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January 2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 1| Pages 52 Registered with Registrar of Newspapers under | RNI NO: MAHENG/2012/43707 Postal Registration No. MNE/346/2015-17 published on 5th of every month,TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN posted at Mumbai Patrika Channel Sorting Office,Pantnagar- 75, posting date 17/18 of month

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Celebrating 3rd Anniversary


e are glad to share that we have completed 3 years of our publication, started its 4th year. In year 2012 we have started with Quarterly issue, from year 2015 we launched Monthly issue. We are thankful to all our advertisers, subscribers, editors, column writers, exhibition organizers, government officials, association, well- wishers and all industry contributors for being supported as a guide, mentor & afriend. Journey was not easy, but your acceptance made us feel that we are part of this industry since many years..!!! Every business changed its dynamic due to revolution in internet, smart phone, search engine, mobile applications, social media and many more. New communication, distribution channel, innovative marketing tactics made business more competitive to world. Global supplier and customer are now no more new to the market. Both of them well connected, travelled, informed and made comfortable business. Textiles/ Apparel/Fashion industry isincepted since man realized that they should cover their body with some beautiful, creative piece of element, which we call as Clothes or Garment. Our primary need: Roti, Kapda, Makan. As per human body dynamics, food is necessityto live and breathe in the world. Makan is for one stable address in earth. Kapda/ clothes need to be wornto cover body, which can be worn till torn/ washed out. Well informed human being wants best food, education, investment for quality life, so these are now the priority need whereas Apparel & jewelry is Secondary need now days. We are all part of secondary need industry ie Textile & Apparel. We all expect miracle will happen by TUFS, GST, Excise duty etc. Apparel Value Chain is now no more from fabric to retail, but sourcing right raw material (fiber/ yarn) to sell to Fashion/ Retail channel. Strategic selectionof raw material/ market is a major challenge for all apparel manufacturers today. Fibers categories as a branded ( Liva, Lenzing, etc) and commodity fibers like banana, viscose, cotton etc. changing the industry from grass root level. New channel of marketing/ distribution like online, footpath hawkers, home based women business changed dynamics / market of the industry. On other extreme level Bollywood / Television industry growing which demands more fashionable/ theme based unique designers. Industry needs Domestic garment manufacturer, Global brands to enthuse youth, Costume designers for occasional wear and glamour industry. Being a part of industry, we wish to grow this industry together & make Indian industry /economy to the new niche with our competitive edge..!!! Your valuable suggestions, feedback is required to improvement of industry, we will voice your thoughts and reach to macro level. Wish you all fruitful and satisfied New Year 2016 & wish you live meaningful life ahead. Ms. Jigna Shah

Editor & Publisher All rights reserved Worldwide; Reproduction of any of the content from this issue is prohibited without explicit written permission of the publisher. Every effort has been made to ensure and present factual and accurate information. The views expressed in the articles published in this magazine are that of the respective authors and not necessarily that of the publisher. Textile Value chain is not responsible for any unlikely errors that might occur or any steps taken based in the information provided herewith.


Registered Office Innovative Media and Information Co. 189/5263, Sanmati, Pantnagar, Ghatkopar (East), Mumbai 400075. Maharashtra, INDIA. Tel : +91-22-21026386 Cell: +91-9769442239 Email: Web:

Owner, Publisher, Printer & Editor Ms. Jigna Shah Printed & Processed by her at, Impression Graphics, Gala no.13, Shivai Industrial Estate, Andheri Kurla Road, Sakinaka, Andheri (East), Mumbai 400072, Maharashtra, India.

January 2016




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The International Name For

CONTENT 8- Feedback Corner 11- Government News COVER STORY : Apparel Value Chain 12- Looking Smart : 2016 going on 17 by Mr. Vishnu Govind

January 2016 ISSUE EDITORIAL TEAM Editor & Publisher Ms. Jigna Shah Editorial Advisor Shri V.Y. Tamhane Consulting Editor Mr. Avinash Mayekar Graphic Designer Mr. Anant A. Jogale


Mr. Devchand Chheda City Editor - Vyapar ( Janmabhumi Group) Mr. Manohar Samuel President, Birla Cellulose, Grasim Industries Dr. M. K. Talukdar VP, Kusumgar Corporates Mr. Shailendra Pandey VP (Head – Sales and Marketing), Indian Rayon Mr. Ajay Sharma GM RSWM (LNJ Bhilwara Group)


Mr. B.V. Doctor HOD knitting, SASMIRA Dr. Ela Dedhia Associate Professor, Nirmala Niketan College Dr. Mangesh D. Teli Professor, Dean ICT Dr. S.K. Chattopadhyay Principal Scientist & Head MPD Dr. Rajan Nachane Retired Scientist, CIRCOT


Mr. Shivram Krishnan Senior Textile Advisor Mr. G. Benerjee Management & Industrial Consultant Mr. Uttam Jain Director PDEXCIL; VP of Hindustan Chamber of Commerce Mr. Shiv Kanodia Sec General, Bharat Merchant Chamber Mr. N.D. Mhatre Dy. Director, ITAMMA


13- Significance of Digital Media marketing in success of e-commerce business by Mr.RushinVadhani 14- Journey of Costume designer in Bollywood industry by Mrs.AnjuTulshyan 15- Garment Industry Recruitment trends 2016 by Mr.Saurabh Agarwal ARTICLES 17- Industrialisation in Africa by Mr.ArvindSinha 25- Development in reactive dyes by two College Professors 27- Study of physiochemical analysis of effluent and in vitro study of decolourisation of congo red acidic dye by bacterial species by Textile Committee staff SHOW REPORTS 19- ITMACH BHIWANDI 2015 20- YFA Delhi 2015 21- Indian Navy and ITTA seminar cum exhibition 22- Birla Liva Protégé 2015 23- ICAC meeting COMPANY PROFILE 33- Rajdhani 34- Staflex MARKET REPORT 16- Surat Market 18- Garment Report 35- Cotton Report 38- Synthetic Yarn Report 40- Wedding Muhrat 2016 48- World Economic Report 41- Show Calendar

Advertiser Index Back page : Raymond

31- Monza

Front inside :Boalamo

32- Rajdhani

Back inside :RSWM

43- Dynamic looms

3- Narain Synthetics

44- Texfair 2016

5- Staflex 7- SGS Innovation 9- Rabatex 10- BSL Suiting

45-VoraAssociate &Temtech 2016 46- Technotex 2016 47- Sanjay Plastic

January 2016



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FEED BACK CORNER Mr. Harish Kumar Chatterjee Vice President Manufacturing Raymond Ltd.

Mr. Sushil Hada Research Scientist TRADC, Birla Cellulose


Personally always like the technical paper published in Textile Value Chain magazine. These are quite related to concern & issues in textile downstream as well as new technical publication. The magazine is also support to linked to textile leaders and current events up date. Textile business trend analysis & future forecast may be incorporate in publication.


Mr. Suresh Kotak, Chairman, Kotak Commodity Services Ltd

of integrating entire textile indus‘‘try inI liketermstheofconcept textile value chain. topics and content of

magazine is interesting, quite knowledgeable. To know supply side information, this magazine gives good information. Our suggestion is we need to know more on demand side, means Market requirement, what market really wants? This study and report is important to all value chain contributors in the chain. Suggest to start demand column in issue. .


It gives me great pleasure to ‘‘ know that TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN

magazine has completed its successful 3 years and going to produce Anniversary Issue in January-2016. We are very proud to be associated with TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN since its inception. The enlightened team of Editorial & Managing committee have come out with many innovative and new ideas in the past few months. All the articles and ideas, expressed by your eminent writers are worth appreciating. New ideas remain critical in debating and determining the future of how the textile industry should grow and work in future. The textile industry is one of the key sectors which generates substantial revenue and employment. The Indian Textile industry has immense potential towards nation building and the textile industry fits into the definition of “Make in India“launched by the Central Government. The cover pages, printing quality and all the advertisements published in your magazine are really attractive and “Show Calendar” & “Events Overview” published are really beneficial & informative. I suggest that a detailed data analysis on national & international textile markets may be incorporated in your magazine related toYarn, wool & cotton, silk trends,updates on textile dyes &chemicals, textile automation etc. Also you may include articles regardingyour visit reports to major textile plants in India and day-to-day problems they are facing in the industry related to Govt. approvals, energy, manpower, labour issues, various govt. taxes etc. and the best practises they are following which will be very beneficial to all the textile manufacturers and the textile industry. I take this opportunity to extend my compliments to the Editor & Publisher, Ms.Jigna Shah and the entire team for their vision and hard work in their mission of textile endeavours and wish them a bright future.


Balwantrai Hemchand Shah & Co (Since – 1975)

(Export Quality Linens,Woven’s, Hosiery Fabrics Manufacturer and Supplier) All Type of fabrics & Laces (Specialty in Hosiery – Lycra Fabric)



Contact Details: C/1, Sai Shrushti,1st Floor, Opp ICICI Bank,Link Road, Chiku Wadi,Borivali (West) Mumbai – 400092 Phone No: 022-28988944/45/46 |Fax No : 022-28988947 Mob No: 9820458957/9322689848 |Email:

January 2016































Cabinet approves Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme for Textiles industry

Government agencies.

Amended scheme to boost ‘Make in India’ in textile sector: to generate investment of one lakh crore rupees and create over 30 lakh jobs

Under the new scheme, there will be two broad categories: i. Apparel, Garment and Technical Textiles, where 15 percent subsidy would be provided on capital investment, subject to a ceiling of 30 crore rupees for entrepreneurs over a period of five years. ii. Remaining sub-sectors would be eligible for subsidy at a rate of 10 percent, subject to a ceiling of Rs.20 crore on similar lines.

The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs, chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the introduction of “Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (ATUFS)” in place of the existing Revised Restructured Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (RR-TUFS),for technology upgradation of the textiles industry, with effect from the date of notification of the scheme.

The new scheme specifically targets: a. Employment generation and export by encouraging apparel and garment industry, which will provide employment to women in particular and increase India’s share inglobal exports. b.Promotion of Technical Textiles, a sunrise sector, for export and employment c. Promoting conversion of existing looms to better technology looms for improvement in quality and productivity d. Encouraging better quality in processing industry and checking need for import of fabrics by the garment sector. The amended scheme would give a boost to “Make in India” in the textiles sector; it is expected to attract investment to the tune of one lakh crore rupees, and create over 30 lakh jobs. A budget provision of Rs.17,822 crore has been approved, of which Rs. 12,671 crore is for committed liabilities under the ongoing scheme, and Rs. 5,151 crore is for new cases under ATUFS. All cases pending with the Office of Textile Commissioner which are complete in all respects, shall be provided assistance under the ongoing scheme and the new scheme will be given prospective effect. Office of Textile Commissioner (TXC) is being reorganised; its offices shall be set up in each state. Officers of the TXC shall be closely associated with entrepreneurs for setting up the industry, including processing proposals under the new scheme, verifying assets created jointly with the bankers and maintaining close liaison with the State

January 2016

The implementation of the scheme would be executed and monitored online under iTUFS, launched in April, 2015.


of ‘SHRESTHKRITI’ and Launch of ‘Cottage Premium’ Collection by Secretary (Textiles)

In an endeavor to promote Indian Handicraft products and to showcase the rich heritage of India , CCIC has organized an Exhibition cum Sale of exclusive handcrafted creations by National Awardees in its showroom at Janpath, New Delhi from 19th January 2016 to 31st January 2016. The exhibition was inaugurated today by Ms. Rashmi Verma, Secretary, Ministry of Textiles, at CCIC showroom, Janpath, New Delhi. Synonym with its name ‘SHRESTHKRITI’ the exhibition showcases unique artifacts, paintings, Wooden Panels, Antique Oil Lamps, Brass handicrafts, Marble Artefacts, Painted Wooden Artefacts , Dhokra ,Pottery, Papier machie, sarees ,shawls, and home linen. The highlight of the exhibition was the launch of “COTTAGE PREMIUM”- An exquisite collection of highly exclusive and very limited collection of handicraft and handloom products for the connoisseur of crafts. Showcosing works of Master Craftspersons, Shilpgurus and National Award Winning Artisans, besides a few handpicked masterpieces. The limited Cottage Premium Collection is available initially only in CCIC Emporium of Jawahar Vyapar Bhawan, Janpath, New Delhi. Cottage Premium Collection is an ode to India’s hoary crafts and weaving traditions. Each product is a marvel and proves a worthy edition to the premium collection.

This exhibition is yet another step in the series of special displays being organised by CCIC to encourage the craftpersons and present their creations to the discerning buyers from all parts of the globe. The exhibition is open to general public from January 19th to 31st, 2016, and the visiting hours will be 10.00am to 7.00pm daily.

Handloom Items registered under the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection), Act, 1999. 48 important and traditional handloom products are registered under the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection), Act, 1999. The authorized officers of the central and state governments are instructed from time to time to pay special attention to the complaints on faking of G.I. registered handlooms products. Recently, Ministry of Textiles has received complaints from various handloom associations/unions that duplicate versions of their famous G.I. registered handloom products are being manufactured by the mechanized sector of the textiles and are sold in the market by some textile marketing companies in the names of G.I. registered handloom products. This is hampering the niche market of these handloom products affecting their goodwill adversely and shrinking their market value due to encroachment on their registered geographical indications. Registered users of G.I. registered products have rights under the provisions of the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection), Act, 1999 to approach respective police authorities to safeguard their interests against such illegal manufacturing/marketing of G.I. registered handloom products. Recently, an FIR was filed on 17.12.2015 in the Pochampally Police Station, Telangana by the authorized users of the G.I. registered handloom products of pochampally ikat sarees against the sellers/manufacturers for selling/manufacturing duplicate G.I. registered produc 9



Looking Smart: 2016 Going On 17 Shri Vishnu Govind Independent Brand Consultant Business Director - Thinkkloud

What you wear tells a lot about yourself, it reflects your personality, your mood, your attitude, your standing in society- to put it in simple words, it reflects your lifestyle, to use a term that is used commonly in fashion marketing.Your clothes tend to speak about the sort of life you lead, and of the value systems and culture that are prevalent in the times you live in. Fashion keeps changing and therefore as we enter a new year, I thought it is a good idea to touch upon in the first article of the year, how it has evolved over centuries and also cover some key elements that may influence fashion trends going forward. Wearing clothes is one habit, well, one of the many, that distinguish human beings from other forms of life. It involves three aspects, availability of textile or other basic material, some technology that helps convert it into something that can be worn, and then, a human need for doing the same- a need strong enough to make us do all these- something that has evolved tremendously over the years. Along with food and shelter, clothing is a basic needit is this need of mankind to self-preserve and protect itself from the elements that has led to the origin of clothing. Anthropological studies lead us to believe that clothing most probably originated when people started using animal skin and vegetation to protect themselves from the elements- like cold, heat, rain and other furies of nature. This may also have naturally led to other needs like prestige, embellishments, distinction etc. as the need to stand out from one another emerged. Right through the evolution of mankind, we have seen garments being used as a means to show distinctions in social standing of people. People of higher ranks tend to wear more ornate clothing to stand out from the common man. For the nobility, their garments were lot more complicated and demonstrated their superiority with decorations on what they wear. This may be considered as indicative of clothing being seen as a ‘lifestyle product’ that tells which social rank you belong to and therefore what quality of life your are expected to lead. Depending on cultural, meteorological and other such considerations, different parts of the world saw clothing evolve differently and this element of status symbol would have manifested accordingly in different ways in different geographies. With the world getting increasingly inter-connected in recent times we witnessed a convergence in ways of dressing in different parts of the world. This led to the emergence of another parameter in fashion choices of people- attitude. This is a rather evolved metric in comparison with some of the earlier ones as they are supposed to represent the state of mind of the person wearing them. In fact, today, there are dress codes that are seen as appropriate for different professions and industries. What you expect your lawyer to wear might be different from what you expect your gym instructor to wear, and is that the same as what you expect an Advertising Creative Director to wear? Also, for each person, there are appro-


priate clothing codes that you tend to adhere to for different activities- like wearing to office, or weekend drive with family, or for a wedding in the family. Fashion Marketing, today, has become a lot more complex. One company in the business of fashion can have multiple brands- one for each lifestyle, or life stage, or even the same brand can have different extensions for different usage occasions. It is not just about a shirt or a trouser anymore, it is, rather, about the complete ensemble that you are seen in, that includes apparel, footwear and other accessories, each one important in terms of providing that little bit of extra detail. This is acrucial part of how the business of fashion is managed now.Also, while aesthetics is one part W lifestyle evolution without looking at the impact of technology in it? Let us now focus our attention on to our own country. We all agree that in India, mobile phones and internet connectivity have changed the way we live, in the last couple of decades, not that the story is different in other parts of the world. Still, compared to other emerging economies like Brazil and China, quality and reach of Internet access in lower in India. However, infrastructural improvements are fast addressing this issue-like better 3G/4G coverage and the boom in the use of Smart Phones. India has a young population with a median age considerably lower than markets like China, US, UK etc. We have a generation that is tech-savvy and gadget friendly! India is a market that has accepted Smart Phones well. Most of the increasing Internet usage here is attributed to the growth in the sale of these phones in this market. In fact, Whatsapp and Facebook represent a new way of life for many of us in this country in a manner that cuts beyond demographics and social standing. The fast adaptation to the Smart Phone way of living has led to industry experts’ predictions that India will be quick to accept Smart Wearable Products. In the fast-paced way of life that is getting more complicated and technology dependent by the day, it is expected that products you wear on your body can replace ones that you need to put in your pocket. Makes sense, right? Health and Wellness is a megatrend and this is one area where Smart Watches and Bands have already started making an impact. You can wear them on your body and they help track vital body functions as well as extent of body workout and other such indices. There are brands that have already made a mark in this space, some of them are specialists in Smart Wearables, while some are technology giants and some are Sportswear brands. As proof of growing cultural relevance of these products, their grey market replicas are also beginning to be found. Other aspects of modern life where wearables could make a mark include security devlces that help you track you location as well as devices that blend with an active, adventurous lifestyle. Wearable Technology, though already making an impact, is only in its infancy. Big electronic giants are making huge investments into that space and are expected to come with new products that

