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The Quarterly Magazine of The Textile Institute

Leather – nothing else compares Automotive – carbon fibres and nonwovens Asia – a hub of activity

2012 No. 3/4

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The worlds leading authoritative collection of textile terms and definitions… online now:



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Textiles, Cl

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The Textile Institute

International Headquarters 1st Floor St James’ Buildings 79 Oxford Street Manchester M1 6FQ UK T: +44 (0)161 237 1188 F: +44 (0)161 236 1991 E:

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contents 8

South Pacific Viscose


Indonesia is now home to the world’s largest viscose fibre producer.

Textiles: The Art of Mankind A celebration of textiles as art forms, historical and contemporary examples demonstrate skill and imagination.





There is nothing like leather


Taken for granted, an ingredient brand and sustainable?

Carbon fibres in the fast lane



BMW kick-starts a surge of initiatives exploring fibre-alternatives to steel.

What a waste! Closer partnerships along the end of life supply chain play a vital role in ensuring less textiles end up in landfill.







published by The Textile Institute International Headquarters 1st Floor St James’ Buildings 79 Oxford Street Manchester M1 6FQ UK


Disassembly technology allows for easy re-use and recycling.

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TI News Co-ordinator Rebecca Unsworth

The views expressed in this magazine are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. Whilst every effort is taken to ensure accuracy, textiles does not accept any liability for claims made by advertisers or contributors. The Publishers reserve the right to edit and publish any editorial material supplied. The Publisher does not accept responsibility for loss or damage to any unsolicited material or contributions. This publication is protected by copyright, no part may be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written consent of the Publishers.


© The Textile Institute, 2012 ISSN 1367-1308

2012 Volume 39, No. 3/4

Printer: Creative Consortium, Chester Road, Cornbrook, Manchester, M16 9EZ, UK

T: +44 (0)161 237 1188 F: +44 (0)161 236 1991 E: Managing Editor Vanessa Knowles

Emma Scott

textiles is produced by Pebble International and Creative Consortium on behalf of The Textile Institute.


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Do you have access to our portfolio of Textiles titles? Key titles from Taylor & Francis include: T til P

Textile Progress

Textile Progress

D l t f dical a

December 2011 Vol 43 No 4

t a d a a l f th

ISSN 0040-5167

Development of medical garments and apparel for the elderly and the disabled

ISBN-13: 978-0-415-52713-2 ISBN-10: 0-415-52713-2

ld l a d th di abl d De e be 2011 V l 43 N 4

Ng Sau-Fun, Hui Chi-Leung and Wong Lai-Fan

Fashion Design, Technology and Education

100th Anniversary

The Journal of

The Textile Institute Editor Dr. David R. Buchanan 2010 Vol 101 No 11

ISSN 0040–5000

The Journal of The Textile Institute

Permanent FREE Access

International Journal of Smart and Nano Materials

Footwear Science

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contents 26


Denim Naturally



The use of wine to dye denim offers unexpected colours and sustainable benefits.

Mathematical solutions for accelerated product development


How mathematical modelling techniques can help the nonwoven sector.

More haste, less weight and waste



Fabric developments for the automotive sector.

Sustainable Materials



Explaining the Materials Sustainability Index.

Hong Kong Centre of Activity


Sustainability was a key theme of events taking place in October in Hong Kong.

TI News - Page 37

Cover Image: Taken from Textiles: The Art of Mankind, the image shows Leaf (Brunette), 2011 by Jenine Sheroes. Strands of human hair have been wrapped, knotted together and stitched into a water-soluble backing material. At each point where one strand of hair intersected another, a tiny knot was made, allowing the entire piece to hold its form.

Textile Institute Contacts: Director of Operations & Membership Council and Board Liaison Stephanie Dick Director of Professional Affairs Rebecca Unsworth

Professional Affairs Manager Emma Scott Administrator/Receptionist Leanne Bigwood

The Institute reports on the 88th World Conference in Malaysia, the Parliamentary Lunch and where the World President has been travelling to as well as highlighting key events in 2013.

Accounts Clerk Anna Tomlinson London Office: Bill Bohm Webmaster: Joe Cunning

Incorporated in England by a Royal Charter granted in 1925, inaugurated in 1910, The Textile Institute is governed democratically by and on behalf of members throughout the world, registered as a charity and recognised as a non-profit association under the laws of many countries. Charity Number: 222478


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Industry News Obituaries Allan Ormerod CText FTI In 2011 Alan Omerod passed away, his obituary tells the story of a long connection with textiles and has been written for textiles by Walter Sondhelm CText FTI. Allan was born in Haslingden, Lancashire, UK, on 12 December 1918 into a textile background, his grandfather, father, mother and uncles were all employed in the textile mills around the Rossendale Valley. His father was a sizer and his mother a weaver. Allan had won a scholarship to grammar school and was a promising footballer, but, any academic and sporting ambitions were cut short after the death of his father. So in 1935 when Allan was just 16, he joined David Whitehead’s to begin his apprenticeship on what would be a life long journey through the textile industry. In 1937 Allan joined Ashton Brothers & Co in Hyde, Manchester, as a textile technician in the fabric development department. During this time he also began formal training in textiles at The Manchester College of Technology. He was advised to join the Territorial Army as the first rumblings of World War II became apparent and in 1939 he was called up to the regular army and sent to the Middle East where he was selected for officer training and commissioned. Because of his outstanding abilities it was decided that he should receive further training at the Royal Military College of Science. He was told that he must first gain ‘real war’ experience so he was sent to Italy and saw action at Monte Casino. In 1940, before embarking for the Middle East, he married Millicent Worsley before returning to active service until the end of the war. In the mid 1940’s his sons David (1945) and Michael (1946 – 1992) were born. He left the army in 1946 as a Major and returned to Ashton Brothers. In 1948 he became fully qualified in textiles and moved from the development side to weaving where he progressed from assistant head weaving manager to head weaving manager. In 1963 he was promoted to general manager and in 1967 managing director. Allan was instrumental in the modernisation of Ashton’s including the installation of the 4 textiles

first Sulzer shuttleless weaving machine which increased both productivity and quality by over 300%. He was a leading member of the team which transformed Ashton Brothers from a very highly rated British textile company to a profitable company of international standing. Unfortunately the takeover by Courtaulds, which the Ashton board was unable to prevent, realigned Ashton’s to British law standards. But for the takeover an important slice of the British textile industry might have survived. In 1970 Allan left Courtauld’s, moved to South Africa and joined the Consolidated Frame Corporation and Consolidated Fine Spinners and Weavers initially as general manager and then as joint managing director. In 1979 Allan became a consultant and moved to Zimbabwe, until his retirement in 1992. He became one of the leading consultants in the SubSahara region. He designed and commissioned various projects for Kirsh Industries Ltd including a fully integrated unit in Swaziland for USD$50 million. Allan was a CText FTI and a recipient of The Institute Medal. He was a CEng and a Fellow of the Institute of Engineering and Technology. His many awards include the Silver Medal of the Worshipful Company of Weavers and the Insigma Award in Technology of the City and Guilds of London (honoris causa). He was a past president of the British Association of Textile Works Managers and a Justice of the Peace. During his career Allan produced books, technical reports, publications and gave many lectures. His autobiography ‘An Industrial Odyssey’ was published by The Textile Institute in 1996. Millicent Ormerod who had been a magnificent wife and Allan’s greatest collaborator passed away in early 2011. Allan’s death followed just a few months later on 21 May 2011 aged 92. Allan Ormerod was not only an outstanding engineer, but, a lovely person who you could depend on absolutely.

John William Moore Age 73, of Wilmington, DE, USA, John (JW) Moore, passed away peacefully surrounded by his adoring wife and children after a long fight with

heart disease on Wednesday, October 31, 2012, at the Christiana Hospital. Born at the Methodist Hospital in Indianapolis, Indiana on February 6, 1938 he was the eldest son of the late Jack Moore and Louise Moore (Fraser). JW came from very humble beginnings and graduated valedictorian from Ben Davis High School at age 16. He then obtained his bachelors in engineering from the General Motors Institute (now Kettering University) through a Co-op program, and completed his PhD studies in Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. During his university studies he worked on rocket nozzles for the Minuteman missile systems for Allison, and after graduating Michigan went to work for DuPont in Wilmington. During his 27 years at DuPont the family moved from Wilmington to such exotic locations as Martinsville, VA, US and Geneva, Switzerland, developing many wonderful, rewarding friendships during those travels. His DuPont projects that he recalled most fondly were in fibres pioneering research where he led a team that developed the first non tire cord application for Kevlar in the non structural parts of the Lockheed Tristar L-1011 jet; Antron plus carpet stain release, which over time evolved into the precursor for Stainmaster; and the use of Lycra spandex in baby diapers. After his retirement from DuPont, John cofounded Optimer, Inc with his children and worked closely with many brilliant fellow early retirees to conduct contract fibre and polymer research and eventually developed novel advanced fibres and yarn blends used in performance and protective clothing. Optimer's efforts grew into a thriving business selling technology worldwide under the drirelease and DRIFIRE trademarks. JW's talents extended far beyond business and research, as he valued his personal relationships and embraced a life full of humour, art, wine, philosophy and deep human contact. He belonged to the Delaware Bibliophiles and for thirty years was a member of the Unitarian book club. Over his life he was deeply interested in spirituality and studied world religions, cultures and served the First Unitarian Church for a term as president. As an international traveler he circumnavigated the globe with his wife,

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and logged hundreds of thousands of miles on adventures with close friends and family from Patagonia to Alaska, Russia to Africa, and New Zealand to China. He is survived by his wife Diann; three children, John A , Lisabeth and Christopher and six grandchildren, Haley, Henry, Charlotte, Beatrix, Zoe and Abigail.

The Sustainable Fashion Handbook

corporations. The book includes illustrated articles and essays by leading writers and thinkers, interviews and statements from designers such as Stella McCartney, Vivienne Westwood and Hussein Chalayan and case studies on everything from the life-cycle of jeans to smart textiles and fair trade schemes. A resources section provides listings of organisations involved in campaigning, advising, and promoting sustainability in fashion.

Transparent communication about nanomaterials

Thames and Hudson Sandy Black ISBN: 9780500290569 Although called a Handbook this is certainly not a book you would carry around with you, it has been classified as the definitive sourcebook on all aspects of sustainable fashion – not only the environmental issues presented by fast-moving fashion, but also the social impact of the industry. Packed with facts and inspiring images and ideas, this is a useful reference for professionals, students and anyone with an interest in fashion, sustainability and innovation. Sandy Black, professor of fashion and textile design and technology at London College of Fashion, UK, has assembled perspectives ranging from designers and technical experts to academics and journalists, environmental and social action campaigners, craft specialists and artists, and representatives of global

In November BASF’s Dialog Forum Nano presented its final report for the dialog phase 2011/2012, in Berlin, Germany. The aim of the regular dialog with representatives from research institutes, labour unions, commerce, industry, churches as well as environmental and consumer organisations was to generate joint recommendations for improving transparency in communication about nanomaterials from manufacturers to consumers. BASF has conducted the Dialog Forum Nano since 2008, making it the only company in Germany to pursue a regular dialog on the topic of nanotechnology. “It is very important for us that a trusting and constructive cooperation has developed over the years. We have entered into many – sometimes difficult – discussions and have reviewed our own positions,” explained the organiser Carolin Kranz, senior manager communications and government relations. Participant Rolf Buschmann of the North RhineWestphalia Consumer Advice Center stated: “The Dialog Forum Nano represents an innovative and successful approach to stakeholder communication which has been decisively shaped by the special commitment and willingness of the participants from many different areas of business and society to engage in discussions.” The Dialog Forum Nano was developed and moderated by the organisation ‘Dialog Basis’. Over several months the dialog partners discussed what scientific information was available, where

knowledge gaps existed and how the information could be usefully presented to consumers. The topics were partially based on specific consumer inquiries and numerous expert assessments. Using the examples of dirt-repellent and antimicrobial textiles as well as paints and coatings, the joint final report contains recommendations on how information can be gathered within the companies along the supply chain in order to facilitate communication with consumers. The report together with other nanotechnology information is available at

RFID technology awareness may boost uptake A new report from Frost & Sullivan, Analysis of the European RFID Retail Market, has found that the market earned revenues of USD$289.6 million in 2011 and estimates this to reach USD$3,206.0 million in 2017. The research covers tags, hardware and middleware/software. Key growth businesses include apparel and footwear, perishables, jewellery, and personal care and the report has also found that speciality retail is also gaining prominence. According to Frost & Sullivan, the European radio frequency identification (RFID) market in the retail industry offers considerable growth potential. It is believed that the promise of enhanced benefits for businesses and the growing importance of item-level tagging will add impetus to market development. However, issues pertaining to data privacy and the lack of understanding about return on investments (ROI) threaten to slow down the pace of market expansion. The enhanced benefits in various business processes across the retail supply chain could continue to drive RFID adoption. Advantages include better inventory management, improved operational efficiency, reduced labour, greater visibility, information accuracy, higher sales, and superior customer service. “The increased prominence of itemlevel tagging will further augment opportunities for RFID across retail textiles 5

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applications,” noted Frost & Sullivan senior research analyst, Ram Ravi. “Tags and hardware (readers and printers) are expected to witness considerable increase in demand as a result of the rising preference for item-level tagging.” Item-level tracking provides better results in terms of inventory management and visibility along the supply chain while helping negate the impact of counterfeit products. In addition, mandates from retailers such as Wal-Mart, Gerry Weber, and Metro to implement item-level tagging in their outlets are also boosting demand for RFID pilots and implementation. However, the lack of clarity about integrating RFID with existing IT systems is inhibiting adoption rates. “Issues related to integration can be attributed to the skill level of system integrators, the existing infrastructure, and interoperability,” explained Ravi. “While the impact of this challenge is likely to be limited in the short-term as the adoption of RFID technology in the retail industry is still in the early stages, it is expected to intensify as RFID adoption becomes more widespread.” Frost & Sullivan expect that the choice of system integrators will be the key to successful implementation. System integrators will require complete awareness about the processes involved in the retail supply chain as well as expertise in the handling, installation, and maintenance of the RFID-related products. Failure to meet these standards may result in adverse effects which, in turn, will impact adoption levels.

Alvanon launches first mobile and online application to help consumers ‘buy best fit’ childrenswear Alvanon, a leading international apparel sizing and fit company, has launched AlvaKids, an ingenious new mobile phone application (app) and online widget that will help consumers buy the right size garment from over 500 of the UK’s most popular young children’s clothing brands. The app will also be available early in 2013 for the US market.

6 textiles

AlvaKids uses a child’s birthday, height and weight to recommend the ‘right size’ garment to buy, according to the company this should significantly enhance the shopping experience, increasing customer loyalty and sales while reducing returns. In the product trial, which was carried out at New York-based Cookie’s Kids department store, 97% of parents surveyed said they would recommend others to use the app, 90% said they would be more confident to shop for childrenswear without their children and 72% said they would share their children’s profiles with family and friends to enable them to buy the right sized clothes as gifts for newborns through to pre teens. AlvaKids is available to consumers as a free download app from the Apple Store and as an online widget to major childrenswear high street and online retail groups. An Android version is also available. The widget will allow retailers and brands to create brand specific sizing recommendations for consumers in-store and on their eCommerce websites. Parents build a simple body shape profile for each child by entering a few key data points in the AlvaKids mobile app or through a retailer’s eCommerce website. This contains information such as birthday, height, weight, body shape (slim, average or plus) and leg proportions. This data is then used by AlvaKids proprietary algorithm to create a personalised sizing recommendation for any of the brands contained in the database. Users can also suggest new brands to add to the system. A key feature of the app is that once the child’s profile has been created, the personal data in the profile will grow automatically with the child so accurate size recommendations can be accessed now and in the future. Al Falack, director of e-Commerce for Cookie’s Kids trialed the AlvaKids app in its New York department store: “We enjoyed a very positive experience with the AlvaKids trial – our customers loved it,” explained Falack. “It gives parents the confidence to shop for clothing without their children and they spend more time browsing and less time questioning as a result. We also found it helped parents choose the right size the first time which reduces any

inconvenience to our customers and the number of returns we have to process. This results in an increase in customer loyalty and sales.” Janice Wang, CEO of Alvanon played a hands-on role in developing the app: “As a mother I understand how frustrating, confusing and tiring shopping for children’s clothing can be. AlvaKids is designed to make buying the right size of garment from the desired brand, quick and easy. It’s a simple, elegant solution based on a complex, specialist knowledge of children’s body shapes and how these change over time and is supported by a detailed analysis of how all the UK’s top childrenswear retailers and brands size their clothes.”

Innovative new feature in Arahne's textile CAD Tessitura Fratelli Grassi from Vertova, north of Bergamo, in Italy, is an innovative family run contract weaving mill. Their huge variety of fabrics led the young son of the third generation weaver, Diego Grassi to think about a possible new way of marking fabrics. Instead of pasting or drawing labels to the fabric roll (piece), he thought why not weave it as an initial and final part of the jacquard fabric. With obvious advantages, as the label is now part of the main fabric it will not peel off, and no material is lost, since the initial and the end part of the fabric roll is usually ruined in the finishing. Grassi's production is already fully integrated with ERP SpyderTex from Il Dato. The ERP system sends XML requests to ArahWeave CAD server, which converts the fabric file to the appropriate loom file. “Arahne has upgraded ArahWeave CAD/CAM for weaving with capability to create text labels on the fly, and weave them as headers and footers of every fabric order. The operator on the ERP can choose the text, size and weave for the label. The label ground continues from the main fabric, so that it does not create any problems in finishing.” explained Mr Dušan Peterc, the owner of Arahne. Grassi says its customers love this feature so much, that they now complain if the top woven label is missing. Never again will a weaver walk in the

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warehouse or finishing department, looking at the rolls of fabric, and not know immediately who ordered them. Arahne say they have accomplished this new innovation with the creative use of existing technology, within the Arahne CAD Jacquard software, no investment in hardware was necessary.

