain circumstances. The average cost per trainee to be borne by the Government is limited to Rs. 7300 for Component-I and Rs. 7500 for Component-II. So far, 30 projects with an

outlay of Rs. 594.84 crore targeting 5.87 lakh trainees have been sanctioned. As on October, 2012, 74094 persons have been trained under the scheme. Under the scheme, funds are not released state wise but are released directly to implementing agencies. These implementing agencies establish training centres across different states. The scheme has covered 24 states in all the sub-sectors of Textiles and clothing. A list of training centres set up in different states is given at Annexure-I. As of August, 2012, Government grant amounting to Rs.149.81 crore has been released to implementing agencies for implementation of the projects under ISDS. In the 12th Plan, the ISDS has an allocation of Rs. 1900 Crores and seeks to train 15 lakhs textiles workers. Reference : Ministry of Textiles

Component - I

Annexure-I Implementing Agency/Sectors

ATDC - Apparel / Garmenting

State /UTs Covered Pan India

ATIRA - Apparel / Garmenting, Spinning, Weaving, Processing, Technical Textiles, Textiles / Apparel Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Maharashtra. Designing BTRA-  Apparel / Garmenting, Weaving, Processing, Technical Textiles Maharashtra. NITRA -  Apparel / Garmenting, Textile Technology, Spinning, Weaving, Knitting, Textiles / Apparel - Quality Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan. Control, Processing, Technical Textiles SITRA -  Apparel / Garmenting, Textile Technology, Spinning, Weaving, Knitting, Textiles / Apparel - Quality Tamil Nadu Control, Textiles / Apparel Designing, Technical Textiles Textiles Committee -  Textiles / Apparel - Quality Control IICT, Bhadohi -  Carpet,  Manufacturing

Maharashtra, Delhi, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal Uttar Pradesh.

IJT - Jute

West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh.

IJIRA - Jute

West Bengal, Assam

SASMIRA - Apparel / Garmenting, Weaving, Knitting, Textiles / Apparel - Quality Control, Textiles / Apparel Maharashtra. Designing, Technical Textiles MHSC -  Metal Handicraft Uttar Pradesh MANTRA -  Non-Woven


IICT, Srinagar -Carpet  Manufacturing

Jammu & Kashmir

CSB -Sericulture

Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Assam, Orissa, Chhattisgarh.

O/o TxC -  Apparel / Garmenting, Weaving, Textiles / Apparel Designing DC Handlooms -  Handlooms

Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal. 25 WSCs and 5 IIHTs across India

EPCH - Handicrafts

Delhi, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh

PDEXCIL - Spinning, Knitting, Technical Textiles

Tamil Nadu

Component - I1 Implementing Agency/Sectors Modelama Exports Ltd. -  Apparel/ Garmenting

NCR, Rajasthan

IL&FS Cluster Development Initiative Ltd. -Apparel/ Garmenting

Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, NCR and Andhra Pradesh.

Technopak Advisors Pvt. Ltd. -  Apparel/ Garmenting

Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra

ALT Training College Foundation - Apparel/ Garmenting

Karnataka, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu

Sri Karthikeya Spinning and Weaving Mills Private Ltd. -Spinning and/or Weaving

Tamil Nadu

Southern India Mills Association -Spinning and/or Weaving

Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu

IL&FS Cluster Development Initiative Ltd. - Spinning and/or Weaving

Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu

Matrix Clothing Pvt. Ltd. - Apparel/ Garmenting

NCR, Rajasthan, Haryana

Lakshmi Cotsyn Limited -  Apparel/ Garmenting

Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh

Modelama Exports Ltd. -  North East and J&K

North East and J&K

West Bengal Consultancy Organisation Ltd. -Jute

West Bengal and Sikkim

IL&FS Cluster Development Initiative Ltd. -Handloom and/or Handicraft

Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Gujarat, West Bengal, Orissa, Tripura


State /UTs Covered

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


Home Science course in Textile / Garment / Fashion / Retail Home Science course which gives not only holistic, complete development of individual but also provides Good Career Opportunity. Career opportunity in Textiles, Garment, Fashion & now Organized Retail gives scope for women to join industry or start their own business. We had asked a college of Home science in Mumbai to share their experiences & opinion on what's career opportunity after studying Homescince courses and how it's competitive Interview with Dr. Machado, Principal of College of Home Science, Nirmala Niketan, Mumbai Nirmala Niketan College of home science is affiliated to university of Mumbai. This is the only home science college affiliated to Mumbai University. College has Bsc, Msc, PHD courses related to home science. College offers a course which provides holistic and Dr. Machado, complete development of Women. Principal of Nirmala Niketan Our home science college offers specialisation subjects like Food, Nutrition & Dietetics; Human Development; Textile & Fashion Technology; Community Resource Management. Educational institute is the backbone of any industry & plays a very important role in industry and over all development of individual and industry. In the textile stream we have 50 students for Graduation & PG and 8 students for PHDs, 30 students for Value added Courses like Visual merchandiser, fashion design. We have Quality teachers working with us. 8 teaching staff and 10 visiting faculty. 3 PHD's + 2 PHD's (in process) we have quality faculty who visits regularly to ICT ( Former

UDCT), VJTI, NIFT. Placement Scenario: We have 100% placement, we get more offers for our students, but we don't have students to suffice. Few companies which comes for placements are Dystar, Vrijesh textiles, Creative Garments Pvt. Ltd., Ciasons Exports, Clariant Chemicals, Texan lab and many more in other course. We are regular in touch with industry & have very active alumni association, nearly 1000 + members. They are our resource for placement. We don't work in isolation, we have research projects with BARC, CIRCOT, Textile Committee and many more. We have special research cell which consist of teachers, students, industry participants, who constantly develop syllabus with sync with industry guidance. Special activity like Personality Development, CV Writing & Face interview is conducted by full time counsellors.

Dr. Ela Dedhia, Associate Professor with College of Home Science, Nirmala Niketan, Mumbai CAREER opportunities are found easily in the Textile/Apparel sector of which more are found today in Apparel/ Garment sector compared to Textiles, Home Textiles, Fashion and Retail. Job profile availabe are more for Managers, Designers compared to marketing, quality control etc. Job titles include Quality Controller, Production Manager, etc. 15 to 25 years work experience in similar job profile is expected at higher positions in India and overseas in countries such as Bangladesh, Hongkong, Bahrain etc. I Production Section: Purchase Manager- To choose the suppliers of the product or service, negotiate the lowest price, and award contracts that ensure the correct amount of the product or service is received at the appropriate time. Vendor Manager: Responsible for vendor development, vendor selection, vendor assessment, and vendor credit management. Responsible to develop a process and mechanism to capture competitive rates in the market. To be capable of developing good negotiation processes and strategies. Designing for Men's, Women's and Infant/kids Wear for both Indian and Western wear and for Liaison Offices in other parts of the country. Must have knowledge on Trend analysis and forecast, creating of new designs that reflect the brand image, represent new and innovative product that is commercially viable. Need to be technically very strong in Knits & Wovens, responsible for entire design- Recommending, Analyzing & developing colors, trends, washes & fits for the season as per the global trends. Contributing to business focused design delivery. Knowledge of costing, budgeting & efficiency. Senior Designer handling a team of 3-4 or more designers, conceptualization of designs keeping in mind the current shape and form of garments in reference to current trends. Handing fabrics to the fabric manager for the print developments. Production Manager has to ensure maximum production with topmost efficiency. He should know about best practices in labour, and