January 2016

COVER STORY are integrated to the broader array of interactive digital networks. So can we assume that clothing and Smart Gadgets are two parallel streams of wearables, or can we expect them to converge? How about wearing a ring that flashes when someone sends you a text message? A small innovation that helps you give that ‘me-time’ to yourself from your mobile phone, isn’t it? Or how about receiving a notification when you misplace your sunglasses? Or a piece of jewellery that tells you where you left your wallet? So over centuries, we have seen that clothing has been about functional benefits and pleasing looks. It is aninter-play between these two co-ordinates that have shaped sartorial preferences of mankind over the years. With fashion businesses constantly expanding the boundaries of possibilities, there are researches that indicate that Smart Clothing will one day compete with Smart

Watches and Fitness Bands to become the biggest wearable category in future. In the era of wearable technology, Smart Fashion could well become the new meeting point of functionality and aesthetics, when the clothes and accessories that you wear provide a level of functionality that goes beyond the obvious. With technology companies constantly innovating and competing amongst themselves to come out with products to raise the bar in their respective categories in a culture of one-upmanship, we can expect fast adaptation of newer technologies in the fashion world also. This development could become a new growth curve in the fashion space; when functionality meets aesthetics in a scenario in which fashion design is not just about how it looks, but equally about how it works! 9

“Significance of Digital Media Marketing in success of E-commerce business” Shri Rushin H.Vadhani AGM – Market Research & Product Development Welspun Syntex Ltd

In today’s competitive business world where every marketer is striving to market the product & establish brand equity has become a challenge.Conventional marketing tools are more or less being used by all marketers targeting same segment of customers.

non-Internet channels that provide digital media, such as mobile phones (SMSand MMS), callback and on-hold mobile ring tones. The fundamental concept in digital marketing is based on customer centric approach.

Moreover the level playing field is not only restricted to compete with top 4 or 5 national brands in the category but also compete with international & local brands which are striving hard to gain increasing market share.

Digital marketers examine things like what is being viewed, how often and for how long, sales conversions, what content works and doesn’t work, etc. While the Internet is, perhaps, the channel most closely associated with digital marketing, others include wireless text messaging, mobile instant messaging, mobile apps, podcasts, electronic billboards, digital television and radio channels, etc.

Marketers are compelled to have better understanding of customers, enrich value chain &explore new marketing channels.Marketing activities have moved beyond ATL & BTL activities to new tools of digital media. Digital revolution is significantly growing year on year because of advanced social media platforms , electronic gadgets at affordable prices , availability of broadband services & customer interface with products & brands. Digital marketing refers to target, measure and interactive marketing of products or services using digital technologies to reach and convert leads into customers and retain them. Absolute focus is to promote brands, build preference and increase sales through various digital marketing techniques. The strategy is for extensive selection of service, product and brand marketing tactics, which mainly use the Internet as a core promotional medium, in addition to mobile and traditional TV and radio. Digital marketing activities are search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), content marketing, influencer, content automation, campaign marketing, and e-commerce marketing, social media marketing, social media optimization, email direct marketing, display advertising, e–books, optical disks and games, and any other form of digital media. It also extends to

January 2016

The thumb rule in digital marketing is to know customers well but also understand community of customers in given product segments & virtual intelligence of their buying behavior. Marketers need a consolidated view of customer preferences and expectations across all channels. These channels are web, social media, mobile, direct mail, point of sale, online sellers etc. Marketers can use this information to create and anticipate constant, coordinated customer experiences that will move customers along in the buying cycle. The deeper the insight into customer behaviorand preferences will help marketers to engage them in lucrative interactions. Though digital marketing and its associated channels are important,complete exclusion of traditional channelscannot be ruled out.

Digital marketing comes with certain challenges: yy E xplosion of digital channels: Consumers use multiple digital channels and a variety of devices that use different set of rules, specifications and interfaces and they interact with those devices in different ways and for different purposes. Hence marketers need to be alert and vigilant in keeping up with customer’s choices. yy Digital marketing intensifies competition: Digital channels are


COVER STORY relatively cheap, compared with traditional media, making them within reach of practically every business of every size. As a result, it has intensified competition in all business spheres. It is difficult to capture consumers’ attention. yy Exploding data volumes: Consumers leave behind a huge trail of data in digital channels. Hence it’s extremely difficult to lay hands on all that data, as well as to find the right data within exploding data volumes that can help marketers make the right decisions.

E-commerce retailers like flipkart,amazon,e-bay,PayTm,shopclu es,snapdeal,make my trip ,book my show,myntra , jabong ,zomato & many more are using digital media tools to promote & grow their business to higher volumes. Their business model are based on virtual intelligence & digital media. In recent times, India has witnessed growth in e-commerce business & availability of product lines across demographics. E-commerce has a standout year in 2015 , where it grew in size from $ 5 billion to $ 8 billion touching every aspect of our life. Increased use of digital media is helping existing & new companies to increase number of more users thus building economy of scales.

According to googlesurvey , approximately 50 million users transacted during 2015 due to availability of smartphoneselectronic gadgets ,broadband services & convenient linkages to payment gateways. E-commerce is getting deeper from B-towns to rural areas & strategizing business with more aggression thus creating boom in retail business beyond expectation. With the emergence of the internet ,digital marketing and

improvements in mobile technology, organizations are taking advantage of the worldwide consumer market by using Ecommerce Integration. It will play a larger role in maximizing business revenue & improve work efficiency in years to come. References : 1. 2. 3. 4. Economic Times Newspaper dated14’Jan’15 5. 6. Google images 9

Journey of costumes Designers in the Bollywood Industry Mrs. Anju Tulshyan (Assistant Professor) Co-author Ms. Disha Zatakia (Undergraduate student) Department of Textiles & Apparel Designing S.V.T. College of Home Science (Autonomous) S.N.D.T Women’s University Juhu, Mumbai -400049 India is a country having an ancient clothing design tradition, yet an emerging fashion industry. Before 1980s, a handful of designers existed but the late 80’s and the 90’s witnessed growth. This was the result of increasing exposure to global fashion and the economic boom after the economic liberalization of the Indian economy. Post-independence the focus was on revival of traditional textile and design, leading to the rise of “ethnic-chic”. History of clothing in India, dates back to the ancient times, where we could see the traditional Indian clothing with regional variations, in the form of a sari, ghagra-choli or dhoti, which remained popular till early decades of post-independence. Then came the time where we could see a decline which was soon followed by a period of revival, where various organizations were involved in reviving traditional Indian


techniques, in weaving, printing, dyeing or embroidery, including ikat, patola (double-ikat), bandhani (tie & dye) and shisha (mirror embroidery). Bollywood movies have the calibre to create new and exclusive fashion statements. The costume Designers have a big role to play as we can see since ancient times. Bhanu Athaiya’s eventful journey of designing the costumes in the Indian Film began with Jab Pyar Kisi Se Hota Hai (1961), Satyam Shivam Sundaram (1978), Lagaan (2001) and Swades (2004) etc. It is Bhanu Athaiya who dressed actress sadhana in tight-fitting salwar kameez setting a fashion trend that lasted well into the 1970’s. Athaiya pays particular attention to character’s dressing and the historical settings of the film. This accounts to the critical acclaim that she has won such period dramas as ‘Sahib Biwi Aur Gulam’ ,

January 2016

COVER STORY ’Reshma Aur Shera’ and ‘Gandhi’. Her costumes for Gulzar’s ‘Lekin’ made her won National Film Award for Best costume Designer in the year 1990. Anna Singh has designed costumes for over 900 films and has been working since 1998.With 25 years experience working in the industry, Anna Singh began her career in 1989 working on the Salman Khan starrer Maine Pyar Kiya. Since then the designer has gone on to work on 998 films including Khalnayak (1993); 1942: A Love Story (1994); Hum Apke Hai Kaun (1994); Bombay (1995); Border (1997); Refugee (2000); Khakee (2004); Omkara (2006) and Once Upon A Time In Mumbai (2010). Singh has also gained a place in the Guinness Book of World Records for her contribution to Indian cinema. Notable achievement for Singh include winning two National Awards for her work in Taj Mahal and Umrao Jaan as well as receiving the Rajiv Gandhi Excellence Award for her contribution to fashion design and research on the movie Mission Kashmir. Manish Malhotra At the age of 25, Manish Malhotra forayed into Bollywood by designing for Juhi Chawla in Swarg. Today, his name is synonymous with style in Hindi films. He revolutionized the fashion scene in Bollywood by envisioning a ‘look’ for the character. His tenure as a costume-designer has seen him clothe most of the leading actresses in the film industry from Sridevi, Urmila Matondkar, Karishma Kapoor, Kajol, Raveena Tandon, Manisha Koirala, Madhuri Dixit, Twinkle Khanna, Shilpa Shetty, Kareena Kapoor, to Aishwarya Rai, Rani Mukherjee and Preity Zinta.. His popularity soared during this period when he was exclusively asked to design clothes for Michael Jackson for his appearance during the Bollywood Awards held in New York. Sabyasachi Mukherjee styles differ from those of the other fashion designers in the industry. He prefers odd, irregular cuts and lengths of clothes. He designed for stars in the movies Black, Paa, Guzarish and Ravan. Neeta Lulla is also a well known fashion designer of Bollywood. Neeta has also received acclaim both in India and overseas. Lulla’s been in the Indian fashion industry for decades and has designed costumes for some of Bollywood’s most iconic films like ‘Jodha Akbar’. She’s known for her traditional Indian clothing including sarees and shararas, but she also designs modern, sleek Indian clothing. Neeta Lulla is a big brand when it comes to bridal trousseau. She also won the National Award for her striking collections and contribution to the Indian fashion world. Role of a Costume Designer In bollywood : A Costume designer creates the look of each character by designing clothes and accessories the actors will wear during a performance. Depending on their style and complexity, costumes may be made, bought, revamped out of existing stock or rented. Their designs need to faithfully re-

flect the personalities of the characters in the script. The shapes, colours and textures that a costume designer chooses, makes an immediate and powerful visual statement to the audience. Creative collaboration among the costume designer, the director and the set and lighting designers ensures that the costumes are smoothly integrated into the production as a whole. Costume designers begin their work by reading the script to be produced. If the production is set in a specific historical era, the fashions of this period will need to be researched. To stimulate the flow of ideas at the first meeting with the director and the design, the costume designer may want to present a few rough costume sketches.This is also an appropriate time to check with the director on the exact number of characters needing costumes, as any non-speaking characters the director plans to include may not have been listed in the script. It is the costume designer’s responsibility to draw up the costume plot. The costume plot is a list or chart that shows which characters appear in each scene, what they are wearing and their overall movement throughout the play.When the director and production team have approved the costume designer’s preliminary sketches, she or he can draw up the final costume designs. The final designs are done in full colour. They show the style, silhouette, textures, accessories and unique features of each costume. Bollywood is one of the most influencing forces behind the latest fashion. Young girls and boys follow Bollywood fashion trends blindly. They follow trends set by their favourite Bollywood actor and actresses. Bollywood clothing is accepted in everyday’s lifestyle. Bollywood fashion guides young generation to know the fashion and what’s in demand. Whether it’s a wedding, special affair or any other kind of occasion that demands elegant Asian fashion, Bollywood fashion can be seen everywhere making its huge presence. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 9

Garment Industry Recruitment Trends 2016 Introduction

Shri Saurabh Agarwal

January 2016

India’s Garment Industry isa well-organized enterprise and is among the best in the world. It constitutes of designers, manufacturers, exporters, suppliers, stockists, and wholesalers. Indian Garment Industry has carved out a niche in the global markets and earned a reputation for its durability, quality and beauty. Today’s changing consumer preferences - buying branded apparel and fashion accessories, major boom in retail industry, people shopping at


COVER STORY department and discount stores, shopping malls, with rising disposable incomes, government policy focused on fast-track textile export growth, and ambitious goals have created several investment opportunities in India.

Growth The Indian textiles industry is set for strong growth, buoyed by strong domestic consumption as well as export demand. The most significant change in the Indian textiles industry has been the advent of man-made fibres (MMF). India has successfully placed its innovative range of MMF textiles in almost all the countries across the globe.

Recruitment Trends Recruitment is an ever evolving industry, especially with the growth of technology and social media. The way that candidates are sourced, jobs are advertised and businesses develop their employer brands are all things that have been adapting over the years. Whereas job boards are still going strong, like in previous years; social media is on the rise and is now central to recruitment processes all over the world.

Recruitment Trends I Garment Industry As the overall textile industry is most legendary industry and till today most of textile manufacturer use classical way to recruit the talent they want by the way more of reference or through wellknown consultant. But the big players like Vardhman Group, LNJ Bhilwara Group, Alok Industries and many other have taken route of modern recruitment trends. The SME garment manufactures as they face stiff competition due to large numbers each of the garment manufactures are forced to work on small margin and hence focus is on how to be effective cost wise while recruiting professionals for their enterprise. They would rather use traditional method of reference point recruitment or through small job consultant who can serve them at low cost sacrificing on the quality of the skills This need to be addressed by educating them the importance of recruiting the right candidate through modern means of recruitment that is social media and through professional talent acquisition companies. 9

Surat report TUFS


Central government declared new TUFS policy in which notification is about remaining TUFS subsidy funds. But this notification is not clear to many of the industry people. Embroidery machines subsidy is not clear, surat industry planning many big investment in embroidery segment, they are not very happy. Surat’s weaving , embroidery, processing segments have more than 1000 cases pending from 2-3 years. Surat industry have made one committee by chamber, for subsidy, data will be collected and will be presented in front of textile commissioner.

Synthetic city Surat, synthetic yarn prices are lowest. International market crude oil prices and yarn basic raw material prices fluctuation resulted in low price in yarn. In a year, process and roto based yarns prices reduced to 10-15%. At beginning of the year Barrel price is USD 48, yarn price in May 2015 gone to USD 62.51. Yarn raw material perazailin, PTA, MEG prices are reduced, so yarn prices are reduced. On 31st October, 2015 yarn basic raw material PTA / kg is RS. 45.25, now it’s Rs. 41. Same way MEG was at Rs. 44.34 / Kg, now it’s Rs. 39/ Kg, FGPET was at Rs. 62 / Kg now it’s Rs. 56/ Kg. So reducing trends of raw material prices are making market gloomy. Spinners give Rs. 3 to 4 discounts, still no new purchase. Now spinners, texurisers are making yarns as per demand only.

Central Government declared 17822 crore of fund ( 12671 crore for old cases and 5151 crore for new cases). But with previous UID number and subsidy there is no clarification given. New UID number will be generated or not, which segment how many subsidy requested, cases pending etc. all will be discussed with the textile commissioner. A-TUFS capital subsidy reduced to 10-15 %, here they have given limitation for investment.

PROMISSORY NOTE To reduce the cheating and bankruptcy of Surat grey fabric manufacture, weavers association decided to start the Promissory note. Promissory note means a letter prepared during fabric sales. In surat, past years many cheating cases have been seen, last year more than 30 companies are bankrupted. Many weavers, small traders suffered losses due to this. Traders’ bankruptcy affects the weavers most. Due to lack of strong documents weavers can’t take any legal action towards traders and dealers. FOSTA supports weavers, so last meeting they discussed regarding promissory note and new regulations will be implemented for new business, this not have revenue stamp with duly sign and stamp of weavers, traders and grey fabric distributors. Even traders’ photo ID, address also will be taken.