Business leaders focused on sustainability

a passionate, fact-filled overview of the country’s energy future, challenging participants to examine and understand the true cost of conventional energy versus non-carbon based technologies. Other presenters included Kevin Burke, of the AAFA, who updated the group on the Washington scene and the impact recent and ongoing political situations could have on the textile Robert F Kennedy, Jnr

The International Oeko-Tex Association’s ‘The Next 20’ event was held during November in New York, US, bringing together business leaders from all textile industry sectors to hear sustainability experts share insights into the industry’s future. Representatives from retailers, apparel and footwear brands, home textile companies, sourcing agencies, fabric and thread manufacturers, media, and many others participated in the afternoon seminar. The event was opened by Robert F Kennedy, Jnr, the award-winning environmental advocate, lawyer, and author. He inspired seminar guests with

industry. Whilst Amy Hall of Eileen Fisher described the sustainable materials initiatives under way at her company and the growing impact consumers have on the decisions her company makes regarding fibre selection and production locations. This was followed by a panel discussion moderated by Emily Walzer of Textile Insight with three sustainability experts from diverse companies. The panel showed seminar participants the similarities that all companies face in the pursuit of a more sustainable business. Dr Jean-Pierre Haug, general secretary of the International Oeko-Tex Association closed the afternoon by unveiling a comprehensive refreshment of the Association’s certification system for sustainable textile manufacturing facilities. With a spring 2013 launch planned, seminar guests got a sneak preview of the new certification system and the perceived benefits it will provide to the industry. ‘The Next 20’ was presented to celebrate Oeko-Tex’s twentieth anniversary.

International Sales Executives AVA CAD CAM is a leading supplier of CAD CAM technology and services to the global fashion, home furnishings, decorative and printed packaging industries. We have an established worldwide customer base, including many famous brand names and high street stores. Due to recent successes, the company is implementing an ambitious growth strategy into new market sectors and new countries. We are looking to recruit two new Sales Executives to join our busy team, to help deliver the strategy and drive further success. Working under the direct supervision of Senior Managers, the Sales Executives will be required to travel to national and international destinations to meet customers and deliver professional presentations. The Executives will be trained to use the AVA Software package and will be given tailor made Sales Training to help achieve their objectives. Frequent International travel will be a major part of your job. You must have a keen interest in world travel, experiencing different cultures, design, technology and export sales. You will ideally have a 2:1 degree qualification or higher, although all high calibre candidates will be considered. Experience of CAD CAM software, the Textile, Decorative or Printing industry will also be an advantage. Deadline for applications: 11th February, 2013 For further information please visit: Or contact: Duncan Ross, Commercial Director, AVA CAD CAM Group Ltd. Email:

textiles 7

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textiles · issue 3/4 · 2012

South Pacifi In the early 1980’s the foundations of sustainable industrial development were laid in West Java, Indonesia, near to the small town of Purwakar ta, with the arrival of South Pacific Viscose. At that time the area was relatively underdeveloped with the local economy based on agriculture. Today P T South Pacific Viscose (SPV), majority owned by Lenzing AG of Austria, is a world-class manufacturer of viscose staple fibre (VSF) produced from dissolving wood pulp. The SPV plant is the largest viscose fibre production facility in the world with a capacity of about 900 tons a day. The prosperity of the region has been dramatically transformed and the economic base has changed from agriculture to industry. World President of The Textile Institute, Dr Peter H Dinsdale, a director of Trigon Diligence Ltd, has recently visited Indonesia, here he provides an overview of the viscose market.

orld demand for all textile fibre, natural and manmade, has been increasing by an average of around 3% per annum over the past 30 years or so. Demand for man-made fibres (MMF) has grown much faster and now accounts for over 65% of consumption. Total fibre usage is anticipated to reach an average of almost 14 kgs/capita by 2020, or about 25% higher than currently. Global consumption of all textile fibres this year is expected to be around 79 million tons, or an average of around 11 kilograms per person. Textile fibres fall into distinct groupings. There are several synthetic fibres, such as polyester, acrylic and nylon, which are derived from petrochemicals. There are animal fibres, such as wool, cashmere and so on and vegetable fibres such as cotton, jute, flax and regenerated cellulosic. Finally, there are mineral fibres such as basalt, asbestos etc. Cotton constitutes only about a third share in the global market which is today dominated by man-made fibres. Although significant advances have been made in improving cotton yields per hectare, due to genetically modified varieties and land management techniques, the available arable land for cotton is limited and under pressure from other cash crops. In addition, cotton output is subject to climate change effects (i.e. droughts, floods etc). Overall the proportion of cotton in total global fibre usage is expected to decline.


Why viscose fibres? Regenerated cellulosic fibre is the only absorbent MMF alternative to cotton. Fibre demand in certain clothing, medical uses, wipes etc. requires a level of absorbency which


synthetic polymer fibres alone cannot provide. Viscose staple fibre (VSF) is biodegradable, more absorbent than cotton and has softness, good lustre and excellent dyeing properties. This fibre currently accounts for about 4.5% of global fibre usage and over the past decade VSF production has almost doubled, with most of this increase coming from plant expansions in Asia. Continued fibre demand growth coupled with constraints in cotton output leads to an increasing shortfall in absorbency fibre which can only be satisfied by regenerated cellulosic fibres such as viscose staple. There is therefore significant potential for further growth. In a situation where viscose is used as a substitute for cotton (e.g. in a polyester/viscose blend) the quality consistency and cleanliness of the VSF is beneficial. Cotton, as an agricultural product, contains impurities and fibre length variations.

South Pacific viscose plant SPV, which currently employs about 1700 people, has 5 fibre lines supported by a large infrastructure including captive coal fired power and steam generation; natural gas based production; and recycling of carbon disulphide; manufacture of sulphuric acid; a wet gas sulphuric acid (WSA) recovery plant; and effluent treatment facilities. In addition, the plant produces, as a process by-product, anhydrous sodium sulphate, commonly known as Glauber’s salt, which is used in the manufacture of detergents, paperboard, glass etc. SPV was the first company to introduce high tenacity viscose for textile and non-woven applications into the Indonesian market. In addition, the company has introduced

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cific Viscose

fibre which gives better processability in open-end spinning and has had a pioneering role in providing fibres very well suited to the new high-speed vortex spinning technology, which is becoming increasingly popular in the spinning sector in Indonesia. SPV has established an excellent fibre processing unit which is a mini-spinning mill line, including both ring and open-end spinning systems, in co-operation with Rieter of Switzerland. This allows for testing fibre parameters against actual machine settings. The consistency of fibre characteristics is an important consideration in the market.

Spinners want a consistent product so that their machine settings can remain unchanged and quality guarantees to their customers can be supported. Close attention to quality and spinning performance has enabled SPV to assist their customers to increase yarn sales in some very critical export markets. SPV has a community development program for the local village, which is adjacent to the plant. This is a community of about 9000 people and the program covers health, education, social cultural activities, infrastructure and micro-credit programmes for small business development.


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textiles · issue 3/4 · 2012

SPV president director Wolfram Kalt and his employees with the first viscose fibre bale of the new fifth production line which will provide an additional 80,000 tons of viscose fibre per year. The total capacity of SPV will increase to 320,000 tons, thus exceeding the capacity of the parent plant in Lenzing, Austria which currently stands at 250,000 tons, and making it the largest viscose fibre producer in the world.

The company, which has ISO 14001, ISO 9001 and OHSAS 18001 certifications, pays careful attention to environmental issues and has systems and modern waste treatment facilities to ensure compliance with both government regulations and the requirements of developmental institutions such as The World Bank. There are efficient closed loop environmentally friendly systems. For example, sophisticated waste gas purification technologies are installed in order to minimise atmospheric load. A modern ‘Haldor Topsoe’ WSA facility is installed which is designed for the recovery of sulphurous compounds whilst substantially reducing emissions. In addition, a new gas based carbon disulphide (CS2) plant is installed in which pressurised natural gas is reacted with sulphur at 650˚C. This creates CS2 and H2S (hydrogen sulphide). The carbon disulphide is extracted by distillation and the hydrogen sulphide and other impurities are reacted to extract sulphur. There are also waste water treatment systems installed and the residual sludge is consumed in the cogeneration facilities which create power and steam.

The viscose fibre process Viscose (sometimes also called ‘rayon’, from the French verb ‘to shine’, because of the very lustrous appearance the first such fibres had) is a regenerated cellulosic fibre derived primarily from wood pulp but it can also be made from other high cellulosic content plant material. Whereas moisture absorbency in petrochemical based fibres is low, cellulosic fibres are hydrophilic and as such provide comfort in next to skin applications. The manufacture of VSF from dissolving wood pulp involves firstly crumbing the pulp and mixing it with a dilute solution of sodium hydroxide (NaoH) at a controlled temperature and then squeezing the mixture to remove excess liquid. The alkali cellulose is mechanically shredded to increase surface area and make the cellulose easier to process and the mixture is then aged and partially oxidised to adjust


the molecular weight. Carbon disulphide (CS2) is added to the cellulose to sulphurise the mixture and form a cellulose sodium xanthate gel. A dilute solution of sodium hydroxide is then added to create a ‘honey like’ viscose solution. After subsequent ripening, filtering and degassing, the viscose cellulose is pumped through spinneret nozzles into a bath of diluted sulphuric acid (H2S04.) solution and a continuous fibre is formed. This fibre then goes through a variety of treatments before being cut to the desired staple length and packed into bales.

The Indonesian textile sector Indonesia’s textile industry has strong fibre manufacturing and yarn spinning sectors as well as a significant ready made garment sector. However, the fabric forming and wet processing areas are still developing with the consequence that much of the fabric used in garment making is imported and large quantities of spun yarns are exported. Due to the limited domestic yarn demand the spinning sector has built strong international networks and established a reputation, particularly in the Americas, Europe and China, as a reliable source for quality yarns. Indonesia has no domestic cotton cultivation and the sector thus uses a high percentage of manmade fibre staple from local producers. Indonesia lagged behind in spinning investment until about 5 years ago when the investment mood began to change. There has been a recent race to catch up and significant investment has occurred and more is in the pipeline. Since 2010 Indonesia has added an estimated 0.6 million ring-spindles and at least 0.3 million equivalent ringspindles in vortex spinning technology. Open-end spinning capacity is currently equivalent to about 0.5 million ringspindles. Unrecorded, second-hand equipment is believed to account for around 0.5 million spindles. It is estimated that over 2012/2013 Indonesia may add another one million equivalent spindles to bring the total to around 11 million equivalent ring spindles.

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A fantastic new collection of more than 1,000 images highlight the beauty, subtlety, simplicity and complexity of textiles from around the world. The juxtaposition of historical and contemporary examples demonstrate the skill and imagination of those that work and have worked in the textile industry. In her new book Mary Schoeser celebrates all that is textile as an art form.

rom ancient textiles to those of the 21st century, there exists a continuum of creativity handed down from generation to generation and inspired anew by exposure to the work of past makers. There have been moments in this story when many feared that the art of textiles would become submerged in a monotonous stream of yardage produced by machines, which began to replace action of human hands with the invention of William Lee’s stocking frame in 1589. Automation was gradual at first, and for centuries textile production still required human intervention. By the 1830s, however, much of this work had taken the form of ‘machine-minding’. Fifty years later members of the European and North American Art and Crafts movements were united, decrying the increasing industrialisation as soulless. Part of their artistic response to mechanisation was to investigate handmade textiles from other cultures or earlier eras, collect them, reintroduce their manufacturing techniques, and hold them up as standardbearers. This ensured that, from the 19th century onwards, art textiles continued to be produced alongside developing technology for mass production. Beginning in the 1960s,


Coming Home Soon – ‘Windows of the Soul’ series, 2009. The artist, Patricia Armour, says of her tapestries, “I draw inspiration.... from the haunting Neolithic sites and the great tapestries of Europe. Celtic legend, my own spirituality and ancient history also have a strong influence.”

entirely new machines began to emerge that were hundreds of times faster and, ultimately, controlled by computer. Never has it been easier to introduce new textile designs than in the 21st century: scan, load and press ‘go’. Yet textile artists have once again chosen to turn away from the logic of mass production, with the result that today there are countless individuals and small enterprises that create extraordinary textiles in very limited numbers. This is not to imply that machines have been rejected. Far from it: many new technologies are at the heart of the artistic invention today. Equally, many man-made materials have been modified in response to aesthetic demands, whether from designers and makers, or from those who wear and use textiles. The knowledgeable consumer is very much a part of today’s renaissance in textile art. Mary Schoesers hope is that her book will contribute to this knowledge, for above all its focus is how to look at textiles – or, rather, how to look at and really see them. Over the past forty years, the first-hand sight of hundreds of thousands of examples has convinced Mary that textiles are beautiful, inventive, expressive, and more. They


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Chinese weaver, Ch’i-fu (detail), c.1900. Brocaded with silks and gold metallic thread, the ch’i-fu was a full-length, semi-formal coat worn in court or in the service of the Manchu government during the Qing dynasty (16441911). The dragon is the paramount symbol of this period, and such garments are often called ‘dragon robes’.

Hill, 1938-48 by Marion Stoll. This panel was embroidered in fine and expensive wool, dyed in Austria, by Stoll, an American born artist who lived in Europe from 1900 to 1931. Writing about modern techniques in embroidery in The Studio in 1927, Stoll noted that “in colour-work, a very striking characteristic of the new embroidery is its radical simplification of stitchery...the general effect is obtained by the simplest means. Complicated ‘fancy’ stitches are seldom, if ever found in modern embroidery colours: the needle is the means to an artistic end, not an end in itself.” reveal the human compulsion to engage with texture, colour and storytelling. They record our ever-changing feelings of play, joy, wonder and profound thoughtfulness. They preserve skills, encourage creativity and represent continuity. The cultural significance of textiles through the ages is reflected in the fact that so many were produced and, even more remarkable given their relative fragility, that so many have survived. A large proportion of the very earliest textiles exist today because they were buried as grave goods. They show not only extraordinary technical sophistication, but also the important role textiles have always played in ritual. Possessing real monetary worth and exchange value in this life, they represented wealth and power, were given as gifts, used to pay taxes, and were exchanged for other goods or services, even for peace. Alliances were sealed, allegiances sworn and passages to heaven bargained for with textiles. Religious sites, such as tombs and monasteries, and religious garb, whether Buddhist robes, Hindu saris or Christian vestments, preserve what were judged at the time to be the finest cloths. By extension, belief in the divine right to rule


ensured that the repositories of kings and caliphs overflowed with exquisite textiles. The homes of aristocrats and, later, magnates made wealthy through the Industrial Revolution also boasted impressive textile legacies, as items were preserved or handed down from generation to generation; even relatively humble householders bequeathed garments and furnishing fabrics to their heirs. Among many cultures, cherished textiles are passed along lines of descent: cloths constitute an important part of a woman’s dowry and represent her lineage. Although this practice is today associated with non-Western traditions, this belies the fact that ancestors’ textiles are equally prized be many in the West. Some textiles, passing through the auction houses or the hands of dealers, ended up in the ownership of collectors – a group whose tastes and passions preserved large quantities of textiles long before museums as we know them began to emerge, in around 1850. Dealers and collectors have continued to amass knowledge and to enrich the many institutions that preserve cloth within their walls. Curators, too, have exercised their own tastes through acquisitions and

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Textiles: the art of mankind

The Poisoned Heart (detail), 2011, by Rosemary Huggins. Influenced by the elaborate textiles of Mexico, the artist has incorporated mixed media, including materials collected from Oaxaca and Chiapas, into a hand-embroidered altar covering.

Mallee Leaf Jacket, 1997, by Nalda Searles. A recycled woven plaid jacket with leather buttons has natural mallee leaves from the Eucalyptus platycorys stitched individually on to the front and back of the jacket using linen thread. The leaves were taken from a storm-broken branch.

acceptance of donations. The text of the book features many contemporary textiles, but also chronicles a few of these collectors and collections, primarily those that the author has come to know well. Contemporary textiles are displayed alongside historical examples to demonstrate the persistence of skill and creativity, as well as the remarkable range of possibilities offered by the same or very similar techniques. The majority of the textiles discussed and illustrated in the book are handmade, and those that are not show the inventive exploitation of machinery’s capabilities – an ‘attitude of the hand’, as it were. In grouping objects together to highlight certain approaches and themes, the author has been encouraged by the words of the designer Jun-ichi Arai, and his desire to make “a small amount of things, and being able to make a great variety of them in a limitless way .... Each individual has a different fingerprint. I think that’s the kind of variety that I am looking for. But it’s not something you can do yourself. You need collaboration of hundreds of thousands of people.” Mary Schoeser has been fortunate enough to have

such collaborators, among whom she counts the unnamed makers of many of the textiles illustrated within the book. The extraordinary visual richness of this volume has also been made possible by the many contributing named textile artists, who have further demonstrated their generosity by providing websites and email addresses where possible. By focusing on superb textiles from around the world, irrespective of their age, Mary Schoeser’s aim is to inspire textile artists, those who are new to collecting, and those whose choices will shape the future of textile arts. Mary Schoeser’s book, Textiles: The Art of Mankind was published at the end of November by Thames and Hudson, this article is an adaption of the Introduction to the book. The book contains 1,100 colour illustrations and 568 pages. The author is a leading authority in the field of textiles and is Honorary President of the UK Textile Society. She has worked with organisations such as English Heritage, the National Trust, Liberty of London, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA. ISBN: 978 0 500 516454


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textiles · issue 3/4 · 2012

THERE IS NOTHING Leather is one of those materials that it is easy to take for granted. It has been with us since the beginning of time and utilised in a near infinity of uses until alternate technologies came along which could replace it. Think of glass bottles for carrying liquids and paper replacing parchment. Nearly two thirds of the world’s leather comes from bovine animals with sheep, pigs and goats roughly equally sharing the remainder. Other skins like reptiles and ostrich are important but give us less than 2% of the total. This article is an adaptation of a presentation given by Michael Redwood, visiting professor in Business Development in Leather, University of Northampton, UK, at the recent Textile Institute Fashion Technology Special Interest Group seminar, Hide to High Street. 14

Laser cut soft leather garments shown at this year's University of Northampton BA (Hons) Fashion 2012 Graduate show held at Silverstone Racetrack, UK. Photographer Zoe Plummer, MA Design student The University of Northampton.