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013

how to set quality systems. Responsible for production planning and execution, efficient running of entire manufacturing operations from Cut to Pack and ensuring on time deliveries. Ability to plan and forecast requirements for new styles. Daily analysis of production is a must. Production Supervisor able to take charge of the entire shift and organize manpower required for the particular shift. Supervise the production and ensure quality of the material. To manage manpower of all machines and responsible for shift planning. To plan entire production. General Manager - Operations: Increase productivity and quality. Meet the order deadlines within the provided cost. Maintain the compliant environment in factory. Managing a workforce of highly skilled and trained professionals, which includes shop floor. General Manager - Production Production/ Manufacturing/ Engineering Responsible for the efficient running of entire manufacturing operations from Cut to Pack and ensuring on time deliveries. Ability to plan and forecast requirements for new styles. Daily analysis of production, efficiency and quality. Manager - Maintenance (Garments) responsible for plant and machine maintenance, operation, material management, and inventory control and manpower management in Garment manufacturing industries for Woven, Denim, Knits. Programming and modification of designs in machines. II Merchandising/Marketing section: Junior Merchandiser: assists the Sr. Merchandiser in day to day activities of handling the client, needs to co-ordinate with the factory, etc., reporting to the Senior Merchandiser, from Sampling to Production, Preparing Reports, Computer savy, good communication skills, Presentable, etc Personal Assistant, Business Assistant/Executive, Assist in work, prepare word and Excel statements and do required clerical calculations, preparing sample folders etc. Assisting Seniors for their



day to day work, Organizing meetings The Senior Merchandiser Production should be able to conceptualize season wise merchandise planning, have a strong understanding on stitching, design & sampling, costing, MRP, brand margin, accountability & merchandising Merchandising Manager: Merchandising managers are expected to be knowledgeable about company needs and goals. Keep a close watch on inventory levels and the needs of clients. Monitoring sales histories of various products. The ability to negotiate favorable terms should be high. Helping documentation department, preparing internal order sheets, preparing purchase orders, advising and assisting production, advising production and quality department about quality level, to follow up budgeting GM - Merchandising Deliver goods before delivery deadline. Coordinate & supervise production, sourcing & sampling of new products. Share new fashion designing ideas. Head - Retail: Develop strategy and sales schemes. Be responsible to achieve sales targets. Increase turnover of the company marginally. Manage operations, Implement systems, controls and processes in areas like: - Cash management, depositing etc. Sales Manager Responsible for selling, analyze trends and identify opportunities, identify various players in Textile value chain. SCM - Lead - Logistics / Supply Chain Management Provide vision and leadership to developing the supply chain strategy in consultation with the customer key stakeholders, design/planning team and executing to customers expectations. Engage with senior leader. Head/ Deputy General Manager - Trade Sales With Top Retail Brand Sales Forecasting & Strategic Planning, Revenue Generation Management of Trade Partners, Business Development, Team Management, heading the Wholesale & Exports division (PAN India) Head - Marketing Senior Management-Marketing Design, facilitate, implement marketing plan for the firm. Plan and administer the organizational marketing operations Budget. Facilitate Public Relations Efforts, Manage external vendors and consultants, Make staffing and hiring decisions within marketing. Managing Season's range- Vendor Management and Development: Plays important role in sales /promotion and marketing of the developed product in domestic and International market, Working closely with Fabric Merchandisers. General Manager - Domestic Marketing Responsible for Channel Sales, Client Servicing, Corporate Sales, Institutional Sales, Merchandising Marketing & selling of yarn products. Should have full

knowledge about domestic customers in terms of product profile, payment positions, etc. General Manager - Export Marketing - Sales & Marketing Develop relationships with key decision-makers in target organizations for business development in pre-sales & post sales negotiation stages. Develop, negotiate and enter into business. Export (Textile) Responsible for Textile Sector Export Sales & Marketing. Business Development, Key account management for Fabric & Textile Marketing, International marketing. Chief Operating Officer - Senior Management-Operation Apparel operations and management, brand development, product management, manufacturing and distribution, strategic alliance and partnership management, entrepreneurship and early-stage growth of direct, wholesale and online sales. CEO (Textile Unit) Senior Management/ General Management: Expand market share, and set-up & achieve benchmarks across textile manufacturing. Track record in leading large expansion projects, Capability on finance, HR (team building) and admin skills. Manager Projects Project/ Program Management non IT Hands on experience in execution of project and development activities, Person should be capable of finalizing technology transfer agreements, set up the entire plant and machinery and create a team of required subordinate staffs for product. General Manager - Business Development Sales/ Business Development/ Account Management Completely responsible for business development, complete responsibilities of lab, marketing strategy, organizing seminar/exhibition etc., Any problems in trials at customer end to be managed. Factory Manager - Garment Production/ Manufacturing/ Engineering Machine and product technology, Team Management and development of II line, Productivity and Quality improvement methods, Hands on experience on shop floor management, Compliances, Budgeting and control of operational expenses. Sr. Manager- Technical Department Ensure quality of Garments, Should have good knowledge on fabrics construction, accessories, sample, chemical treatment & Patterns, Should have good knowledge on woven and knit garments manufacturing, Pattern & Sampling, Cutting, Sewing, Finishing and Exports of Garments. Careers grow in apparel industry. Academic Institutions need to gear up to the needs of the industry. Professionals with sufficient work experience need to explore and embrace the growing opportunities.

Mrs. Armaiti Shukla, HOD, Textile & Apparel Designing Department of SVT college of Home science, Mumbai. The Textile and Apparel Designing Department plays a vital role in grooming the students, to take up professional jobs in the Textiles and Apparel manufacturing industry as well as in Fashion and Retail Merchandising. Our strength lies in providing a sound scientific base which helps students to take up job in technical laboratories/ manufacturing units. Training in appreciation, creation and application of traditional arts, crafts, textiles and costumes provides an endless resource of design which can be incorporated into contemporary textile and garment design. Academic autonomy for the last 15 years has allowed us to constantly upgrade and fine tune our syllabus and Introduce new courses which is relevant to industry needs & alumni feedback. The retail industry is booming in India and expected to create a number of job openings in the next five years. Lacunae in the job market is filled by our students who are not only aware of retailing strategies but also be abreast with the latest fashion trends and styles. It's merchandising and retail orientation helps successfully bridge the gap between fabric/


textile manufacture and providing it to the consumers through various outlets. Students belonging to Department of Textiles and Apparel Design are successfully engaged in various jobs such as:Designers: Home Textiles and Made up, Fashion Designers, Costume Designers [Television, Films & Theater], Printed and Woven Textile Designers, Accessory Designers, Computer Aided Textile Designers, Developing high end Fashion Designs with Traditional Embroideries and Textiles, Fashion Stylist, Design Manager, Fashion Forecaster Merchandisers: for Retail, Fashion, Export houses, Visual Merchandisers. Sourcing Experts, Buyers, Floor Managers. Quality Controllers in Garment manufacturing units and Textile testing laboratories. Entrepreneurs. Teachers and Trainers in Schools and Colleges

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


Good Economics is Good Politics Shri V.Y.Tamhane Secretary General of MOA Actively associated with; Indian Spinning Association, FAITMA, Narrow Elastic Manufacturer Association.