YARN PRICE IN SURAT QUALITY 80 Crimp 90 Crimp 100 Crimp 80/72 Roto

NOW PRICE / KG Rs. 91-93 Rs. 90-92 Rs. 89-90 Rs. 94-96

1 YEAR BEFORE PRICE / KG Rs. 106-107 Rs. 104-105 Rs. 103-104 Rs. 108-109

PER BARREL CRUDE OIL PRICE IN USD MONTH May 2015 June 2015 July 2015 August 2015 September 2015 October 2015 November 2015 December 2015 January 2016

CRUDE OIL (USD) 62.51 61.30 54.43 45.72 46.29 46.96 43.13 37.40 30.32

January 2016


Industrialisation in Africa Mr. Arvind Sinha CEO & President M/s. Business Advisors Group There is a long road ahead for Africa to emulate East Asia The great steel roofs of Nigeria’s textile mills are an impressive sight, occupying block after block in the northern city of Kano. Yet from the ground a very different picture emerges. Entire estates sit eerily empty in what was once the country’s industrial heartland. A handful of indigo-dye pits and the odd leather tannery constitute what little is left of a manufacturing business that was booming just a couple of decades ago. The collapse of Nigeria’s textile industry, which has gone from employing more than 350,000 people to fewer than a tenth as many, reflects a wider problem of deindustrialisation across Africa that has occurred during a decade of rapid growth driven by high commodity prices. Over the past 15 years sub-Saharan African economies have expanded at an average rate of about 5% a year, enough to have doubled output over the period. They were helped largely by a commodities boom that was caused, in part, by rapid urbanisation in China. As China’s economy has slowed, the prices of many commodities mined in Africa have slumped again. Copper, for instance, now sells for about half as much as it did at its peak. This, in turn, is hitting Africa’s growth: the IMF reckons it will slip to under 4% this year, leading many to fret that a harmful old pattern of commoditydriven boom and bust in Africa is about to repeat itself. One of the main reasons to worry is that Africa’s manufacturing industry has largely missed out on the boom. The figures are stark. The UN’s Economic Commission says reckons that from 1980 to 2013 the African manufacturing sector’s contribution to the continent’s total economy actually declined from 12% to 11%, leaving it with the smallest share of any developing region. Moreover, in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, manufacturing’s share of output has fallen during the past 25 years. A comparison of Africa and Asia is striking. In Africa manufacturing provides just over 6% of all jobs, a figure that barely changed over more than three decades to 2008. In Asia the figure grew from 11% to 16% over the same period. To be sure, many countries de-industrialise as they grow richer (growth in service-based parts of the economy, such as entertainment, helps shrink manufacturing’s slice of the total). But many African countries are de-industrialising while they are still poor, raising the worrying prospect that they will miss out on the chance to grow rich by shifting workers from farms to higher-paying factory jobs. Premature deindustrialisation is not just happening in Africa— other developing countries are also seeing the growth of factories slowing, partly because technology is reducing the demand for low-skilled workers. Manufacturing has become less labour intensive across the board. That means that it is hard, and getting harder, for African firms to create jobs in the same numbers that Asian ones did from the 1970s onwards.

January 2016

Yet deindustrialisation appears to be hitting African countries particularly hard. This is partly because weak infrastructure drives up the costs of making things. The African Development Bank found in 2010 that electricity, a large cost for most manufacturers, costs three times more on average in Africa than it does even in South Asia. Poor roads and congested ports also drive up the cost of moving raw materials about and shipping out finished goods. Africa’s second disadvantage is, perversely, its bounty of natural riches. Booming commodity prices over the past decade brought with them the “Dutch disease”: economies benefiting from increased exports of oil and the like tend to see their exchange rates driven up, which then makes it cheaper to import goods such as cars and fridges, and harder to produce and export locally manufactured goods. Africa’s final snag is its geography. East Asia’s string of successes happened under the “flying geese” model of development, where a “lead” country creates a slipstream for others to follow. This happened first in the 1970s, when Japan moved labour-intensive manufacturing to Taiwan and South Korea. But Africa seems to have missed the flock. Africa leads leading goose like Japan. Light manufacturing is leaving China for neighbouring Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand & Indonesia rather than distant Africa, despite its promise of plentiful cheap labour. And in the coming century Africa will find it difficult to grow through that route. Yet some African countries are bucking the trend. Ethiopia’s manufacturing has grown by an average of over 10% a year in 200614, from a very low base, partly because it has courted foreign investors. We approached Holland’s horticultural firms, China’s textile and leather firms and Turkey’s garment firms. Now we’re bringing in German and Swiss pharmaceuticals. Leading Economist feels that Ethiopia’s relative success has come from its focused policy. Poor countries often find it hard to decide whether to spread their new infrastructure widely or to focus on the most promising areas. Rather than electrify the whole country, Ethiopia has concentrated on providing power and transport links to its industrial parks. It also seems wise to bring in firms with links to industries that already exist there. Domestic firms learn from being in the same value chain as the foreign firm. Firms buying from local suppliers tend to raise local quality by sending managers and technicians to them. This helps them to produce more sophisticated goods. Ethiopia is not alone. Tanzania, where manufacturing output has grown 7.5% annually from 1997-2012, is wooing Chinese and Singaporean clothing firms and started building its first mega port and industrial park last month. Nonetheless, factories are not creating nearly enough jobs for the millions of young people moving into cities each year. Most of them end up in part-time employment in low-productivity busi-


GLOBAL FOCUS nesses such as groceries or restaurants, which are limited by the tiny domestic economy; Africa generates only 2% of the world’s demand. To grow fast, African countries need to shift workers into more productive industries. Their governments need to provide the infrastructure and the incentives for manufacturing firms to set up. Without determined action, they risk another lost decade as the commodity bust deepens. However, Africa particularly Nigeria, Tanzania & Ethiopia are facing boom of start ups. Many individual enterprises has come

up and are focusing on small manufacturing facilities, innovations which are helping them. Today Social Media is a great help to promote them worldwide. Many Industries such as garmenting particularly leather and high value shirts are getting manufactured and going all over the world. Chinese investment in Africa is becoming a real blessing and there is a possibility in the long run China will help industrialisation in Africa. 9

Garment Report By - Shri Shanti bhai Shah Founder of CMAI Committee Member Generally Hindu festival starts from Janmashtami ends with Diwali, Isalm’s Ramadan & Eid & Christian’s Christmas. All the festive season failed in year 2015 for garment & fabric manufacturer/ traders. Heavy winter prone area- northern region of India, which is mostly cater by Ludhiana market is also in distress due to warm winter not cool winter. Almost every manufacturer loaded with unsold inventories, saving in grace. Fabric prices are now comfortable to garment manufacturer. Fabric business is in distress. Fabric prices are on decline. In February 2016, lot of discount sales will be seen in market. There are two main season for garment business. One is Festive season like Dassera/ Diwali/Ramadan. Other season is month of March/ April/ May, where people go for holiday, they buy clothes changing their attire. June is slimmest season, as expenses done on holidays, school fees, school requirements (uniform business is on growth in this season) Many new entrants in the industry. As this industry do not required any special technology, anyone can start business/ production with only 6 machines and sell with different channels (Home based/ Online/ Ladies Entrepreneurs etc). New entrant also got entry into retail stores/outlets too, succumb to unfair demand of retail/ wholesale stores. Online business disturbing retail business. Maximum business gone to Footpath / pavement hawkers. More than 30-35% business is with pavement hawkers. Good brand, good quality products they sell.They compete with stores with no overheads, no publicity, not taxes to pay, only expenses is daily “Hafta”. Slowly new marketing channel is entering to market, which will be dangerous in long term. Big manufacturer sell to organised retail stores as to give their brand a boost. For the Matter of credit and payment by big retail stores, garment manufacturer are reluctant to talk about. • Payment default: CMAI formed committee under leadership of kirtibhai , which taking many great pains to see that menace is reduced. The prevalent practice is as far as Bombay industrial estate concern, near entrance or lift, gala owners List who have defaulted in that industrial estate (not made payment more than 6, 9 , 12 months) have been kept. This information updated every month and this also available CMAI website. This is Cautions List for the fabric suppliers, retailers, distributors. But still few supply to listed owners due to lull and dullness in the market. • Online was a craze, but manufacture are not clear whether its decline or going to stay. Manufacturer has mix experience with online selling, as return policy make their distribution cost high-


er this gives them a wafer thin margin. MRP price quotation is totally deceptive. Discounts on MRP(Maximum Retail Price), no one knows real MRP. • Big brands style copied so fast and duplicate brand available in the market. Levis accessory like button, label and zipper will get in Rs.30-40. It’s easy to copy and sell. Today made up (fake) brands are on growth. This brands not available in big store but local stores are keeping them. All brands copied this fake brands big factor against consumer. • Brand is not having their own manufacturing unit affect the brand long term. As fake brand and local brand manufacturer make the same fabric in same factory, so there is practically no difference between branded and non branded garments. Only marketing, packaging, services given by branded garments wins over non branded. • Weight and measurement harassment for Packaging, size, open piece are low now. Everyone is waiting for titan judgement for weight and measurement case. This gives relief, positivity and confidence in the garment market. Industry hoping to dissolve this problem permanently. • Industry keenly looking forward GST will be applicable which will reduce lot of headache and paper work of manufacture. CMAI is fighting for % of GST, it should be 10-15% only. Entire country waiting for GST. • Export: As Indian festive season fail, almost same way Christmas was not good for garment exporter. The main reason is slow off take in EEC countries (Europeans country, though USA is not that bad not as good as past. In past EU fashion season runs like Pantone PALE PINK in in fashion, all should have pale pink one garment in their wardrobe. But now European has more Indian mindset, they spend more on primary product category like food, education, saving etc. Garment is secondary category purchase after food. • Though Bangladesh not able to sustain its growth, china prices slightly on higher side, maximum benefits gone to Vietman. They are very aggressive & have competitive price. Home market in china is now growing so not export surplus. • Make in India is theory, but all manufacturers wants their manufacturing factory in china specially in Toys, school stationary category. • Bangladesh common man is poor, government problem, fastest growing economy is Vietnam. Global brands wants to enter 135 crore population country ie India, biggest market. 9

January 2016


A Steady Start To The 2nd Edition of ITMACH Bhiwandi

The growing prominence of government policies and the marked growth of the textile industry over the last few years made way for a positive business platform at ITMACH Bhiwandi. Owing to the radiance and as an answer to the evolving business environment, ITMACH Bhiwandi is back with a bang this year and open to visitors from 17th-19th December 2015. The show opened with a renewed vigour and optimism this year at Bhiwandi today. ITMACH Bhiwandi 2015 aims to stand true to its reputation once again and has set the stage for investment and newer opportunities right on the first day. The visitors flow peaked by noon and by the end of the day it signals to a steady start of the exhibition. The exhibitors reported a good bank of queries right at day one. “We were not really expecting much considering the venue being in Bhiwandi. However, we have to say we entertained a series of positive queries today,” informed an excited R. Anbazhahan, Managing Director, Reiniger Welker. When asked about the quality of the queries, he further added, “Compared to what we expected, when people call us to say that they are visiting the exhibition to see our machines working live and then leave a query for us. We eagerly wait to readdress the queries post the exhibition. These queries are definitely qualitative business responses.” Following the overwhelming response of 2014, Bhiwandi has mapped several success stories so far. A shift from shuttle to shuttleless looms, an opening for the processing industry etc. ITMACH Bhiwandi 2015 closely follows on this path to success. The show was inaugurated by Tushar Chowdhury, Mayor, Bhiwandi and Sumit P Patil, Corporator, BNCMC today at Bhiwandi. The honourable

January 2016

chief guests were immensely vocal about the positive developments taking place at Bhiwandi. “ITMACH Bhiwandi is pioneering developments within the textile sector. The machines on display demonstrate a worldview. The industry here definitely takes an effort to go and fetch improved machinery from the world over, but bringing them back home and that too solely for a cluster is definitely a commendable work,” commented Tushar Chowdhury. “ITMACH Bhiwandi understands the importance of firsthand experience and our effort has always been to get the international developments of the textile industry closer to home. Promoting the development of textile clusters in Western India has always been our priority and ITMACH is just a stepping stone of our efforts. Uplifting the textile clusters and bringing them face to face with the bigger developments of the industry, proved beneficial the last year. This year is a renewed effort for the same,” remarks an enthusiastic Arvind Semlani, Director, ITMACH India. Visitors on the first day were definitely a proof of the growing success of the show over the years. Visitors from Malegaon, Surat, Ichalkaranji, Kolhapur, Belgaum, Tarapur, and Bhiwandi dropped in to meet the technology providers. “The show is set on a smooth step by step progress. And it is certainly an interesting feeling to come and interact with the industry and have such quality business discussions here at Bhiwandi,” spoke a happy Manchhalal K Jain, Director, Shree Daksh Jyot Silk Mills, Bhiwandi. ITMACH Bhiwandi is growing from strength to strength on the path of progress and meeting its aim to bring technology closer to customers. 9



Yarn Fabric and Accessories Trade Show 2015, New Delhi, Fibres to Accessories Show, Proves Skeptics Wrong yy 7 ,477 buyers visit YFA Trade Show 2015 yy Most exhibitors pleased with participation yy Buyers too return satisfied from YFA Trade Show 2015 Yarn Fabric and Accessories Trade Show 2015, New Delhi proved skeptics wrong and turned out to be a major hit with both, exhibitors as well as buyers, as a majority of suppliers at the show expressed full satisfaction with their participation, while most of the buyers too said they were satisfied with their visit to the first of its kind South Asian show. YFA Trade Show 2015, which was held over four days from Dec 14-17, 2015 at the NSIC Exhibition Centre in New Delhi saw over 7,477 buyers visiting the trade show to see innovative and valueadded fibres, yarns, fabrics and garment accessories. The fair was inaugurated by Shri. Santosh Kumar Gangwar, Textile Minister, Govt. of India, Gracing the event Shri. Santosh Kumar Gangwar added “YFA Trade Show 2015 has done a great job by bringing entire textile value chain ( fiber, yarns, fabric, accessories ) under one roof, this fair will be very helpful in growing of textile sector in this part of the country.” Praising the efforts of the organizers, he said “My doors are always open for organizers with new ideas like this for the upliftment of textile and apparel industry in India.” Using the YFA Trade Show platform, Shri. Santosh Kumar Gangwar also announced the new textile policy that would revealed in coming few days. The exhibitor list included the who’s who of the Indian and global textile industry from the textile value-chain beginning from fibres till garment accessories included the likes of Reliance Industries, Indorama Synthetics, Asahi Kasei fibres, Amarjothi Spinning Mills, TT Ltd, Madeira India, Garden Silk Mills and many others. With the total count of exhibitors reaching around 100, YFA Trade Show’s first edition (2015) was undoubtly a smashing hit. These companies exhibited and a few even launched the most innovative and latest developments in value-added textile products like speciality fibres, multifunctional yarns, mélange yarns, spandex yarn, embroidery yarn, bamboo fabrics, modal fabrics, metal garment accessories and various other garment accessories. Sharing his wonderful experience at the show, Mr. Brijesh Jain, Vice President, TT Ltd said, “So far, it has been good as all the visitors who have visited our stall are relevant and genuine and we have also been able to make new contacts and hope to convert them in to business in the near future and we would definitely come back for the next edition.”