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leather leather leather leather leather

G LIKE leather hile the planet had enough land for cattle herds to keep growing to match population growth until the end of the twentieth century it cannot keep pace in the twenty first century. We are already seeing issues of land use and intensive rearing of animals become more and more common in the media.


The final outcome is inevitably going to be that there will be less leather per capita in the world as the years go by and tanners will need to adjust to make the best of a scarce material. They do well with premium grades but handling hides and skins with scratches and insect damage has been hard in the past and tanners and designers will have to work harder, and be more innovative to get all the leather we can produce into the premium articles that the inherent properties of leather deserve. It is quite possible to make top quality items with leather with some scratches and other damages if the pattern sizes are chosen carefully and the design allows the cutter to work round them. This may not work for certain articles which do require the largest, cleanest hides but for an amazing number it seems to actually improve quality and creativity all round.

Getting the facts right Just like textile leather is an ingredient, and as any ingredient brand it is only as strong as its weakest link. One of the issues that the leather industry has to deal with is its own silence over the last hundred years. Leather making has been a totally production dominated activity and tanners like to think that leather speaks for itself. In most ways it does, of course, but it cannot defend itself against claims, some well intentioned and some not so well intentioned, that are full of errors. As a result material manuals and Internet sites are now full of definitions of leather that conclude that it is not a good material to use because it has a high carbon footprint and is made using lots of toxic chemicals. The first claim comes from a famous 2006 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations document called ‘Livestock’s Long Shadow’ which the leather industry never challenged but left to the two extremes of industrial farming and animal rights groups to fight over. In reality leather is a renewable non-determinant co-product that results totally from the production of meat or milk. As such it should carry no carbon footprint figure forward from the livestock and its carbon footprint should be measured only from the exit of the abattoir. This gives it a carbon footprint roughly equivalent to that of plastics and many other textiles with the clear advantage over plastics that it comes from a sustainable non-fossil fuel source. It is expected that an EU standard to this effect will be agreed within twelve months.

Tanners have anyway noted that the infamous 2006 document had many errors and hugely over-estimated the emissions from livestock. Few of the arguments against cattle related to methane, to energy used in growing crops, to deforestation and to water use withstand a great deal of scrutiny and the FAO now appear to have admitted that the problems with their report do unfairly attack the world’s pastoral farmers and put an unfair weighting on atmospheric emissions from livestock while being lenient with the damage created by fossil fuels. Attacks on leather by Greenpeace based on the Amazon deforestation did have some validity and the leather industry has responded well. Nevertheless it does look


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as though the choice of attacking brands using leather was more about easy public relations than valid science and little has been said about the EU legal requirement to dump food wastes into landfill rather than feeding them to pigs. This now requires huge amounts of soya meal, and has created much of the real pressure on the Amazon. Pigs are designed to be omnivorous and have successfully eaten food waste since time immemorial. Stella McCartney has been the person who has tried to bring anti-leather opinions into the main stream with a video early in 2012. It is not clear how well advised she was but information is cherry picked in order to create a pre-decided narrative and those doing so are not terribly interested in the truth. Tanners did once use arsenic, as did many other industries, but it was a nineteenth century thing and certainly no tanner has used it in the last 50 years. Chromium is not a toxic chemical, but it does have one rare hexavalent form which can be carcinogenic. As used in the tannery it is quite safe and chromium leather, properly tanned, is one of the better leathers we can get today.

The new consumers need to understand these things These issues are more important than in the past as the consumers who buy quality products are changing fast. We see it already in Asia where the buyers of luxury goods are much more skewed towards the young and the female than in the west. They are the precursor of what we are about to see globally as over the next five years a demographic shift of major proportions is taking place. Baby boomers will retire and since generation X is a small cohort it is the Millennials, born between 1980 and 1995, that are going to start filling senior jobs. This is a generation who engage differently, who know how to be heard, who enjoy double tasking, who obtain their information in new ways and whose opinions about the planet are going to be more enduring than legislation. It is easy to assume that these new consumers understand leather in the same way their parents and grandparents did, but they are a much more urban generation. Even China has moved from being a rural society in 1990 to having more than 50% of the population living in cities. As a result we see big differences around the world. While the Brazilian consumer considers a healed scar in a piece of leather as a sign of it being authentic the Chinese consumer would see it as a defect

Selfridges mens shoe department leather flooring, Bill Amberg Studio


and prefer a painted plastic look on the leather. Indeed with many Asian consumers it is the brand that they choose and not the material. The leather industry has much work to do to educate these new younger consumers.

The LeatherNaturally! programme The top 100 tanners in the world have started a programme to deal with this education deficit. Their researches show that consumers around the world have a great awareness of leather but little actual knowledge. New technologies and clever designers have taken leather into new areas and this has also confused some consumers, especially when put alongside some of the higher quality plastics. Yet increasingly the modern world is one where experiences are more important and leather wins in this area as it plays to all the senses. It is a natural material with outstanding physical properties but more than that it has the touch, the feel, the looks, the appearance that appeals to the consumer. It is because of this that so many smart phones and tablets come with leather covers – they humanise this rather scary technology. In automobiles it is recognised that while buyers rationalise the purchase in terms of fuel economy and such matters, the touch and smell of the leather seats is what gives them the right feeling at the moment of purchase and as

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There is nothing like leather

they have their test drive. And brands need stories more than anything these days. Leather has these stories, leather has history, it has nature. The leather industry was the first to make a science of biochemistry as it fought to understand the fundamental chemistry behind the natural materials that had been used for centuries. Leather has its place in almost every evolution in civilisation – the first boats, the first armour, the covering for

the first wheels, the first saddles and the first industrial belting. Leather today holds its place where its beauty and its performance mean that it remains best in class. It does so by evolving to meet the needs of ever changing consumers. An elegant, natural, renewable material, with the power to develop to fit the world of today and tomorrow.

Mulberry handbags, Selfridges

Shard reception desk, Bill Amberg Studio


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textiles · issue 3/4 · 2012

Carbon fibres in the fast lane

ith its i3 and i8 electric vehicle programme – one of the boldest stepchanges made by a car manufacturer in recent history – BMW has spearheaded tremendous interest in the potential of carbon composites as a replacement for steel and aluminium parts – and not just in Formula 1 and high-end Lamborghini supercars, but in regular, series production vehicles.


Ultra-strong and currently rather expensive composites based on carbon fibres and fabrics are still a very small industry, with no more than 50,000 tons produced annually. By contrast, there are four million tons of comparatively inexpensive glass fibre-based composites produced each year, while the production of steel – which most car bodies are still made of in 2012 – is some 1,300 million tons annually. Adrian Wilson takes a look at BMW’s attempt to kick-start a surge of initiatives exploring fibrebased alternatives to steel in the automotive industry.

The i3 and i8, which will go into production in 2013, represent BMW’s response to changing needs in the market and the new urban landscape. “The standard approach to designing a new vehicle is to first go to the designers, then the engineers and then to the production people,” said Joerg Pohlman, managing director of the BMW joint venture SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers. “We went the other way in asking production what they would need to build such a car, then back to the engineers to find out what materials they worked with, and finally back to the designers so they knew what they had to work with and what designs were possible.”

Combustion engine Electric cars to date, Mr Pohlman added, are still based on the combustion engine and converted to the needs of electric vehicles. “The problem is, when you then put in the battery and electric drive chain, you actually add weight,” he said. “We already have extensive experience of carbon fibre parts, but in low volumes. We are talking about series production now, which starts at thirty thousand vehicles a year, and we’ll


be going above that. This translates to more than a million carbon fibre parts each year. The question we had to ask ourselves was, would that additional carbon supply be in place by 2013?” Published forecasts for the demand for carbon fibre as the raw material for composites vary, with predicted global demand by 2020 ranging between 240,000 and 340,000 tonnes. Yet the world presently manufactures in the region of 60 million cars per year, and this will grow to more than 75 million by 2022. If, as many are predicting, there is a major switch from steel to carbon fibre in car bodies, the automotive industry alone could require up to 1.5 million tonnes of carbon fibre per year by then. “One of the key reasons for our joint venture with SGL was to establish a guaranteed supply, because in our first year we estimated we’d need at least three thousand tons and as things stand that’s about eight per cent of total global supply,” said Pohlman. “Together we will also retain a technological edge and financial competitiveness. Not only is carbon composites still a small industry, it can often be a closed shop.”

New chain An entirely new BMW processing chain has been established for manufacturing the i3 and i8 vehicles, from the raw materials through to finished car parts ready for the assembly line. The carbon fibre precursor will be manufactured in Japan

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by SGL in partnership with Mitsubishi. “We are talking about series production Ferrari’s sports cars). • Cytec Industries has announced a It will then be shipped to the new now, which starts at thirty thousand strategic collaboration with Jaguar Moses Lake plant in Washington, USA, vehicles a year, and we’ll be going above Land Rover to develop designs, which represents an investment of that. This translates to more than a million materials and manufacturing USD$100 million. concepts for the cost-effective use of It will be turned into fibres at carbon fibre parts each year.” carbon composites for automotive Moses Lake and shipped to structures. Cytec has a long history of supplying Wackersdorf in Germany where it will be processed into nonaerospace programmes, including commercial customers crimp fabrics. These will then be transported to the Lansdhut such as Boeing and Airbus, with advanced composite sister plant in Germany (and later to a new plant in Leipzig) materials. for RTM (resin transfer moulding) and further processing into • Tokyo-headquartered Teijin has this year built a pilot finished parts and components before being transferred to plant for the ultra-rapid and fully integrated mass BMW’s assembly lines. production of new carbon fibre composites. The “In Wackersdorf we also have a recycling concept,” Mr company has been developing a process which reduces Pohlman said. “We can turn all of the waste from the different the cycle times required for moulding the composite processes into nonwoven products. We would not have products to under a minute. embarked on the overall concept if this had not been in place. • Faurecia, the world’s sixth largest supplier of We have a full solution for recycling and one hundred per cent components to the automotive industry, primarily of the new i3 and i8 vehicles will be recycled. This is not only interiors, has acquired Sora Composites, a French important from a sustainability point of view, but also from manufacturer of both glass and carbon fibre composites. that of simple commercial business sense.” The parts produced by Sora plants include body and As one consequence of this development, BMW has even structural parts for both mainstream automakers such as become a member of the Bavarian Textile Manufacturers’ Renault and PSA Peugeot Citroën, as well as premium car Association. makers such as Aston Martin, Audi, Lotus and McLaren Alliances Automotive. Meanwhile, a wave of related developments and alliances In addition, the newly-formed European Thermoplastic has been announced, including: Automotive Composites consortium (eTAC) is also aiming to • Daimler AG and Japan’s Toray Industries plan to jointly promote the increased use of composites in the mass develop carbon fibre car parts to be used in Mercedesautomotive market. It comprises DTC Dutch Thermoplastic Benz cars. The first cars to use the new carbon fibre Components, Kok & Van Engelen, NLR National Aerospace composite materials manufactured at Toray’s plant in Laboratory of the Netherlands, TenCate Advanced Composites France will be the Mercedes-Benz SL-Class and this will and VIRO, who each in their own area of expertise play a mark the debut of carbon from Toray – the world’s leading role in the production and processing of composites. largest manufacturer of the fibre, currently with a global 34% market share – in commercial vehicles (discounting


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A key message from the recent What a Waste! event held in Manchester, UK, was that closer partnerships between textile recyclers, local authorities and waste management companies can play a major role in diverting greater volumes of discarded clothing and household textiles from landfill. hortening the supply chain from residents to recyclers is essential to preserving quality, minimising contamination and extracting the maximum value from the hundreds of thousands of household textiles discarded in the UK every year. Latest figures show that 350,000 tonnes of clothing are being sent to landfill in the UK each year, with a further 70,000 tonnes destined for incineration. In exploring innovative ways of diverting used clothing and textiles from landfill and generating new income sources, the one-day seminar and exhibition also emphasised the significant resource value of discarded textiles and the benefits of re-use over recycling them, particularly for global export markets. As i + g cohen ltd managing director, Elliot Cohen, pointed out: “Given that two-fifths of the world’s population will never be able to afford to buy good quality clothing, these end markets offer tremendous opportunities. Used clothing and textiles are a resource, not a waste, that can bring in valuable revenue for councils.” In his presentation on Feedstock Sources and Values, i + g cohen director, Phil Geller, reported on results from the WRAPfunded trials, conducted by i + g cohen together with Axion Consulting, which showed that 81-89% of collected clothing is reusable with little variation between established and popular collection routes, such as textile banks, door-to-door and kerbside collections. “Separation at source and sorting clothing as soon as possible after collection is key to maximising value and the amount that can subsequently be reused. Keeping it clean, dry and free from contamination is vital,” said Phil. Enabling householders to recycle their unwanted textiles along with their everyday recyclables is proving a success for Suffolk Waste Partnership (SWP), a strategic partnership of seven district councils and the county council. Every year, 7,000 tonnes of textiles in household waste end up in Suffolk landfill sites. (Suffolk is an area in the South East of the UK,


covering just over 3,800km².) SWP support manager, Rob Cole, presented a case study to show how their cost-neutral, county-wide scheme, funded by the SWP’s in-house Resource Efficiency Fund, had already collected approximately 350 tonnes since its introduction in July 2012 with no evidence to date of any adverse effect on the county’s existing methods of textiles collections, such as bring sites and charities. One of the very vocal charities at the beginning has now stated that it has also seen an increase in people donating, so the work has had a positive effect by raising the profile of recycling of textiles in general. Residents’ SWP-branded bags containing unwanted clothes are collected from the recycling bins as part of the scheduled household waste collections and then removed from the other co-mingled materials in the material recovery facility’s pre-sort cabin - potentially saving GBP£220,000 a year in landfill disposal costs. Another positive outcome is that it is also looking likely that the scheme will be cost neutral within its first year. Rob commented: “The communication campaign which accompanied our scheme’s launch has helped to boost our collection volumes. By making it easy for residents to recycle their unwanted textiles, we aim to capture more material from the residual waste bins and reduce the cost and volume of sending them to landfill.” Alan Wheeler, national liaison manager for the Textile Recycling Association, discussed the growing current and future markets for textile reuse and recycling, pointing out that 60% of used clothing collected in 2011 was reused. “Strategies are in place to encourage local authorities to start textile collections and tackle the readily-available supply of clothing that is still being thrown into the bin,” said Alan. “We have to strike a balance with charity shop collections; but it’s important to note that donations to charity shops have increased alongside the growth in kerbside collections, suggesting that these have had no impact on charity shop collections.”

