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The Textile Association (India) (Founded 1939)

ISSN 0368-4636 ISO Certified Association

Jan - Feb 2014 Volume 74 No. 5

EDITORIAL BOARD Chairman : Prof. (Dr.) M. D. TELI Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai

Co-Chairman : Mr. K. L. VIDURASHWATHA Technical Advisor, Rossari Biotech, Mumbai

Contents

Editor : Prof. (Dr.) R. V. ADIVAREKAR Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai

MEMBERS

Editorial : Platinum Jubliee of TAI : A milestone to be proud of! by Prof. (Dr.) Mangesh D. Teli

269

Fire Retardant and Mosquito Repellent Jute Fabric Treated with Thio-urea by S. Basak*, Kartick. K. Samanta, S. K. Chattopadhyay, R. Narkar, M. Bhowmick , S. Das & A. H. Saikh

273

Novel Bio-colorants for Textile Application from Fungi by Sudha*a, C. Guptaa & S. Aggarwalb

282

Application of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Technique for the Selection of Vegetable Dyes by Prabir Kumar Choudhuri*

288

Enterprise Social Responsibility: A Pledge for Knitwear Industry of Ludhiana by Prabhjot Kaur*1 & Navjot Kaur*2

293

'Branded or Non Branded Garments?' A Study on Consumers Preference by M. D. Teli*, Sanket P. Valia, & Shruti Venkatram

298

Texperience Few practical aspects for pollution reduction by Mr. Sanjay Harane

303

Texnotes Chapter 4 : Enzymes: The Vital Tools in Textile Industry by Manasi Damle, Madhura Nerurkar & Ravindra Adivarekar

308

Dr. ARINDAM BASU (NITRA, Gaziyabad) Mr. C. BOSE (Bose & Co., Mumbai) Dr. A. N. DESAI (BTRA, Mumbai) Dr. ROSHAN PAUL (Hohenstein Institute, Germany) Dr. A. K. PRASAD (Clariant, Mumbai) Dr. RAMKUMAR SHESHADRI (Texastech University, USA)

Dr. H. V. SREENIVASAMURTHY (Advisor, NMIMS-CTF, Shirpur)

OFFICE BEARERS National President Mr. D. R. MEHTA National Vice-President Dr. ANIL GUPTA Chairman Mr. K. D. SANGHVI Vice-Chairman Dr. N. N. MAHAPATRA Hon. Gen. Secretary Mr. V. D. ZOPE Hon. Jt. Gen. Secretary Mr. HARESH B. PAREKH Mr. VIRENDRA JARIWALA Hon. Treasurer Mr. V. N. PATIL Chairman - J.T.A. Editorial Board Prof. (Dr.) M. D. TELI Chairman P.A.C. Dr. H. V. SREENIVASAMURTHY Chairman B.P.C. Prof. ASHWIN I. THAKKAR

Printed at : Sundaram Art Printing Press, Mumbai Published by PAVITRA PUBLISHER Mr. J. B. SOMA (Publisher) 7A/203, New Dindoshi Giridarshan CHS., Near N.N.P. No. 1 & 2, New Dindoshi, Goregaon (E), Mumbai - 400 065. M.: 9819801922 E-mail : pavitra1941@gmail.com / jb.soma@gmail.com

JTA is a Blmonthly Publication of THE TEXTILE ASSOCIATION (INDIA) Pathare House, 2nd Floor, Next to State Bank of India, 67, Ranade Road, Dadar (W), Mumbai - 400 028. Phone : (91-22) 2446 1145 • Fax (91-22) 2447 4971 E-mail : taicnt@gmail.com www.textileassociationindia.org JTA is Abstracted By : Chemical Abstracts, USA Indian Science Abstrats, India World Textile Abstracts, UK Texincon, India

OTHER FEATURES Unit Activity News Advertisement Index Forthcoming Events

312 314 313 332


Platinum Jubliee of TAI : A milestone to be proud of! On 9th April 2014, The Textile Association (India) will celebrate its 75th Birth AnniversaryThe Platinum Jubilee, in Mumbai during which a befitting program is chalked out under the able leadership of the National President of TAI, Mr. D.R. Mehta. The next issue of the JTA will describe about the celebration evening and what transpires there. However, on behalf of the readers of JTA, the Editor and the Editorial Board we wish the function a grand success and pray that the Textile Association( India), continues to play a paramount role in enlightening the Textile Industry Professionals as well as Research Scientists, Educationists and all other stake holders of India's mother Industry. Established in the year 1939, with 8 founding members, today TAI boasts the membership of over 23,000 spread around 26 Units throughout the length and breadth of India. It can be understood that not all these Units working with Autonomy under federal structure are vibrant in activities. However, 50% of them are well functioning as the torch bearers in their area guiding the textile professionals and the Industry with regard to latest developments in the Textile field, policy changes and challenges of their clusters with remedial measures. This activity of updating the stake holders of Textile Industry in a number of emerging areas such as Technical Textiles, Home Textiles, Sports Textiles, Nonwovens, Continuous Processing, Eco-friendly processing and the need to conserve energy and all other utilities like, water, steam, power etc. for cost reduction and also from the sustainability point of view is truly valuable. Towards this end, various Units of TAI organizes number of local and zonal seminars, conferences, training workshops, factory visits, visits to Textile Machinery Exhibitions etc. so that the decision makers as well as the textile professional are made aware about the latest development in the manufacture of textile fabrics and apparels. The emerging areas with12 different segments under the umbrella of Technical Textiles have created significant interest among the businessmen who are ready to invest. While they do so, the Government of India is equally taking positive steps to create a supporting environment through schemes like TUFS, Technical Textile Mission, Integrated Textile Parks and the schemes like Skill Development. TAI has been holding All India Textile Conferences since 1944 during which it also honors those Units which are best performing; it honors selected friends on the National level for service mementos and service gold medals for their contribution to the growth of the TAI. It also confers Honorary Fellowship of Textile Association on those distinguished individuals who have made significant contribution in the field of Textile Education and Industrial research and Management of Textile Business. The Journal of the Textile Association started in the year 1940, when it was known as Textile Digest, has also acquired its own position in serving the stake holders of the Indian Textile industry by keeping them abreast about the technological developments as well as success stories of innumerable textile professionals and has become the mouth piece of the