Development), Sanathan Textiles Limited informed. “We met many new buyers most of them who were genuine and came from as far as Bangalore and Tirupur. Additionally, we also met our old buyers, with whom we stand a chance of reviving business and we will return next year with a bigger stall,” Mr. Kapadia added. Among the visitors who visited YFA Trade Show 2015 were decision makers like Sourcing Head’s, Purchase Manager’s, Head Merchandiser’s, Sales Head’s, Country Manager’s from composite mills, spinning mills, knitters, weavers, yarn agents, importers, exporters, buying houses, designers, retail chains, etc. Mr. Pradeep Kumar, Sourcing head at Shree Bharat International Pvt. Ltd. remarked, “My visit to the YFA Show was very fruitful as I got to meet many suppliers of fabrics and garment accessories from across India and I was also able to reconnect with a few suppliers with whom we used to do business earlier.” Mr. Vikram Jajoo, Director, Vaibhav Yarn Pvt. Ltd. Delhi and a yarn agent of several textile companies informed, “I am a yarn agent and I came to the YFA Show on the invite of several exhibitors who are participating at the show and whom I represent. This type of show is needed for North India as there are no other shows of this type and it was a good experience.” The closing ceremony and participation momentos have been distributed by Shri. Puneet Kumar, IAS, Secretary General, AEPC. To share his words of encouragement, Shri. Puneet Kumar personally visited all of the stalls in the exhibition. The organizer duo of Abhishek Sharma and Ankur Goel said, “We thank all the participating exhibitors and visitors who visited the show for making the first edition of YFA 2015 successful. We had 7,477 quality buyers visiting the show, a very high number for a first ever edition of its kind. “We have noted all the observations made by exhibitors and visitors and will go all-out to incorporate all these suggestions for the 2016 edition to make it more bigger and better than the 2015 show and look back to welcoming back all participating exhibitors and the buyers too for the next YFA Trade Show (2016) show,” they added. 9

Mr. Akshay Kumar, Sales Director at German embroidered threads producer Madeira stated, “The response to our products has been unexpected and has exceeded my expectations. We have had quality buyers visiting our stall and going by the response at this edition, we would definitely like to return next year.” “Although the show has been held for the first time, we are very satisfied with our presence as on the second day, we did not have time for lunch,” Mr. Raj Kapadia, President (Sales & Business


January 2016


First Indian Navy- Itta Clothing & Footwear Seminar Cum Exhibition Held

The Indian Technical Textile Association (ITTA) in association with Indian Navy, supported by the Office of the Textile Commissioner- Ministry of Textile organized a two day Clothing and Footwear Seminar cum Exhibition at Mulla Auditorium at Navy Nagar, Colaba Defence Station, Mumbai. First Indian Navy- ITTA Seminar Cum Exhibition on Clothing and Footwear was attended by more than 300 delegates from both the Indian Navy and the Technical Textiles Industry. The exhibition showcased the entire technical textile and Footwear products developed by various manufacturers showing the possible improvements of the different products used by the Indian Navy. Some of the prominent exhibitors are- Raymond, Arvind, Welspun, Shiva Texyarn, Venus safety, RSWM, ACCENT Inds., Euro safety, Liberty, Mayur, Bata, etc. In addition, Indian Navy displayed their entire range of products currently used by them.

Session I – Inaugural Session The two day seminar was inaugurated by Vice Admiral SPS Cheema, Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief Western Naval Command. He said that India is known world over for its textile industry and pointing out on the procedural difficulties faced by the services and vendors, he emphasized that the procurement procedures are being reviewed by the government. He added that this Seminar is yet another effort by the Indian Navy towards achieving improvement in quality of clothing and footwear. He also requested the participants to use this opportunity to understand each other’s requirements and come out with the solutions. Dr. Kavita Gupta (IAS), Textile Commissioner, addressed the delegates highlighting the importance of different segments of the Technical Textile and its growth rate of in India. She also spoke in details about the initiatives taken by government on the promotion and growth of technical textiles. He appreciated the efforts take by ITTA to bring together Indian Navy and the Indian Technical Textile Industry along with the regular segments of the Textile Industry, through the seminar and exhibition to understand and improve the quality and supply of the products used by Indian Navy. In his keynote address , Mr. Gautam Singhania, CMD, Raymonds group representing the textile industry, he apprised the audience about the developments in textile industry which can be of great use to the armed forces and also talked on the huge scope of using technical textiles in Indian Navy, like fire retardant, antimicrobial, water proof, etc products. Vice Admiral Jaywant Kode, Controller of Logistics, Ministry of Defence (Navy) spoke in his opening address, that this seminar has been organized to have dialogue and better interaction between the Indian Navy and the Technical Textile Industry. Mr. Pramod Khosla, Chairman, ITTA, welcomed the delegates and narrated the ITTA’s contributions during the last couple of years to the growth of various segments of Indian Technical Textile Industry and the objective of this seminar. Session II – “NAVAL PROCUREMENT PROCEDURES, BUDGET-

January 2016

ING & ASPIRATIONS OF INDIAN NAVY AND ITTA” The Second technical session was chaired by R Adm. Satish Bajaj, VSM, ACOL. The following presentation were made during this session. • Requirements & aspirations of indian navy by Capt. Arvind Vadhera, VSM highlighted that Indian Navy is 5th largest navy in world using 409 distinct items which include regular uniform, Protective Clothing, Safety Footwear, Technical Textile and Extreme Winter Clothing, with an annual budget of around Rs. 100 Crores. • Procurement procedures of indian navy by Cmde. G.S. Negi briefed about the objective of public procurement, basis of procurement, the procurement process in the Indian Navy and Tendering. • Organization, capabilities and aspirations of ITTA and industry by Dr. K. S. Sundraraman, Vice Chairman, ITTA & ED, Shiva Texyarn Ltd. emphasized about the ITTA which have nearly 300 members. He highlighted the importance of technical textiles, areas of expertise of ITTA members and the Potential Applications for the Indian Navy. Session III – “FUNCTIONAL & REGULAR CLOTHING REQUIREMENT OF INDIAN NAVY” The third session was chaired by RAdm Sunil Anand, NM CSO P& A, HQWNC and four papers were presented. yy Innovative developments to enhance clothing options for the Indian Navy by Dr. Vijay Ramakrishnan, HOD & Mr. Sushil HadaTRADC, Grasim Inds., Gujarat highlighted the capability and expertise of Textile Research and Application Development Centre and also products developed by Grasim. yy What Technical Textile Industry can offer to Indian Navy? by Mr. Mahesh Kudav, MD, Venus Safety & Health, Mumbai emphasized on the different products which can be offered to Indian Navy by the Indian Technical Textile Industry. He presented the product wise list of ITTA members which showed that almost all kinds of technical textile products are manufactured in India, some may in developmental stage. However, it showed that our Industry is well equipped to cater to the needs of the Indian Navy . yy Protecting the Protectors – Advances in Technical Textiles by Mr. Atanu Acharya & Mr. Arindam Dasgupta Life Protection Solutions, DuPont, South Asia had explained about the salient features of Protective Textiles available in India and abroad and used by the Navy of various countries. yy Advanced Functional clothing & Garments for Indian Navy by Mr. Basant Lohia, MD, Tarasafe International Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad presented a hole range of fire retardant and other multi-functional Protective Textiles produced by the Tarasafe International and other manufacturers.

Session IV- “Footwear requirement of Indian Navy” The fourth session was chaired by Dr. Anup Rakshit, Executive Director, ITTA and three papers were presented. • Scope of improvement in Regular Footwear for Indian Navy by


POST SHOW REPORT Mr. Shammi Bansal, Managing Driector, Liberty Shoes Ltd. highlighted the range of regular footwear product used by Indian Navy and the possibilities of further development by using better raw material and different technologies. He also narrated the products developed by Liberty. • Advanced Technology for Safety Footwear used by Indian Navy and other countries by Mr. SK Neogi, Technical Director, Mayur Leather products Ltd., Jaipur spoke on risk factors, like oil, wa-

ter, fire resistance, etc, which are to be considered for production of the safety footwear. He added that a range of textile components like Micro-fibre fabric, technical textiles, etc. • Modernization of Accoutrements- “Badges and insignia “ by Prof. Shakti Sagar Katre had highlighted the importance of Badges and insignia on the uniforms of Indian Navy and the work done by NIFT on solving certain quality issues of these products. 9

Grasim Industries Ltd, Aditya Birla Group Announced the First Edition of Liva Protégé 2015 Liva Protégé 2015, a pan India designer hunt for recognizing India’s future stars in the field of fashion, takes pride in announcing that after covering over 12 cities, top 50 fashion institutes and touching more than a hundred students across India, it has reached the final leg of the journey – the Grand Finale showcased the work of its Top 12 finalists on 23rd December, 2015 in Mumbai. The annual, pan-India hunt for the brightest fashion designers in India, was open to final year students of select colleges. The competition gives them chance to showcase their talent and get mentored by some of the biggest names in the industry. The winner of Liva Protege gets an opportunity to work with the prestigious in house design team of online fashion e commerce venture of Aditya Birla Group – (All About Fashion) OR an opportunity to have upto 5 of his/her designs sold besides a cash prize of INR2,00,000. The First runner up gets an opportunity to have upto 3 of his/her designs sold on and a cash prize of INR 1,00,000 . The Second runner up will win a cash prize of INR50,000. Liva Protégé is powered by Liva – a new-age fabric, from the house of Birla Cellulose, designed to infuse incredible fluidity into garments. It aims to tap into the great Indian talent pool and ensure that promising fashion designers in India get their rightful place under the sun, and help India keep shining across the global fashion landscape.

In the first edition – Liva Protégé 2015 celebrated upcoming trend and style to recognise innovation and breakthrough talent on a national scale. The finalists belonged to India’s top fashion schools, namely, NIFT, Pearl, BD Somani, NID and Raffles. The shortlisted designers represented a range of unique styles and talents with each of them having their own masterpieces that were showcased yesterday. The finalists showcased their collections through a fashion show to an elite panel of judges which includes Actor Soha Ali Khan, leading Fashion Designer Narendra Kumar, eminent fashion photographer Prasad Naik, Editor of India edition of Cosmopolitan magazine Nandini Bhalla and Founder and Chairperson of Svatantra Micro Finance Ms Ananyashree Birla. Also present was the elegant Mrs. Rajashree Birla with her daughter in law, Mrs. Neerja Birla. Cutting for a frame worthy family photo, the three generation of ladies from the Birla family were all smiles. The winner was Mr. Riturana Deori from Ahmedabad, the 1st runner up was Mr. Nitin Gupta from Ahmedabad and the second runner up was Ms. Sagarika Joshi from Bangalore. The winners were selected based on aesthetics, design, fluidity and functionality of creations. The fashion presentation was choreographed by Shy Kalra. 9

According to Mr. Manohar Samuel President Marketing, “As one of the largest textile and fashion conglomerates in the country we believe that Indian fashion landscape is extremely dynamic and its talent pool rich and diverse. Liva is a new age natural fabric and has been accepted well by the textile value chain. Liva Protégé is our endeavour to bridge the gap and reach the budding fashion designer fraternity. Our journey so far has been exciting, we are overwhelmed with the creativity of the young talent. Clearly, the future of Indian fashion is in competent hands.


January 2016


International Cotton Advisory Committee Statement of the 74th Plenary Meeting “From Farm to Fabric: The Many Faces of Cotton” 1 The International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) met in Mumbai, India, from December 7 to 11, 2015 for its 74th Plenary Meeting since the establishment of the Committee in 1939. The meeting was attended by 398 persons, including representatives from 28 Members, 9 international organizations and 13 nonmember countries. 2 Cotton production falls below demand. The Secretariat reported that, after five consecutive seasons of excess supply, overall production had fallen below the estimated consumption in the 2015/16 season. World stocks remain at very high levels. International prices remain weak. Cotton demand continues to expand at a slow rate as a result of sluggish world economic growth and strong competition from synthetic fibers, especially polyester. 3 Government support measures reach record levels. In its report on government support to cotton, the Secretariat estimated that assistance reached US$10.4 billion in 2014/15, the highest level since data began to be compiled in 1997/98. Large stocks accumulated as a result of government intervention from 2011/12 to 2014/15 would remain the key factor in determining the fundamentals of the cotton market for the foreseeable future. 4 Promotion of demand for cotton requires a multifaceted approach. In order to improve the prospects for cotton, the Committee endorsed the recommendations received from the Private Sector Advisory Panel, including: • Members should ensure that fiber-content labels on textile products be more visible, in order to allow consumers to make informed choices and also promote transparency in the supply chain; • The Secretariat should conduct a study on the economic factors underlying the growth of polyester production and demand, thus enabling Members to better understand the dynamics of competition among fibers; and • Members should continue to approach the cotton sector in a holistic manner, by implementing measures to encourage an increased diversification of the uses of cotton, including composites and technical textiles, and a wider use of cotton byproducts throughout the value chain, to add value to the sector. 5. Need for measures to facilitate international trade. The Committee endorsed the recommendation received from the Private Sector Advisory Panel (PSAP) regarding the need to standardize phytosanitary certificates and recommended that the Secretariat work with Members to raise awareness of this issue within the World Trade Organization. The PSAP also noted that requirements for fumigation of cotton varied widely among countries and instructed the Secretariat to obtain further information on possible ways in which to reduce such differences. 6. Enforcement of arbitration awards must be improved in order to promote the economic sustainability of the world cotton trade. The Committee was informed that, although contractual disputes had decreased in the last year, improvements are required in the enforcement of arbitration awards. All members of the Com-

January 2016

mittee are signatories of the 1958 Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (commonly known as the New York Convention), but claimants are often unable to get their awards enforced. This was having a negative impact on cotton trade and consumption. Members were reminded of their obligations to ensure full compliance with the terms of the New York Convention. Suggestions included ensuring judges are trained in the application of foreign arbitral awards and making sure that duly constituted commercial courts have the necessary expertise for achieving settlement in a timely and efficient manner. 7. ICAC Members urge progress in negotiations at the World Trade Organization. A representative of the World Trade Organization presented a summary of the current situation regarding cotton in that body. The ICAC reaffirmed its support for a multilateral trading system under the aegis of the WTO. WTO members had committed themselves to treat cotton “ambitiously, expeditiously and specifically”. The 10th Ministerial Conference of the WTO, which will be held in Nairobi in December 2015, constituted a key opportunity to demonstrate concrete progress in the removal of government measures that distort the production and trade of cotton. 8. Sustainability indicators begin to be tested. The Committee received a report from its Expert Panel on the Social, Environmental and Economic Performance of Cotton Production (SEEP) that highlighted field testing of the indicators and framework contained in the joint ICAC/FAO publication “Measuring sustainability in cotton farming systems: Towards a guidance framework”. The Committee commended this work and recommended that the SEEP Panel continue to coordinate and monitor the testing of the indicators and guidance framework. The framework, however, should remain a tool to be adapted to the reality of each country. The Committee also noted the increasing use of Life Cycle Assessment-based tools to assess the performance of cotton and that of other raw materials (such as man-made fibers and wool) used in the textile and apparel supply chain. A need exists to evaluate how these tools are being used, as well as their potential impact on cotton farmers and on the cotton supply chain. 9. Sustainability grows in importance for retailers and consumers. The Committee appreciated a panel discussion on the views on cotton of retailers, which revealed that the fashion and home textile sectors have ambitious goals in terms of sustainable sourcing. Their customers increasingly demand information about the sustainability of the products they purchase. Concerns about sustainability, including transparency and traceability, will become more relevant over time. 10. Reduction in use of insecticides. During the Technical Seminar on “Elimination of Insecticides from Cotton Production: Is this Possible?”, the Committee received expert reports. Some experts expressed confidence that cotton can be successfully grown without insecticides; other experts stated that it was not yet possible and noted the importance of Integrated Pest Management


POST EVENT REPORT (IPM). Encouraging statistics were presented on reduced insecticide use, especially through IPM techniques, in many countries. It was observed that cotton has a much higher yield potential in certain cases than is currently realized. Improved cotton varieties are important, but the interaction between variety and management is vital for realizing optimum yields. While the role of biotechnology approaches will continue to expand in the future, breeding will not lose its significance. Molecular marker-assisted breeding is being adopted and the genetic engineering of photosynthesis has great potential for improving yields on the physiology side. Insecticide use may lead to various consequential results, including: increased use of insecticides due to resistance; reduced reliance on natural biological control; emergence of new pests. A system approach is needed that encourages the use of ecological options. Many nonchemical insect control options, including biological management, are available that are simple and easy to apply, but which must be used on an area-wide basis. 11. Climate change is affecting cotton production. Several countries reported that weather patterns are becoming increasingly unstable as a result of climate change, with consequent impacts on cotton production. Members welcomed the news that the Secretariat had commissioned a special study on climate change and cotton production in modern farming systems. It was noted that measures to increase soil organic matter can help maintain longterm soil fertility, while at the same time contributing to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Members further noted that a positive outcome at the Paris Climate Change Conference would be a desirable step to attenuate the ongoing effects of climate change. 12. Additional research into mechanized harvesters for smallholders was required. A session on mechanized harvesters for use in small landholdings revealed that commercially viable machines are in advanced stages of development in some countries but not yet widely available. The Committee noted that the decrease in availability of rural labor means that further investigation into practical solutions, such as mechanical harvesting, was required. 13. Amendments to statutes enable the accession of the European Union. The Steering Committee approved amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the ICAC that will enable the accession of the European Union as a single member. During the first semester of 2016, the Standing Committee will negotiate transitional arrangements and deal with other outstanding issues with the EU, in order to enable accession of the same at the beginning of the 2016/17 fiscal year. ICAC members expressed their satisfaction with the possibility of EU membership, which would strengthen their organization. 14. Improved statistics are crucial for better decision-making. A breakout session on the collection, compilation, analysis and dissemination of cotton statistics generated a wide-ranging discussion of ways in which to improve their reliability and availability. Government and the official data will remain the primary source of data on the overall performance of cotton. Accurate and timely statistics are vital for informed decision-making. 15. Topic of the 2016 Technical Seminar. ICAC members approved the recommendation of the Committee on Cotton Production Research that the 2016 Technical Seminar should be dedicated to the topic of “Emerging Pests in Cotton and their Control”.