… two-fifths of the world’s population will never be able to afford to buy good quality clothing…


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Presentations also featured Sander Jongerius on automatic sorting for textiles and clothes developed by Textiles4Textiles BV (T4T) and Izzie Johnston from WRAP (a UK government funded body) who examined the opportunities and challenges for ‘closing the UK textiles loop’. Sander talked about the T4T project covered in issue 2 of textiles this year but also mentioned the project with G-Star Raw which has been focused very much towards cotton recycling, especially for overstocks. They have been looking at whether the cotton could be recycled into new yarn, what they have found is that it cannot be 100% recycled, originally they used 20% but have now been able to increase this to 50%, and very positively it can compete with the cost of virgin cotton. Axion Director, Roger Morton stressed the need for collaboration throughout the supply chain, adding: “With around 60kg of textile waste being generated per UK household every year, local authorities need to develop the most efficient solutions that ultimately benefit all. There’s an ‘urban mine’ out there that will generate income that can be ploughed back into local communities.” Also on display at the event were items made from discarded denim by Fashion Design undergraduates at the University of Salford to demonstrate ‘second life’ opportunities for waste textiles and their great capacity for re-use. These included a A waterproof coat and trousers derived from waterproof coat and trousers, shredded denim was among items created denim sunglasses, toys, iPad cases by 34 Fashion Design undergraduates at and a rocking chair, showing how the University of Salford. beautiful and desirable fashion and lifestyle products can be made - or ‘upcycled’ - from used denim garments. ‘comfort zone’, adding: “It reminds them of important issues BA (Hons) Fashion Programme Leader, Bashir Aswat at surrounding our industry.” the University’s School of Art and Design explained that the “In meeting the challenge of transforming an ordinary students chose denim as a readily available, often discarded everyday fabric into an inventive and diverse range of new material with lots of potential for reinvention for the garment products that are no longer recognisable as a pair of jeans or recycling project. denim jacket, they created items which consumers would He said: “It was interesting to see the ideas that emerged want to cherish rather than throw away again.” from approaching the material in totally unexpected ways and i + g cohen ltd, whose partnership recycling schemes with the diversity of lifestyle products they created in breathing councils and waste management companies include charities, ‘new life’ into the denim jean.” kerbside and textile bank collections, supplied all the denim “The aim was to use waste denim as a raw material items for the project. resource and create new 100% sustainable and desirable The event was co-hosted by Manchester-based i + g cohen items that would overcome any negative preconceptions ltd (Textile Institute Corporate member) and resource about recycling,” added Bashir. recovery specialist Axion Consulting. Lecturer John Earnshaw, said it is inspiring for students to be met with a new challenge which takes them out of their


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textiles · issue 3/4 · 2012


he lack of effective disassembly technologies and absence of design protocols for the handling of clothing at the end of its first life have, until now, acted as barriers to a profitable, sustainable clothing operation. Developed by a consortium of UK companies, the new trademarked wear2 technology aims to meet this challenge; it is compatible with current manufacturing equipment, and provides the apparel sector with an opportunity to both enhance its competitiveness and reduce its environmental and societal burdens. According to the company incorporating wear2 technology into clothing items enables zips, buttons, fastenings, linings and other ‘contras’ that currently contaminate recycled fibre to be easily removed prior to garment recycling. Indeed, the whole garment can be engineered to literally fall apart into its component parts. This does not affect the durability of the garments though - they remain fully robust before the disassembly treatment is applied. One of the more exciting possibilities that the technology allows, is the ability to subsequently recover pure fibre from these disassembled garments. This opens the door for the apparel industry to re-use material to supplement or replace virgin fibre in new garments, thereby saving raw material costs, easing potential supply constraints and reducing environmental impact in a closed loop system. In addition, the technology also allows the re-use or repurposing of garments. For example, the corporate clothing



One of the largest problems in the apparel industry has been how to disassemble clothing at the end of its first life for further use, especially when it comes to corporate, uniform wear. But an innovation process has been developed that will enable the apparel industry to address these issues.

sector can now remove ‘tax’ tags and logos easily and inexpensively, thus eliminating the security concerns associated with the disposal of used garments. Instead of shredding, landfill or incineration, corporate-branded garments can now be de-branded for re-use, and unused items can be rebranded. The technology is the result of a three year collaboration by a consortium of British companies, supported by the Technology Strategy Board; the ‘SUSCORP project’ successfully developed a new patent-protected process capable of selectively separating seams in textiles without damaging the surrounding fabric. The company claims that by utilising the wear2 technology over 60% of the approximately 1 million tonnes of clothing landfilled every year in the UK, could potentially be reprocessed into new products, thus creating a new profit centre. This would also lead to annual CO2 emissions reduction of at least 800,000 tonnes CO2e and markedly improves resource management with substantial savings in water and energy consumption. It is hoped that the capability to disassemble garments cost-effectively will encourage the specification of more suitable fabrics and fibres based on the future extendable life cycle of the garments. Markets for single material/fabric clothing ranges can then develop with the confidence that sufficient future feedstock will exist to ensure continuity of supply.

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Denim Naturally In previous issues of textiles we have covered fabric being grown on wine, now we look at the use of wine as a way to dye denim.

talian company ITV Denim, has recently launched a new range of denim fabrics that utilise wine and its derivatives to achieve colour. ITV is a vertically integrated textile manufacturing company backed by 40 years of experience. From a technical perspective, according to ITV, the dyeing method is applicable to different fibres and yarns and can be utilised to obtain a wide range of blue and brown colours using natural products. Iron is used for etching and a solution of potassium ferrocyanide is then linked to the fibre. The wine is the basic element used to get the colour and other characteristics of solidity in the dye. Partnering with Invista and Ecoyaa to produce a range of denim, ITV contributed to the industrialisation and process control, as well as developing plans for the potential future use of the product. The new process replaces traditional synthetic indigo dyes with wine derivatives, resulting in a wide range of blue colours for dyeing yarn, fabric, and ready-made garments. ITV have acquired a worldwide, exclusive patent on this process from Ecoyaa, a Korean company specialising in


natural dyeing. The agreement will also allow ITV to distribute and market the products based under the Wine-tex brand. Ecoyaa, started as the Pam Jean Company in 2003 which specialised in hand-painted clothes, but recently decided to focus on environmentally friendly ways of dyeing and finishing of denim by utilising traditional Korean ways of dyeing. "As we focused on innovation in the denim world and collaborations with a range of partners, we immediately had confidence in the potential of the research carried out by Ecoyaa and the possibility of exploring new areas,” said Barbara Gnutti, one of the owners of ITV Denim. “We recognised the collaboration as an opportunity to complete a research and commercialisation initiative in Italy that would create totally new products and processes. These will highlight all the possible uses of Wine-tex technology, giving the product those typical ‘Made in Italy’ features that create significant added value.” Backed by a cutting edge research laboratory and years of experience in the field, ITV Denim is developing a wide range of products and processes using the new technology at its Umbrian base in Cellino Attanasio. In addition to an exciting selection of fabrics, the company also plans to eventually offer denim garments that take full advantage of the new processes features and performance. Due to the wide use of Invista’s Lycra technology in the denim industry, ITV has also produced many of the samples incorporating Lycra fibre, Lycra T400 fibre, and Lycra dualFX fabric technology. It was considered important to demonstrate the compatibility of the new Wine-tex technology with other high quality ingredients and processes. Given ITV Denim's reputation within the industry for producing high quality, innovative fabrics, Invista had immediate interest in collaborating with them on this project. “We are very pleased to work with ITV to develop denim fabrics with Lycra fibre that use these new innovative dyeing processes. We are excited about the initial results on this project and look forward to continued collaboration with ITV,” said Federica Albiero, European marketing manager for Invista. ITV is positioning the Wine-tex brand on the market as a focus for innovation, and as a stimulus to the creativity that has always been a feature of the denim sector, opening a path to new horizons.


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for accelerated prod Product development is an essential process for any nonwoven manufacturer. While new products can deliver excellent commercial returns the process itself is resource intensive and can be very risky. One method that nonwovens manufacturers can use to improve their chances of success and to reduce cost is to make use of mathematical modelling techniques. This article, written by Carla Wilson, the product development services manager for Linc Research and Roy Wilson, a statistician at the University of New South Wales School of Mathematics and Statistics, both in Australia, covers some of the benefits that nonwoven manufacturers gain from using mathematical modelling in the product development process and outlines what they consider to be the major steps in developing successful models for nonwoven performance prediction. 26

n 2009 Linc Research was commissioned by Australian nonwoven manufacturer TSF to assist in the development of an insulation product range. The brief was to assist TSF to deliver a commercial product range to the market within three months. To achieve this goal Linc Research developed a theoretical heat transfer model based on a system of partial differential equations and provided a set of initial manufacturing and fibre inputs for initial trials. Laboratory heat transfer test results on the initial trials were used to tune the model parameters and the improved model was used to provide an updated set of manufacturing and fibre inputs. Within three months a set of commercial products was available for sale to the market. This is just one example of how nonwoven manufacturers are using mathematical modelling to achieve their development goals.


Benefits of mathematical modelling for nonwovens product development Accelerated product development Mathematical modelling can greatly speed up the product development process resulting in reduced R&D expenditure and an earlier product launch. A mathematical model links manufacturing inputs such as machine settings and fibre inputs to product performance characteristics. Understanding this link allows us to test product scenarios and identify product opportunities that have the greatest likelihood of commercial success. Once a potential product has been identified we can use our model to iterate towards an optimal product solution. Typically this process involves first specifying a model structure and initial model parameters based on the scientific literature followed by updating the model parameters (and possibly the model structure) using manufacturing trial data. This iterative process is efficient and allows us to minimise the number of trials required for a product development program which results in faster product development, reduced R&D costs and optimal products.

Adaptive products The market conditions for a given nonwoven product evolve dynamically over time. Changes to market conditions can take many forms including: changes to raw material costs; changes to performance standards and changes to the competitive environment. Consequently, product range adaptability is an important feature of any nonwoven product range. If we have a mathematical model linking

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oduct development manufacturing inputs to performance then the knowledge encoded within this model can be used to adapt products to changing commercial conditions. For example if the price of a fibre increases then the proportion of alternative fibres within a product can be increased in order to maintain product margin. This change in fibre mix may require other adjustments to be made in order to maintain performance characteristics. If there is significant model uncertainty associated with the model prediction then a design of experiments approach can be used to improve the model within the manufacturing input range of interest.

Quantifying development risk A mathematical modelling approach allows us to identify optimal manufacturing inputs and equally importantly to quantify the uncertainty surrounding model predictions. An understanding of predictive uncertainty is an important input into the strategic product development decision process. For example if the uncertainty surrounding model predictions is low then it may be possible to move directly to a semicommercial product whereas if the uncertainty is high then it may be necessary to carry out further trials to reduce uncertainty to an acceptable level.

Outline of the model development process The general approach to model development is to define a probabilistic model that is based on a review of the scientific literature, discussions with relevant experts and the results of investigations of data patterns using statistical learning techniques. This process is set out in the following steps: 1 Review the scientific literature to gain an understanding of the physical processes and their governing equations. 2 Consult with relevant experts. For nonwovens this would include textiles scientists, engineers, chemists and physicists. 3 Analyse available data using statistical learning and pattern recognition techniques to identify and understand complex relationships, non-linearity’s and other structural features. 4 Define a probabilistic model that incorporates the above information sources. 5 Estimate the parameters of the model and check the model assumptions. 6 Determine a method for assessing predictive uncertainty. 7 Incorporate the mathematical model within a software decision tool. 8 Validate and update the model as new data becomes available.

An optimisation surface for the R-value (a measure of insulation performance) of a nonwoven product with a particular blend. The left panel shows how the expected R value changes with product weight and thickness. The right panel shows a measure of uncertainty for model predictions across the weight and thickness range. The model is based on the solution of a set of partial differential equations and is part of the Linc Quadrant software.

Utilise the scientific literature Much scientific research has been undertaken into the performance of nonwoven textiles and this research continues at research centres and universities throughout the world. A great deal of this research is available through scientific journals such as the Journal of The Textile Institute and in other Textile Institute publications such as Modelling and Predicting Textile Behaviour and the Handbook of Nonwovens. When modelling a particular performance characteristic a study of the literature can provide useful information on variable scaling, the structural form of the model such as non-linear and asymptotic relationships and the distributional form of model uncertainty. This knowledge is particularly important within the product development context as typically the aim is to obtain predictions outside of the existing performance data.

Drawing on advanced statistical learning techniques Research in statistical learning and artificial intelligence has provided a large set of techniques for describing relationships within large complex data sets. The literature in the area is vast but typically it is seen as an inter-disciplinary area that involves statisticians, computer scientists and applied mathematicians. In our experience statistical learning techniques are very useful for finding complex nonlinear relationships and variable interactions within relatively large data sets. As every manufacturing process is unique – these techniques can be used to uncover relationships within the data that may not be referred to in the literature, known by experts or easily identifiable using conventional modelling


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techniques. Because the range of techniques is large and complex it is difficult for practitioners unfamiliar with the area to identify an appropriate technique. Linc’s experience suggests that methods such as stochastic gradient boosting and Gaussian process regression are a good place to start. (Interested readers may like to look at the book Elements of Statistical Learning – which provides an excellent and accessible introduction to these methods.)

Assessing predictive uncertainty Any prediction from a model will involve some level of uncertainty, the level of which is dependent upon the particular manufacturing inputs for which the prediction is made and the individual characteristics of the model. For example, when obtaining predictions for manufacturing inputs that are within or close to the existing data used to develop the model, then it would be expected to have less predictive uncertainty than when obtaining predictions for manufacturing inputs that are far from the existing data. For product development purposes it is typical to be interested in making predictions outside of the existing data (extrapolative prediction). When making these kinds of predictions the uncertainty is dependent upon how well the functional form of the model represents reality. This in turn is dependent upon the level of knowledge of the physical processes involved and how well this knowledge was incorporated within the model. For example due to the fact that heat transfer is a well understood physical process surprisingly accurate predictions can be made for input measures that are quite far from the data used to develop the model. For some models the physical process is not well

understood and the model functional form is obtained primarily from the data. In these cases there is no particular reason to expect that the functional form of the model remains consistent when moving away from the data used to generate the model. When this is the case the usual model uncertainty measures can be misleading. In these cases a useful measure of predictive uncertainty can be obtained from calculating the distance of the manufacturing inputs for a prediction from the data used to develop the model. For the Linc Quadrant system a weighted mahalanobis distance measure is used together with a clustering algorithm to achieve a consistent measure of predictive uncertainty. This software program allows manufacturers to obtain predictions for a wide range of nonwoven performance characteristics including: heat transfer, acoustics, permeability, compression recovery and tensile strength. Below. A screenshot of the heat-flow model from the Linc Quadrant software. Yellow cells show model inputs and orange cells show where model outputs appear. The grey buttons are used to start the estimation algorithm.

A screenshot of the acoustics model from the Linc Quadrant software. Yellow cells show model inputs and orange cells show where model outputs appear. The grey buttons are used to start the estimation algorithm.


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Lowering the overall weight of vehicles, while at the same time introducing new and more environmentallyfriendly materials, are two of the current preoccupations for car manufacturers and their suppliers. Adrian Wilson takes a look at new fabric developments for the automotive sector.

More haste, less weight and waste here are now, for example, more than 40 applications for nonwoven fabrics inside cars, equating to over 35 square metres of flat textile surfaces – although visible materials account for just 10% of this total.


New solutions

properties at half the weight of competing materials has now led to its extensive use in vehicles. A recent example is the floor carpet of the new Mitsubishi Outlander, a midsize crossover vehicle launched in Japan in October this year. This was developed by Hayashi Telempu Corporation, a Japanese manufacturer of interior automotive parts, with V-Lap adopted as the sound-absorbing material for the carpet’s backing. V-Lap materials have a vertically oriented nonwoven structure which vastly increases their insulating properties while keeping their weight low. Ford and General Motors are other manufacturers now employing it in their vehicles. Teijin is also developing VLap as a heat-insulating material for use in next-generation houses.

In addition to their conventional uses as filters, as acoustic and thermal insulation components, floorcoverings, interior mats, panel and linings, nonwovens are now replacing PU foam in seating and back rests. In electric vehicles, they are offering new solutions as the separators for the essential and considerable batteries required and they are even providing new protective functionality on the exterior of some of the latest cars. Recycled polyester The chief reasons for using nonwovens are their low The use of polyester weight, their favourable cost nonwovens has also opened and the numerous technical up many opportunities for solutions and design options using recycled fibres. There they make possible. Colour has been a tremendous fastness, dimensional stability, take-up of recycled polyester flame-retardancy and in general and the forecasts non-fade properties can be are that between 2010 and guaranteed, along with 2015 the amount being used strength, elasticity, The undershield on the latest Ford Focus is a new success story for nonwovens across industry will have washability, dirt repellancy as exterior car components. increased by 400%. and malleability. Over half of the polyester staple fibre now used in Europe is already recycled, and there has been a huge boost too, in North America, with Freudenberg, V-Lap for example – the largest manufacturer of nonwovens globally – now recycling more than 377 million plastic drink bottles each One specifically engineered material finding rapid take-up year. This is enough to circle the world two-and-a-half times if with car manufacturers is V-Lap, a lightweight, soundlaid end to end. absorbing polyester nonwoven produced by Teijin of Japan. Freudenberg Nonwovens, based in Durham in North V-Lap was first employed as a cushioning material for Carolina, US, has recently expanded in response to demand for seating and bedding but its superior sound-absorbing


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NF EP is another Johnson Controls AE product which has been used by BMW since 2003. It consists of a natural fibre mat made of flax or hemp imbued with epoxy resin and afterwards compression moulded using a high-temperature tool. It is Exterior parts used as a carrier for covered door panels and can be Heavyweight nonwoven laminated with TPO, textiles materials are also now being or leather, with its key used as undershields as a rebenefits being low area placement for the heavy PVC weight and high mechanical layer which was traditionally properties. applied to the exterior floor Then there is Wood-Stock, panel of cars. Their adoption which is an extruded follows widespread success thermoplastic nonwoven with nonwoven-based extesheet based on polyolefin and rior wheel arch liners. wood flour. The mat is heated In addition to a considerin an infrared oven and able reduction in weight at a compression moulded in a comparable price, the advanlow-temperature tool. It is tages of nonwovens in this role include: The Johnson Controls ComforThin seat draws on the mattress technology of the employed as the carrier for covered door panels, armrests • Reduced drag resistance. UK’s Harrison Spinks. and inserts by Fiat, Lancia • Improved noise and Alfa Romeo, with these adhesive-free products benefiting insulation. from low shrinkage and low humidity absorption. • Reduced spray formation when driving in rain. In another development, by substituting synthetic and • Optimised suitability for recycling and easy glass nonwovens with hemp, flax and kenaf alternatives, dismantling. Johnson Controls has introduced the Ecobond headliner • Reduced emissions during manufacture. which is easier to handle than competing products and meets • Waste-free, closed-loop production due to the direct performance requirements in respect of acoustic absorption. feeding of remnants back into the manufacturing process. its Lutradur ECO recycled automotive floorcovering and carpet materials, while Freudenberg Vitech, based in Hopkinsville, Kentucky, US, is employing recycled PET for headliners, sun visors, seat backs and packaging trays.

Mattress transfer

Carrier components – especially load floors in luggage compartments – must withstand a lot of strain. Consequently the demands on the materials, from which these c o m p o n e n t s a r e manufactured is very high. The nonwovens for this component are distinguished by their high rigidity, but are considerably lighter than competitive products. In addition to Ford, Audi, BMW, Volkswagen and even Porsche have now switched to nonwovens for this component.