Association. Today we find it internationally known and respected as a Technological and Industrial research journal which most of our readers and members love to have it. Thanks to the internet and the developments in communication that we have been able to make JTA available online, without involving any additional burden on the readers. The work of Professional Award Committee and those who are taking the Diplomas as ATAs and GMTAs has been equally rewarding. Though the book publication process had been slowed down, it is very recently gathering required momentum. The Textile Association (India) organized the World Textile Conference in the year 2011 in Mumbai under the same leadership team and it was exceptionally a grand Success mainly in terms of the quality of papers, the stage show of the two days, the organizational capability and above all the kind of revenue it generated for the welfare activities of the Association. In fact it is this success of the World Textile Congress which has triggered the present team to take up the challenge of organizing another Global Conference on the foreign soil at Bangkok (Thailand). As soon as the conditions in that country improve, TAI is seriously planning to hold such conference there. So friends, the Textile Association (India) have grown strength to strength in its membership, in its diversity of activities and its penetrating influence in the lives of Textile professionals. However, as the world scenario of textile is changing, the Association also has to invent a new plank of functioning. It must strengthen its Central Office with capable manpower who can establish linkage with Academia, Industry and the Government Agencies with equal ease and familiarity. It should be able to Network internationally and become advocate of various issues related to the Textile Industry on different forums and when this body opines on certain issues, the credibility of it needs to be very high. I see there is a lot of room in galvanizing the image of the Textile Association (India) making it increasingly relevant and in tune with fast changing world of Textiles, Clothing and all its allied fields. While we all deserve to be Congratulated on this land mark of TAI, we must be conscious that the road ahead is truly challenging in a fierce international competition and its only the Quality of Service, Credibility of our opinions and our Brand Image which will matter the most, for which we need to chalk out specific road map with definite goals which are specific, measurable, realistic and time bound. Once again CONGRATULATIONS The Textile Association (India) and all its members!

Prof. (Dr.) Mangesh D. Teli, Chairman,Editorial Board, JTA


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FINISHING

Fire Retardant and Mosquito Repellent Jute Fabric Treated with Thio-urea S. Basak*, Kartick. K. Samanta, S. K. Chattopadhyay, R. Narkar, M. Bhowmick , S. Das & A. H. Saikh Chemical and Biochemical processing division Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology. Abstract A flame retardant finish using thio-urea, resin formulation has been prepared for application on jute fabric. Thio-urea and resin was applied in different concentrations to raw jute fabric by padding and drying method. Flame retardancy of the treated fabrics was compared with control fabric in terms of temperature generation, vertical flammability and limiting oxygen index (LOI) determination. Compared to control jute fabric, LOI value was found to increase by 1.9 times after 80 gpl application of thio-urea resin. As far as the vertical flammability is concerned all the treated fabrics showed low burning rate and showed less fabric temperature compared to the control fabric. Thus at 80 gpl thio-urea resin application, burning was stopped and reduced char length was observed. Washing and weathering durability of the treated fabrics were evaluated as per standard method. Beside the flammability results, temperature generation curve, cellulose-resin reaction mechanism, thermogravimetry (TG) and FTIR analysis of the control, treated and washed fabrics were also compared and commented. Mosquito repellent property of the control and treated fabrics were evaluated quantitatively by cage test. Physical properties of the control and treated fabrics were also evaluated by tensile strength, yellowness index and brightness index.