I am sure, on reading the title of the Article, some readers might have felt that there has been a typographical mistake. The popular adage is that good economics is bad politics. But the textile industry may prove that, it is an exception, if its legitimate demands for survival and growth are conceded. It needs to be appreciated that, an investment of Rs 10 crore generates 30- 40 additional jobs and earns additional foreign exchange. Furthermore, the additional jobs are more likely to be created in rural and semi-rural areas, thus bridging the wide chasm in the economic condition of urban and rural areas. What is more important is that every additional rupee invested in the textile industry creates more ripples in the economy than any other industry. Thus, a liberal approach towards the textile industry is in national interest. But, where does policitis step in? Yes, India is not only a big brother, but also a leader of South Asia. All South Asian countries are textile manufacturing countries, like their neighbouring countries in South East Asia. In the role as a big brother, India is perforce required to provide duty-free access to textiles and clothing manufactured in the least developed countries (LDCs) of South Asia. Such a role hurts the domestic textile industry immensely, because LDCs give cut-throat competition, taking advantage of low wages coupled with duty – free access provided by India. India cannot afford to destabilize the domestic textile industry, which is providing direct and indirect employment to about 10 croer of people and earning precious foreign exchange currently to the extent of US $ 30 billion [including fibres etc]. The solution lies in providing fiscal and financial support to the textile industry for enabling it to absorb the shock of cheap imports, particularly of clothing from LDCs and fabrics from China. Additionally, such duty-free access should be given only on the condition that products contain Indian raw materials. If this happens, despite political compulsion, the textile industry will grow and bring rich dividends to the national economy. Aggressive imports from LDCs The dimension of aggressive imports of readymade garments can be judged from the following data: Year

Import into India of Readymade garments [In Million US $]








The growth in imports was of the order of 49 per cent in 2010-11 and 61 per cent in 2011-12. The weak rupee has failed to check import of readymade garments, which surged to Rs. 824.61 crore in April – September 2012 from Rs. 681.50 crore in the same period of 2011, an increase of 21 per cent. Import of fabrics in India has been as under: Year

Import of Fabrics[Million US $]







Imports of readymade garments have been mainly from Bangladesh which increased from US $ 128 Million in 201011 to US $ 183 Million in 2011-12. The other countries are Sri Lanka, Singapore etc. Bangladesh has emerged as one of the most aggressive exporters in the world. Suffice it to recall here that Bangladesh has posted positive growth of 8.8 per cent in export of readymade garments, despite debt crisis in several European nations, the traditional buyers of Bangladeshi garments. Customs duty-free access has been given for all goods imported from LDCs of SAARC. Exemption from the whole of customs duty has also been given on some items of textiles and apparels imported from Singapore, and 50% concession in some other items. Concessional rates of customs duty is charged on certain items of fabrics and apparels imported from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The documented figures of imports fail to spotlight the ground reality, because cross-border trade of fabrics and readymade garments from China, Bangladesh, Myanmar are reported to be quite significant. Increased imports of garments have taken a toll on the garment industry in India. The index of production of garments which showed a rising trend upto 2010-2011 dipped in 2011-2012 and remained flat in November 2011 to October 2012. Attached Tables I and II illustrate this point. It is necessary to take note of the fact that exports of MMF textiles have been continuously trailing, year after year, exports of products of cotton, despite distinct preference for MMF textiles in the international market, where the share of man-made fibres is 60 % [ against 38% in India]. No wonder exports of cotton textiles and garments which scaled US $ 17 billion in 2011-12 far exceeded export of synthetic and blended textiles and clothing at US $ 7 billion. A new slant on the policy The present textile policy is more in favour of cotton textiles to protect growers. But, account must be taken on the pressure of land in the country. More Land is required for agriculture to ensure food –security. More land is also required for new industries on which economic growth of the country depends. More land

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


is also required for infrastructure facilities like, construction of roads, airports, railways, educational institutions, health care, power generation etc. The availability of additional land for cotton cultivation is thus limited. Cotton crop requires substantial quantities of water. The quantity of water needed to grow one kg of cotton fibre is 11,700 litres, whereas for one kg of cellulosic viscose fibre, it is 445 litres. Reports keep pouring in about scarcity of water in several cities, towns and rural areas, where are we going to get water on that scale. Undoubtedly, water is becoming scarce. Scarcity of water and limited availability of land necessitate the provision of a level – playing held to man – made fibre textiles and clothing. Why no to SAD (Special Additional Document) 1. SAD which is charged at 4 per cent is not a revenue measure of Central Government, but it is a tool for counter – balancing VAT payable on domestic production of MMF. 2. When GST will come into effect, SAD will automatically disappear. The introduction of GST may take place at the most one or two years. Hence the abolition of SAD is for a short period. 3. While a trader importing MMF gets refund of SAD paid by it, the manufacturer is denied the refund, although blended yarn containing imported MMF is cleared from the factory of manufacture on payment of VAT. Thus, fibres imported by manufactures for consumption pay VAT, but only one stage later. 4. The domestic manufacturers of MMF are enjoying monopoly or near monopoly. The advantage of monopoly is fully exploited by the domestic manufacturers who adopt import – parity as the basis for pricing. 5. As a result, costing of manufacturers of blended and synthetic yarns and fabrics go awry and their competitive position is severly affected. This explains why export of MMF textiles and clothing is only US $ 7 billion, against US $ 17 billion of cotton textiles and clothing. 6. The crying need is that the forces of competition must be strengthened.

...continued from pg44 4. Conclusions 1. The knitted fabric specifications, in terms of shrinkage, delivered width and GSM, can be predicted instantly with the help of the software that is demonstrated taking the values of kc, kw and ky into consideration in the reference state for any particular knitting machine and wet processing sequence. 2. Therefore, this software will assist the knitter and finisher to develop specific products for particular customers, fine tune specific wet processing equipment and will reduce the time to develop a specific product substantially since, this systematic approach will eliminate the expensive trial and error efforts. Reference: 1. Munden D L, 'The Geometry and Dimensional Properties of Plain Knitted Fabrics', Journal of Textile Institute, 50,T448–T471, (1959). 2. Heap S A, Greenwood P F, Leah R D, Eaton J T, Stevens J C, and Keher P,