Meanwhile, the 2012 ÖkoGlobe in the category ‘Resources, Materials and Process Optimization’ was awarded to the company for its new ComforThin car seat developed in co-operation with the UK luxury mattress specialist Harrison Spinks. “Johnson Controls has successfully transferred lightweight and recyclable materials from other industries to an automotive product,” said Professor F e r d i n a n d D u d e n h ö f f e r, automotive expert and spokesperson for the ÖkoGlobe jury. “This seat creates additional weight Natural fibres saving potential through The use of natural fibre The Ecobond headliner substitutes glass and synthetic nonwovens with flax and s h o r t e r b o d y w o r k , t h u s reducing fuel consumption.” nonwovens, often as the hemp alternatives. The thin profile offers passengers a high level of comfort, substrate in composite parts, is also increasing, and Johnson with conventional urethane foam pads replaced by pocketed Controls Automotive Experience (AE) has been a pioneer in coil springs from the bedding industry which are buffered and this field. secured by nonwoven casings and insulation. The product is Products include FaserTec, consisting of coconut fibre said to be 100% recyclable and results in a weight reduction nonwovens in natural latex-bonded composites which is used of up to 20%. in the seat backs and head rests of Maybach, Mercedes-Benz Its thin profile creates more space for passengers, and Volkswagen cars. These can be entirely recycled in a particularly in smaller vehicles. closed loop process and in accordance with the European End-of-Life Vehicle Directive.


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Sustainable Materials The Materials Sustainability Index (MSI) was originally developed by Nike and was the result of more than eight years of materials research and analysis of a wide range of processed materials, including textiles and footwear component materials. he Nike MSI was made publicly available to stimulate an open discussion about how best to evaluate materials and inspire companies, consultants, materials suppliers and academics to release additional material data for the benefit of all. Nike has now entrusted the further development and impartial editing of the MSI to improve collective data, to the Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC) providing them with access to all Nike MSI documentation, worksheets, primary data and algorithms. The SAC then commissioned an independent Technical Review Committee led by Duke University to assess underlying data and methodology. The Technical Review Committee, including leading academics in the fields of LCA, materials assessment and sustainable systems analysis, performed a technical review of the Nike MSI. They submitted a report to the SAC with critical, important and operational findings and recommendations and Nike updated the MSI accordingly. MSI is a cradle-to-gate index informed by life cycle assessment (LCA) derived inventory data to engage designers and the global supply chain for apparel and footwear products in environmental sustainability. This summer the membership of the SAC agreed to incorporate the updated materials index as part of the Higg Index to help product teams select materials with lower environmental impacts, as reflected by better scores on MSI. It is important to remember that MSI is not an LCA tool nor is it intended to be a substitute for LCA studies. Rather, it is a tool that complements – and is improved by – traditional process LCA tools, data and methodologies to help product designers make informed, real-time decisions about potential environmental impacts of materials choices in the product creation process. With Nike MSI’s public release, the plan is to populate a ‘federated wiki’ with materials data, sources, algorithms and documentation and hand it over to SAC as the trusted editor. A ‘federated wiki’ enables a unified view of data and content from diverse owners. As more footwear and apparel companies have an opportunity to use, customise and share materials data, a ‘federated wiki’ becomes another mechanism to promote data transparency and collaboration across the apparel and footwear industry for systemic improvement.


How is it scored? Each MSI material score is derived using life cycle inventory (LCI) data that tracks material impacts for each indicator from ‘cradle to gate’. The cradle-to-gate life cycle spans the origin of raw materials to a finished textile or footwear component (including raw material processing and pre-manufacturing and post-manufacturing processing) ready to be shipped to a product manufacturing facility.

What impact areas are covered? Four environmental impact areas and thirteen individual indicators are covered within the environmental impact areas: • Chemistry – Carcinogenity – Acute Toxicity – Chronic Toxicity – Reproductive Toxicity and Endocrine Disruption • Energy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Intensity – Energy Intensity – GHG Intensity • Water and Land Use Intensity – Water Intensity – Land Use Intensity • Physical Waste – Hazardous – Municipal Solid Waste – Industrial – Recyclable/Compostable – Mineral

MSI Scoring MSI assigns a score to each material calculated from an evaluation of the environmental impact areas using a representative supply chain. To reward incremental improvement, MSI uses a mathematical function to transform Energy and GHG Intensity, Water and Land Use Intensity and Physical Waste data into a percentile score for each indicator. For Chemistry indicators, MSI uses a matrix developed by Nike combining an exposure assessment with a human health hazard evaluation of chemical substances across the cradleto-gate life cycle identified through research on origin materials, major agricultural chemicals for natural-origin materials and major intermediates. With the launch of the MSI Federated Wiki anyone will be able to upload information, ensuring that the most up-to-date information is available on all materials. It is hoped that a version will be available for public review in the summer of 2013. To see further information and look at how the Wiki would work go to:


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One of the fair’s highlights was a series of fashion shows incorporating local creativity with exhibitors’ fabrics. Popular designers, such as Arthur Lam and Ranee K were invited to create runway fashion using fabrics submitted by exhibitors. Arthur Lam said that his collection was inspired by the ‘Roaring 20’s,’ taking a twist of art deco and reinterpreting the genre for 2013. For him, working closely with fabric suppliers helps improve his collections. “Interstoff helps designers to get a firsthand look at fabric trends and let them work closer with the mills, in order for them to be able to better express each upcoming season’s trends.” This image and those captioned “AL” are from the Arthur Lam fashion show.


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CENTRE OF ACTIVITY October brought together the textile industry in Hong Kong, where several events took place, with Interstoff Asia Essential and the Textile Exchange, Sustainable Textiles Conference running parallel to each other, followed by the Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC) membership meetings.

or the first time, Messe Frankfurt collaborated with the Textile Exchange and Ecotextile News, in organising the Sustainable Textiles Conference. Having the conference alongside the fair brought together international buyers and professionals in Hong Kong, who gave positive feedback on having the conference and the fair take place at the same time. The overseas conference audience was eager to find out what the fair could offer and agreed that the collaboration created strong synergies. Susanna Perez, director of marketing South Europe of Lenzing, based in Spain, commented: “The conference created an opportunity for the growth of ideas with the industry’s professionals. It’s an ideal networking occasion, so it’s definitely a good idea to have both events together. The exchange brings key brands and retailers, who will also visit the fair.” The autumn edition of the 2012 Interstoff Asia Essential welcomed 178 exhibitors and 6,527 visitors worldwide. The three-day fair has developed a focus on fabric trends, specialising on sustainability as well as a wide assortment of functional fabrics. Wendy Wen, director for Trade Fairs, Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd was satisfied with the results of the fair, she noted: “As one of Asia’s longest standing textile fairs,


Interstoff Asia Essential continues to serve as a key platform for networking and knowledge exchange for the industry. Visitors and exhibitors are especially impressed by the focus on sustainability, design originality and the quality of the fair.” Working with official eco partners, Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS), and eco certifiers including Control Union Certification, IMO and SGS, the concept of sustainability was further enhanced with the specially designed area ‘Eco-Zone’, showcasing environmentally conscious products. For visitors a labeling system allowed them to understand the ecocredentials of each fabric and easily locate the exhibitors manufacturing the products. “I didn’t know about the labeling system before coming to the fair and I think it’s huge,” said Ms Bahar Shahpar, Sustainability Consultant and Brand Manager of Guilded, also a speaker at the seminar ‘Sustainable Fashion Design: Values and Trend’. She added: “When we’ve attended shows in the west, we haven’t seen anything like it before. So we have to ask each and every supplier. I’d certainly like to see this labeling system more broadly used.” Reflecting on Messe Frankfurt’s value of originality, two eco fashion designers were sponsored to attend the fair and showcase their creations at the Designers’ Studio. Sean Watson from Pure Pod Design believed that the trip extended his business network with sustainable fabric suppliers. Tarra Shaylor, designer at T Shay agreed and believed that China could play an important role in pushing sustainable fashion. “China is a big fabric producer. If they are leading the way to sustainable fabrics, then the rest of the world would have to follow the trend.” A special Research and Education Zone was also set up to educate visitors and industry leaders on environmental impacts throughout the textile supply chain with contributions from organisations, including the Hong Kong Research Institute of Textiles and Apparels (HKRITA), China Water Risk, Greenpeace, Reset Carbon and Redress. HKRITA showed many, commercialisation technologies including; an electrolytic ozone spray finishing system for denim wear; Photos left: The Research & Education Zone. Roy Man, the representative from HKRITA praised the arrangement of the specially designed zone. “It is great to have a designated display zone to promote HKRITA. The open area is more eye-catching, inviting, attractive and well decorated. Visitors are more willing to come into the area to touch and feel the fabrics, as well as ask questions and pick up leaflets, generating more interest and achieving the educational purpose.”


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shape memory materials production and finishing technology; green and durable flame retardant finish; a sprain-free device for sport shoes; and an IT system for smart fashion sales forecasting. The highest number of visitors for the autumn edition of Interstoff were from China, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Turkey, the UK and the US, with a significant increase from the US and Germany. The partnership of Messe Frankfurt collaborating with the Textile Exchange and Ecotextile News, for the Sustainable Textile Conference created successful synergies with many speakers at the conference also being part of the display areas within the fair.



As an industry whether we care about the environment or not, it is vital to remember the importance of water. Given that water is currently undervalued, water scarcity and pollution are not only environmental risks but fundamental business risks that affect the bottom-line. The lack of water could stifle future economic growth and threaten stability. Our economy works on water, experts have projected that if business continues as usual, the supply of water will not be able to meet the demand for water by 2030. The OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) estimates that hundreds of millions of Chinese are drinking water contaminated with inorganic pollutants such as arsenic and excessive fluoride, as well as toxins from untreated factory wastewater, inorganic agricultural Water scarcity chemicals and leeching landfill waste. According to a national survey, about 25% of over 1,000 source areas of drinking One of the hard hitting presentations at both the Textile water nationwide do not meet the national water quality Exchange conference and also the SAC event was covering standard. In rural areas, around 300 million people rely on water, given by Debra Tan from China Water Risk, a nonunsafe drinking water. profit initiative dedicated to raising awareness of water risks. Debra took the audience through many aspects associated Debra explained that more than three-quarters of the surface with water issues but key to her presentation was the water flowing through China’s urban areas is considered realisation that many of the regions we rely on for textile and unsuitable for drinking or fishing. apparel production are also the driest regions. Debra also pointed out that if we continue with 2009 Water Use Water Demand by Sector (billion m3) a ‘business as usual’ attitude, by 2030 we will Ecological 2% This is 2.6x 900 have a 199 bn m³ shortfall. 2009 municipal use 818 Municipal 13% In comparison to prices in other countries 800 water is very cheap in China, tariffs have been 133 199 bn m3 700 667 rising, and water price hikes are undoubtedly Industry 23% SHORT on the horizon. 88 586 600 554 265 The World Bank forecasts that if present 75 2030 Supply 67 500 water quality and quantity trends are not 194 Municipal 139 129 reversed, by 2020 there will be 30 million 400 Industry environmental refugees in China fleeing water Agriculture 300 stress. Additionally in a recent report published by the 2030 Water Resources Group (WRG) it Ecological 200 Agriculture 62% 358 372 385 420 619 is estimated that by 2030 under an average economic growth scenario and if no efficiency 100 gains are assumed, global water requirements 0 will grow by approximately 53%, from 4,500 2005 2009 2015 2030 2030 Supply billion m³ today to 6,900 billion m³. This is 40% 18 years to 2030 above current accessible and reliable supply. Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China, China Statistical Yearbook 2010; 2030 Resources Group, ‘Charting Our Water Future’, 2009

Margin Erosion Tariffs within China have been rising, but given availability is water still undervalued? Water Tariffs (USD/m3)


Asia excluding China

Rest of the world

Using Singapore as an example, major cities in China could be looking at a 3 - 5 fold increase in tariffs

Chinese industry uses 4 - 10 times more water per unit of production DENMARK 15 Source: China Water Risk







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Hong Kong - centre of activity

Trend area

Labeling system shows eco-credentials of fabrics

Business without consequences


Other presentations during the conference included an opening Keynote by Lord Peter Melchett, policy director, Soil Association, UK, titled, ‘Getting Back to Basics – Why are we Doing this in the First Place?’ where he talked about the concept and business case for sustainability and how it is becoming a standard piece of corporate life. But he also stressed that we must never lose sight of why environmental and social pioneers have said “No” to business as usual, to business without consequences. Reiner Hengstmann, global director of PUMA.Safe, PUMA, Germany, then went on to talk about how finance is no longer the unsexy but necessary function of old. He talked about the PUMA Profit and Loss accounting system and how important it is that we learn how taking responsibility for all costs of doing business and assigning costs to natural resources can reduce both risk and costs while reaching new heights of innovation and partnerships.

And the final keynote of the first day was appropriately a joint presentation covering collaboration. Jason Kibbey, executive director, Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC), US and Anderson Lee, vice chairman, Sustainable Fashion Consortium, Hong Kong talked about the importance of collaboration and that no one can solve the current sustainability challenges alone. Through the development of truly collaborative approaches involving public, private, civil and non-profit sectors, the industry can drive change, work to develop a common language and scalable solutions that can ultimately create a space where business strategies and environmental and social equity coexist. The SAC’s vision is to have an apparel and footwear industry that produces no unnecessary environmental harm and has a positive impact on the people and communities associated with its activities. It was founded by a group of sustainability leaders from global apparel and footwear




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Trend area

Trend area

companies who recognise that addressing our industry’s current social and environmental challenges are both a business imperative and an opportunity. Through multistakeholder engagement, the SAC seeks to lead the industry toward a shared vision of sustainability built upon a common approach for measuring and evaluating apparel and footwear product sustainability performance, that will spotlight priorities for action, and opportunities for technological innovation. The current focus of the SAC is the development and support of the Higg Index: a self-assessment tool designed to measure the sustainability impacts of apparel and footwear products. The Higg Index came out of the Eco Index which was developed jointly by the European Outdoor Group and the Outdoor Industry Association, US, with input from many brands and organisations including the Sustainable Fashion Consortium. The Higg Index design principles are transparent, credible, create business value, and help with collaborative development. More information and a downloadable version of the Index are available at: Anderson closed the joint presentation stating “Change is always happening but the velocity of change is occurring more

rapidly. However, collaboration will bring us together and we will tackle it appropriately”. Other presentations and workshops covered standards, end of life and recycling, the Greenpeace Detox campaign, the Nike Materials Sustainability Index (covered on page 31 in this issue) and the conference closed with a presentation from Ed Gillespie one of the founders of Futerra who talked about how we need to learn to talk about the great things we are doing to ensure the sustainability of our industry. So key messages from all three events were; collaboration is key to ensuring we succeed in tackling the challenges of sustainability; that as an industry we need to act quickly to ensure resources are still available for future generations; and how as an industry we need to weave together compelling sustainability communications for positive change.




The next Interstoff Asia Essential Spring will take place in Hong Kong, 13-15 March 2013 and the Autumn edition will take place 7-9 October 2013. The next Textile Exchange, Textile Sustainability Conference will take place in Istanbul, Turkey, 11-13 November 2013. AL


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TI News Around the world with The Textile Institute The 88th Textile Institute World Conference Bridging Innovation, Research and Enterprise 15-17 May 2012, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia The 88th Textile Institute World Conference took place in May 2012 in Shah Alam, Malaysia and was hosted by the Faculty of Applied Sciences and the Faculty of Art & Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM). Shah Alam is the state capital of Selangor, and is located about 25 kilometres west of the country's capital, Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia is a bubbling, bustling melting pot of races and religions where Malays, Indians, Chinese and many other ethnic groups live together in peace and harmony. The conference was held at the Concorde Hotel, with its stunning views of the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Mosque more commonly named the ‘Blue Mosque’ with its distinctive blue and silver dome it is Malaysia’s largest mosque and is simply breathtaking at night. Delegates gathered on the first afternoon for a reception of ‘mocktails’ and food on the hotels ‘Pavilion Terrace’. The reception had a relaxed, social feel which set the tone for the rest of the conference. The next morning 150 delegates from across the globe assembled in anticipation of the opening and keynote sessions. Prof Jamil Salleh CText FTI, Conference Chairman and Professor at UiTM welcomed participants and presented VIP guest Dato Prof Jimmy Choo OBE with a traditional Songket which he had made personally for the occasion. The conference was then officially declared open with ceremonial banging of a gong by Textile Institute World President, Dr Peter Dinsdale CText FTI. Next to take to the stage was VIP guest speaker Dato Prof Jimmy Choo OBE. Mention ‘Jimmy Choo’ and elegant, exquisitely crafted shoes come to mind. Famed for making shoes for the late Princess Diana his beautiful creations have adorned the feet of royalty, celebrities and pop stars. The Malaysian born designer was interviewed by Dr Julie King of De Montfort University (full interview is featured in textiles, issue 2 2012).