1. Introduction Jute is one of the most important biodegradable, ecofriendly, annually renewable agricultural product and natural textile fibre [1]. Apart from its traditional use as packaging material, jute fabrics are now widely used in furnishing textiles, upholstery and home textiles [2]. Jute is a natural fibre composed of cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, waxes and protein mineral matters [3]. However being a cellulosic fibre, jute ignites easily and in fires jute products such as curtains, upholstered furniture, home textile products, automobile interior products become quickly damaged and are difficult to extinguish [4]. Since consumers are now increasingly aware of safe life style, expectation and demand for diversified value added flame retardant jute products are steadily increasing. In addition to fire retardant property, mosquito or insect repellent jute products are also increasing because it increase the life of the products and enhance the application of

the jute products as home textile, home furnishing purpose. Therefore effort is going on to develop fire retardant and mosquito repellent cellulosic fabric for home textile and home furnishing application [5]. Different chemical formulations have been reported for preparing fire retardant jute fabrics [6]. It has been found that different inorganic salts [6,7,10], borax-boric acid composition [8,10], hydrated metal oxide like sodium silicate [9] different phosphorous and nitrogeneous compound and their combinations has been mostly used to make fire retardant jute [10]. Studies also have been reported on the application of nitrogen and sulphur based thiourea on jute fabric and their flame retardancy properties were also evaluated [11]. However among the reported technologies, many of them are nondurable to weathering and washing. It has also been reported that thio-urea can act as antibacterial, antimalerial for pharmacological applications [12,13]. However till date no proper study on the temperature generation profile of control and thiourea, resin formulation treated fabric, detail washing and weathering fastness property of thio-urea on cellulosic fabric, mechanism of reaction of thio-urea resin formulation with cellulose and the use of this formulation for mosquito repellent finishing of any textile fabric has not

* All correspondence should be addressed to, Shantanu Basak, Chemical and Biochemical processing division Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai 400019 Email: shantanubasak@gmail.com Jan - Feb 2014

273

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Key words Fire-retardant, Jute, LOI, Thio-urea, Thermogravimetry


FINISHING been reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge.

2.3 Testing methods 2.3.1. Flammability test Flammability activities of the treated fabrics were evaluated by the standard methods. For LOI analysis, IS 13501 test was used .Vertical flammability of the control and treated samples have been measured by using 11871 method A in terms of flame time, after glow time and char length.

Therefore, in this study application of thio-urea for developing dual functionalities such as flame retardant and mosquito repellent on jute fabric has been reported. The process would also help to reduce the processing cost, time and effluent load as single chemical perform dual functionalities. In this paper the results of the investigation on the use of thio-urea and thio-urea resin as fire retardant on the jute fabric has been reported. Besides, detail washing and weathering fastness properties of the thio-urea resin formulation also have been discussed. The mechanism of developed flame retardance and fastness properties was supported by chemical reactions, temperature generation curve, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and FTIR analysis. Further mosquito repellent property of the control and treated fabrics were evaluated by quantitatively using most commonly used cage test method.

2.3.2. Durability of finish to washing Fire retardant activity of the finished fabric was evaluated after washing ( ISO 2) the sample in a laundrometer using neutral soap 5g/l at 500C for 45 min. The fabric was then rinsed in the fresh water for 5 min, followed by drying at 1000C for 5 min. Then, it was kept in a desiccator for 24 h for conditioning before the flammability test. 2.3.3. Weathering durability Treated and untreated jute fabric samples were exposed directly under sunlight without any protection from weathering, but was protected from rain for 6 h each day in the month of December and continued for 180 h. After every 30h LOI values of the specimen were evaluated.

2. Materials and Methods 2.1 Materials 270 GSM plain woven fabric of 12 EPI (ends/ inch), 13 PPI (picks/inch) with 200 tex warp and 240 tex weft counts, procured from the Mumbai local market was used in the study. Thio-urea, DMDHEU resin and MgCl2 used for the treatment was supplied by Qualigens Fine Chemicals, Mumbai.

2.3.4. Mosquito repellency test Both the control and the thio-urea treated fabrics were placed inside the mosquito cage containing 25 mosquitoes for 2 h. The effectiveness of the finish is evaluated by depending upon the number of mosquitoes landed over the surface of the fabric with every 30 min interval of time.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

2.2 Experimental Methods The raw jute fabric sample was submerged in 1 lit water at room temperature for 3 h, then dried and conditioned at normal room temperature and 65% humidity for 12 h. The fabric samples were impregnated with different formulations of thio-urea in concentrations of 20, 40, 60 and 80 gpl at room temperature with material to liquor ratio of 1:10 padded to provide a wet pick up of about 100% and then dried at 1100C for 5 min.

2.3.5. Thermogravimetry Analysis The thermal stability of the control and thio urea treated jute fabrics were investigated by using thermogravimetry analyzer, model-METTLER TOLEDO TG-50/ MT5. 2.3.6. Temperature generation analysis Maximum temperature produced during burning of sample was measured using IR thermometer, Fisher Scientific made (Model No. 15077968 FB61354 225PE) in non-contact mode. Both the control and the treated fabric were ignited vertically with 38 mm flame for 10 s time. Then the temperature generated from the ignited fabric was plotted in the curve with respect to time period. 2.3.7. FT-IR Analysis The control and treated jute fabrics were analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy, Model Shimadzu FT-IR spectrometer (IR Prestige-21) to find out different chemical groups.