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013

This can be achieved if, customs duty and SAD on MMF is abolished. What needs to be done To protect the domestic textile industry from surging imports and to make it competitive in the international market, it is necessary to keep excise duty at 6 % optional, if not 4 % which is the request of the industry, through out the textile value chain i.e. on all man-made fibres, filament yarns, all textiles and made-ups and garments and SAD on manmade fibres and filaments must be abolished, if not customs duty. At present the concessional rates of customs duty are extended to components and parts of such machines as are eligible for concessional rates, if such components and parts are to be used for the manufacture of machines. The typical expression used in the customs tariff can be appreciated from the wording of serial No. 406 of Notification No. 12/2012-CUS dated 17-3-2012. ' The following goods (other than old and used) for use in the textile industry namely: (i) Shuttleless looms; (ii) Parts and components for manufacture of goods mentioned at (I)’ The textile industry is upgrading its technology in a big way under TUFS, the flagship scheme of the Ministry of Textiles. Hence the textile industry is obliged to do needbased import of parts and components of imported machinery, but the benefit of concessional duty is denied to it because of the above wording in the customs tariff. Hence the wording should be 'parts and components for manufacture or maintenance of goods mentioned above.’ To sum up Textiles are the basic need of the humanity. India is home to cotton and hence a Textile country since four to five millennium before the Christ. Encouragement given to the textile industry in the forthcoming Central Budget is in the natural interest and will promote the Aam Admi. Views expressed is author own views 'Prediction of Finished Weight and Shrinkage of Cotton Knits–The Starfish Project, Part –I: Introduction and General Overview',Textile Research Journal, 55,211–222,(1985). 3. Hepworth B and Leaf G A V, 'The Mechanics of Idealised Weft Knitted Structure', Journal of Textile Institute,67,241–248,(1976). 4. Nawaz M, Shahbaz B and Gill U D, 'Dimension Control of Double Knit Fabrics', Indian Textile Journal,177–183,(2000) 5. Onal L and Candan C, 'Contribution of Fabric Characteristics and Laundering to Shrinkage of Weft Knitted Fabrics', Textile Research Journal,73,187–191,(2003). 6. Postle R, 'Dimensional Stability of Plain Knitted Fabrics' Journal of Textile Institute,59,65–77,(1968). 7. Burnip M S and Saha M N, 'The Dimensional Properties of Plain Knitted Cotton Fabrics Made From Open-end Spun Yarns', Journal of Textile Institute, 64, 153 – 169, (1973). 8. Gowers C N and Hurt F N, ' The Wet Relaxed Dimension of Plain Knitted Fabrics', Journal of Textile Institute,69,108–115,(1978). 9. Knapton J J F, Ahrnes F J, Ingenthron W W and Fong W, 'The dimensional Properties of Knitted Wool Fabrics, Part–I, The Plain Knitted Structure', Textile Research Journal,38,999–1012,(1968). 10.



Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) FICCI (Federation of Indian chambers of commerce and Industry) organized its annual conference on textile and apparels TAG 2012 at Hotel the Lalit on 10th October 2012. The conference was graced by the presence of Mr. S. P. Verma, Deputy Director, Ministry of textiles, GOI & many of the industries dignitaries from Corporate World. A white paper on “Challenges in the Textile and Apparel Industry” Prepared by FICCI and technopak was also released during the conference. Mr. S. P. Verma Deputy Director, Ministry of Textiles, GOI in his presentation highlighted the initiatives taken by government in this industry and explained about various new and existing schemes. Speaking on the occasion he said “Investment in weaving and processing segments is required to strengthen value chain and bankers commitment level to serve the client. He also said that “Important thing is to meet the challenges that have proposed on infrastructure development, recycling and textile economic processing”. He highlighted on new segment - Technical Textiles. The 12th Plan estimation – Total Business of Rs 36.03 billion by 2010 & 2017.The global share of textile industry was 4.5% in 2011 and is expected 6% in 2016 and 8% in 2021. Globally apparel industry is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6%. He said “EU and USA has still not recovered from 2008 crisis and trend is likely to continue. China and India is an emerging hub in apparel industry. India has to go far beyond China. Brazil, China, India clusters have major growth in this sector and is expected to grow to 20% in 2020.The growing

disposable income and increase appetite has led to more value for money. Throwing a light on challenges he said “rising cost, raw material cost and increase in volatility in raw material prices. Labor unrest, poor work environment and supply chain problem (lead time) are few challenges which can be solved by sincere efforts. India has to focus beyond EU and US. China in near future can also be our market. Learning from other industries, understanding supply chain management and focus on overall business efficiency will help in going a way forward”. The theme of this year conference was “Thriving in the era of constant change: Challenge in textile & apparel industry. One day long conference included sessions on Trends in Fiber demand, consumption and availability, Innovation in products and machinery, Building a more efficient supply chain, Improving India's share in International trade and leveraging domestic business..

Confederation of Indian Textile Industry (CITI)

Indian Textile Summit Organized by CITI( Confederation of Indian Textile Industry) at Trident Hotel, Mumbai on 27th Sep, 2012. This is an annual meet of CITI members. Deputy Chairman Mr. Prem Malik welcomed all speakers, delegates of the conference. Session on, “Textile industry : Growth Perspective”, few speakers shared their opinions are Mr. R Raghuttama Rao, MD, ICRA Management Consultancy Services; Mr. Deep Mukherjee, MD, Fitch Ratings India Pvt. Ltd. aptly said that rating improves the Quality of the manufacturer, Rating should be part and parcel of the Business, Textile industry lacking now. Mr. Tomas Verghese, Business Head, Textile, Aditya Biral Nuvo ltd. shared his views on multi brand retailing and its opportunity in Textile / clothing industry. Mr. Murlikrishanan, VP, LMW given successful spinning solution.


Session on “Opportunity for Textile & Clothing industry” opening remarks given by Mr. B.K. Patodia, Past chairman CITI then Mr. Harminder Sahni, MD, Wazir Advisors Ltd., shared about sourcing & supply chain management. Mr. Chandan Chattergee, Director of Intextb in Ministry of Gujarat government pointed Vastra Niti and Emeging Opportunity in Gujarat State and discuss New Gujarat Textile policy. Mr. Prasanta Deka, VP, Rieter India shared about Com4, different spinning technology. Session on, “Strengthening Value Chains: Optimizing Trade Benefits” opening remark given by Mr. S.V. Arumugam, Chairman, CITI followed by Dr. Palaniswamy Pachagounder, BCI shared knowledge about approaches to improve cotton production. Prof. Abhijit Das, head & professor, Center for WTO, IIFT shared few datas on International tradein Textile & clothing & its Emerging trend. Dr. Chandrima Chattergee, Director- compliances, AEPC, shared new project, DISHA initiative and Export opportunity and sharfall. Mr. Rohit Pandit, director, Intex consulting pointed out importance of IT( Information Technology) in Textile value Chain. Program is concluded by good note of development of industry and Future planning..!!!