The keynote sessions then began with Dr Dieter Eichinger, vice president and general manager of Business Unit Textile Fibers at Lenzing AG. Dr Eichinger delivered his presentation on the ‘Vision of Cellulose Fibres in 2020’. He explained that man-made cellulose fibres have stepped out of a low performing alternative to cotton to an attractive raw material for sustainable as well comfort reasons. Looking into macroeconomics as well as innovation platforms there will be new opportunities for specifically Tencel in new applications. Lenzing AG is leader and globally operating cellulose fibre company in the field of man-made cellulosic fibres comprising viscose, modal and Tencel (Lyocell). Dr Dieter Eichinger studied business administration and technical chemistry at Johannes Kepler University in Linz. In 1985 he received his PhD in the field of organic chemistry and subsequently began his professional career conducting research at Lenzing AG. From 1987 to 1994 he was head of various research groups and played a significant role in the development of the new specialty fibre lyocell (today Tencel). In 1994 he assumed responsibility for strategic marketing and the global sales development for this new type of fibre. In 2004 he was promoted to the position of marketing manager for Business Unit Textile Fibres. From 2007 to 2008 Dr Dieter Eichinger managed the Corporate Strategy Department which is directly assigned to the chief executive officer. Since 2009 he has been responsible for the Business Unit Textiles which is the biggest and accounts for more than half of turnover for the Lenzing Group. The second keynote presentation ‘Can We Predict the Future by Using Textile Sector Studies’ was presented by Dr Peter Dinsdale CText FTI, World President of The Textile Institute. Dr Dinsdale is a specialist in the fibre, textile and garment sectors. His 48 year career has encompassed a wide range of international experiences in textiles 37

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development, production and marketing across most textile processes and all major fibres. He recently retired from being principal industry specialist (Textiles) at the World Bank/IFC where he worked on the selection, appraisal and supervision of a variety of fibre and textile investments projects in emerging markets. He is still retained in an advisory capacity to IFC. Dr Dinsdale is currently chairman of Trigon Diligence Ltd, a London based consultancy, and visiting professor at the School of Materials, University of Manchester, UK. His long career began at Courtaulds Ltd, a large international group with broad interests in fibres and textiles. After 10 years with Courtaulds he moved to David Whitehead & Sons Ltd and worked extensively on the African continent on assessing and establishing new textile mills. Subsequently he joined Platt Saco Lowell Inc, a textile machine producer, and became technical sales director. In the 1980s he was vice-president of Geerdes International in the USA before joining the World Bank in 1993. Dr Dinsdale is a Fellow of The Textile Institute, a Fellow of the Institute of Physics, a Fellow of the British Institute of Management and a member of The Textile Institute Council. He holds a PhD in Textile Engineering and a BSc (Hons) in Applied Physics. Last but not least was the final keynote presentation, this time delivered by Mr D R Mehta, National President, Textile Association India (TIA). Mr D R Mehta CText FTI BSc (Textile) PGCBM FIE FTA and Chartered Engineer provided a keynote address on ‘Textile Competitiveness in an Integrated World’. Mr D R Mehta has more than 43 years working experience in India and overseas in textiles, embroideries, administration and liaison with government authorities. He is ex-chairman cum managing director, NTC (Government of India) and Hakoba Embroideries and has been associated with Eurotex Industries & Export Ltd for 5 years. He was awarded the FTA in 1992 and the Service Gold Medal in 2000 by The Textile Association India (TAI). He is President of TITOBA (West Zone) and President Emeritus of TAI Mumbai Unit. TAI is the foremost largest textile professional body of India and was established in 1939 with 126 founding members. Today the TAI has more than 22,000 members with 27 affiliated units, spread throughout the length and breadth of the country. The association is now marching towards its platinum 38 textiles

jubilee. Mr Mehta has been the national president of TAI since 2009 and under his leadership the association achieved the ISO 9001:2008 certificate. With his dynamic, excellent and focused leadership TAI introduced a world textile conference in Mumbai, India and witnessed one of the most successful and well attended international events to take place in this form. He has been re-elected as National President for the term 2011-2013. After an impressive lunch the main body of the conference got under way with over 90 presentations across 4 parallel sessions, covering 17 subject areas taking place over two days. The conference and awards dinner took place on the evening of the second day and guests were treated to a spectacular display of traditional Malaysian costume, dance and cuisine. Every guest was presented with a ‘Bunga Telur’ a symbol of fertility traditionally distributed at Malaysian weddings as the ceremony’s token. The following medals, awards and professional qualifications were presented. Institute Medal for Design Dato' Professor Jimmy Choo OBE The Institute Medal for Design was inaugurated in 1971 to recognise professional designers or groups of designers who have devoted themselves to and made substantial contributions in the field of textile design using textile materials or design management. Candidates' contributions are assessed not only for aesthetic appeal but also for commercial success. For 2011 Dato' Professor Jimmy Choo OBE was awarded the Institute Medal for Design. Professor Choo is recognised far and wide across the globe as Jimmy Choo. Since establishing his couture label in 1986, Choo’s made-to-order designs have included an extensive range of hand beaded; hand stitched and personalised shoes ranging from slippers, sandals, mules to boots. In 1988, Vogue ran an 8 page spread featuring Jimmy Choo’s creations teamed with clothes from various British dress designers. This affirmed his status as a shoe designer and master craftsman and Jimmy Choo has never looked back since. In 1996, building upon his already strong presence in Britain and his growing international reputation, Jimmy Choo launched his ready-towear line with the late Mr Tom Yeardye.

He subsequently sold his share of the ready-to-wear business in November 2001 to Equinox Luxury Holdings Ltd entrusting them to carry on his hallmark of comfort and elegance to the luxury goods market, whilst he himself continued to operate his couture line. Today, Jimmy Choo’s presence is forefront in two main areas, namely, at his couture house on Connaught Street (off Hyde Park), where he still actively works with his team in the design and production of bespoke handmade shoes bearing the Jimmy Choo Couture label; and in his firm support for education, as Ambassador for Footwear Education at the London College of Fashion and a spokesperson for the British Council in their promotion of British Education to foreign students. The Textile Institute Companion Membership 2011 Helen Rowe CText FTI This award was instituted in 1956 and is limited to 50 living members of the Institute. The status of Companion Member of the Institute may be granted by Council to any member who, having attained the age of 40, has substantially advanced the general interests of the textile industry. Helen Rowe CText FTI retired acting head of department for the Department of Clothing Design and Technology at Manchester Metropolitan University. Helen Rowe has been awarded this honour as the Council of the Institute believe she has substantially advanced the general interests of the textile industry worldwide. Beginning her career in industry as a textile technologist, Helen Rowe rose to the position of laboratory manager with Courtaulds Ltd before moving into higher education and transferring both an enthusiastic thirst for the knowledge of textiles and industrial experience to successive cohorts of students studying at educational institutions across the Northwest of England. Progressively, Helen taught at Oldham College of Technology, Bolton Institute of Higher Education, Lancashire Polytechnic and the Manchester Metropolitan University where she is currently head of the department of Clothing Design & Technology, the largest provider of Clothing Technology degree programmes in the UK. There, Helen provides outstanding leadership for the teaching of over 1500 students of Clothing Technology, a dynamic group of researchers and the provision of expert training and services to the clothing and fashion-related businesses

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In Jim

and industry. Before taking overall responsibility in the head of department role, Helen led the design, development and delivery of innovative short programmes for textile and fashionrelated businesses, in-house and distance learning degree programmes and was responsible for the highly successful taught Masters provision within the Department of Clothing Design & Technology at Hollings. Helen was responsible for ensuring that all undergraduate and taught Masters Programmes were recognised professionally by being accredited by The Textile Institute. In 2011 Helen celebrated an incredible 40 years as a member of The Textile Institute with her husband Trevor Rowe from the School of Textile Studies at Bolton University. A Chartered Textile Technologist since 1979, Helen Rowe is an active, committed member of the Institute and Fellow of The Textile Institute since 2003. She is Chair and a long-serving member of the Diplomas Committee of The Textile Institute and of the Manchester and Cheshire Section of the Textile Institute holding the position of Vice-Chair. Honorary Fellowship Heinz Bachmann First established in 1928, this is the highest honour that the Institute can award to an individual member in recognition of personal creativity and the advancement of knowledge achieved over many years. It covers all occupational areas of the Institute's work, including science, technology, marketing and management. Heinz Bachmann, born in 1942 as a son and descendent of a Swiss cotton spinning mill director in the famous town Uster, it was obvious that he would pursuit on the textile entrepreneurial roots of his father by getting an appropriate education in textile engineering at the University of Reutlingen, Germany. Heinz Bachmann joined The Textile Institute on 1 January 1979 being aware of its influence and credibility in the textile industry. But he never actually applied for a professional qualification although he was invited to. Consequently he also became a member of the Swiss Section of The Textile Institute. Heinz Bachmann was chairman of the Swiss Textile Machinery Association (Swissmem) Zurich for 10 years and board member of CEMATEX. He also served as board member of ITMF for

several years. Heinz Bachmann is a guest professor and member of the Academic Advisory Board of Donghua University in Shanghai China. He started his professional career in the textile industry in 1967 in Cape Town, South Africa, with Wellington Industries Ltd and returned to Europe as managing director of the Lauffenmühle Group eight years later. In 1981, he joined Rieter Ltd as member of the group's management responsible for sales, marketing, service, research and development worldwide as well as for all international subsidiaries. Heinz Bachmann took over the ailing Saurer Textile Systems Group in 1990 as its chief executive officer and subsequently turned around and consolidated the business. He oversaw its worldwide expansion, especially in China, and guided the turn-around of Schlafhorst and Zinser from 1999 until 2002. Heinz Bachmann recently retired from active management and became member of the board of Directors of Saurer and several other European companies. He was a great supporter of The Textile Institute not only when he was CEO and president at Saurer Textile Systems but also when he was at Rieter. He was helping to organise events not only in Switzerland but in Manchester as well, e.g. The Rieter Group of Companies Symposium on May 3rd, 1989 in Manchester about the theme: ‘Tomorrow’s Spinning Mill’. The Textile Institute acknowledges Heinz Bachmann’s devoted contribution over more than four decades for the global textiles and textile machinery industry as a well known open minded entrepreneur and industrialist in providing him the 3rd Honorary Fellowship award of the Textile Institute to a Swiss. The Institute Medal Dr Rohana U Kuruppu CText FTI FCFI The oldest award of the Institute was inaugurated in 1921 and is an award which recognises distinguished service to the industry in general and to the Institute. Dr RU Kuruppu first graduated in textiles from Derby University, Derby, England in 1977 and later obtained an honours degree in clothing studies from Manchester Metropolitan University, UK and a Master of Science in textiles from University of Strathclyde, UK in 1982. Dr Kuruppu was conferred Doctor of Technology (honoris causa) from Open University of Sri Lanka in 2005 and

later Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in 2009 from RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. He achieved a rare distinction when he was conferred with national honours in 2005 by Her Excellency the President of Sri Lanka at the Investiture of National Honours for meritorious service rendered to the textile industry of Sri Lanka. Dr Kuruppu was conferred Fellow of the Textile Institute CText FTI Manchester, UK in 1997. He is the moving spirit of The Textile Institute Sri Lanka Section and he is the present Chairman of the Sri Lanka Section. He is an active member of the TI Council and regularly in contact with the staff at the Institute headquarters where his ideas, enthusiasm and support is extremely appreciated and beneficial. In addition to work at The Textile Institute, he operates as the chief executive officer (CEO) of Brandix College of Clothing Technology. Dr Kuruppu was awarded the Section Service Award in 2010 at The Textile Institute Centenary World Conference in Manchester. The Institute Medal of The Textile Institute Dr Surinder Tandon CText FTI Dr Surinder Tandon, 51, was born in Delhi, India. After completing BText (Hons) from TIT Bhiwani and MTech from IIT Delhi in Textile Technology, he obtained his PhD from Leeds University in 1988. He has received several awards and scholarships during his studies in India and England. He joined Wool Research Organisation of New Zealand (WRONZ based in Lincoln, Christchurch), now a part of AgResearch Ltd, as a young scientist in 1988 where he is now senior scientist, heading the apparel team. He has demonstrated distinguished service in pure and applied research in textile technology. He has applied his research skills culminating in many commercial success stories, one of which - Natural Easy Care wool fabric technology developed for Australian Wool Innovation – led him to win the inaugural award for Outstanding Product Innovation and Commercialisation from The Textile Institute and Hong Kong Polytechnic University at the 86th Textile Institute World Conference in Hong Kong in 2008. Dr Tandon has demonstrated collaboration with international academics, scientists, and textile industry in earnest. He has proven textiles 39


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background in textile technology and structural mechanics, fit-for-purpose product innovation, technology transfer and commercialisation and has provided highest level of outcomes and technical support to clients all over the world for 23 years. He joined The Textile Institute (New Zealand Section) in 1992 as a young scientist eager to learn from and work with the industry. He has actively served on the Section Committee since 2002 which speaks of his dedication to The Textile Institute. Just when the membership numbers were falling due to retirements/overseas transfers around 2004, he as a Chairman (200407) worked hard for the Section’s stability and future, and developed collaborations with the Society of Dyers & Colourists NZ and Fashion & Design Schools of several NZ universities and polytechnics as demonstrated by the number of events organised. He was awarded his CText FTI in 2006 for his significant original creative contribution to the textile industry. For his distinguished service to the textile industry and The Textile Institute he was awarded the 2011 Institute Medal at the 88th TI World Conference in Malaysia. The Research Publication Award sponsored by Taylor and Francis for 2011 Established in 2010 to celebrate the Centenary of The Textile Institute, the award is presented to an individual author or group of authors for the most outstanding paper published in The Journal of The Textile Institute during the calendar year proceeding the year in which the award is offered. All authors and groups of authors who have had a paper published in 2009 were automatically submitted. The award has been generously sponsored by Taylor and Francis. Roya Dastjerdi, MRM Mojtahedi, AM Shoshtari and A Khosroshahi for the paper published in The Journal Of The Textile Institute entitled ‘Investigating the production and properties of Ag/TiO2/PP antibacterial nanocomposite filament yarns’. Dr MRM Mojtahedi of the Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran 40 textiles

Polytechnic) accepted the award on behalf of the authors. PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS Helen Rowe CText FTI informed that The Textile Institute professional qualifications are the international benchmark for the textile, clothing and footwear sector. Globally recognised by industry, the holders of these prestigious qualifications are able to demonstrate their commitment to lifelong learning, professionalism and their application of knowledge into industry. The first and highest award is the Fellowship of The Textile Institute. Fellowship The Fellowship is awarded under The Textile Institute’s Royal Charter to members who have made a major personal creative contribution in the fields of textiles, clothing and footwear. This is the highest award conferred by the Diplomas Committee. Ms Jane McCann Director, Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology Research Centre at the University of Wales in the UK was presented with a CText FTI. Associateship The Associateship is a Chartered professional qualification which is awarded under The Textile Institute’s Royal Charter to members who have a high level of knowledge in one specialist textile area and a broad general knowledge of textiles, clothing and footwear in related areas, together with sufficient professional experience. Dr Praburaj Venkatraman Senior Lecturer, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK was awarded with The Chartered Associateship of The Textile Institute. Dr Fawzy Sherif Lecturer at Menoufiya University Egypt was awarded with The Chartered Associateship of The Textile Institute. On the fourth and final day delegates were taken on a wonderful sightseeing trip.First stop was the National Monument, a huge bronze sculpture commemorating those who died in the struggle for Malaysia’s freedom in both World War II and the Malaysian Emergency. Next by popular request was an impromptu visit to Kuala Lumpur Tower which we were

lucky enough to ascend and take in the spectacular views of the Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur and beyond. Next was a quick stop at the Royal Selangor Club, a social club founded by the British who ruled Malaya in 1884. The club known locally as the ‘Spotted Dog’, after one of the founder’s wife’s two Dalmatian dogs who kept guard of the entrance whenever they visited, is built in a Mock Tudor style and stands in sharp contrast to Kuala Lumpur’s skyscrapers. We then went for lunch at the Saloma Bistro and experienced delicious Malay cuisine in an open air restaurant in the heart of Kuala Lumpur then onto the Batu Caves. Set in a huge limestone hill the caves are a popular Hindu shrine and dedicated to Lord Murugan. To reach the shrines we first had to climb the 272 steps leading up to them and dodge the many macaque monkeys, who were very interested in my ice-cream! Once at the top we were able to access the caves, the largest of which known as the Temple Cave or Cathedral Cave containing a number of Hindu shrines. Finally our last port of call was the Central Market in Kuala Lumpur. The market was established in 1888 and houses a vast array of Malaysian culture, arts and handicrafts. Everybody seized the opportunity to grab last minute souvenirs and gifts before we headed back to Shah Alam in the infamous KL rush hour traffic. Luckily everybody made it back in time to say their goodbyes to old friends and new before embarking on their onward journeys home. The conference was an excellent networking opportunity and our hosts UiTM must be thanked for their warm hospitality and hard work over the past 18 months. Special thanks also to our keynote speakers and conference sponsors Taylor & Francis, Manchester Metropolitan University, Woodhead Publishing, Jakel, Malaysia Convention & Exhibition Bureau, Malaysia Truly Asia and Cuti Cuti 1 Malaysia. Also Media Partners textiles, Textile Asia, Pakistan Textile Journal, Bangladesh Textile Today and The Indian Textile Journal. Emma Scott Professional Affairs Manager

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SECTION NEWS • SECTION NEWS • SECTION NEWS • Yorkshire & District Section On Monday 8 October, the Yorkshire Section of The Textile Institute held its annual White Rose Lecture at the Textile Centre of Excellence in Huddersfield. This was a combined meeting with the Huddersfield and Bradford Textile Societies. Christine Wilkinson CText ATI, chair of the Huddersfield Textile Society opened the evening and introduced James Sugden OBE LTI, director of Johnstons of Elgin, who specialise in the manufacture of woven and knitted cashmere, fine wool and the speciality fibres, for both clothing and household textiles, gave this year’s lecture to an audience of over 100 people from the area. James who is a graduate of Cambridge University, where he gained an MA in Economics, went on to study textiles in Huddersfield where he obtained his LTI. He spent the first 15 years of his working life with W&J Whitehead and then as Managing Director of MP Stonehouse of Wakefield, before joining Johnstons of Elgin where for the past 26 years he has been Managing Director turning a GBP£5 million enterprise into GBP£50 million. James spoke of the world wide cache of the ‘Made In’ label, (Huddersfield, England, Scotland, and the like), of acknowledged producers of internationally, highly renowned top quality woollens and worsteds, and the premium price this label could command. He spoke of the advantage of sourcing locally and the increased incentive for this in the control of

Christine Wilkinson

James Sugden OBE

supply. Also bearing in mind the increasing costs of production in China, whose traditionally low cost economy was, with higher wages, becoming increasingly unsustainable. James spoke of the shortfall in trained personnel and welcomed the UK Government’s initiative to financially support the individual requirements of companies to address their own distinctive needs. He applauded the work of Bill Macbeth at the Textile Centre of Excellence who along with the local employers had endeavoured to secure this initiative, which is entitled ‘Employer Ownership of Skills, Pilot Programme’. In all this was an inspiring presentation, full of optimism and hope for the future of the textile industry in the UK. The vote of thanks was given by Barry Whittaker, chair of the Yorkshire & District Section of The Textile Institute. Chris then gave James a paper weight as a token of thanks and Rebecca Unsworth, director of professional affairs at The Textile Institute presented him with a certificate.