Conference (WCRC-6), which will be held in Brazil in the city of Goiânia, Goiás, from May 2 to 6, 2016. Registration and abstract submission are now open and additional information on the Conference is available at www.wcrc¬ The WCRC-6 will be organized under the auspices of the International Cotton Researchers Association (ICRA), with major support from the ICAC. 17. Next meetings. The 75th Plenary Meeting will be held in Islamabad, Pakistan, from October 31 to November 4, 2016. The 76th Plenary Meeting will be held in Mozambique 18. Appreciation for the hospitality of India. The Committee thanked the people, the Organizing Committee and the Government of India for their hospitality in serving as host of the 74th Plenary Meeting. Delegates complimented the hosts on their warm reception and the quality of the venue provided for the Plenary Meeting.9 ICAC SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION OF COTTON

December 9, 2015


9.362 2.688 0.642

10.222 15.258 2.087 6.181 0.566 0.729

18.038 20.111 9.607 12.088 0.903 0.651

22.02 12.85 0.98


25.453 5.865 6.400 3.942 1.948 1.960 0.910 4.429

27.844 6.239 7.400 3.391 2.311 1.877 0.880 5.746

26.718 6.205 7.300 3.770 2.002 1.310 1.000 5.131

26.277 6.770 6.929 2.811 2.076 1.734 0.940 5.018

26.238 6.507 6.480 3.553 2.305 1.551 0.885 4.957

23.15 6.27 5.26 2.90 1.90 1.48 0.86 4.50


24.611 9.580 4.472 2.170 1.833 1.550 0.958 0.849 0.577 2.621

22.782 8.635 4.231 2.121 1.780 1.498 0.897 0.718 0.545 2.357

23.559 8.290 4.762 2.216 2.139 1.565 0.910 0.762 0.581 2.335

23.883 7.517 5.186 2.476 2.312 1.615 0.862 0.773 0.614 2.528

24.224 7.517 5.359 2.497 2.533 1.584 0.797 0.778 0.602 2.557

24.36 7.33 5.52 2.25 2.74 1.65 0.80 0.81 0.60 2.68


7.690 3.130 1.085 0.545 0.435 0.476 0.600

9.828 2.526 2.159 1.010 1.043 0.597 0.550

9.986 2.836 1.685 1.305 0.938 0.829 0.653

8.991 2.293 2.014 1.037 0.485 0.974 0.650

7.705 2.449 0.914 0.521 0.851 0.885 0.594

7.36 2.23 1.01 0.54 0.77 1.02 0.53


7.749 2.609 1.826 0.973 0.843 0.314

9.784 5.342 1.997 0.725 0.680 0.190

9.606 4.426 2.355 0.833 0.631 0.411

8.670 3.075 2.355 1.082 0.967 0.247

7.605 1.804 2.631 1.010 0.964 0.198

7.36 1.21 2.79 1.01 1.04 0.25


0.058 -0.041

-0.044 0.018

-0.380 0.001

-0.321 -0.100 0.000 0.000

0.00 0.00


10.222 2.087 0.566

15.258 18.038 6.181 9.607 0.729 0.903

20.111 22.024 12.088 12.850 0.651 0.980

20.81 11.98 0.85

49 161 91

52 164


55 116 88

55 171 71

16. World Cotton Research Conference. The Committee received a report on preparations for the 6th World Cotton Research


January 2016


Developments in reactive dyes Mr. T. Malik, Mr. S Barhanpurkar shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology Indore Mr. S Rajput, Mr. A Bhargava, Textile Technology Institute, Kanpur U.P.

Abstract Reactive dyes are well known for their light and pale shades. Several environmental problems are associated with reactive dyeing such as higher alkalinity, colored effluent and large amount of electrolytes. Various efforts had been done to solve this problem such as - (a) modification of the dye to increase the fixation by enhancing the reactivity (Multifunctional reactive dyes-homobifuctional & hetro bifunctional reactive dyes). (b) Modification of the dye to increase the substantives, so that electrolyte requirement is cut down - highly substantive or low salt reactive dyes. (c) Modification of the cellulose substrate- cationisation of cellulosic materials. Key words- Reactive dyes, Fixation , Electrolyte, Bifunctional

1.Procian T dyes: ICI introduced the procaine T-dyes, a range of liquid reactive dyes, based on phosphoric acid reactive group. Fixation of these dyes takes under acidic dyeing conditions in the presence of carbodiimide at about 2000C. Acid and neutral fixing reactive dyes are important for polyester cotton blends and their consumption will increase. Studies on the stability of the dye fiber bond of Procian T dyes demonstrated that this class of reactive dyes have dye fiber stabilities in the range as those of other major classes of reactive dyes. However large quantities of fixative are necessary. The rate of fixation agent to the dyes is of the order of 50:1 or more. Procian T dyes do not hydrolyze and at the end of the dyeing process retain their capacity for fixation. The disappointing fixation achieved under even the best conditions recommended is thought to be due to unfavorable competition from the carbodiimide side reaction. It is ironic that the fixation of non hydrolysable reactive dyes should be no better than that of regular reactive dyes due to the same basic problem in the former case relating to the fixation agent and in the latter to the dye itself. High fixation values can be obtained by using solvents and cyanamide at 1600C.

2. Reactive cationic dyes: These dyeing properties of reactive cationic dyes on blended fabrics. Fiber reactive polymethine cationic dyes containing N- chloroacetyl group. After a long silence in this area, reactive cationic dyes have been evaluated on wool and in the context of salt free dyeing of cotton cellulose. In the recent years, in the context of development of a salt free dyeing procedure for cellulose materials, cationic dyes containing a reactive unit have been studied. The principle behind this is that the cationic dyes do not need an electrolyte during exhaustion of the dye as against the anionic dyes.

3. Cibacron C dyes, Mainly produced for pad-batch and continuous dyes are the bifunctional reactive dyes, having monofluorotriazine reactive group linked to the vinyl sulphone group, by an aliphatic bridge between the two groups. While Sum fix Supra bifunctional reac-

January 2016

tive dyes are mainly for exhaust dyeing, the Cibacron C dyes are designed mainly for pad-batch and continuous dyeing. Due to higher cost and technological constraints to produce the required reactive system, these dyes are not being developed in India. 3. Sumafix Supra dyes, marketed by Sumitomo of Japan, are heterobifunctional reactive dyes having a vinyl sulphone and monochlorotriazine groups. These dyes known for their high degree of exhaustion and fixation, good reproducibility and leveling properties. These are also temperature-insensitive between 500-600C. The dyes are distinguished by medium substantively in primary exhaustion phase and high degree of exhaustion and fixation after addition of alkali. These dyes have advantages owing to the vinyl sulphone group, owing to the synergistic effect of the combination of the vinyl sulphone group with a monoclorotriazine group. The main advantages of these dyes are as under1-

High degree of exhaustion and fixation


Good reproducibility


Good leveling properties

High fastness to perspiration, light, chlorinated water and peroxide washing etc. One of the most characteristic dyeing properties of these dyes is its temperature-insensitive dyeing behavior between 500 and 800C, as they show very little change in color yield between this range of temperature. Due to this property, they display an excellent practical performance when the temperature in the dye bath is not completely uniform, particularly in winch dyeing machines. The various application methods, fastness properties and advantages of these dyes have been described. These dyes have become popular in USA, Europe, Japan and many of the Asian countries except India. Due to high import duty, it is virtually impossible to import these dyes but a few of the dyestuff manufacturers like Jaysynth, Atlas and Chemiequip have develop and produced in India this type of bifunctional reactive dyes having vinyl sulphone and monoclorotrizine groups. However so far no manufacturer has been successful to introduce these dyes in the Indian textile market. The main reasons for this can be attributed as follows1.Higher color cost of these dyes to produce the same color strength, compared to other reactive dyes. However many color combinations shades are also economical when produced from these dyes. Moreover the higher dye cost can well be compensated by high fastness properties and good reproducibility. 2.Dyestuff manufacturers have no complete range of these dyes, particularly brilliant blues, to produce a variety of combination shades normally required by the textile processor. One of the important aspects from the manufacturers point of view is that, though synthetically it is easy to introduce these two


TECHNICAL ARTICLE Abstract Reactive dyes are well known for their light and pale shades. Several environmental problems are associated with reactive dyeing such as higher alkalinity, colored effluent and large amount of electrolytes. Various efforts had been done to solve this problem such as - (a) modification of the dye to increase the fixation by enhancing the reactivity (Multifunctional reactive dyes-homobifuctional & hetro bifunctional reactive dyes). (b) Modification of the dye to increase the substantives, so that electrolyte requirement is cut down - highly substantive or low salt reactive dyes. (c) Modification of the cellulose substrate- cationisation of cellulosic materials. Key words- Reactive dyes, Fixation , Electrolyte, Bifunctional

1.Procian T dyes: ICI introduced the procaine T-dyes, a range of liquid reactive dyes, based on phosphoric acid reactive group. Fixation of these dyes takes under acidic dyeing conditions in the presence of carbodiimide at about 2000C. Acid and neutral fixing reactive dyes are important for polyester cotton blends and their consumption will increase. Studies on the stability of the dye fiber bond of Procian T dyes demonstrated that this class of reactive dyes have dye fiber stabilities in the range as those of other major classes of reactive dyes. However large quantities of fixative are necessary. The rate of fixation agent to the dyes is of the order of 50:1 or more. Procian T dyes do not hydrolyze and at the end of the dyeing process retain their capacity for fixation. The disappointing fixation achieved under even the best conditions recommended is thought to be due to unfavorable competition from the carbodiimide side reaction. It is ironic that the fixation of non hydrolysable reactive dyes should be no better than that of regular reactive dyes due to the same basic problem in the former case relating to the fixation agent and in the latter to the dye itself. High fixation values can be obtained by using solvents and cyanamide at 1600C.

2. Reactive cationic dyes: These dyeing properties of reactive cationic dyes on blended fabrics. Fiber reactive polymethine cationic dyes containing N- chloroacetyl group. After a long silence in this area, reactive cationic dyes have been evaluated on wool and in the context of salt free dyeing of cotton cellulose. In the recent years, in the context of development of a salt free dyeing procedure for cellulose materials, cationic dyes containing a reactive unit have been studied. The principle behind this is that the cationic dyes do not need an electrolyte during exhaustion of the dye as against the anionic dyes.

3. Cibacron C dyes, Mainly produced for pad-batch and continuous dyes are the bifunctional reactive dyes, having monofluorotriazine reactive group linked to the vinyl sulphone group, by an aliphatic bridge between the two groups. While Sum fix Supra bifunctional reactive dyes are mainly for exhaust dyeing, the Cibacron C dyes are designed mainly for pad-batch and continuous dyeing. Due to higher cost and technological constraints to produce the required reactive system, these dyes are not being developed in India. 3. Sumafix Supra dyes, marketed by Sumitomo of Japan, are heterobifunctional reactive dyes having a vinyl sulphone and monochlorotriazine groups. These dyes known for their high degree of exhaustion and fixation, good reproducibility and leveling properties. These are also temperature-insensitive between 500-600C. The dyes are distinguished by medium substantively in primary exhaustion phase and high degree of exhaustion and fixation after


addition of alkali. These dyes have advantages owing to the vinyl sulphone group, owing to the synergistic effect of the combination of the vinyl sulphone group with a monoclorotriazine group. The main advantages of these dyes are as under1-

High degree of exhaustion and fixation


Good reproducibility


Good leveling properties

High fastness to perspiration, light, chlorinated water and peroxide washing etc. One of the most characteristic dyeing properties of these dyes is its temperature-insensitive dyeing behavior between 500 and 800C, as they show very little change in color yield between this range of temperature. Due to this property, they display an excellent practical performance when the temperature in the dye bath is not completely uniform, particularly in winch dyeing machines. The various application methods, fastness properties and advantages of these dyes have been described. These dyes have become popular in USA, Europe, Japan and many of the Asian countries except India. Due to high import duty, it is virtually impossible to import these dyes but a few of the dyestuff manufacturers like Jaysynth, Atlas and Chemiequip have develop and produced in India this type of bifunctional reactive dyes having vinyl sulphone and monoclorotrizine groups. However so far no manufacturer has been successful to introduce these dyes in the Indian textile market. The main reasons for this can be attributed as follows1.Higher color cost of these dyes to produce the same color strength, compared to other reactive dyes. However many color combinations shades are also economical when produced from these dyes. Moreover the higher dye cost can well be compensated by high fastness properties and good reproducibility. 2.Dyestuff manufacturers have no complete range of these dyes, particularly brilliant blues, to produce a variety of combination shades normally required by the textile processor. One of the important aspects from the manufacturers point of view is that, though synthetically it is easy to introduce these two reactive groups in one dye molecule, one has to be careful in selecting the dye structure which fulfills the requirement of high fastness which is one of the most important factors in the success of these dyes. Surprisingly it has been found that one of the manufacturers in India has come into market with a wide range of these dyes but many of them have light fastness about 2 to3, and some dyes fade almost completely in sunlight when the goods dyed are in wet conditions. For such reasons textile processors lost their confidence in such new introductions. I feel that the dyestuff manufactures should not just concentrate to increase the number of products/ shades by sacrificing important properties of a particular dye range. 3. The dyestuff manufacturers in the last few years are preoccupied in fulfilling their commitments and hence they pay less attention to the Nome market to provide technical services and trials normally required for introducing such new dyes. 4.Kayacelon React dyes, Introduced by Nippon Kayaku of Japan, react with cellulose at 1300C at nentral pH. This has made them most suitable for one-bath, one –stage dyeing of polyester/ cellulosic blends where polyester portion can be dyed with disperse dyes while the cellulose portion with these new dyes in one stage at 1300C and neutral pH. The leaving group in the reaction with cellulose is 3-carboxypyridine in this class of dyes. These are

January 2016

TECHNICAL ARTICLE best known for reduction in processing time, simplified dyeing process and increased productivity.34 The ease and the simplicity of the dyeing method for one bath dyeing of polyster/cellulose blends has made possible the dyeing of various blended textiles like nylon/cellulose, wool/cellulose, acrylic/ cellulose etc. with these reactive dyes along with other dyes in one bath. These kinds of dyes have been developed in India by Chemiquip Ltd., Jaysynth Dyechem Ltd, Atlas Dyechem industries etc. but so far, like bifunctional dyes no one has been successful to in-

Mr. K.s. Muralidhara Joint Director (Laboratories), Laboratories, Textiles Committee, Min of Textiles, Govt. of India, Mumbai, India

Mr.R. P. Sontakke Jr Quality Assurance Officer, Textiles Committee, Min of Textiles, Govt. of India

troduce these dyes in the Indian textile market. The reasons are given hereunder1. Higher color cost of these dyes to produce the same color strength, compared to other reactive dyes. However when the total cost are taken into account, like reduction in fixed expenses, utilities, labour cost etc, and particularly dyeing medium and pale shades where the amount of the dye used is less, this may result in overall cost saving. 2. Dyestuff manufacturers have no complete range and hence have not been able to produce the required varieties of combination shades, normally demanded by textile processors.