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


Textile Association of India (TAI) On the occasion of Diamond Jubilee Celebrations of The Textile Association (India), Mumbai Unit, the 10th International & 68th All India Textile Conference was organized by TAI, Mumbai Unit jointly with Central Office on 30thNovember & 1st December 2012, Hotel ITC Maratha, Sahara, Andheri (E), Mumbai – 400 099. The theme of the Conference was “World Textiles – Challenges towards Excellence”. Mr. C. Bose, President, Mumbai Unit welcomed the gathering and briefed about the theme of the Conference. Mr. D. R. Mehta, National President, in his presidential address said that Indian textile industry is facing several challenges in terms of quality and productivity and these need to be addressed to achieve the goals. Mr. V. C. Gupte, Chairman, Mumbai Unit informed that there has been total evolution of global textile industry Initially, US & Europe textile business moved to China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka & other Asian Countries, so much so that Bangladesh even overtook India. The focus further moved to African countries and now Burma is becoming a hot spot for textile processing, Increase in the oil price is changing the logistic cost every day. Textile Industry is heading for a situation where the costs are increasing every day. the fluctuation in the currency is making business unviable, the fact is that the textile industry will survive and remain in demand so long the mankind exists. Mr. Dilip Jiwrajka, MD, Alok Industries Ltd. Thanked TAI for conferring the Honorary Membership and said that it was a emotional moment for him. India needs excellence in innovation, Eco-friendliness, social compliance, Skill development to suit to the level of technology and R&D. Some of major concern to achieve the desired results is currency fluctuation, raising interest rates, energy crisis and

The Office Bearers & representatives of TAI, Ahmedabadb Unit receiving the Best Unit Trophy in Larger Unit category by the hands of Chief Guest, Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India.

the cost. Indian have advantage over lower labour cost. Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, value addition is key to achieve excellence. Today 97% of the textile production is under SMEs and they have limitation of achieving the required Brand and R&D. He listed the key drives to achieve excellence as Quality, Design, Technology and high value added products to show case. He assured the industry that government is committed to create all required policy support in context of global competition. various schemes include TUFs, Technical Textiles, Integrated Textiles Park and Special project on use of Geo-textiles and Agritextiles in North Eastern States and ISDS to create skilled man power. Mrs. Jaya Row, Founder of Vedanta Vision said that leadership is key for achieving excellence in every walk of life including industrial development. There are 16 Speakers from India & abroad paper presented during the conference. The two-day Conference was attended by over 500 participants. The organizers of the conference were happy to note that the objectives of the All India Textile Conference are fully achieved.

Hindustan Chambers of Commerce (HCC) welcomed in Indian traditional way. The Chamber Vice President and members spoke on the business opportunity with Chinese Companies. It was informed during the discussion that the Chinese labour cost has increased from the last 23 years. The industry in China is feeling the labour shortage crunch. The Chinese Federation expressed the Indian Industry to come forward for JVs (joint ventures) in China. The delegation visited some Interactive business session with the Delegation of Shao Xing Federation of Industry and Commerce from CHINA. Hindustan Chamber of Commerce an eminent Association of Textile Trade and Industry and Shao Xing Federation of Industry and Commerce from the famous textile Hub of China had an Interactive business session at the Birla Kreeda Kendra Mumbai on 22nd Oct. 2012. The Chinese delegates 25 in numbers of the federation were

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013

modern Textile Units in Tarapur Cluster. Shri Ramesh Poddar of M/s Siyaram Silk Mills was the Chief Guest of the meeting and Shri Ramesh Jain Director of M/s Optus Impex was Guest of Honour. The meeting was conducted by Shri Uttam V. Jain, Vice President and it was concluded with Vote of Thanks by Shri Hariram Agarwal Hon. Secretary of the Chamber.



Mill Owners' Association (MOA) A Fruitful Journey through 137 years of crème de la Crème [Still enthusiasm bubbling with new ideas, enthusiasm and missionary zeal ] The Millowners' Association Mumbai is more known by its acronym MOA. It has the distinction of being the first Industrial Association in the Country having been established on 1st February, 1875. The phase of Industrialization started in the country with the setting up of a successful spinning mill, the first factory, way back in 1854. The first successful venture proved contagious and soon a number of entrepreneurs came forward to establish new mill companies, which witnessed a surge of industrialization. MOA had a difficult task to perform. The first crop of industrialists was keen on starting on the strong ground of ethics and probity. Everything started on a new slate as there was no precedent for anything. MOA did a marvelous job. Without any legal obligation, MOA, on its own, made it compulsory for every member mill to start a crèche, a fair price shop for the benefit of workers, the system of staff promotion, bonus, and dearness allowance linked to the cost of Living of Index etc. Above all, its fight with the alien Government to stop dumping of cheap fabrics from Manchester has a special place in the history of freedom. There was a time, when every mill in the country was a member of MOA. With the rapid grown of the textile mill industry throughout the length and breadth of the country, new textile centers were developed and so a number of Regional

Associations became active all over the country. MOA still continues to serve the textile industry with the same missionary zeal and enthusiasm. Present activities MOA gives full fledged service to its members in the spheres of finance (taking up the matter with RBI), TUFS (covering of new machines, equipments, problems of receiving subsidy), Indirect taxes (prompt advice on all changes in taxation, taking up matters with the Central Board of Excise and Customs), Labour matters (Industrial relations, compliance with Labour laws) problems relating to inputs, power etc.) Taking advantage of new textile policy, MOA has made suggestions for relaxation in labour laws and for making available skilled staff for textile mills. MOA is actively considering a minor irrigation project in village of Vidarbha to demonstrate how rich soil of Vidarbha can yield higher production of cotton. Detailed Circulars of MOA are its specialty. Circulars explain meaning and impact of changes in Acts, Rules, and Regulations etc. MOA is also known for making prompt representations to protect bonafide interests of the textile industry. MOA is the voice of the industry for ushering in changes in the policy mix. Membership Address

Telephone no.s Email

Fees.Rs. 20,000/- per member per annum. Dhuru Building, 4th Floor, Near Portugese Church, Opp. Foroze Classes, Gokhale Road (North), Dadar (West), Mumbai – 400028 24314704/55 (Dir) 24314939 Fax: 24314869

Bharat Merchants Chamber (BMC)

Bharat Merchants' Chamber, a prestigious textile association celebrated grand Diwali get together held on 22nd Novmber, 2012 at Jugilal Poddar Sabhagrah, kalbadevi, Mumbai. In these event prestigious personalities, members, associate committees and Media associate were present. In this occasion, Vidhansabha Vidhayika Mrs. Anee Shekhar, Mr. Niranjan Davkhare, Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Secretary Mrs. Summan Agarwal and Siyarams MD Mr. Ramesh Podar presence graced the celebration. On this occasion, chamber Trustee, Shri Rajiv Singal brought important issue in notice to Mrs. Anee Shekhar and Mr. Vinod Shekhar about furnishing cloth VAT problems and situation in cloth market. Mrs. Anee Shekhar said that she will discuss this issue with chief minister and will try to end VAT on furnishing cloth.


Shir Ramesh Poddar, MD of Siyaram Silk Mills Ltd., emphasized the need to glamorize the Textile Trade, so that our young generation is attracted towards it, as a career option. He added that the scope of Textiles is vast and never ending. Program conveyor Shri Shiv Kumar Kanodia and Mr. Niranjan Davkhare reiterated that applying VAT on Furnishing cloth makes cloth merchants and manufacturer unviable in Maharashtra, and business will shift to neighboring states. Mr. Davkhare promised that he will discuss this matter with Maharashtra Finance Minister and will seek an early appointment for discussing this burning issue. Shri Shiv Kanodia pointed to several suicides of Cotton farmers, cloth weavers and textile workers of Maharashtra state, and sought early intervention of the Maharashtra Govt. Chambers President Mr. Yogendra Rajpuria requested Mrs. Summan Agarwal, MPCC Sectretary, about businessman worries about VAT on furnishing fabric, it has created uncertainty in the market. Mrs. Summan Agarwal also gave assurance that she will speak to MPCC Chief Mr. Manikrao Thakrey and try to end VAT in furnishing fabric.