Fresh fabric samples were impregnated with following formulation at room temperature with material to liquor ratio of 1:10 padded to provide a wet pick up of about 80% and then dried and cured at 1100C for 5 min and 1400C for 4 min. Thio-urea- 80 gpl DMDHEU resin- 40, 80 gpl MgCl2- 20 gpl Before testing all the finished jute fabric samples were conditioned for 48h, 65% RH and 270C. 274

Jan - Feb 2014


FINISHING FT-IR spectra were recorded for jute samples by making KBr pellets.

thio-urea and further increasing with increase in the addon. Thus at 6% add-on, the LOI value of the treated jute fabric is about 40 which is almost 1.9 times of what was obtained with the control fabric. It can also be observed from Table 3.1 that in case of vertical flammability, the control jute fabric burnt with flame within 1 min whereas the 40 gpl thio-urea treated jute fabric consumed 20 min for complete burning. Like LOI value this vertical burning behaviour also gradually improves with increasing thio-urea concentration. This phenomenon can be clearly observed from Figure 3.1; with increasing add-on of thio-urea on the surface of the jute fabric, the burning rates of the treated fabric get reduced. Thus at 80 gpl application i.e at 6% add-on, fabric did not take any flame and smoke and 15 cm char

2.3.8. Physical testings of treated fabric Tensile strength, one of the important physical parameters, of the treated and control fabrics was evaluated by using Instron tensile tester as per the ASTM D 5035 method. Brightness index of the samples have been measured by TAPPI 452/ ISO 2470 method. Yellowness index was measured by using ASTMD 1925 method. 3. Results and Discussion The results of the flammability testing of both the control as well as the jute fabric treated with different concentrations of thio-urea have been presented in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1: Flammability properties of the control and thio-urea treated jute fabrics Flammability parameters

Control

Thio-urea concentration (gpl) 20

40

60

80

Add-on%

-

1.6

3.5

4.8

6

LOI

21

30

32

36

40

nil

nil

(Vertical flammability)

After glow ( s)

flame and after glow within 60s

Char length (mm)

20

10

Completely burnt with Completely burnt with flame and flame and 210 (5min) (20min) 30

80 15

Burning rate (mm/min)

250

50

12.5

-

-

State of fabric

Completely burnt

Completely burnt

Completely burnt

Partially fire retardant

Fire retardant

3.1. LOI and vertical flammability LOI, a measure of flammability of the samples, is the minimum amount of oxygen in oxygen/ nitrogen gas stream mixture that support combustion. Fibres having the LOI value of 21 or below ignite easily and burn rapidly in air. Those with LOI values above 21 ignite and burn slowly and when the LOI values increase above 26, fibres may be considered to be flame retardant [4]. The effect of thio-urea on flame retardancy can be assessed by considering the LOI values of treated samples vis-a-vis the control sample. It can be seen from Table 3.1 that the LOI value of control raw jute fabric is 21, whereas the treated samples have the LOI values increasing to almost 1.4 times after only 1.6% add-on of Jan - Feb 2014

length has been observed. The possible reason for flame retardancy might be the fact that thio-urea [SC (NH2)2] is an organo sulphur compound and on heating it releases ammonia, nitrogen oxide, water and sulphur oxide which protects the cellulose substrate from getting affected by O2 supply, thus increasing the LOI value [14,15]. Further the sulphur oxide formed reacts with O2 at high temperature and produces highly reactive SO3, which reacts with water and form sulphuric acid with heat [16, 17]. This sulphuric acid might be helping to dehydrate cellulosic jute by carbonium ion mechanism and enhanced char formation [18]. 275

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After flame (s) Completely burnt with


FINISHING

Figure 3.1: Vertical burning status of the control and thiourea treated fabric after 60 s.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

3.2 Flammability and wash durability The results of the flammability testing of both the control as well as the jute fabric treated with 80 gpl thio-urea and resin formulations have been presented in Table 3.2.The effect of thio-urea and DMDHEU resin i.e cross linking agent on flame retardancy can be assessed by considering the LOI values of treated samples. It can be observed from the Table 3.2 that LOI value of (thiourea and resin) treated fabric is 4-5% higher than only thiourea treated fabric. It might be because of DMDHEU resin, which helps to provide additional nitrogen and thus help to enhance the LOI value [19]. Figure 3.2 represents the vertical burning behaviour comparison of the control and the treated (B) samples. It can be observed that the control jute fabric was burnt within 1 min whereas the treated fabric showed no flame and as well as no glow and smoke. Durability of the imparted flame retardant finish to washing was studied to evaluate its effectiveness in some of the application where the sample may undergo to limited washing cycle. The 8% thiourea and [80gpl thio-urea+ resin (40 and 80 gpl)] treated jute fabric samples were taken for standard washing cycles. It was observed that after soap washing, there was significant change in flame retardant properties of the only 80gpl thio-urea treated fabric (E). It can be seen from the Table 3.2 that in only thio-urea (80gpl) treated sample the LOI value decreased from 40 to 23 after soap washing. This could be attributed to

Figure 3.2: Vertical flammability of control and (80gpl thiourea+ 80 gpl resin) treated jute fabric

the removal of thio-urea from the surface of the treated fabric because of its solubility in water [14]. However, the measured LOI value of 32 in the washed sample C was 39% higher than that of 23 measured in only thiourea (80gpl) treated sample after soap washing. This might be attributed to the lesser removal of thio-urea from the fabric after washing, due to linkage formation with cellulose and lignin as shown by the mechanism and discussion in Figure 3.3. In the case of vertical flammability test sample C showed flame for 20s, however afterglow was present in the sample. As a result of this, the sample burn completely at very slow afterglow propagation rate of 24.2 mm/min in 620 s, which is almost 10 fold slower than the control fabric. As a result end user will get more time to escape from fire hazard zone. It can also be observed from the Table 3.2 that after 5 washing (sample D) LOI reduced by only 15% compared to the 1 wash sample for sample C. As far as the vertical flammability is concerned, it took more than 300s for complete burning whereas the control sample burnt within a minute. Therefore, it can be said that DMDHEU cross-linking agent helps to retain the thiourea partially on the surface of washed jute fabric. As a result treated fabric showed moderate fire retardant properties even also after washing.