Bangladesh Section TI Bangladesh Section was well represented at the 88th TI World Conference with the presence of Section Chair Dr Ayub Nabi Khan CText FTI, Mr Tareq Amin editor of monthly publication Textile Today and also Section Secretary Shaheen Ismail Mona. A special bonus for the Bangladesh Section was having John T Smith CText FTI, long term advisor and international coordinator for UNIDOBWTG program present a paper on UKBangladesh Case Studies. The paper was titled ‘Innovating Sustainable Fashion Practices: A Collection of Entrepreneurial Case Studies in UK/ Bangladesh’. The paper was well received as many participants had expressed their interest in the paper. Mr. Smith is also the chairman of International events of The Textile Institute.

Dr Nabi Khan and Dr Peter Dinsdale

Dr Jamil Salleh and Dr Nabi Khan textiles 41

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Council Matters World President Tour In his first quarter term in office Dr Peter Dinsdale CText FTI the newly elected World President of The Textile Institute has visited a number of international Sections as a VIP guest and members including Malaysia, Indonesia, Bangladesh and India. Dr Dinsdale’s first visit took him to Malaysia for the TIWC 2012 Malaysia (please see this issue for conference article) in May and again in July to thank Prof Jamil Salleh CText FTI and his team at Universiti Teknologi MARA for hosting a successful, collaborative and friendly international conference and for his personal commitment to this event. His next stop was the Indonesian Section which is chaired by Mr Pitchamuthu Boobalan president director, PT Texcoms Bandung Indonesia and honorary secretary Ms Calya. Discussion took place to revitalise the local Section and the numerous activities, dinners and exhibitions that Mr Boobalan has taken part in. His work has been commended. From this activity a number of members are in the process of joining the Institute and applying for TI professional qualifications. Great progress was made at these two day meetings and activity in Bandung which included planning an event for 2013 by the local Section. The next activity saw Dr Dinsdale visit Delhi, India, where the Indian National Office is based as is NISTI ‘The North India Section of The Textile Institute’. Dr Dinsdale was hosted by NISTI and the Chairman Mr Kuldip Sharma CEO Megatech Overseas (India) Ltd. The Open House Session at PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry on 22 July 2012 with Dr Peter Dinsdale, TI World President and advisor World Bank/IFC as the VIP guest with a group of select industry captains was held. This meet saw industry captains including Dr RC Jain, chairman, TT Group, Shri KK Agarwal, chairman, Alps industries and president, NITMA, Shri Hemant Partaram, director, Shriram Group who appreciated the wisdom and experience of Dr Peter Dinsdale for providing tips for the future of textile industry in India. The textile fraternity appreciated NISTI efforts for such useful events and suggested similar events in near future. As a part of their ongoing agenda for professional development of 42 textiles

Dr Dinsdale addressing NISTI

Mr Boobalan chairman Indonesian Section and Dr Dinsdale industry members, dissemination of research information on latest development and to provide technical and project services to the TI industry members in specific and textile industry in general NISTI will continue to provide such services. The event was attended by many CEO's of textile business organisations including Ginni Filaments, ITS, Bureau VERITAS, MSI Noida, International Wool Initiative, Pearl Academy of Fashion, BEC, Megatech Overseas India Ltd, CD Lifestyle, Inside Fashion, Apparel Online, IIT, Alok Fibers, Synergy Solutions, HPG Global and many renowned textile consultants. Dr Dinsdale completed the first part of his tour of Sections in August whilst he was visiting Bangladesh. Professor Nabi Khan CText FTI, chair of the Bangladesh Section hosted a meal for Iftar which was an honour and experience for Dr Dinsdale. A meeting was also held where several important issues regarding membership increase, upcoming international conferences in Dhaka, individual membership fees were discussed and issues of importance related to the Section. Textile professionals and academics from different institutions, TI Members also attended the meeting. Other special guests included ATM Mahbubul Alam Milton of Masco Exports Limited, ASM Tareq Amin, Bangladesh Textile Today/Amin & Jahan Corporation, Prof Syed Fakhrul Hassan Murad, chairman of Textile Engineering Department, Dr Engr Mohammad Rubaiyat Chowdhury, Ahsanullah University of Science and

Dr Dinsdale and the Bangladesh Section

Dr Peter Dinsdale Bangladesh Section Presentation

NISTI Technology, Punni Kabir of NewAge, Engr Ehsanul Karim Kaiser, Esquire Knit Composite Ltd and Shaheen Ismail the Bangladesh honorary secretary who arranged the event.

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Parliamentary Lunch Lord Simon Haskel CompTI opened the proceedings for the Parliamentary Lunch of 2012 held at the House of Lords by introducing the Institute’s World President Dr Peter Dinsdale CText FTI, the speaker Ed Gribbin president Alvanon and Helen Rowe CText FTI the Institutes chairman elect and chairman of Diplomas. The luncheon a highlight in the Institute’s calendar of events had over 120 present and was full to brimming. As usual this was a fully international affair with guests from the Czech Republic, France, Germany, India, Nigeria, Northern Ireland, Switzerland, Sri Lanka, UK, USA, to name a few. As guest speaker Ed Gribbin, who is widely regarded as the global fashion industry’s foremost authority on apparel sizing and fit, outlined the key trends emerging in the US apparel and textile industries that could apply to UK clothing companies as they continue to deal with sluggish growth and an uncertain business horizon. He looked at the world’s financial situation, changing governments and his belief that the fashion and textile industries are on the brink of unprecedented growth potential but not in the usual countries. ‘No one would suggest that we’ll be back to 3-4% growth in the UK, US or Europe any time soon. But China, despite a lot of problems, is still growing by 8%.....and with over a billion people, has growth potential for years to come. Then there’s India and Brazil. To be followed by Southeast Asia, Latin America and eventually Africa. The issue is not that we have to be resigned to slow growth..... the issue is that we have to know where to look for opportunity and figure out how to be global, not just local in terms of where we sell.’ ‘On the other hand, where we source. we need to be open-minded enough to look in our own backyards, no matter how much industry we’ve lost. We will see more elements of the apparel and textile industries coming back closer to home not only because of the economics of higher costs in Asia, but because of the need to get faster and more responsive to our customers close to home. We see it in the US and there’s evidence of it here in the UK. Getting to market faster, with better quality is beginning to trump getting to market with the lowest price; look at Zara - they have become the largest clothing retailer in the world and they make over 70% of their product close to home, in Spain, Portugal, North Africa

and eastern Europe.’ Dr Dinsdale then spoke of his privilege to provide the vote of thanks and present awards at the Parliamentary Lunch 2012 on behalf of The Textile Institute as World President and that he extend a very hearty thanks to Ed Gribbin president Alvanon for his presence at this important annual TI luncheon. Dr Dinsdale informed of two important news items one being the recently restructured Corporate Member scheme a package which is more fitting to the international industry today and TT&D or Textile Terms and Definitions which was first published in 1954 and is generally considered the textile ‘bible’ is now available for the first time on-line as a subscription based package and with even more terms which such an online publication allows. Dr Dinsdale proceeded with presenting the following awards under the authority of the TI Council. The Textile Innovation Award 2011 Unilever Inaugurated in 1990 The Textile Institute Innovation Award is given to organisations for outstanding achievement in enhancing international textile interests through creativity, commerce, marketing or economic development. Dr Dinsdale commented ‘Unilever were chosen for the Innovation Award for the development and launch of new shading dye technology, an innovation unique to Unilever – now protected by over 40 patents’ The Textile Institute awarding panel described Unilever as ‘one of the few leading world-class companies making laundry detergents, fabric softeners and many other products in the areas of

nutrition, hygiene and personal care.’ The award is in recognition of the company’s commitment and enthusiasm for staying ahead of the game.’ The inventor Dr Stephen Batchelor and colleague Julie Cullen CText ATI were present to accept the award on behalf of Unilever. The Textile Institute Sustainability Award 2011 Quantum Clothing Group Ltd Established in 2010 to celebrate the centenary of The Textile Institute, the award is presented to a business or organisation that has had a demonstrable effect on sustainability policy and practice in textiles, clothing and footwear and in one or more of the following - sourcing, production, use, recycling and disposal. Quantum Clothing Ltd was created as a management buy-out of Coats Viyella one of the UK’s leading textile businesses with retail (Jaeger), Thread (Coats) and manufacturing (CV Clothing) businesses and recently was sold in July to Itotchu a large Japanese business. Quantum Clothing Ltd was selected by the panel for their sustainable policy throughout the organisation. All product components are sourced as responsibly and as locally as possible to reduce transport. Quantum closely manages and monitors the transport of both finished goods and materials to minimise their carbon footprint and recycle and reuse their packaging where possible. More recently Quantum Shirts undertook a project with 3rd year 3D design students at University College of Falmouth (UCF) to design and develop more eco friendly packaging options for formal shirts. The ground breaking designs were extremely well textiles 43

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Lord Simon Haskel CompTI

Ed Gribbin

received by M&S. Quantum were the first UK company to supply Fairtrade to M&S - and the use of natural dyes. They have a strong and clear commitment to the employees within its supply chains and it represents an embedded part of their business culture. They provide complete supply chain transparency through their membership of the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) and the Supplier Ethical Data Exchange (SEDEX). Their exacting standards frequently surpass those officially outlined by the ETI and in order to maintain control of all supply chain practices over 80% of its manufacturing is wholly owned. The Institute was delighted to invite Luke Crozier, Technical Director for the Quantum Shirts to accept the award on behalf of the organisation. The Textile Institute Companion Membership 2011 Professor Subhash Anand MBE CompTI CText FTI Instituted in 1956 and limited to 50 members. Council may grant the status of Companion Member of the Institute to any member who has in the opinion of the Council, substantially advanced the general interests of the textile industry. Professor Anand is Professor of Technical Textiles at the Institute for Materials Research and Innovation (IMRI), The University of Bolton, UK. His main areas of research activities include; novel knitted and nonwoven structures for technical applications; healthcare and medical devices; effect of laundering on sensory and mechanical properties of textile materials; composite materials; sportswear and activewear structures; filtration; geotextiles; automotive textiles; and personal protective equipment (PPE). 44 textiles

Helen Rowe CompTI He has published over 200 research papers in the above areas of technical textiles and holds six patents. He has organised four International Conferences and Exhibitions in medical and healthcare devices (MEDTEX) at Bolton and has organised three conferences each in Czech Republic and Finland. Investigating the production and properties of Ag/TiO2/PP antibacterial nanocomposite filament yarnsHe was the Chairman of the Board and Council of The Textile Institute from 10th May, 2008 to 10th May, 2010 and was awarded Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) for services to the Higher Education and the Textile Industry in January 2008. Honorary Fellowship 2011 Professor Samuel Ugbolue CText FTI First awarded in 1928 and the highest honour within the Institute's gift for creativity and the advancement of knowledge achieved by an individual as a result of ingenuity and application over many years. It covers all occupational areas of the Institute's work including science, technology, marketing and management. Professor Samuel Ugbolue joined The Textile Institute as a student member in 1966 and was awarded CText ATI in 1970, and CText FTI in 1981. He studied textile science and technology in the UK receiving MSc Textile Evaluation in 1971 and PhD Polymer and Fibre Science in 1974 from the University of Strathclyde under Professor Reginald Meredith. After working as an industrial engineer for Courtaulds Ltd, Bradford, UK and textile research chemist for Burlington Industries, Klopman Mills, Altavista, VA, USA, he accepted a lecturing position in Nigeria. He served as Council member of The Textile Institute, Manchester, Hon

Dr Peter Dinsdale CText FTI Treasurer, The Textile Institute, Nigeria Section and Chairman, The Textile Institute Eastern Zone, Nigeria. Prof Ugbolue was the pioneer head of department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and also the pioneer head of department of Polymer and Fibre Science, Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) Nigeria. He is the author of over 130 refereed research papers including five books, several book chapters, conference proceedings and international presentations. Helen Rowe CompTI was welcomed to the stage to award a TI professional qualification and stated that the application of knowledge into industry is vital and that through the TI’s programme of professional qualifications, members of The Textile Institute can become globally recognised as chartered professionals. Helen Rowe invited Mr Robert Dewhurst, director of i-Tex Fabrics Ltd York, to come and be presented with his certificate for CText FTI. Lord Haskel in his closing remarks and summary of the day referred to a letter in the Financial Times on April 13 from Mr Richard Denyer – a past General Secretary of The Textile Institute. It was in response to the proposal that there should be free publication of learned papers. He argued that easier access to learned papers is no substitute for the newsletters, the magazine, the conferences, the interest groups, the study tours, the education materials and the public events provided by the learned societies provided by organisations such as The Textile Institute. Lord Haskel commented ‘He is right and this is why our important work must continue’.

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Four world-renowned decision makers and designers in the fields of fashion and design gathered at Texprint London to review the work of the 24 selected textile designers working in print, weave, knit, stitch and mixed media. The judging panel consisted of Caroline Burstein – creative director at Browns Fashion and founder of Molton Brown. Neisha Crosland – renowned designer with eponymous interiors and accessories brands, Paul Stamper – senior designer, design perspectives, Renault Design at Renault and Sheree Waterson - executive vice president and chief product officer of activewear company Lululemon Athletica. Each of the four winners received a £1,000 prize courtesy of prize sponsors Pantone X-Rite, Liberty Art Fabrics and The Clothworkers’ Foundation.

1. Carlo Volpi from the Royal College of Art wins the Body prize 2. Tania Grace Knuckey from the Royal College of Art wins the Space prize 3. Ying Wu from the Royal College of Art wins the Pattern prize. 4. Manri Kishimoto from Central St Martins wins the Colour prize. The Textile Institute was delighted to attend a gallery-style display focusing on key pieces by each new talent on July 12 2012 at Chelsea College of Art & Design, London. Following Texprint London, all 24 designers presented their work at Indigo, Paris, September 2012, the textile design exhibition which is part of Première Vision Pluriel.




Corporate Member Profile

Corporate Member Profile

Trigon Diligence Ltd (TDL) is a London based specialist consultancy group exclusively focused on serving the needs of the global fibre, textile, clothing and fashion industries. TDL offers an integrated service in technology, engineering, marketing and financial control to assist businesses reduce risk, improve performance and ensure that strategic decisions are soundly based. TDL has global connections and a network of associates and representatives in Europe, Asia, Africa, USA, South America and Australia. The TDL international network and experience base brings a unique perspective to any project. The firm’s senior professionals each have at least 25 years of practical textile experience acquired through working in actual plant operations with major companies or on assignments with international investment institutions and governments. Wherever there is a need to understand, interpret and appraise a complex situation TDL can assist in the decision making process but never applies a formulaic approach since each assignment is designed to the specific needs and objectives of the client. Trigon Diligence believes each case should be well researched and clearly presented and that clients should be provided with the depth and quality of information required to ensure a sound business model where the risks and rewards are fully assessed.

Building on a heritage of over 160 years of design education, Northumbria University Design operates from two studio locations: our award winning building within the University’s Newcastle City Campus East and a satellite campus in the heart of the UK’s capital city, London. We are currently made up of five academic communities; Fashion, Industrial Design, Visual Communication, Innovation and Creative Entrepreneurship. Offering award winning programmes at all levels, we deliver learning by integrating education and research. Working with internationally leading partners in research, industry and education, we respond to the changes in society, technology and industry that are shaping our discipline and the world around us. Our Fashion Academic Community, which includes Fashion, Fashion Marketing and Fashion Communication, is based in Newcastle, and our Creative Entrepreneurship Academic Community including Fashion Management & Entrepreneurship and Design, Craftsmanship & Entrepreneurship and our P3i Research Group are situated in London. Together they are driven by an agenda that celebrates the new while respecting the past. By practising traditional skills and fusing them with new technologies, applications and materials, they work together to shape the new craftspeople and, by working with business they understand industry’s changing needs and seek to identify new ways of developing, manufacturing, retailing and promoting the products and services of the future. The result is a leading edge approach to design thinking, practice, innovation and enterprise which nurtures highly creative designers, design innovators and strategists who go on to offer leadership within international design and business arenas alike. E: W: textiles 45

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Events Creative Cut 6, 7 February 2013, Huddersfield, UK The First International Symposium for Creative Pattern Cutting, hosted by University of Huddersfield, is the first global conference to promote contemporary research into the art of creative cut and its significance within the fashion industry. There has been a tremendous global response to the call for papers and the research presented promises to be diverse and inspiring. The symposium will examine creative pattern cutting within contemporary fashion and aims to provide a platform for pattern cutters, fashion designers, students, and educators to explore the impact and direction for creative pattern cutting. For further information and registration please visit:

Sponsored by fashion technology specialist Lectra

Introduction to Textiles Training Short Course 25, 26, 27 February 2013, Manchester, UK This intensive three day training short course is organised for the benefit of all those who are engaged in the manufacture, research and development as well as the commercial aspects of textile business. The course will cover fibres, yarns, weaving, warp and weft knitting, nonwoven fabrics, dyeing and finishing and fabric testing and analysis. For programme and booking information please visit:

Design Means Business Exhibition Durbar Court, Foreign and Colonial Office, London, UK 2 July 2013, London, UK Launching new designers from all areas of textiles, clothing and footwear, the ‘Design means Business’ event held in London is a great opportunity for international graduate and postgraduate design students and the dozen or so leading global universities they represent, to showcase their designs to industry representatives. The exhibition is organised by the The Textile Institute Design Special Interest Group under the Chairmanship of Prof Claire Johnston of the Royal College of Art, and with the support of The Lord Haskel CompTI CText ATI, a past world president of the Institute. Executives from industry and retail are invited to meet the graduates and their tutors with the aim of strengthening the links between companies and the colleges, and promoting design in an international context. For universities to be involved in the event they must be Corporate Members of The Textile Institute.