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


Trade Show Details Vibrant ITME 2013 th


Technotex India 2013

Date: 8 -13 January, 2013 Venue: Helipad Ground, Gandhinagar,Gujarat Organizer name: Indian Textile Machinery Exhibition Society Contact details : Exhibitor's profile: Textile Machinery segment contributors

Date: 17th-19th January 2013 Venue: pragti maidan, new delhi Organizer name: FICCI Contact details: Exhibitor's profile: Technical Textile segment contributors

T- EX- 2013

50 India International Garment Fair



Date: 24 -25 January, 2013 Venue: Rotary Community Center, Junagadh Road, Jetpur, Gujarat. Organizer Name: Rotary Club of Jetpur Contact Details: Exhibitors Profile: Manufacturer of Dyes, chemicals, Auxiliaries, many more. th

56 National Garment Fair Date: 28th - 30th Jan 2013 Venue: MMRDA Ground,Mumbai. Organizer name: CMAI Contact details: Exhibitor's profile: Local Brands of Garment Contributors



Date: 1 - 3 Feb 2013 Venue : Huda Ground, Panipat. Organizer name: Igmatex Fair Contact details : Exhibitors profile: Textile Machinery, Yarn contributors

Garment Technology Expo 2013 International Date: 1st- 3rd March 2013 Venue: NSIC, Okhla, New Delhi Organizer name: Garment Technology Expo Contact details: Exhibitor's profile: Garment Machinery segment Conributors

Fibers & Yarns 2013 th


Date: 11 - 13 April 2013 Venue : World Trade center, Mumbai Organizer name: Tecoya Trend Contact details : 022-66978535, Exhibitors profile: fiber and yarn segment Contributors




Date: 22 -24 January, 2013 Venue: Pragti maidan, New Delhi Organizer name: AEPC Contact details: Exhibitor's profile: Garment Exporter, Manufacture contributors

India International leather fair Date: 31st jan- 3rd feb, 2013 Venue: Chennai trade center, Chennai, tamilnadu Organizer name: India Trade Promotion Organisation Contact details: Exhibitors profile: Leather segment contributors

KNIT TECH 2013 Date: 22nd â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 25th Feb, 2013 Venue: Hitech Tirupur Exhibition Center, Tirupur Organizer name: Hi Tech International Trade Fair India Pvt. Ltd. Contact details : Exhibitors profile: Knitting Technology segment contributors

In Fashion 2013 Date: 20th- 22nd March, 2013 Venue: Bombay Exhibition Center, Mumbai. Organizer name: Images Group Contact details: Exhibitors profile: fiber, yarn, fabric, Value added products Contributors

INDIGO 2013 th


Date: 19 -20 April, 2013 Venue: International Trade Expo Center, Noida Organizer name: Denim Club India Contact details: Exhibitors profile: Denim industry Value Chain contributors

Vastra 2012 FICCI organized Vastra 2012, An International Textile & Apparel Fair on 22nd to 25th November, 2012 in Jaipur, Rajsthan. Show has all participants from across industry. its 1st time show organized show by FICCI in Jaipur related to Textile. Quality International visitors presented at show. Chief Minister shri Ashok Ghelot presented during inaugural of the show. Main attraction in the show is Buyers & seller meet and Fashion show. International buyer and Domestic Seller have done good exchanges of business. 4 days fashion show had a huge success, where wester, Indian, indo western dresses collection and Model attracted visitors & exhibitors. Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013



India ITME 2012 Show Report IIndia ITME Society, organized the 9th India International Textile Machinery Exhibition from 2nd – 7th December, 2012 in Mumbai. India ITME 2012 bought a very unique and unparallel opportunity/platform to serve the textile industry of the World, to do business networking, explore new products and technologies, new partnerships, joint ventures, manufacturing opportunities and discovering new markets across the globe. Exhibition inaugurated by Rajashree Birla, the chief guest of the occasion. Gujarat day celebrated followed by a seminar on how Gujarat as a state is poised to grow and contribute to the economic growth of the country. Technical Textile Seminar, Professor Roshan Shishoo commented “India will invest US$ 1 trillion in infrastructure in the country over the next five years, to highlight the potential for technical textiles.” He stated the bank's should take serious interest to enhance this sector. He urged the textile industry to grow in organized clusters. India International Tex summit had a huge response, many national & international speakers & delegates attended the event. Many exhibitors showcased a range of latest technologies across the textile segments. A.T.E, Benninger AG, LMW, Rieter AG and many other companies received an overwhelming response. Visitors included mill owners and senior executives from a number of leading mills, and

senior government officials. Several high value orders have been concluded at the show, while many more are in the offing. Some of the spectacular developments at ITME 2012 are as follows: Indian Machinery Company, LMW, has launched Card LC636 at the event.Card LC636 is designed for higher production of up to 250 kg an hour. Oerlikon has signed an agreement to divest the Natural Fibers and Textile Components Business Units from its Textile Segment to the Jinsheng Group of China. Kirloskar Toyata Textile Machinery (KTTM), has officially launched the new RX1240e Ring Spinning Frame, which is claimed to be India's longest ring frame. A .T. E.'s principal Karl Mayer launched specifically for the Indian market a machine – Fascination Lace. Interesting machine, which produces a designer saris. With 820+ exhibitors from 51 countries, covering over 100,000 sqm. of exhibition area, 10 new country participation, many delegations from new textile markets, eminent technocrats and textile experts speaking at the Seminar, and 100,000 visitors, this event will be the largest so far India has ever hosted with the complete exhibition space of Bombay Convention & Exhibition Centre booked from mid-November 2012 to December 10, 2012.

Oerlikon at ITME 2012 New Machine by LMW

ATE at ITME 2012

Dynamic Autoloom at ITME 2012

Ms Rajashree Birla & Mr R Backaniwala, Chairman, ITME

Sanjay plastic at ITME 2012


Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


589, Narayan chowk, M.J. Market, Mumbai- 400002. Tel : 022-40045784 / +91-9920236702 Email:


Approaches towards effluent control in Textiles Prof. (Dr.) M.D. Teli & Javed Sheikh Dept. of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology, I.C.T., Mumbai

Abstract Textiles forming the basic need of humans are consumed on large scale. In order to convert textile fibres, yarns and fabric into the forms suitable for the human use, they are required to be processed and hence have to pass through a number of dry and wet processing steps. Wet processing of textiles consumes a lot of water and energy and also generates a lot of effluent. This effluent can't be discharged until it is properly treated, and hence more the effluent more will be the cost incurred on its treatment. The best practice in such cases is to manage the load on effluent to a minimum and hence reduce the quantity as well as load in effluent. The current paper explores the various techniques of effluent management that can help in reducing the effluent load. The mother industry of the country occupies an important place in the economy of India and so is true for many other developing countries. Textile processing necessitates enormous amount of water and chemicals for various operations like pretreatment, dyeing, finishing, washing, etc. Large quantity of water is required for wet processing of textiles and as many as 150 -300 litres of water per Kg. of fabric are used depending upon the extent of wet processing. The breakup of water required for wet processing is as follows: Bleaching and Finishing Dyeing Printing Boiler