Texttreasure Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do. - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

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FINISHING Table 3.2: Flammability properties of the control, thio-urea treated (80gpl) and the washed jute fabric

Flammability

Control (A)

Thio-urea concentration (80gpl)

parameters

Resin concentration (gpl) 0

40

80

Particulars LOI

-

Treated 1W (E)

Treated

1W*

5W

Treated (B) 1W (C) 5W (D)

21

40

23

42

30

25

44

32

27

6

1

7.2

1.5

1.2

7.6

2

1.4

Add-on%

Vertical flammability After flame (s)

35

nil

180s

nil

30

300s

nil

20

300s

After glow (s)

25

80

60

60

480

80

50

600

50

Total burning time (s)

35s+25s

0+80s

180+60

0+60

30+480

300+80

0+50

20+600 300+50*

Char length (mm)

15

15

-

10

-

-

62.5

-

39.5

-

24.2

250

-

29.41

treated fabric is concerned it losses around 10% LOI value after one month exposure to outdoor sunlight. It might be due to the partial decomposition of thio-urea due to MgCl2 catalyzed lengthy heating at outdoor sunlight [20].Another thing we have observed from this experiment is that after sunlight exposure (90 h), odor coming out from the treated fabric is more compared to the control fabric. It might be due to the formation of gases like sulphur dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, carbon di sulphide, ammonium thiocyanate etc. on heat decomposition of thio-urea formulation [21].However this pungent chemical odor might be more effective for repelling mosquitoes and insects.

*Total burning time of the fabric = combustion with flame time + combustion with afterglow (after flame stopped) 3.3 Weathering durability Durability of the imparted flame retardant finish to weathering was studied to evaluate its effectiveness in some of the applications like curtains, home furnishings where the sample indirectly may come in contact of sunlight. Table 3.3: Weathering fastness test of control and treated fabric

Observation time Control jute Treated fabric interval (h) fabric LOI (B) LOI 0

22

44

30

22

43

60

22

43

90

22

43

120

21

40

150

21

40

180

21

40

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LOI value of the control and treated fabric was measured with regular 30h interval of time and reported in Table 3.3. From the Table 3.3 it was observed that there are no significant changes in LOI value of control jute fabric after exposure to outdoor sunlight. As far the Jan - Feb 2014

42.85

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Burning rate ( mm/min)


FINISHING 3.4 Thermogravimetry (TG) Analysis

control jute fabric (A), thiourea treated jute fabric (B) loses almost same mass below 1500C. In the second stage of the curve, it started to loss its mass due to pyrolysis from 2100C, which is quite below (550C) than the degradation temperature of the control fabric. Hence, it can be deduced from the curves that the applied thiourea reduces the combustion temperature of the polymeric substrate and dilutes the flammable volatiles by the generation of non-flammable volatiles such as NH3, CO2, NO2, and SO2 at comparatively lower temperature and increased the LOI values of the treated fabric. Thiourea also had an additional effect on char formation. Compared to control jute fabric, treated fabric [8% thiourea + 8% resin] started early char formation and increased the total amount of char formation from 13 to 32% at 5000C temp. So the formation of nonflammable gases and char formation, both of these phenomena help to increase the LOI values and improve the thermal behaviour of the treated jute fabric. It can be observed from curve C and curve D that in both cases, it started to loss its mass due to pyrolysis from 2600C, which is more than curve B and almost similar to curve A. However rate of degradation of the polymer at 2600 C is less than the control fabric and the amount of char residue left at higher temperature is 10% more, compared to the control fabric. Both of these phenomena again support the interpretation that after washing thio-urea was not fully removed from the treated jute fabric and as a result, LOI values and thermal behaviour of the washed fabric is higher compared to the control fabric. As far the curve E is concerned, rate of degradation of the polymer at 2600C is more than the curve C& D and the amount of char residue left is also less than C& D. It reflects the poor wash fastness properties and after washing thermal properties of the sample E and it is almost similar to the control sample. It might be attributed to the absence of resin in that particular formulation. Therefore it can be concluded that DMDHEU resin used in the formulation B helped to retain the thermal stability after washing.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Figure 3.3: TG curves of the control jute fabric (A), [ 80gpl thiourea + 80gpl resin] treated jute fabric (B), [80gpl thiourea + 80gpl resin] treated jute fabric, after one wash (C), [80 gpl thiourea + 80 gpl resin] treated jute fabric, after five wash (D), 80gpl thiourea treated jute fabric, after one wash (E) and only thiourea (F) .

Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) method was applied to measure the effects of thio-urea on the thermal degradation and charring behaviour of the treated fabrics. Figure 3.3 shows that the TGA curves of the control jute fabric (A) [80 gpl thiourea+ 80 gpl resin], treated jute fabric (B) [80gpl thiourea+ 80gpl resin], treated jute fabric after one wash (C) [80 gpl thiourea+ 80gpl resin], treated jute fabric after five washes (D), 80gpl thiourea treated jute fabric after one wash (E) and only thiourea (F). The test was carried out in N2 atmosphere at a heating rate of 100C/min. It can be seen that the Thermo gravimetric (TG) curve of pure thio-urea showed two steps of weight loss. The initial degradation takes place at 2000C, with 70% weight loss and followed by another weight loss at about 15% at 2600C. After 2500C, there was no significant change in its weight till 5000C. Initial weight loss might be attributed to the melting and evaporation of thio-urea [20]. The TG curves of the control jute fabric (A) exhibited three distinct stages, the initial stage at a temperature of below 1500C. This is mostly due to physical change and due to the loss of absorbed moisture from the polymer (cellulose & hemicelluloses) [16, 17]. However, in second stage, mainly pyrolysis occurred over the temperature range 265- 3500C. In this stage mass loss is very fast and significant. Most of the cellulose pyrolysis products are known to be form in this stage [22]. As jute is a lingo-cellulosic material and predominant component is cellulose, hence pyrolysis might have taken place. In the third stage, above 3500C, dehydration and char formation occurred. As compared to

Textsmile TEACHER: Donald, what is the chemical formula for water? DONALD: H I J K L M N O. TEACHER: What are you talking about? DONALD: Yesterday you said it's H to O. 278

Jan - Feb 2014


FINISHING Thus the treated fabric delivered 70% mosquito repellency effect compared to the control fabric after 60 min. After 90-120 min observation no mosquitoes were present on the treated fabric surface. However some of the mosquitoes were moving just surrounding the surface of the treated fabric. In contrast, control fabric showed no repellency against mosquitoes as the number of mosquitoes present on the control fabric surface increased with time interval.

3.5 Temperature generation during burning

Table3.4: Observation of mosquito repellence in cage test Observation time interval (min)

Figure 3.4: Temperature generation profile during burning of control and treated (B) jute fabric

Figure 3.4 showed the temperature generation curves of control loom state jute fabric and treated (B) jute fabric. In case of control fabric initial temperature generation was high around 400-450°C as the fabric was burnt with flame whereas in case of treated fabric only 100°C temperature generated from the small burning part of the fabric during 1st 20 s of ignition due to absence of flame. Only slight afterglow present in the treated fabric was responsible for it. After 50 s after-glow also stopped and the temperature showed rapidly fall down to room temperature within the interval of 20-30 s. In contrast control jute fabric was burnt with flame up to 35 s with 350450°C temperature generations, after that strong afterglow was present in it. It showed temperature around 250-300°C. Beyond 60 s afterglow was also stopped and the fully burnt fabric temperature cool down slowly towards the room temperature (28.5°C) with the ash formation of whole sample. One another observation is that area under the temperature curve of the control fabric is much higher than the area under the curve of treated fabric. This might be due to the formation of more amount of heat energy in case of control fabric compared to the treated fabric. Therefore it will be very useful for the user in real life situation as the treated fabric generated much less temperature (100°C) and heat energy.

30

5

4

60

10

3*

90

13

1*

120

12

1*

Note: * Mosquitoes were moving just outside the surface of the fabric. However they did not land on the fabric surface.

3.7 Reaction mechanism of cross-linking agent Figure 3.5 shows the cross linking reaction of DMDHEU resin between thio-urea and cellulose. From the Figure 3.5, it is well understood that there are 3 possible chances of reactions. Most possible chance of reaction is represented in 1st reaction mechanism, which shows the reaction of cross-linking agent and cellulose. Here no thiourea was involved into the reaction. Therefore it did not contribute to improvement of fastness properties of thiourea on jute fabric.

Texttreasure Without inspiration the best powers of the mind remain dormant. There is a fuel in us which needs to be ignited with sparks. - Johann Gottfried Von Herder 279

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

The mosquito repellency effect of the treated fabric might be attributed with the strong odors of thio-urea sulphur di oxide, ammonia which was present surrounding the treated fabric surface [23, 24]. One another observation from the table is that within first 60 min some mosquitoes landed on the treated fabric surface. However, later after 1h they fled away. This might be due to the presence of sulphur which is toxic to the mosquitoes [25].