Study On Physiochemical Analysis Of Textile Industry Effluent And In Vitro Study Of Decolourization Of The Congo Red Acidic Dye By Bacterial Species

Mr. A. K Mishra Lecturer, Agnihotri College Of Science and Biotech Research Center, Wardha Abstract: Decolourization study was carried out by treating the textile dye effluent with the bacteria strains namely Klebsiella sp Staphylococcus sp, Psedomonas sp and Bacillus sp. isolated from highly polluted drain, locally known as Buddha Nala, Ludhiana. The pollution load of the various textiles industrial effluents vary from time to time depends upon the dyes, impurities on the fabrics and other processing chemicals used for the dyeing over the years, with the active spread and development of the industries. Heavy Metal, which are either used, or produced as by products by numerous manufacturing, industrial, refining and mining processes have become ubiquitous, persistent environmental pollutants. This study to isolate and optimize bacterial strains having the ability to degrade and decolorize azo dyes produced in the final effluent of textile dying industries and also the physiochemical pollution load at textile dying industries. It has a great disadvantage in terms of its environmental impact because it consumes considerably high amount of processed water and produces highly polluted discharge water. Joints efforts are needed by water technologists and textile industry experts to reduce water consumption in the industry. While the user industries should try to optimize water consumption, water Technologists should adopt an integrated approach to treat and recycle water in the industry in the name of environmental protection. Keywords: Textile industry effluent, Microbial biotechnology, Technical Textiles, Azo dye decolourization, bacteria

1. INTRODUCTION: Water being one of the key inputs, textile industry consumes large quantity of quality water. Since about 90% of the chemicals used in textile processing are eliminated after completing goals. The effluent carries with it a high polluting load. Textile industries are large industrial consumers of water as well as producers of wastewater. To produce 1 ton of textile product industry consume 200-270 tonnes of water. Increased demand for textile

January 2016

products, lead to increase in the generation of textile effluent, which makes the textile industry as a main sources of severe pollution problems worldwide. The process of dyeing involves the use of different chemicals like salts, metals, surfactants, sulphide and formaldehyde. There are more than 8,000 chemical products associated with the dyeing process and over 100,000 commercially available dyes exist with over 7Ă—105 metric tons of dyestuff produced annually [1]. Nearly, 1,000-3,000 m3 of water is let out after processing about 12-20 tonnes of textiles per day. These effluents are rich in dyes and chemicals, many of which are non-biodegradable and carcinogenic and pose a major threat to health and the environment [2]. Wastewater generated in different production steps of a textile mill have high pH, temperature, detergents, oil, suspended and dissolved solids, dispersants, levelling agents, toxic and non-biodegradable matter, color and alkalinity. Important pollutants in textile effluent are mainly recalcitrant organics, color, toxicants and surfactants, chlorinated compounds. Textile effluent includes a large variety of dyes and chemicals additions that create ecological challenge not only as liquid waste but also as chemical composite. Main pollutants in textile effluent come from dyeing and finishing processes. These processes require the input of a wide range of chemicals and dyestuffs, which generally are organic compounds of complex structure. Dyes contributed to overall toxicity at all process stages. Also dye baths could have high level of BOD/COD, colour, toxicity, surfactants, fibers and turbidity and may contain heavy metals [3]. Major pollutants in textile wastewaters are high suspended solids, COD, heat, colour, acidity, and other soluble substances [4]. Color in the effluent is one of the most obvious indicators of water pollution. The discharge of highly colored synthetic dye effluents is aesthetically displeasing and can damage the receiving water body by impeding penetration of light. Moreover, highly coloured wastewaters can block the penetration of sunlight and


TECHNICAL ARTICLE oxygen, essential for the survival of various aquatic forms.Dyes are recalcitrant molecules which are difficult to degrade biologically. Azo dyes are designed to resist chemical and microbial attacks and to be stable to light and during washing. Some of azo dyes are either toxic or mutagenic and carcinogenic in nature. The diversity in composition of chemical reagents used in textile industries contributes to severe water pollution. In some cases, the dye solution can also undergo anaerobic degradation to form potentially carcinogenic compounds that can end up in the human food chain. Complete characterization of effluents is essential to identify the suitable treatment method and in turn support the better design of treatment plant.


To overcome the difficulties posed by conventional wastewater treatment systems bioremediation has emerged as a promising technology in the past few years for the treatment of industrial dye effluents and contaminated soil. Biotechnology harnesses the catalytic power of biological systems, whether by direct use of enzymes or through the use of the intricate biochemistry of whole cells and micro-organisms. The ability of microbes to degrade a vast array of pollutants makes bioremediation a technology that can applied in different soil conditions. Some of examples bioremediation technologies are mycoremediation, phytoremediation, bioventing, bioleaching, landframing, bioreactor, composting, bioaugmentation, rhizofiltration, and biostimulation. Dyes can be degraded and decolorized by various microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, yeast etc. Bacteria could also degrade synthetic dyes at a faster rate but at the same time releases carcinogenic aromatic amines as degradation products which severely affects human and other animal health. A new type of bioremediation (the successful transformation of toxic polluting agents to non-toxic, usable substrates for further ‘macro’-degradation) has become a major research now a day.

All media components and chemicals used in the present study were of analytical grade and purchased from Hi Media Laboratories (Mumbai, India).The dye Congo red an anionic azo dye IUPAC as 1-napthalenesulfonic acid, 3, 3-(4, 4- biphenylenebis (azo)) bis (4-aminodisodium) was obtained from local supplier and its stock solution was prepared in double-distilled water. All the test solutions were prepared by diluting the stock with double- distilled water.

Out of various activities in textile industry, chemical processing contributes about 70% of pollution. Due to the nature of various chemical processing of textiles, large volumes of waste water with numerous pollutants are discharged. Such pollution is particularly associated with the reactive azo dyes and our aim is to adopt technologies giving minimum environmental pollution. As a result, Ludhiana is one of the most industrialized cities in India, was selected for present study. It is known as the textile capital of North India and associated with the wastewater from several textile mills in the woven fabric and knit fabric finishing industry and one highly polluted drain, locally known as Buddha Nala, According the Punjab State Department of Fisheries the pollution of the Buddha Stream has led to the drastic reduction in the fish yield in river Satluj. Now it has no fish because of the high level toxicity in the water. So attempt is made initially to reduce the pollution of the Buddha Stream at in vitro level. In present approach, including physicochemical analysis of textiles effluent and microbes or their enzymes are being used to degrade toxic wastes instead of traditional processes, thus waste treatment is useful industrial asset of biotechnology. In this study, Bacterial Strain was examined for its ability to decolourize the textile dye in industry wastewater. The basic step in the decolorization and degradation of azo dyes is breakdown of azo bonds, leading to removal of color. Azo dyes are known to undergo reductive cleavage whereas the resultant aromatic amines are metabolized under aerobic conditions. In view of these problems the most potent bacterial culture was selected in this study for maximum decolorization of Congo Red Acid dye, being selected as model azo dye.


2.1 Sampling and Analysis of Effluent a) Sampling: Highly polluted drain, locally known as Buddha Nala, Ludhiana was chosen for effluent sample collection. Standard procedures (Spot and Grab) were followed during sampling. Sampling site covers the effluent from 6 textile mills in the woven fabric and knit fabric finishing industry mostly using vegetable fibres such as cotton, animal fibres such as wool, silk, and synthetic materials such as nylon, polyester, and acrylics. b) Chemicals:

Figure 1: Structure of Congo red dye

c) Analysis of effluent: [5]. a. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) [6]. b. Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) [6]. ii) Isolation and Identification of bacterial strains: Isolation and identification of bacteria were carried out by plate counting technique. One gram of soil and sludge were weighed individually and suspended in 99ml of sterile distilled water. One ml was pipetted and serially diluted with 10 ml distilled water up to 10-6 dilutions. From this 0.1ml of was taken and spread onto nutrient Agar medium containing the following chemicals: Beef extract 3gmL-1, NaCl 5gmL-1, Peptone 5gmL-1 Agar 20gmL-1 and incubated at 37°C for 24hrs. Discrete bacterial colonies that developed on Agar plates were initially grouped on the basis of colony morphology, pigmentation followed by Gram staining and motility. iii) Screening for Dye Decolorizers: From 25 morphologically distinct strains isolated from the textiles effluent, only 4 isolates were found to possess the ability to decolorize the Dye Congo Red and marked them as ISOB1, ISOB2, ISOB3 and ISOB4. Dye degrading isolates were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Selected bacterial isolates were further purified and sub cultured for further study. iv) Determination of bacterial growth: The maximum growth rate of four bacterial isolates and consortium were measured spectro photometrically. Five loops of 24 hrs old culture was inoculated in to conical flask containing 100 ml sterile nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. The bacterial growth curve was measured by turbidometric method, reading at 660 nm in regular time intervals.

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TECHNICAL ARTICLE v) Screening of bacteria for azo dye decolourization: Five loops of 12 hrs old bacterial pure isolates namely ISOB1, ISOB2, ISOB3 and ISOB4 were used as inoculants to degrade the Congo red. Conical flask assay was performed for the detection of decolorizing activity of bacteria. The nutrient broth was autoclaved at 121 0C for 15 minutes. 5 % inoculums of the selected culture showing maximum decolorizing activity was added to nutrient broth flasks, amended with 100 mg/l of Congo red dye containing. The flasks were covered with Aluminum foils and were incubated at 37 0C for 4 days. vi) Biodecolorization and biodegradation analysis The flasks were observed for decolorization of the azo dye present in the medium. At every 12hrs interval 5 ml aliquot of the decolorized culture broth was collected and centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 5 minutes. The supernatant was recovered and analyzed spectrophotometrically at 497 nm. The analysis was done using UV-VIS spectrometry, Decolourization extent was calculated using the following equation [7] Where Co refers to the initial absorbance, Ct refers to the absorbance after incubation; and t refers to the incubation time. vii) Effect of pH and temperature:

Decolorization was studied at varying pH (3.0–13.0) and temperature (20°C-50°C). The pH of the medium was adjusted using 0.1 N HCl or 0.1 N NaOH. Experiments were performed in 30 ml screw capped tubes containing 30 ml of above mentioned inoculated medium using only Potential isolate(ISOB4) under static culture condition.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 3.1 Physico-chemical analysis of textile effluent: In the present investigation the colour of the effluent was Blackish brown to brown. In the present investigation pH values of effluents sample was 6.3. Rao, also observed the pH of textile industry effluent varied from 5.0 to 11.0 [8]. pH value of the effluent was found to be significantly vary depends upon the dyes (acidic, basic and reactive dyes) and the substrate. The TSS values of effluent were found to vary significantly with Industries as well as with sampling days. In the present investigation TSS found to be 765 mg/l. The increased amount of TSS is due to increased chemical dosing dye fixation and partial dissolution of fibre materials. In other studies the amount of TSS in different textile wastewater samples was found to be in the range of 1020-3680 mg/l which is considerably higher than the result of our findings [9]. The total dissolved solids in sugar mill effluent, tannery waste and textile industries were also reported in the level of 400 - 1650 mg/l[10], 1000 - 2850 mg/l and 8500 – 15000 mg/l respectively. Divalent metallic cations particularly Ca+2, Mg+2, Sr+2, and Fe+2 are responsible for hardness in textile effluents. Hardness of the effluent sample found to be 709 mg /l. Chloride in wastewater comes mostly from raw water taken for dyeing and also it may add as fixing agents for some of the dyes. Chloride also contributes to the increase in TDS. As reported by Agarwal[11] the industrial wastewater containing sulfate ions should not be discharged into

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any water body from where water is supplied for drinking, as higher concentration of sulfate ions cause taste change in water, have a laxative effect on livestock and humans, and are usually associated with high hardness levels. Bicarbonates are directly related to total alkalinity i.e increase in carbonates and bicarbonates increases the total alkalinity. High pH values indicate alkalinity (bicarbonates) problem with sodium ion likely to be the dominant cation. Alkalinity of the effluent sample was found to be 1287 mg/l. Higher alkalinity is due to use of chemicals like Na2CO3, NaHCO3 and NaOH, surfactants and NaH2PO4. Textile industries use organic substances as raw materials and high levels of dissolved organic matter consume large amounts of oxygen and increase BOD level, which undergoes anaerobic fermentation processes leading to formation of ammonia and organic acids. In the present investigation BOD of textile effluents is 269 mg/l which is higher than the permissible limit (30 mg/L) of CPCB [6]. Increase in BOD which may cause hypoxia conditions with consequent adverse effects on aquatic biota. The COD levels obtained from the industries shows that detergents, softeners and impurities on the fabrics contributes a significant portion of the COD. Highest COD levels were obtained on dyeing indicating that in addition to fabric impurities removed during scouring or desizing and the contribution of detergents and softeners, residual dyes contributed a large proportion of the COD. COD of untreated textile effluents were 2389 mg/l and this value of the COD is beyond the permissible limit (250mg/L) of CPCB [6]. This indicates that the effluents were unsuitable for the existence of aquatic organisms due to the reduction of DO content. 3.2

Isolation and identification of bacterial strains:

In the present study 5 morphologically distinct strains isolated from the textiles effluent and 4 isolates were selected for decolourization study based on their higher potential to decolorize the dye Congo Red and marked them as ISOB1, ISOB2, ISOB3 and ISOB4. The percentage decolourization found to be 68, 79, 76 and 84 respectively for isolate ISOB1, ISOB2, ISOB3 and ISOB4 after 72 hours of Incubation using concentration of 100 mg/l of Congo Red dye. And when used 200 mg/l of Dye the percentage decolourization found to be 67, 79, 76 and 82 respectively for isolate ISOB1, ISOB2, ISOB3 and ISOB4 after 72 hours of Incubation and 65, 77, 76 and 84 percentage of decolourization at 300 mg/l of Congo red Dye. [Fig. 2, 3, 4] The decolourizing activity of the bacterial consortium was studied using Congo Red Dye at different initial concentrations varying from 100 to 300 mg/l. The maximum decolourization was observed up to 200 mg/l. The maximum decolourization observed by isolate ISOB4 i.e.82 % followed by isolates ISOB2 (79%) ISOB3 (76%) and ISOB1 (67%)

Figure 2: Screening of bacteria for azo Figure 3: Screening of bacteria for azo dye decolourization (200 mg/l Dye) dye decolourization (100 mg/l Dye)


TECHNICAL ARTICLE Pure bacterial isolates ISOB1, ISOB2,ISOB3 and ISOB4 were identified as Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus sp., Psedomonas sp and Bacillus sp. by respectively biochemical characteristics [Table:1] using standard microbiological procedures based on the methods of in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Daneshvar a, reported, many bacteria capable of reducing Azo dyes which were isolated from textile effluent contaminated sites [10]. Wong & Yuen reported 100% dye removal of Methyl Red (initial conc., 100 mg/l) in 24 h by Klebsiella pneumoniae RS-13. Hu[10] also reported 93.2% dye removal of RBB (initial conc., 100 mg/l) in 48 h by Pseudomonas luteola. While comparing experimental isolates with these reports, it seems CPE and CPS did not perform sufficiently well but CBE and FBE are almost at par. Performance of FBE seems to be better than Pleurotus ostreatus sp.4, which causes 53% decolourization in 18 days with Poly R-478 dye (initial conc., 100 mg/l). Since CBE and FBE performed better than other two isolates, further experiments on decolourization of various dyes were performed with these strains. The reason for the decreased decolorization under shaking conditions could be competition of oxygen and dye compounds for the reduced electron carriers under aerobic conditions. The percentage decolorization of Crystal violet by Bacillus subtilis strain under static conditions was 90% within 24h of incubation which was equal to a similar study but with 35h of incubation period. In another study conducted with Pseudomonas putida. P. fluorescence, Bacillus cereus and Stentrophomonas acidaminiphila to decolorize Acid Red 88 showed their efficiencies at 35%, 31 %, 40% and 50% respectively [10].


Effect of pH and temperature:

The pH and temperature are important factor for the optimal physiological performance of microbial cultures and decolorization of dyes. These factors affect the cell growth and various biochemical and enzymatic mechanisms. In present study the decolorization of Congo Red Dye by Potential isolate Bacillus sp (ISOB4) was found in the pH range of 3.0-11.0 [Fig:5,6]. The maximum decolorization (77%) was observed at pH 7.0. and at 37 0 C of temperature. A further increase or decrease in pH and temperature from the optimum value decreases the decolorization rate. It was found out that under agitation conditions, presence of oxygen deprives the azoreductase from obtaining electrons needed for cleavage of azo dyes [7].



This study addresses the physicochemical characteristics of the effluents and the result revealed that the most of the parameters were not within the permissible limit of CPCB. Although decolorization is a challenging process to both the textile industry and the wastewater treatment, the results of this finding suggest a great potential for bacteria to be used to remove color from dye effluents. The textile dye is degradable with a concerted effort of bacteria isolated from an effluent disposal site. Further, it can be suggested that the potential of the bacteria need to be demonstrated in its application for treatment of dye bearing waste water using appropriate practice and through biotechnological approaches to color removal on one hand and on another hand Government regulation standards should more stringent regarding the removal of dyes from industrial effluents. Moreover, further research on these


strains could explore new tools and techniques to evolve viable and eco friendly microbial solutions for treatment of dyeing industrial effluent. Table 1: Biochemical and Morphological characteristics of isolates

Key: -ve : negative ; +ve : positive ; D : differential

REFERENCES: 1. Khataee A.R. and Kasiri M.B., Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes in the presence of nanostructured titanium dioxide: Influence of the chemical structure of dyes, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 2010; 328: 8–26. 2. Al-Kdasi .A, Idris .A, Saed .K, Guan .C, Treatment of Textile Wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes-A Review, Global Nest Int.J. 2004; 6: 222-230. 3. AEPA (Australian Environmental Protection Authority, 1998), Environmental guidelines for the textile dyeing and finishing industry, State government of Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 4. Dae-Hee A., Won-Seok C. and Tai-Il Y., (1999), Dyestuff wastewater treatment using chemical oxidation, physical adsorption and fixed bed biofilm process, Process Biochemistry, 34, 429–439. 5. APHA, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn., “American Public Health Association”, Washington, DC, 2002. 6. CPCB, Pollution control, acts, rules and modifications issued their under Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi, 1995. 7. Giwa, A., Akpan, U.G., Nkeonye, P.O., Bello, K.A., Kolawole, E.G. (2011). Solar photocatalytic degradation of acid blue 29. Journal of the Chemical Society of Nigeria, 36, 82 – 17. 8. Rao A. V., Jain B. L. and Gupta I. C., Impact of textile Industrial effluents on agricultural land – A case study, Indian J. Environ Health, 1993; 35, No.2: 132 – 138. 9. Abraha K., Gebrekidan A., Weldegebriel Y., Hadera A., Physico-Chemical Analysis of Almeda Textile Industry Effluents in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, J Environ Anal Chem 2014; 1: 103. 10. Daneshvar N, Ayazloo M, Khataee AR, Pourhassan M. (2007). Biological Decolorization of dye solution containing Malachite Green by Microalgae Cosmarium sp. BioresoU/: Techno 98: I176. 11. Agarwal SK, Industrial Environment (Assessment and Strategy), APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 1996; 276. 12. Hu T L, Decolourization of reactive azo dyes by transformation with Pseudomonas luteola, Biores Technol, 49 (1994) 47-51. 9

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Mr. Pravesh Kocheta Executive Director RAJDHANI UNIVERSAL FABRICS PVT. LTD.