60 to 65% 15% 10% 10 to 15%

Boiler10-15%After chemical processing of textiles, the effluent water contains many impurities as well as chemicals such as dyes, processing auxiliaries, chemicals like phosphates, sulphates, alkalis, acids, heavy metals, etc. If these wastes are discharged without any treatment into a river, lake or even on ground, they will pose serious ecological and pollution problems. Textile processing and dyeing units thus give rise to effluents which require appropriate treatment before being released into the environment. Looking at the impact on the environment various countries are stressing the need to take care of environment. Interest in eco-friendly processing in textile industry has increased in the current scenario because of increased awareness of environmental issues. Since Kyoto protocol, adopted voluntarily by EU nations, export of textiles and garments is linked with eco-friendly processed materials. Suitable treatments for such well managed effluents before discharging it can be more relevant to prevent effluent generation as much as possible so that the cost to be


incurred for its treatment will be much less. The paper explores some of the probable reasons for higher effluent generation and indicates techniques that can help to reduce the same. Incomplete exhaustion of dyes As far as dyes are concerned, many classes of dyes are used in textile process house, such as direct, reactive, acid, basic, vat, disperse, etc depending upon the product mixes. Complexities arise due to the wide variation in structure and properties of about 3000 dyes which are used in the process house. Dye Class

Fibres applied

Exhaustion Degree % 64 – 96


Cotton, Viscose, Linen


Cotton, Viscose, Linen (wool)

55 –97


Cotton, Viscose, Linen (Silk)

75 – 95



96 -100


Polyester, Polyamide acetates

88 –99

Metal Complex Wool Polyamide

82 – 98


Cotton, Viscose, Linen

60 –95


All fibres



100 95 –98

Table 1: Exhaustion levels of typically used Textile Dyes

During dyeing most of dye is exhausted on the fibre, but the unfixed dye goes into wastewater causing deep colour. Due to the relatively low degree of fixation say 50 to 60% for reactive dyes, this class causes more problems in wastewater. R & D in the dyestuff industry has now made it possible to develop reactive dyes, with bifunctional reactive groups and chromophores, which show higher levels for exhaustion. High or medium exhaustion dyes like HE and ME classes of reactive dyes can be used to solve the problem upto certain extent. A lot of research is going on to modify the dye structures to increase the exhaustion of dyes on textiles. Using HE and ME dyes, which are mostly applied on knits, a lot of additional advantages are possible such as relative insensitivity to pH and temperature variations etc. which to a certain extent offer advantages in processing. The HE dyes are the ones which contain bireactive systems, both either chlorotriazine or vinyl sulphone based. In case of ME dyes it is hetero-bireactive system or mixed system. Exhaustion as high as 95% is possible in HE dyes and thus it leaves very little dye unexhausted as compared to 50% dye in normal reactive dye baths. Old Textile Machines v/s New Machines Liquor to Material is another important parameter which indicates the ratio of the liquor to be taken for processing of given weight of the material (substrate) required to be taken in processing machinery. The liquor to material ratio used in conventional winch dyeing vary from 14:1 to 20:1. The salt, chemical, water and energy Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


requirements for dyeing have a direct relationship with the liquor to material ratio. The quantity of dyes used depends on the depth of shade and the quantity of material dyed. However, the concentration of dye in the dye bath is high and the dye uptake is more in the case of low liquor to material ratio in dyeing. The textile equipment manufacturers have realized the potentials of equipment with low liquor to material ratio and currently equipments such as soft flow machines with low liquor ratios (5 and even lower) are available in the market. This type of machinery brings about economy in operation on number of counts as shown below in Table 2 Particulars


Liquor to Material ratio


Water required in dye bath for 100Kg of fabric (L) 600-1000

Winch 14-20 1400-2000

Total water required for dyeing 100Kg fabric (L)

7000-10000 15000-20000

Salt requirement for dyeing at 80g/L

48-80 kg

112-160 kg

Table 2: Water and salt requirement by soft-flow machines and winches

The salt and water consumption per kg of fabric processed can be reduced by 50% if the liquor to material ratio is reduced by 50%. ECO-FRIENDLY CHEMICALS AND AUXILIARIES Many chemicals currently used in the textile industry influence the environment. Sometimes these chemicals can be substituted by other chemicals. The total quantity of chemicals used in textile mills varies from 10% to over 100% the weight of the cloth. Of course it is not always easy due to the lack of information about BOD data and aquatic toxicity of the chemicals and due to the proprietary nature of specialty chemicals. A recommendation many mills get is to substitute high BOD chemicals with a low BOD ones. These low BOD chemicals will help to reduce the waste load of the mill's effluent. Hence the substitution of the non eco-friendly auxiliaries will serve the consumer as well as the environment. The eco norms are also becoming stringent these days. Hence in order to survive in the strong competition where big brands are adopting for the ecofriendly and sustainable production, the textile processors are required to use the eco-friendly chemicals. Application of enzymes in Textile processing Today, enzymes have become an integral part of the textile processing. Though the use of enzymes in desizing was established decades ago, only in recent years their applications have widened with the introduction of new products. With the increased awareness and regulation about the environment concerns, the enzymes are the obvious choice. This is because the enzymes are biodegradable, work under mild conditions and save the precious energy. Enzymes, being biocatalyst and very specific, are used in small quantities and have a direct consequence of lesser packing material and lower transportation impact. In an overall consideration, the enzymes are the wonder products. Enzymes are evolving as preferred aides in the series of operations invoked in textile processing. Enzymes can Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013

replace harsh chemical processes used in textile industry and many catalyze reactions at ambient temperature and pressure otherwise required. They are biodegradable harmless to the environment and can be considered as supreme gift of the nature. Enzymes can be used in most of the textile processes like desizing, bio-scouring, bleaching, bio-washing of denim, bio-polishing of cotton, wool treatments etc. The desizing of machined denim is achieved by using amylase. “Biocatalyst Ltd.” of U.K. recommends Depol-277, a bacterial amylase for this application. The size thus hydrolysed has to be washed away using dilute NaOH, pH 10-11 for rinsing the garment. Bio-bleaching or bio-washing is then recommended with INDIFADETM. It is a technically advanced cellulase /glucanase enzyme formulation. Advantages: Eliminates use of hypochlorite Leads to gentle fading avoiding garment damage Allows higher wash loads and reduced laundry machine wear Fading of bulk volumes of garment is possible Increase in productivity and profitability RFT approach RFT (Right First Time) is a concept to produce higher quality of goods with quick response along with maximum productivity, process efficiency and profitability there by reducing avoidable wastages, corrections through reprocessing and input costs. This refers to achieving at the first round the required shade, levelness and fastness properties on a dyeing. The level of RFT has an impact on the productivity and profitability. Textile wet processing sector is a major consumer of water and energy. Ever increasing environmental issues and energy cost are forcing towards RFT approach. Textile wet processing consumes 50-600l/kg of water on weight of goods. When we achieve the target at first time, it reduces the total consumption of water and energy. The percentage of RFT is directly proportional to decrease in extra cost of the process. RFT approach became the need of the day. Many a times, when the technology is outdated, reprocessing exorbitantly increases the inputs of pretreatment chemicals, dyes, finishes and energy inputs shooting the cost of production as high as that of 45 – 60% against the right first time products.This totally defeats the purpose of business as it surely leads to losses, as such a level of escalation in cost of production cannot be absorbed, since the profitability in this segment is very much limited. For RFT however, one needs right types of dyes, chemicals as well as right machinery, only then RFT is possible. Low salt Dyeing Traditional reactive dyes require the addition of a large amount of salt to achieve exhaustion. Salt not only facilitates the exhaustion process of reactive dyes to cellulosic fibre, but also prevents the large scale bonding of water molecules to the negatively charged dyes, which produces inert 'Dead