3.6 Mosquito repellency analysis Mosquito repellency test of the control and the treated (B) fabric was carried out by using cage test method and the observed quantitative results were represented in Table 3.4. It evidenced that the thio-urea treatment repel mosquito population. It can be observed from the table that after 1 h, out of 25 mosquitoes in the cage, 10 mosquitoes were present on the control jute fabric whereas only 3 mosquitoes landed on the treated fabric. Jan - Feb 2014

Control jute fabric Treated fabric


FINISHING 3.8 FTIR analysis The FTIR analysis was carried out for both the control (A) , treated jute fabrics (B) and one washed fabric (C) as shown in Figure 3.6.The strong intense IR band was observed at 1600 cm-1 in the treated sample (B). Compared to the control jute fabric (A), this band was more intense in treated fabric (B). It can be attributed to the NH2 stretching vibration [26]. Intensity of this band in curve C is in between A and B. A small peak also has been observed at 1089cm-1 and 1417 cm-1 in B. It can be attributed with the C=S symmetric and C=S asymmetric stretching vibration [19] respectively. The N-H absorption band has been observed at 3100-3400cm-1[27] in sample B.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Figure 3.5 Cross linking reaction of thio-urea with DMDHEU cross-linking agent and cellulose

It can be seen from 2nd reaction mechanism that, crosslinking agent i.e DMDHEU resin holds both, cellulose and also thio-urea. Here it acted as mediator between cellulose and thio-urea and improved the fastness properties. Further, thio-urea can also be attached with the cellulose as shown in 3rd mechanism. Therefore both 2nd and 3rd mechanism supports the phenomena of improved fastness. Apart from it being a lingo cellulosic fibre, jute lignin also takes part into the reaction with thio-urea and resin. It might be due to the unsaturation of lignin and higher coordinating power of sulphur present in thio-urea [11].Thus resin cross-linking agent helped to achieve better fastness properties. We can also observe from the Table 3.2 that with increasing the concentration of resin, thermal properties (LOI and vertical flammability) are improved after washing. It may be attributed to the fact that with the increase in resin concentration, more amount of NH2 groups of thiourea are available for cross linking reaction and thus increases the washing durability. However possibilities of the formation of 2nd and 3rd reactions are comparatively less than the 1st reaction. Therefore the fastness properties of thio-urea with resin is not adequate and detoriated with washing.

Figure 3.6 FTIR spectra of control (A), [thio-urea (80 gpl) + resin (80gpl)] treated (B) and washed fabric (C).

From Figure 3.6 it is observed that N-H band intensity reduced after washing. However the intensity of this band at 3400cm-1 is more than the control sample A. The absorption bands in the range of 1350-1400 cm-1 assigned to the C-N vibrations. Intensity of this band in washed sample C is in between A and B. Therefore, from the IR spectra it is clear that for the resin treated sample partial amount of thio-urea was left after washing on the fabric surface and helped to get more thermally stable fabric than the control fabric. 3.9 Physical properties After thio-urea, resin application 27% yellowness index of the treated jute fabric (B) was increased compared to the control fabric. With the addition of it treated sample turns duller as the brightness index is reduced. Therefore, it can be concluded that the treatment has adverse 280

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FINISHING plication of thio-urea, resin to impart thermal stability and mosquito repellency in jute fabric is an attractive proposition.

effect on the colour of the treated fabric. From the Table 3.5 it also can be observed that with increasing the concentration of resin, tensile strength of the treated fabric was reduced. Thus at 80 gpl resin concentration weft tensile strength reduces around 15% compared to the control fabric. It may be attributed with the acidic degradation of the treated jute in curing condition [28].

1. 2. 3. 4.

Table 3.5: Physical properties of control and treated fabrics

5.

Tensile strength test (N) ( Average of 5 tests) Control jute fabric

6. 7. 8.

Thio-urea (80gpl) + Resin concentration (gpl) 0

40

80

warp

weft

warp

weft

warp

weft

warp weft

500

400

470

383

480

350

465

Bright ness index

12.62

Yellow ness index 48.8

10

9.8

9.

320

10. 11.

9.5

12. 13.

58.2

60.5

62

14. 15.

4. Conclusion The current paper describes the value addition of jute fabric by imparting fire retardancy and mosquito repellency using thio-urea resin formulation. Thio-urea with resin delivered better fastness properties compared to the thio-urea alone. As far as the flammability and the physical properties are concerned, 80 gpl thio-urea + 80gpl resin formulation was found to give best results for application on jute fabric by padding method. Temperature curve showed the thermal stability of the treated fabric, TG curves showed the dehydration and char formation phenomena of the treated cotton fabrics. Further the treated fabric shows good mosquito repellent property. Apart from it application process is very simple and inexpensive as no costly chemicals are needed. Limitation is that this treatment forms toxic gases at high temperature and finish is not much durable to washing. Both thermal stable and mosquito repellent effect enhanced the application potential of the treated fabric in home furnishings, home textiles such as curtains, table lamp, sofa cover etc., where only few washing is required. As the weathering fastness of the treated fabric are moderate to good , treated fabric can also be used as some outdoor non permanent applications like puja pandals, book fair stalls etc. Since thio-urea is abundantly available and application process is simple, the scope of apJan - Feb 2014