Please keep an eye on the website for further updates!

Managing Innovation in Textiles – International Conference October 2013, UK Now in its third year this one day conference will continue to build on its success attracting international speakers and delegates. The Textile Institute with the support of the Manchester & Cheshire Section and the Technical Textiles SIG are now in the process of securing speakers. Please keep an eye on the website for further updates!

New Product Development and Balanced Sourcing – Short Course 20, 21, 22 May 2013, Manchester, UK The Textile Institute and NWtexnet are delighted to announce they will be hosting this three day short course. Balanced sourcing is the integration of new product development with a strategy for outsourcing your manufacturing capacity. Business leaders who have used the programme have declared this to be a world class training programme that has helped their company to see the bigger picture and significantly rationalise their approach to product development and manufacturing.  The course will provide a practical, workable toolkit for getting the best out of new product development and/or manufacturing capability and an understanding of how these disciplines can work together to strengthen your competitive position. For programme and booking information please visit:

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Date for your Diary! Parliamentary Lunch 8 November 2013, House of Lords, London, UK

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Professional Qualifications


Congratulations to the following members who have been awarded qualifications.

TI accreditation of a degree or diploma course means that the course has been deemed to satisfy the academic requirements for LTI or ATI. Students who graduate from these courses may therefore apply for their professional qualifications after a shorter period of work experience. Accreditation assessment is undertaken by a panel of experts who examine the course to ensure that it covers the subject area in sufficient detail to provide the appropriate level of specialised and general knowledge required for a TI qualification. Many courses have already been accredited for ATI or LTI at educational institutions around the world.

Fellowship and Chartered Membership (CText FTI) Dr S K Chattopadhyay Acting Director Central Inst for Research on Cotton Tech (CIRCOT) Mumbai, India

Mr S Kaushik Astt. General Manager – Marketing Pasupati Spinning & Weaving Mills Ltd New Delhi, India

Mr R A Dewhurst Director i-Tex Fabrics Ltd York, UK

Mr G G Willis Management Consultant Burton-on-Trent

Mrs J L Howarth Management Consultant PPT-Promoting Progressive Thought Clifford, UK

Dr A S W Wong Lecturer The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Kowloon, Hong Kong

Associateship and Chartered Membership (CText ATI) Ms W S Che Merchandising Manager Newry Limited Kowloon, Hong Kong

Mr U K Premaratne Senior Production Manager Wal-mart Global Sourcing Dhaka, Bangladesh

Mrs N N F Evans Senior Lecturer Manchester Metropolitan University Manchester, UK

Mr A M Rahman Sales Consultant Carpetright Plc London, UK

Mrs C J Parry-Jones Head of Textile Technology St Mary’s School Colchester, UK

Mr R W Rhodes Head of Design and Development Interface Europe Limited Halifax, UK

Mr H Lutchman General Manager Donish Group (Pty) Ltd Tongaat, South Africa

Ms H Riaz Assistant Professor National Textile University Faisalabad, Pakistan

Mr M M Owen Assistant Lecturer Yaba College of Technology Yaba, Nigeria

Mr L F Siu Chief Executive Officer Keen Fine Ltd Hong Kong

Mr W M (Ricky) Ngo Executive Director Pine Hover Limited Kowloon, Hong Kong

Dr S Lam Po Tang Senior Innovation Associate Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare Plc Hull, UK

Mr N W P S M N Perera Assistant General Manager Bureau Veritas Consumer Products Dhaka, Bangladesh

Ms O P Wong Sales Director Esquel Enterprises Ltd Wan Chai, Hong Kong

Qualifications Advance your career prospects with a Textile Institute qualification: a global mark of industry excellence. Contact Rebecca Unsworth, Director of Professional Affairs, for further information:

Approved Courses Approval is aimed at providers of short courses, e-learning and in house training who wish to have the TI stamp of approval against their courses. The approved status will last for twelve months.

NEWLY APPROVED COURSES Diploma in Advanced Techniques of Textile Industry, Mumbai, India Advanced Academy for Development of Textile Technologists (AADTT) eLearning Textiles and Clothing, Leeds, UK Media Innovations ‘We have been developing our online elearning modules – -  over many years in collaboration with academic and training organisations and manufacturers throughout the UK and Europe. We applied for the modules to be approved by The Textile Institute because we wanted them to be independently evaluated by an organisation renowned internationally for setting the highest standards in the accreditation and approval of courses. We are absolutely delighted that all the modules have been approved by The Textile Institute for both the high quality and relevance of the content that they offer and their suitability for textile and apparel education and training.  We hope that, knowing this, more people will be encouraged to study the modules to raise their level of knowledge and that this will stimulate more interest in the industry.’ Simon Harlock CText FTI Media Innovations

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St James’ Buildings 7 UK 

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Alan J H Anderson CText ATI

Mr Anderson joined The Textile Institute in 1986, and his interest in its work over the years has been greatly appreciated by all who knew him. In 1990 Mr Anderson was presented with the prestigious CText ATI qualification. He was diagnosed with lung cancer in April and he passed away on 22 May, just five weeks later. His funeral was very well attended, over 300 people, with many friends and colleagues from the mills attending. He was passionate about textiles, starting his working life at Kynochs in 1948. He moved to Laidlaws in 1959 and also worked at Johnstons from 1974 to 1989 when he retired. I don’t think I realised how much Dad was respected in the textile world until he died.  So many people had memories about their time with him in the mills.  To be honest it has been quite overwhelming. He is survived by his wife Betty, their two children Ewen and Fiona, and six grandchildren. Fiona Tassell

Dr Faith K F Choi CText ATI The Textile Institute Hong Kong Section is sad to announce the death of Dr Faith K F Choi CText ATI who passed away on Thursday 22 December 2011. Dr Choi was assistant professor at Hong Kong Polytechnic University. He was a long time supporter of The Textile Institute. Dr KF Choi joined The Textile Institute in 1986. In 1993 he was presented with the prestigious CText ATI. He later went on to achieve TI fellowship and was awarded he CText FTI in 2002. The funeral of Dr. Choi was held on Thursday, 5 January 2012 at Po Fook Memorial Hall, Tai Wai and was attended by the Hong Kong Section of The Textile Institute. Arkin Ng, Chairman, Hong Kong Section

Mark Collinge CText ATI Mark Collinge CText ATI, Chairman of John Spencer Textiles Ltd in Burnley died on 7 July 2012 following a short illness.  Mark was the fifth generation to run the family weaving business and is succeeded by his son David.  A family cremation was held at Preston Crematorium. David Collinge

Keith Jowsey CompTI CText FTI It is with much sadness we inform you that our fellow member of The Textile Institute New Zealand Section, Keith Jowsey passed away suddenly on Wednesday morning of 22 August. Keith was a CText FTI and Companion of The Textile Institute. Keith will always be remembered for his great contribution towards The Textile Institute New Zealand Section, TI Headquarters in Manchester, and New Zealand textile industry and textile training (ATITO). Mr Jowsey has always impressed people with his dedication to the textile industry in which he was trained and to which, particularly in latter years, he endeavored to give back his knowledge and experience through chairmanship of the Apparel and Textile Industry Training Organisation in New Zealand and also chairmanship of The Textile Institute New Zealand Section. He was a founding member of The Textile

48 textiles

Institute New Zealand Section (1971), and a committee member for 32 years. In this time he served as Secretary as well as Chairman. During his time serving The Textile Institute he served on the Council of The Textile Institute, as well as the Medals & Awards Committee. He also served as Regional President for the Australasian region for three years. He was a true Yorkshireman in the best meaning of the word. His wife Mabel Jowsey would also agree with his gentlemanly persona, as he made sure the kettle was boiled and the toast was on the table that final morning. We express my deepest condolences to Mabel and family and may his textile knowledge continue to be passed on through the next generation of textile technologists. TI New Zealand Section

Aydin A Khan CText ATI Mr Aydin A Khan, one of the oldest members of The Textile Institute passed away in Lahore after a long illness during May 2012. He is survived by his wife Parveen, son Sameen and daughter Fareeha. He was born in Dhaka (then it was a part of India, later East Pakistan and now it’s the capital of Bangladesh) in 1937. His early education was in Dhaka where he obtained a diploma in textiles. He then moved to the UK and obtained a Diploma in Textiles from Blackburn College of Technology in 1965. He was awarded an LTI in July 1976 and later also received his CText ATI in 1993. He had a long and distinguished career starting in Dhaka and then in Iran from 1975-1979. On his return from Iran he joined one of the most renowned indenting houses in Pakistan for weaving and finishing machinery (Nazar and co) as a sales and marketing manager. He rose to the post of General Manager for Punjab and NWFP region before his retirement a few years ago. He was an active member of The Textile Institute Lahore Section and had been instrumental in organising several successful conferences and seminars in his capacity as an events manager of the section. Mr MNA Chishti CText ATI, Lahore Section

Yadu Nath Mallah Members of the North India Section of The Textile Institute (NISTI) and members of the NISTI executive committee and visited residence of late Shri Y N Mallah to pay homage and express condolences to his bereaved family members. Mr Y N Mallah passed away on 30 July 2012. He was founder member of NISTI and had a bright

academic and service record. He made total progress on all three planes including professional, social and spiritual. He was awarded many honors by TIHQ and remained a member of governing council as well as a permanent invitee to all TI activities in India. All Indian Sections of TI felt that the India has lost an active TI member who was visionary. Dr AKG. Nair, Mr & Mrs Vijay Bhalla, Prof Shanbhag, Mr RK Asthana, Mr IM Agarwal, Mr HP Gupta, Mr. Sudarshan Sharma, Dr Sailen Kumar Chaudhuri, Mr VK Kothari, Prof Kushal Sen, Mr Charan Singh, Mr Shailesh Kaushik, Mr HL Bhardwaj, Ms Nien Siao, Mr Rohit Chadda, Mr PN Pandey, Mr Vijay Kaul, Mr Aloke Goyal, Mr Dilip Gianchandani and Mr R Saxena were among the few members of delegation lead by NISTI chairman, Mr Kuldip Kumar Sharma who had visited the family of Late Shri Y.N. Mallah to express heartfelt condolences. All of them bade final and emotional farewell while cherishing the memories of his association, praising his contribution and personality. The present and past chairmen of NISTI presented memento posthumously to Mrs Mallah which the TI world president could not present due to sickness of Mr Mallah at the time of NISTIIndustry Meet on 22 July 2012. Mr Kuldip Kumar Sharma Chairman NISTI invited Mrs Mallah to be a part of all social events conducted by NISTI as usual in future. Members decided that she will remain permanent invitee to all the activities organized by NISTI in future. This invitation was also extended for industrial tour cum picnic to be held on 25 August 2012. Mr Kuldip Kumar Sharma, Chairman NISTI

Rohitha Nandasena Senior committee member of The Textile Institute Sri Lanka section, Mr V A Nandasena has sadly passed away. The funeral was held in Colombo. Mr Nandasena served as Chairman of the Sri Lanka section. At the time of his death he was serving in the committee as the Vice Chairman. He was a textile chemist and at one time was the General Manager at Thulhiriya Textile Mill, which was at one time one of the largest textile mills in South Asia. Dr RU Kuruppu CText FTI FCFI MSc MBIM Chairman, Sri Lanka Section

Allan Ormerod CText FTI As per an earlier issue of textiles, the full Allan Ormerod obituary can be found on page 4 in the Business News section of this issue.

Publications The digital version of Textile Terms and Definitions is now available on-line. Portable, continuously updated, yet still compiled by a panel of global experts, this dynamic new format retains the essence of the print version as the definitive and authoritative work but by publishing on-line the text can be expanded, new subject areas included and terms added as they happen. “As I work in a commercial testing lab, this is really useful for me to use at work!” – Alice Chang, Bureau Veritas, Hong Kong Ltd. “I very much like the new format, it is easy to search and straight forward... nice and clear visually” – Robert Croskell, SGS UK Ltd.

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Diary Dates

The events highlighted are Textile Institute events or those supported by the Institute.

JANUARY 09-12 12-15 14-16 15-18 15-17 16-19 19-21 19-22 22-23 22-24 23-26 29-31 31-03 February


Heimtextil Domotex Texworld USA Chemtech World Expo Panorama / Bread & Butter / Ethical Fashion Show Yarn & Fabrics Sourcing Fair International Salon De la Lingerie Who’s Next / Premiere Classe FESPA Global Summit 2013 Columbiatex Outdoor Retail Winter Market Composites USA Copenhagen Fashion Week 2013

Frankfurt, Germany Hannover, Germany New York, USA Mumbai, India Berlin, Germany Dhaka, Bangladesh Paris, France Paris, France London, UK Medellin, Columbia Salt Lake City, USA Orlando, USA Copenhagen, Denmark

ISPO First International Symposium for Creative Pattern Cutting Nonwovens, A Case of Mistaken Identity AAFA @ FN Platform 2013 Première Vision Pluriel Introduction to Textiles - Training Short Course Middle East Coatings Show 4th Colombo Int'l Yarn & Fabric Show 2013

Munich, Germany Huddersfield, UK Huddersfield, UK Las Vegas, USA Paris, France Manchester, UK Cairo, Egypt Colombo, Sri Lanka

Garment Technology Expo East China Fair Textile Asia Shanghai International Textiles Fabrics Exhibition China International Hosiery Purchasing Expo 12th China Textiles, Fabrics & Accessories Exhibition Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles 2013 19th Shanghai International Clothing & Textile Expo FESPA Brasil Interstoff Asia Essential - Spring Premiere Vision-New York Myanmar Fabric & Garment Industry Show 2013 Intertextile Guangzhou Home Textiles 2013 TechTextil North America European Coatings Show Offshore West Africa Conference & Exhibition Domotex Asia/ China Floor Yarn Expo Spring Intertextile Beijing Apparel Fabrics 2013 Megatech International Machinery Exhibition

New Delhi, India Shanghai, China Karachi, Pakistan Shanghai, China Shanghai, China Shanghai, China Shanghai, China Shanghai, China Sao Paulo, Brasil Hong Kong, China New York, USA Yangon, Myanmar Guangzhou, China Anaheim, USA Nuremberg, Germany Accra, Ghana Shanghai, China Beijing, China Beijing, China Lahore, Pakistan

Geosynthetics 2013 Conference and Trade Show FEIMACO AATCC International Conference Source Africa - Apparel, Textile & Footwear Trade Event 14th China International Textile & Clothing Industry Fair Vietnam Saigon Textile and Garment Industry Expo 2013 Synthetic Yarn & Fiber Association Spring Conference Dyechem IDEA 2013 Nonwovens Engineers & Technologists Innovative Nonwovens

California, USA Sao Paulo, Brasil Greenville, USA Cape Town, South Africa Guangdong, China Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Charlotte, USA Jakarta, Indonesia Miami Beach, USA Atlanta, USA

23rd International Congress of IFATCC Smartex- 2013 International Nonwovens Symposium 2013 New Product Development & Balanced Sourcing Short Course

Budapest, Hungary Sharm El Shekh, Egypt Saint Petersburg, Russia Manchester, UK

Texprocess 2013 ShanghaiTex 2013 TechTextil 2013 World Of Wipes (WOW®) Conference Fespa Digital 2013

Frankfurt, Germany Shanghai, China Frankfurt, Germany Atlanta, USA London, UK

FEBRUARY 03-06 06-07 11 11 12-14 25-27 26-28 28-02 March

MARCH 01-04 01-05 02-03 04-06 04-06 04-06 05-07 12-14 13-16 13-15 15-16 15-18 18-21 19-21 19-21 19-21 26-28 27-29 27-29 28-30

APRIL 01-04 02-05 09-11 09-12 10-13 11-14 18-19 18-21 23-25 27-01 May

MAY 08-10 14-16 15-16 20-22

JUNE 10-13 10-13 11-13 18-20 25-28

JULY 02 Design Means Business Exhibition London, UK 02-04 Bread & Butter Berlin, Germany 04-06 2nd India Int'l Yarn & Fabric Show 2013 Chennai, India 11-14 OutDoor Friedrichshafen, Germany Whilst every care is taken in compiling this calendar, no responsibility can be taken by the publisher for any of the information listed. Please ensure that you check details with the organisers before making any plans to travel. If you are organising an event that you would like to have appear please contact The Textile Institute with details. This calendar is a list of key events it is compiled from the International Textile Calendar, which contains a more complete listing, published online by The Textile Institute. The ITC includes further information and contact details, it is available free to members of the Institute.

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A direct path to advancing your career

Advance your career prospects with a Textile Institute qualification; a global mark of industry excellence.



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The Textile Institute

International Headquarters 1st Floor St James’ Buildings 79 Oxford Street Manchester M1 6FQ UK  +44 (0)161 237 1188  +44 (0)161 236 1991

Textile Institute qualifications enable people with all kinds of career backgrounds in textiles, clothing and footwear to make the most of their chosen profession. They provide the opportunity to demonstrate learning, and show applied valuable knowledge and skills in the workplace.

Textiles, issue 3-4, 2012