dye'. This large amount of salt when discharged into bodies of water causes an increase in ecological salinity. With the use of sophisticated molecular engineering techniques, it has been possible to design reactive dyes (eg, low-salt reactive dyes) with considerably higher performance than traditional reactive dyes. With the introduction of these revolutionary dyes, it is possible to reduce salt requirement by 50-60% based on the weight of fabric dyed. This was a very important development in the history of reactive dyes on the ecological point of view. Cationization of Cotton Dyeing of cotton with direct and reactive dyes requires a huge amount of salt to exhaust and the dye. These salts are neither exhausted nor destroyed and, hence, remain in the dye bath after dyeing. Electrolytes are needed in the dyeing process to overcome the long-range repulsion forces occurring between the slightly negatively charged fibers and the negatively charged dye molecules. Salt in the waste dye bath is harmful to the environment increasing TDS of the effluent. Cationization of cotton before dyeing can help in countering the negative zeta potential of the fibre hence increasing the dyeing yield and reducing the amount of waste dyestuff. The application of a cationizing agent before dyeing to cotton fabrics lowers the surface negative charge. Decreasing the negative charge on the surface of cotton fabric increases the efficiency of dyeing with anionic dyes and hence, unexhausted dye to be drained-off is tremendously reduced, decreasing the load on effluent. Conclusion: In conclusion it can be said that by application of right kind of technology ,selection of right kind of dyes, chemicals and machinery, a large extent the load on effluent can be controlled and thus not only final treatment cost of such effluent is drastically reduced, but the cost of production can also be controlled and operation can be cost competitive, as chemicals, dyes required will be optimum and so also use of

energy, water and power etc.. The RFT approach can further enhance production level and reduce reprocessing cost escalation preventing erosion of profitability, maintaining proper delivery schedule. Bibliography We acknowledge the following sources/authors whose literatures has been referred to while preparing the current article. 1.Textile Ministry, Government of India, Annual report, 2004-05, 1, 1. 2.Karthikeyan J., Venkata Mohan S., Advances in industrial pollution control, 1st edition, Technoscience publications, 1999, 250. 3.Wasif A.I., Desai J.R. and Kane C.D., Book of Papers, 55th All India Textile Conference, pg.262. 4.Paul R., K. Ramesh and K. Ram, Textile Dyer and Printer, 28(22), 1995,18. 5.Shukla S. R. and Shende R. V., New Cloth Market, 4(9), 1990, 28. 6.Shah D.L. and Kulkarni Arun, Man-Made Textiles in India, 33(11/12), 1990, 426. 7.Smith B., American dyestuff reporter, Apr. 1987, 13. 8.Wadia M.J., Colourage, May. 1977, 16. 9.Shenai V.A., Chemistry of dyes and principal of dyeing, 2004, 464. 5. Smith B., American dyestuff reporter, Aug. 1987, 68. 6. Rods R., Colourage, Special Issue SDC Conf, 2004, 39-42. 7. Ravichandran P., Colourage, Dec. 2004, 33-40. 8. A/manual_cdro m/CPlinks/pdfs/minimisationsolidsdyeingeffluents.pdf. 10.Wang L. L., Ma W., Zhang S. F.. Carbohydrate Polymers, 78, 2009, 602. 11.Kanık M., Hauser P. J., Textile Research Journal, 74, 2004, , 43. 12.Hasani M., Westman G., Potthast A., Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 114, 2009, 1449. 13.Ahmed N. S. E., Dyes and Pigments, 65, 2005, 221. 14.Broadbent A. D., Basic Principles of Textile Coloration; SDC: West Yorkshire, United Kingdom, 2001; Chapter 16. 15.Degiorgi M. G. R., Alberti G., Cerniani A., American Dyestuff Reporter, 74, 1985, 3. 16.Shore J., Colorants and Auxiliaries; SDC: West Yorkshire, United Kingdom, 2002; Vol. 2, Chapter 10, p 497. 17.Lewis D. M., Vo L. T. T., Coloration Technology, 123, 2007, 306. 18.Kim T. H., Park C., Shin E. B., Desalination, 150, 2002, 165. 19.Kupferle M. C., Galal A., Bishop P., Journal of Environmental Engineering, 132, 2006, 514.

ICT's Tex Summit 2012: A sustainability Conference with Difference! The Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology of the Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Matunga, Mumbai, on December 05, 2012, organised an International Conference on the theme, 'Building a Sustainable Value Chain through Green Technology – Flourish or Perish?', at the Bombay Convention and Exhibition Centre, Goregaon, Mumbai. Prof. (Dr.) M. D. Teli, a Professor at the Department and also an ex-Dean of ICT and former Head of the Textile Department. inaugurated by the Chief Guest Shri A.B.Joshi, Commissioner of Textiles, Ministry of Textiles, Government of India.Prof (Dr.) M. D Teli explained Theme paper “Building a Sustainable Value Chain through Green Technology”. The growing organization should see competitive business opportunity while putting stake holders-model for creating value in their business was his message. Dr. Anup Rakshit, VP, Reliance Industries Ltd discussed on Sustainable Efforts in developing Fibrous Polymers wherein he dwelled deep in the need for recycling of polyester bottles. Mr.


Manohar Samuel, Joint President, Birla Cellulose, explained in depth the sustainability being at the core of Viscose staple fibre. Mr. Bernd Plankenhorn, Sales Manager, Benninger AG, Switzerland, expressed the need to look at various machineries in Textile processing from the point of view of their ability to produce textile materials with least of Carbon footprints. Prof. Subhash Anand, Professor of Technical Textiles, The University of Bolton, U.K., “Designer Natural – fibre Geotextiles: A New Concept”. Increasingly the natural fibres due to biodegradability and sustainability aspects are going to be more and more important.Dr. Gerard de Nazelle, CEO, Polygenta Technologies Limited, spoke on the necessity of today's Polyester. Completely Recycled, but Equivalent to Virgin Polyester for Sustainability” described efforts of developing colour-free polyester from recycled PET bottles. Dr. P. R. Roy Chairman of Diagonal Consulting summarised views on the critical state of today's textile process houses and the steps which should be taken to remedy this situation.

Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013


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January- March 2013, VOLUME 1, ISSUE 4  

read interesting interviews, articles, views, inform your self of indian textile industry...

January- March 2013, VOLUME 1, ISSUE 4  

read interesting interviews, articles, views, inform your self of indian textile industry...