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Sole India Distributor : TEXTILINES No.40, SURYA, 4th Main, Sankranthi Layout, Santhrupthi nagar, J.P Nagar 7th Phase, Bangalore - 560 078. Mob: +91 94484 96791 / 88844 06790 / 98450 24648 Email : / Web : STAFLEX - Inventors of Fusible Interlinings are Worldwide Industry leader in Net Laminated Interlinings manufactured at Singapore Having its roots in the first interlining company in the world that manufactured fusible interlining, NC Staflex Co. Pte Ltd., a subsidiary of Dynic Corporation, Tokyo was established in 1973 in Singapore to serve the needs of the Asia-Pacific region’s garment industry. Since then, NC Staflex has globalized itself in the world market to produce and supply a full range of ‘Staflex’ brand fusible interlinings for every sector in the garment industry. Its philosophy of activity globalization has led to steadfastly expand around the world. PRODUCTS Together with its parent company Dynic Corporation, NC Staflex manufactures a variety of products for garment industries around the world. NC Staflex, a leader in the field of innovation and production of a variety of interlinings, it is the only company in the world that manufactures ‘Net Laminated Interlinings’ at the Singapore plant. The company’s basket of products not only includes the most extensive and versatile range of woven fusible and non-fusible interlining, but also clothing care labels, thermal transfer ribbons, etc. Staflex’s interlining right from processing the base cloth till powder H.D.P.E and Net H.D.P.E Laminate coating, are done under one roof in its manufacturing unit at Singapore. Its interlinings weigh between 50 to 250 grams/sqm, and come in an array of colours with Azo-free dyes. QUALITY NC Staflex manufactures interlinings on specialised machines using a combination of Japanese and English technology and technical know-how. To get a quality product, the interlinings produced


by the company are subjected to a thorough process of quality control and continuous testing at all stages of production to ensure that the product is of guaranteed performance. The quality control procedures include adhesion, elongation & yield strength tests as well as adverse treatment and shrinkage tests, all these quality control testing is done at its Singapore plant. With its many technological innovations and quality products, Staflex interlinings has helped companies eliminate stitch puckering, reduce production line rejects, achieve above-average production cost savings and increase the profitability of the finished product. GLOBAL CUSTOMERS NC Staflex has many esteem buyers globally, many garments designed by internationally acclaimed couture’s in Paris, London, New York and Tokyo and garments manufactured in Europe, the USA as well as Asia utilize the wide range of interlining products manufactured by NC Staflex. With its manufacturing unit at Singapore, NC Staflex is exporting its products to many international labels spread across 14 countries. INDIA DISTRIBUTION NC Staflex has made a fresh thrust in making the brand name Staflex ® more popular in the Indian market through extensive advertisements in various apparel magazines. It has indications that many big garment brands that use Staflex worldwide are now looking to source from India as other manufacturing bases in Asia slow down. It hopes to penetrate more into the Indian market with these brand additions. NC Staflex has appointed us, TEXTILINES in the year 2012 which is situated at Bangalore for effective distribution of Staflex ® interlinings to the garment industries in India. 9

January 2016



Mr. Manish Daga Textile Technologiest

INDIA Arrivals: (as on date: 12-01-2015) Overall, cotton had a reasonable 2015. For the first time in over 5 years, cotton stocks were lower than previous year. Low ending stocks and production decreases have been the main supporter of cotton prices even though oil has been declining. The production of cotton has continued to decline despite rising demand. Cotton continues to lose market share to other fibers. ICE has been hovering between 60 and 64 cents. Until something dramatic happens, analysts see cotton remaining relatively flat in the near-term.

8. Chinese imports for the first 9 months of the year fell 42% to 1.16m tons. 9. Global Cotton Stocks to Decline in 2015/16 as per USDA 10. ICA started world cotton contract. International Market: World cotton Yield in 2015-16 USDA: USDA OUTLOOK





Few significant changes were made to cotton market forecasts for 2015/16 in the latest USDA report. The world production figure increased only 70,000 bales and was essentially unchanged at 111.3 million bales. The world consumption estimate increased only 30,000 bales and was essentially unchanged at 115.3 million

Domestic Market Summary: In 2016, cotton prices will depend on the belief that either demand will increase or production will decrease. China’s reserve policy will continue to play a dominant role in 2016 cotton prices. bales. The projection for world ending stocks was lowered slightly 217,000 bales from 106.3 million to 106.1 million.

Highlights of Year 2015-16: 1. Announcement of new Foreign Trade Policy to push up India’s exports 2. Agri Crisis in India and some other cotton growing countries. 3. Indian Govt. raises MSP of cotton by INR 50 per quintal 4. The Indian cabinet approved the expenditure of INR 181 billion (USD 2.8 billion) for 2015 - 16 to enable the subvention scheme on short term crop loans at INR 0.3 million each to farmers. 5. Limited cotton consumption growth Expected in 2015/16 as per ICAC. 6. Pakistan has imposed 10% additional duty on yarn imported from India. 7. Bangladesh to set up Textile Park in Gujarat, India

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At the country-level, there were no significant changes to 2015/16 harvest forecasts, with only minor revisions made to several West African countries. In terms of mill-use, the only notable country level revision was for Turkey with over 100,000 bales, from 6.3 million to 6.4 million. Trade figures increased 130,000 bales, with the change to global figures primarily resulting from a slight increase to the Turkish import number of over100,000 bales, from 3.6 million to 3.7 million and minor increases in export forecasts from Turkmenistan and West Africa.

Major changes in global cotton outlook There were several changes made to 2014/15 estimates. The largest was a 500,000 bale reduction to the Indian crop forecast from 30 million to 29.5 million. Along with a 100,000 bale increase to the estimate for Benin, the world production estimate for the current crop year increased 415,000 bales from 118.9 million to 119.3 million. The global mill-use number for 2014/15 was virtually unchanged to over 20,000 bales at 111.5 million, with a slight increase in Turkish consumption offset by minor decreases in Zambia and Zimbabwe. The Turkish import estimate also increased 100,000 bales. In combination with a 300,000 bale increase to the Chinese import figure, these changes lifted the global import figure by


COTTON REPORT 450,000 bales. The corresponding increase in exports was primarily a result of a higher forecast for India with over 300,000 bales, from 3.8 million to 4.1 million. The 2014/15 crop year can be seen as a period of transition. This transition was made evident by the decreases in prices between the planting and harvesting of last year’s crop. The easing in prices was a product of changes in the world’s supply and demand situation, with the most significant developments in terms of fundamentals stemming from reforms in Chinese policies. These reforms emphasized increased use of domestic cotton supplies and resulted in sharply lower imports. Since China is the world’s largest source of demand, lower Chinese imports were a significant factor contributing to the increase in stocks in many exporting countries in 2014/15. In turn, this increase in available supply was been a primary reason why prices declined. In the upcoming 2015/16 crop year, it appears that the most important transitions relative to price direction that were made in 2014/15 will be maintained. Significant year-over-year declines in acreage and production are expected and, although it remains a point of contention among cotton analysts, the USDA is also forecasting a relatively strong increase in mill-use to follow the decrease in prices.

Global trade and stockpile direction While these changes are notable, recent crop years have highlighted the importance of trade and the allocation of stocks to price direction. Examination of forecasts for both trade and stock allocation in 2015/16 suggests only small changes that may not be enough to push prices outside of recent trading ranges. Chinese import demand is predicted to continue to be depressed. At 6.0 million bales, the current forecast calls for imports in 2015/16 to be 25 per cent below the 2014/15 volume and 70 per cent below the average level of imports during the period of aggressive reserve purchases between 2011/12 and 2013/14. Global cotton trade in 2015/16 is expected to total 33.8 million bales, which is only 1 per cent below the total volume in 2014/15. With the decrease in Chinese imports in 2014/15, stocks outside of China increased to a record level. Despite declines in acreage and production in most countries in 2015/16, stocks outside of China are expected to change little in the coming crop year and are projected to decrease only 2 per cent from 43.4 million to 42.5 million. Since trade figures and stocks outside of China levels are expected to be stable, it may be appropriate to think of 2015/16 as a period of consolidation, when the most important transitions relative to price direction made in 2014/15 were upheld. Considering that global stocks remain extremely high by historic standards, and assuming China will release reserves if prices move higher, this consolidation may signal the beginning of an era of consistently low prices.

ICAC: ICAC PREDICTS GROWTH SLOWDOWN OF WORLD COTTON CONSUMPTION “With consumption slowing down, world cotton imports are forecast to decline by 3 per cent to 7.4 million tons in 2015-16, which would constitute the fourth consecutive season in which import volume declined after peaking at 9.8 million tons in 2011-12. China’s imports are expected to shrink by 33 per cent to 1.2 million tons. Imports by Vietnam during the first two months of 2015-16 are up 63 per cent from the same period last season and may reach 1.1 mil-


lion tons by the end season.” “World cotton production is forecast to fall by 12per cent to 23.1 million tons, which is 1.3 million tons lower than projected demand in 2015-16. Decreases are expected in all five top producing countries.” The International Cotton Advisory Committee’s (ICAC) has lowered world cotton consumption from initial projections to 24.4 million tons in its latest report. The figure is up less than 1 per cent from 2014-15. It may be recalled that in October 2015 the International Monetary Fund too had lowered its forecast for world economic growth in 2015 to 3.1per cent.

China lowers imports, countries focus on domestic markets The report states that despite optimism from the narrowing gap between polyester prices and cotton prices at the start of 201415 and falling domestic cotton prices, cotton consumption in China remained unchanged from 2013-14 at 7.5 million tons. With the latest revision, mill use in China is now forecast at 7.3 million tons in 2015-16. As China’s spinning sector continues to decline, mill use in Asia has grown. India, the world’s second largest consumer of cotton lint may see mill use rise by 3 per cent to reach 5.5 million tons in 2015-16. Pakistan, which had in previous years benefited from the growing demand for cotton yarn in China, is expected to see mill use decrease this season by 10 per cent to 2.2 million tons. In addition to reduced demand from China, factors like an ongoing energy crisis, high energy costs, and high taxes that greatly add to the cost of production have caused many mills to reduce operations, and in some cases to shut down entirely. Turkey’s consumption is projected to increase by 5 per cent to 1.4 million tons, due in part to expanding private consumption in the EU and political after its most recent elections. Lower production costs and favorable government policies for the textile sectors in Bangladesh and Vietnam will encourage consumption growth in these countries. Mill use in Bangladesh is forecast to rise by 10 per cent to just over 1 million tons while in Vietnam, by 20 per cent to 1.1 million tons. With consumption slowing down, world cotton imports are forecast to decline by 3 per cent to 7.4 million tons in 2015-16, which would constitute the fourth consecutive season in which import volume declined after peaking at 9.8 million tons in 2011-12. China’s imports are expected to shrink by 33 per cent to 1.2 million tons. Imports by Vietnam during the first two months of 2015-16 are up 63 per cent from the same period last season and may reach 1.1 million tons by the end season.

Production dips in major producing countries World cotton production is forecast to fall by 12per cent to 23.1 million tons, which is 1.3 million tons lower than projected demand in 2015-16. Decreases are expected in all five top producing countries. India’s production may decrease by 4 per cent to 6.3 million tons due to reduced plantings and pest problems. China is in its fourth consecutive season of declining production, and its volume in 2015-16 is projected down 19 per cent to 5.3 million tons. In the United States, a 13 per cent reduction in harvested area and lower yields are expected to cause production to fall by 18 per cent to 2.9 million tons. Pakistan’s production is forecast to touch around 1.9 million tons in 2015-16 while in Brazil, it is projected to decease by 6 per

January 2016

COTTON REPORT cent to 1.5 million tons. World ending stocks are expected to fall by 6 per cent to 20.7 million tons, which represents about 85 per cent of the volume needed for world mill use in 2015/16. Stocks in China are projected to be just less than 12 million tons at the end of 2015/16, while stocks outside of China are forecast down by 4 per cent to 8.7 million tons. Government Reports:

Report of 2015 1. To safeguard interests of domestic cotton growers, a wellplanned, largest ever Minimum Support Price operation was carried out by the Cotton Corporation of India in the 2014-2015 cotton season, in all 11 cotton producing states. This operation was highly successful, with procurement crossing 86 lakh bales up to 30thMarch 2015. 2. Online payment directly to the account of cotton farmers has been taken up in Andhra Pradesh, in consultation with the state Government. This initiative would be extended to other states in phases to ensure payment of right sale proceeds in time. 3. The MSP for Medium Staple Cotton has been raised to Rs. 3800 per quintal and for Long Staple Cotton has been raised to Rs. 4100 per quintal respectively for the cotton season 2015-16. 4. During cotton season 2014-15, India became number one in terms of area under cotton cultivation, with a cultivated area of 129.71 lakh hectares as against 117.27 lakh hectares in 2013-14. 5. For the cotton season 2015-16, CCI along with respective State Govts. has made arrangements for meeting any eventuality of MSP operations in all the cotton growing States, to avoid distress sale by the cotton farmers. CCI operates more than 340 procurement centres all over the country under MSP during 2015-16 across 92 District in 11 Cotton growing States in the country. As on 16.10.2015, 6.19 lakh bales arrived for cotton season 2015-16. Out of these, 307 bales have been procured by CCI under MSP operations. 6. Special initiatives taken for possible MSP operations during cotton season 2015-16 for the benefit of farmers: (a) Direct online payment to farmers. (b) Bar coded cards for farmers (in Telangana). (c) IEC activities to sensitize about moisture limits, not bringing kapas in jute bags to avoid contaminations. 7. For making the sales system more transparent and market driven, CCI commenced the sale of FP cotton bales through eAuction. 8. CCI undertook 700 nos. Contract Farming with FLD programme for betterment of yield/ quality of cotton in backward areas in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. There has been significant increase in profitability in these areas, mainly due to improvement in yield/quality, reduction in cost of cultivation and higher price realization. 9. India hosted the International Cotton Advisory Committee Plenary Meeting in Mumbai from December 6-11, 2015, after a gap of eleven years. Organized by the Office of the Textiles Commissioner, Mumbai along with Cotton Corporation of India, Cotton Association of India and the Confederation of Indian Textile Industry, the 74th Plenary meeting was organized under the theme “From Farm to Fabric: The Many Faces of Cotton”. The Plenary Meeting of ICAC provides a forum for discussion of international issues of importance to the world cotton industry, and provide opportunities for industry and government leaders to consult on matters of mutual concern. Around 500 delegates from 36 countries participated in the Mumbai Plenary.

January 2016

10. A pilot project under the Direct Payment Deficiency System (DPDS) for paying MSP guarantee for the cotton farmers has been initiated at Hinganghat taluka of Maharashtra. Under this system, the farmers will directly get the amount which is the difference between the Minimum Support Price (MSP) and the market price, should the market price fall below the MSP. Cabinet approves Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme for Textiles industry The new scheme specifically targets: a. Employment generation and export by encouraging apparel and garment industry, which will provide employment to women in particular and increase India’s share inglobal exports. b. Promotion of Technical Textiles, a sunrise sector, for export and employment c. Promoting conversion of existing looms to better technology looms for improvement in quality and productivity d. Encouraging better quality in processing industry and checkingneed for import of fabrics by the garment sector. The amended scheme would give a boost to “Make in India” in the textiles sector; it is expected to attract investment to the tune of one lakh crore rupees, and create over 30 lakh jobs. The amendments in the scheme are expected to plug the loopholes in the earlier scheme and improve Ease of Doing Business. It will also give a boost to employment generation and exports in the textile sector in a big way.

