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Textile Value Chain

between ginning practices in India and abroad and the differences observed in the quality of ginned lint, particularly in terms of trash content and presence of contaminants. In countries like USA, Australia, Uzbekistan etc, the seed cotton which is machine picked and which arrives at the ginning factories with trash content in excess of 25%, leaves the ginning factories in the form of pressed bales with less than 2% trash. Even in African countries like Uganda, Tanzania, Egypt, etc where the cotton is hand-picked like in India, trash content in bales is comparable with that of US cotton because of good house keeping and the use of pre- and post-cleaning machines in their ginning system. In India, the hand-picked seed cotton, which arrives in ginning factories with substantially less trash than the machine-picked American or Australian cotton, leaves the factory with higher trash than in these countries. Excessive quantities of foreign matter due to improper picking and ginning practices had earned notoriety for the Indian cotton as the most unclean cotton in the world. Ginning factories contribution to contamination is quite significant. Modernization through technology upgrade and infrastructure improvement along with good work practices was the answer to the problems in cotton cultivation and ginning. GOV’T. INITIATIVES – TMC & TUFS CIRCOT had conducted the first ever survey on the status of the ginning industry in India and had published its report as early as in 1958. In later years, CIRCOT carried out surveys of ginning industry in some states in collaboration with ATIRA and SITRA. All such surveys had revealed the deplorable state of the Indian ginning industry and had underscored the urgent need for its modernization. Based on the results of the above surveys and recognizing the importance of cotton crop, Govt. of India launched the Technology Mission on Cotton (TMC) in February 2000. The focus of TMC was on cotton research, transfer of technology to farms and modernization of market yards and ginneries. The TMC had four component Mini Missions as follows:

Mini Mission Mini Mission I

Trust Area

Cotton research and technology Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) generation

Mini Mission II Transfer of technology Mini Mission III

Development of market infrastructure

Modernization / Up gradation of Mini Mission IV ginning and pressing factories The target for modernization of ginneries under TMC was 1000 and by the time the scheme came to a close in December, 2010 about 850 Ginning and Pressing (G & P) units were modernized or newly set up. Under TMC, modernized or newly set up factories conforming to TMC norms were given financial support in the form of one-time subsidy as follows: 1. 25% of the costs for general items of machinery and civil infrastructure subject to a max of Rs. 20 lakhs in case of a large factory and Rs. 15 lakhs in case of a small factory. 2. 25% of the costs for installing new automatic bale press subject to a max of Rs. 7 lakhs. 3. 25% of the costs for purchasing HVI/ MVI


Financial outlay(Rs)

Nodal agency

Dept of Agriculture and Co-op, Min. of Agriculture

700 Crores

Ministry of Textiles 498 Crores Ministry of Textiles machine for fibre quality testing subject to a max of Rs. 4 lakhs. Almost simultaneous with TMC, the Ministry of Textiles launched another initiative called Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) under which interest subsidy of 5% is admissible to textile manufacturing units including G and P factories for modernization as well as for the setting up of new units. This scheme is continuing even today and a few hundred ginneries have so far availed of interest subsidy benefit. MODERNIZATION UNDER TMC The various components of modernization under TMC are broadly grouped under four categories:

July - September 2012

July- Sep 2014, Volume 1. Issue 2  

textile magazine

July- Sep 2014, Volume 1. Issue 2  

textile magazine