Technical Reports: 1. ICE COTTON ICE Cotton continues to remain locked in sideways and choppy 57-68 range for past year or so. Time spent in forming base gives a directional bias that Cotton is bottoming out and may enter Bull Market again. Confirmation of directional bull market comes when it is able to move past hurdle of 68 areas. Similarly continuation of Bear Market is confirmed below 57 areas. Till the time breakout or breakdown comes, Traders can sell closer to 68 with stops and buy closer to 57 with stops for short to medium term. Key Supports

59.72-58.48-57.05-54.97-54.00, Key Resistances 65.23-68.30-70.3071.49-73.79. 2.


MCX Cotton is outperforming ICE Cotton since August 2015, some of the strength can be attributed to weakness of Indian Rupee against US Dollar. Cotton on MCX looks in uptrend with immediate logical targets of 17250-17550. 17550 would remain strong hurdle and seems unlikely to be breached till ICE Cotton breaks above 68. All dips above 15500-15300 seems a buying opportunity for long investors to accumulate cotton for 6-9 months. Key Supports 16030-15730-15530-15350, Key Resistances 16890-1725017550-18000.9



YNFX MONTHLY PRICEWATCH REPORT – JANUARY 2016 CRUDE OIL Crude oil prices continued their freefall in December, closing towards the 11-year lows, after the IEA warned that global oversupply might worsen in 2016. Crude oil prices declined after news that the OPEC was planning to maintain its production near record highs despite depressed prices, as it continued to guard its share in an oversupplied market. Baker Hughes Inc report showed the total rig count at 536 by the end of the month. US crude and Brent finished 2015 down about 38 percent on a rout driven by oil oversupplies. US crude and Brent price fell 12% and 13.6% respectively as compared to previous month’s average. US Futures averaged US$37.33 a barrel, down US$5.15 from November and Brent averaged US$38.26, down US$6.03 on the month. Asian naphtha markets were buoyant, despite bearish crude, but supported by the strong ethylene margins and firm gasoline sentiment. Some traders were slightly bullish on the Asian naphtha market for February on expectations of bad weather and rough seas that could hamper the arrival of arbitrage cargoes. For December, spot naphtha prices were down 6% to average US$425.13 a ton CFR Japan.

POLYESTER CHAIN Ethylene prices in December rose in Asian markets driven by tight supplies in the region amid Shell cracker shutdown. However, the proportion of rise between SE and NE continued to vary. In US, ethylene spot declined amid ample supply while front-month hovered closer to a 7-year low. In Europe, crude oil slump weighed on January ethylene market sentiment while spot prices were down this month as feedstock fell. Paraxylene prices in Asian markets declined on the month on softer crude oil prices and weak downstream demand. In Europe, paraxylene market tracked falling Asian numbers as spot prices declined on the month. In US, spot paraxylene tumbled on weak demand while shipments were quiet despite arbitrage to Asia. Asian MEG prices fell in December on lower MEG futures and short-selling by traders. European MEG spot prices fell steeply on weakened fundamentals and outage-related highs by a fall in demand on seasonality. In US, spot MEG declined in December, pushing prices to the lowest assessment in more than six years. MEG prices were down 2.9% in December averaging US$575.80-579.80 a ton FOB SE Asia while European spot was at Euro775 a ton NWE FCA, down 18.4% from November. US spot was at US cents 30.50


per pound FOB USG, down 6% on the month. PTA prices fell in China on inventory pressure amid weak PET and depressed polyester sentiment. In China, buyers showed warmer demand for PTA, with buying interest mainly from BGPET and PSF makers, as well as non-integrated PFY producers. Prices averaged US$578.20-580.20 a ton CFR China, down 4.5% from November while European price rolled over at Euro658 a ton FD NWE. Polyester chip markets were subdued and prices slipped on the month. Semi dull chips prices weakened amid insipid trade. Offers for semi dull chips slipped 8.5% to US$840-862 a ton and super bright chip down 8% to US$858-890 a ton from November. Polyester filament yarn prices in December fell sharply in China as producers tried to push volumes given the downticks in oil market and lackluster sentiment for raw material. In Pakistan, selling indications for DTYs moderated in domestic market reflecting weak demand. In India, trading activities in POY markets remained thin amid cautious buying. In China, POY 75/72 prices were at US$1.081.11 a kg, down US cents 5 in Shengze while Indian POY 130/34 prices were down US cents 1 at US$1.23 a kg. In Pakistan, 300/96 DTY prices were at US$0.63-0.71 a pound, down US cent 1 on the month. PSF markets moved downwards in China as crude oil prices declined and PTA/MEG stayed at low levels. Overall, polyester markets were sluggish while producers were keen to offload goods. In Pakistan, PSF supply volume was stable, but players did not have enough confidence on future sentiment due to lower cost. In India, buying interest for PSF was generally absent as international oil was still detecting bottoms. In China, 1.4D PSF was at US$0.991.01 a kg, down US cents 7 from November. In India, 1.2D PSF prices rolled over at US$1.18 per kg. In Pakistan, prices in Karachi were at US$1.07-1.09 a kg, losing US cent 2 from previous month.

NYLON CHAIN Benzene prices in Asian markets declined sharply in December following the plunges in crude oil cost amid rapidly weakening demand. In Europe, spot benzene was slightly cheaper after December contract price was settled and Shell restarted Dutch Moerdijk cracker. In US, spot pricing for December dipped amid weaker sentiment while supply continued to increase as cargoes from Europe found way to the west. Asian marker, FOB Korea was down 5.3% in December to average US$592.30593.30 a ton while US spot prices fell 6.7% to US cents 214.35-214.45 per gallon FOB USG. European spot edged down 0.5% to average US$638.30-639.30 a ton CIF ARA and FOB Rotterdam. Caprolactum values in China eased on languishing demand and expectation of increased supply. The markets were apparently approaching on a bearish note on softening demand, with producers operating at higher rates. Asian caprolactum spot prices averaged US$1,2461,264 a ton in December down 3.2% from last month. Sinopec an-

January 2016

SYNTHETIC YARN REPORT nounced January contract nomination at US$1,585 a ton for liquid goods while DSM Nanjing announced nomination at US$1,590 a ton for liquid goods and US$1,625 a ton for solid goods. Nylon chip prices fell in December on back of weak caprolactum and falling crude oil prices. Producers carried out low operating rate amid cautious buying sentiment. Demand was lax from nylon fibre makers while nylon yarn makers reduced run rate with cautious mentality. In case of non-textile sectors, meager margins at cord fabric, monofilament and fishing-net yarn markers weakened offtake for chips. Offers for Taiwan-origin chips averaged US$1,552-1,578 a ton, down 5.2% from last month. In China, bright conventional spinning nylon-6 chips were priced at US$1,652-1,782, down 1.4% while semi-dull chips were offered at US$1,717-1,820 a ton, down 4.2% from November. Nylon filament yarn markets in China continued to sustain weaknesses while operating pressure was range-bound as caprolactum and nylon chip prices moderated a bit. Demand was cautious to follow up, resulting in slow liquidity at nylon yarn makers. Meanwhile, demand for staple fiber was slow and that for fishing-net yarn, monofilament and cord fabric was bleak at year-end. In China, semi-dull FDY70D/24F was traded at US$2.30-2.39 a kg, down 5% from previous month while FDY40D slipped 5.3% to US$2.49-2.65 a kg.

ACRYLIC CHAIN Propylene prices in Asian markets were flat to higher in December, driven by tight supplies amid lower propylene plant operations. In US, propylene prices climbed on inventory draw and outages as FHR shut its Houston plant for maintenance. In Europe, propylene spot pricing fell as supply increased on restart at both EU PDH plants while Moerdijk completed startup. Asian marker, FOB Korea averaged US$581.60-583.60 a ton, up 1.2% from November while CFR China was at US$627-629 a ton, up 2.4% from previous month. In Europe, CG propylene fell 9.8% to Euro 507-511 a ton FD while the same in US were up 2% to US cents 18.4518.95 per pound. Acrylonitrile prices in Asian markets were driven by demand for scarce prompt cargoes. In China, offers rose amid market concerns about tight availability of prompt cargoes. In US, acrylonitrile spot held on stable fundamentals while sentiment remained mixed. European acrylonitrile spot fell due to falling de-

mand while supply was readily available. European prices fell 6.8% to US$859-863 a ton CIF Med while US export assessments averaged at US$819-829 a ton USG. Asian marker, the CFR Far East Asia gained 11% to average US$1,125-1,227 a ton. Acrylic staple fibre makers in Asia faced higher cost pressure on rising acrylonitrile prices, and demand was not relatively supportive, although buying interest improved a bit following lower ASF prices. Downstream, yarn prices trended down in line with ASF values, while yarn production was subdued due to slow liquidity. Overall, liquidity of staple fiber was fair, and that of tow and top was stable, on the back of steady demand. Prices were stable in India as trading remained mute, given thin buying interest of downstream mills amid insipid yarn performance. In Pakistan, offers for regular products were partially rolled over on the back of soft demand. In China, offers for cotton-type staple fiber were down by US cents 13 at US$1.81-2.03 a kg and medium-length staple at US$1.82-2.03 a kg. Taiwan origin 3D bright tow was at US$1.60-1.70 a kg. Jilin Chemical Fiber maintained its list prices for December with 1.5D at US$2.03 a kg, 3D medium-length at US$2.02 a kg, tow at US$2.11 a kg and top at US$2.26 a kg. In Pakistan, 1.2D ASF prices were at averaging US$2.25 a kg in December, down US cents 3 from November. Indian ASF prices edged down to US$1.94 a kg, losing US cent 1 from last month.

VISCOSE CHAIN Viscose staple fibre prices in December generally plummeted in China with continuous reporting of large parcels sold at low price. Some producers who offered low prices enjoyed favorable sales, and thus held low inventory. In China, offers for VSF averaged US$2.09 a kg, down US cents 18 on the month. In India, prices did not move since May 2015 while in Pakistan, VSF prices were steady since early October. In Pakistan, 1.5D VSF prices were up US cents 3 to US$2.08 a kg. In India, producers’ prices were at US$2.12 a kg, down US cent 1 from last month. Viscose filament yarn markets in China saw low buying interest from downstream mills and distributors amid the dull season, and the pressure from reclaiming liquidity was heavy. Reportedly, prices for third-class goods dropped in China, while that for first-class and second-class relatively steady. Prices in India were stable during the month. In China, 120D dull VFY offers averaged US$6.12 a kg, down US cents 9 while bright was at US$6.10 a kg, down US cents 8. In India, 120D bright VFY was at US$5.65-5.73 a kg, down US cents 3 from last month. Offers for hardwood pulp were at US$870 a ton while softwood pulp was at US$880 a ton. 9

“The purpose of life is not to be happy. It is to be useful, to be honor-

able, to be compassionate, to have it make some difference that you have lived and lived well. ― Ralph Waldo Emerson

January 2016






FEBRUARY 1 POSH MAS 2 3 5 MAGH 13 16 17 22 25 27 28

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Friday Saturday Tuesday Wednesday Monday Thursday Saturday Sunday






5 6 11

Saturday Sunday Friday

Vad 8 Vad 9 Vad 10 Vad 12 Sud 6 Sud 9 Sud 10 Sud 15 Vad 3 Vad 5 Vad 5 Vad 6 Vad 7 Vad 8 Vad 9 Vad 10 Vad 11 Vad 12 Sud 3



25 28 31 1 2

Friday Monday Thursday Friday Saturday

Sud 6 Sud 7 Vad 2 Vad 5 Vad 8 Vad 9 Vad 10

4 16 17 22 23 26 27 29 30 1 7 11 12 13 16

Monday Saturday Sunday Friday Saturday Tuesday Wednesday Friday Saturday Sunday Thursday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Wednesday

Vad 12 Sud 10 Sud 11 Sud 15 Vad 1 Vad 4 Vad 5 Vad 7 Vad 8 Vad 9 Sud 3 Sud 7 Sud 8 Sud 9 Vad 2

9.21 /12.52 18.30 09.56 09.48 /12.52 18.29 09.07 18.37 12.52 12.51 10.26/12.51/18.35 10.22 12.51 10.23 / 12.51 18.42 10.07 /12.50 18.45 09.59/12.50/19.46 09.55/12.50 9.35 12.50 09.34/12.47 18.46 9.59/12.44/18.49 12.43/18.49 08.17/12.42 18.50 10.04/12.42 18.45 08.01 18.56 11.54 11.38/12.37 08.49 18.57 9.30/12.36/18.57 12.35/18.58 12.35/18.56 11.07/12.35/18.58 19.20 09.41 09.36/19.18 9.56/12.44/19.17 17.25/19.57

23 25 26 1 3 4 5 6 8 14 20 24

Wednesday Friday Saturday Thursday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Thursday Wednesday Tuesday Saturday

Vad 10 Vad 11 Vad 12 Sud 2 Sud 4 Sud 5 Sud 6 Sud 7 Sud 9 Vad 1 Vad 7 Vad 11

11.17/13.54 11.12/17.58 09.49 10.45/12.56/13.45 10.41 10.37/12.46/17.58 10.33/12.42/17.59 09.11/10.28 18.01/20.11 09.57/12.07/18.01 18.04 11.53/12.38/18.04









CHANDRA NAKSHTRA Swa Anuradha Anuradha Mul Ashwini Ashwini Mrugshirsh Magha Hasta Chitra Swa Swa Anuradha Anuradha Mul Mul Utar shadha Shrawan Rewa Ashwini Rohini Rohini Chitra Anuradha Mul Utarashadha Utarashadha Shravan Ghanishta Magha Magha Swa Swa Mul Mul Utarashadha Shravan Ghanishta Magha Hasta Chitra Swa Rohini/ Margshirsh Utar phalguni Hasta/Chitra Chitra Mul Utarshadha Shravan Ghanishta Ghanishta Utarbhadra Mrugshirsh Utar phalguni Swa

CHANDRA RASHI Tula Vruchik Vruchik Dhanu Mesh Mesh Vrushabh Sinh ( Leo) Kanya Tula Tula Tula Vrushik Vrushik Dhanu Dhanu Makar Makar Meen Mesh Vrushabh Vrushabh Tula Vrushik Dhanu Dhanu Makar Makar Makar Sinha Sinha Tula Tula Dhanu Dhanu Makar Makar Kumbh Simha Kanya Kanya/tula Tula Vrushabh

SURYA RASHI Makar Makar Makar Makar Makar Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Kumbh Meen Meen Meen Meen Meen Meen Meen Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh Mithun Mithun Mithun Mithun Vrushik

Simha/kanya Kanya Kanya Dhanu Dhanu Makar Makar Kumbh Meen Mithun Simha Tula

Vrushik Vrushik Vrushik Vrushik Vrushik Vrushik Vrushik Vrushik Vrushik Vrushik Dhanu Dhanu

January 2016


Feb 2016 7-9 TEMTECH Place: Bhilwara/ Rajasthan, info: 19-20 INTEXCON 2016 Place : Ahmadabad/ Gujarat, info :

March 2016 4-6 F & A show Place : Banglore/ India, info: 10-12 Colombo International Yarn & Fabric Show Place : Colombo/ Sri Lanka, info:

20-23 TEXFAIR 2016 Place : Coimbatore/ India, info:

June 2016 31st May-2 june Hometex 2016 Place : Banglore/ India, info: 2-4 NONWOVEN TECH ASIA Place : Mumbai/India, info: 22-24 HEIMTEXTIL Place : New Delhi / India, info:

July 2016 16-17 ATEXCON 2016 Place : Mumbai/ India, info:


HGH INDIA 2016 Place : Mumbai/ India, info :

April 2016 7-9 Fibers & Yarns Place : Mumbai/ India, Info : 16-17 ITF – DUBAI Place : Dubai/ UAE, info: 21-23 TECHNOTEX 2016 Place : Mumbai/ India, info:

May 2016 4-5 Textile Machinery Expo Place : Ahmadabad/ Gujarat, info : 6-8 SCREEN PRINT INDIA 2016 Place : Mumbai/ India, info :

January 2016

26-28 Fashion Connect Place : Banglore/ India, info:

October 2016 11-13 FILTECH 2016 Place: Cologne/ Germany, info : 12-14 TECHTEXIL CHINA Place: Shanghai/ China, info: 21-25 ITMA ASIA + CITME 2016 Place: Shanghai/ China, info :

December 2016 3-8 INDIA ITME 2016 Place: Mumbai/ India, info:


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January 2016


January 2016




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JANUARY 2016  

COVER STORY : Apparel Value Chain World Economic Report Wedding Muhrut 2016 Market Report : cotton, Synthetic yarn, Garment Technical rep...

JANUARY 2016  

COVER STORY : Apparel Value Chain World Economic Report Wedding Muhrut 2016 Market Report : cotton, Synthetic yarn, Garment Technical rep...