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Dutta R., Press release Point, (2008). Chattopadhyay S. N., Pan N. C., Day A. and Roy A. K., Fibre 2 fashion, (2011). Reeves W. A., and Maryuette Y. B., Textile Research Journal, 49, 163, (1979). Charuchinda. S., Srikulkit K., and Mowattana T., Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 30, 97, (2005). Shahba F.A., Halawa.O., Ragaei M. and Hasheem M., Material Science and Application, 2, 200 (2011). http://www.aerofiltri.it/DC_pdf/AS_A_FRfT.pdf Sharma. U., Colourage, 19, (1986). Nagieb Z.A., Nassar M.A. and Meligy M.G. International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, 2011, 1728, (2011). Basak S., Chattopadhyay S.K., Samanta K.K., Das S. and Narkar R., Manmade Textile in India, 51, 11, (2013). http://www.ijtindia.org/SKB_PUBLICATION.htm? Samanta A.K., Singhee D., Basu G. And Biswas S.K., Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research, 32, 355, (2007). Arslan H., Duran N., Borekei G.M., Ozer K.C. and Akbay. C., Molecules, 14, 519, (2009) Saeed A., Khera A.R., Abbas N., Latif M., Sajid I. and Florke U., Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 34, 335, (2010). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thiourea Hirota K., Makela J., and Tokunga O., American Chemical Society, 35 (10), 3362-3368, ( 1996) Karastergiou, P.S., and Philippou, J.L., Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, 391, (2000). Xing, T.L., Liu. J., Li, S.W., and Chen. G.Q. Thermal Science, 16, 1472, (2012). Ghulam W., Siddique H.M., Twyman L.J., Akhtar Z., and Butt M.S., Quaid -i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan 45320. Alkan C., Tek Y., and Kaharaman D., Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 35, 769, (2011). Wang S., Gao Q., and Wang j., Journal of Physics Chemistry Biology, 109 (36), 17281, (2005). http:// www.ukpandi.com/fileadmin/uploads/uk.../ Thiourea%20dioxide.pdf? Mostashari S. M., and Mostashari S. Z., Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 43, 455, (2009). http://cr4.globalspec.com/thread/22177/A-Little-Ammonia-to-Repel-Mosquitos Glemser E.J., Dowling L., Inqlis D., Pickering G.J.,Sears M.K. and Hallett R.H., Environmental Entomology, 41, 1169, (2012) http://www.ehow.com/info_10023098_mosquito-repellents-sulfur-garlic.html#ixzz2ovxvDMcH Prakash J.T., and Nirmala R.L., International Journal of Computer Applications, 8, 7 (2010). Prabhumarachen A., Selvarajan P., Ramalingom.S, and Chittambarathanu.T. World Journal of Science and Technology, 1 (11), 32, ( 2011). Basak R.K., Saha S.G., Sarkar A.K., Saha M., Das N.N., and Mukherjee A.K., Textile Research Journal 63, 658, (1993).

❑❑❑ 281

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References


BIOTECHNOLOGY

Novel Bio-colorants for Textile Application from Fungi a

Sudha*a, C. Guptaa & S. Aggarwalb Department of Fabric & Apparel Science, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, b Department of Microbiology, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi,

Abstract Extracellular pigments were obtained from the fungi Penicillium vinaceum and Rhizopus spp. under optimised fermentation conditions like media, time and temperature. Penicillium vinaceum grown in Czapek Dox Broth (CZB) and Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) at 28 ± 2°C produced two hues purple and brown respectively. On the other hand, Rhizopus spp. grown in PDB at 15 ± 2°C produced red hue. Highest optical density in both the cases was attained in 17 days in stationary cultures. The supernatant colored liquid was separated from the colorless mycelia and used as dye liquor for dyeing unmordanted silk and wool fabrics at 70°-80°C for about 45 min. Assessment of dyed fabrics in terms of fastness revealed good to excellent wash and rub fastness. Percentage absorption and color value has been estimated to be greater for wool than silk. Result of human toxicity tests showed the safer nature of the dyed fabrics for human usage. The analysis by simple chromatography revealed multicomponent nature of the pigment obtained.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Keywords Color, Dyeing, Rhizopus spp., Penicillium vinaceum, Fastness

effective protocols. Before extracting the colour from these microbes these are also looked for their safety and efficacy. Some studies have confirmed the non toxicity and biodegradability of the fungal pigments. Microbial cell production offers reliable scalable technology. The advantages of pigment producing microorganisms include independence from weather conditions, easy and fast growth and colours of different shades can be obtained by growing on cheap substrates under controlled conditions [6]. If microbes are cultured in fermentation medium and their growth kinetics are optimized for maximum pigmentation for possible use as textile colorants, they can prove to be 'bioengineered' textile dyes. These can be standardized and subjected to direct experimental control. Thus, they can combine the advantages of both plant based and synthetic dyes. Investigation in production and evaluation of microbial pigment as textile colorants is currently being investigated at the British Textile Technology Group [7-10]. Fungi are ecological interesting source of pigments, as some of these species are rich in stable colorants such as anthraquinone. Anthraquinones are secondary metabolites produced from fungi that can be used as textile colorant. A number of anthraquinone derivatives have been identified from various species of fungi and lichens. These metabolites are of interest because many of them possess significant antibiotic activity, primarily against Gram-positive bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Anthraquinones are

1. Introduction The dyestuff industry is suffering from increase in costs of feedstock and energy for dye synthesis, and is under increasing pressure to minimize the damage to the environment. The industries are continuously looking for cheaper, more eco-benign routes to existing dyes [1]. Natural dyes are eco-friendly for the environment as compared to the synthetic dyestuff that can exhibit better biodegradability and generally have a higher compatibility with the environment [2-3]. Natural dyes can be obtained from vegetable sources like roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits of various plants or can be obtained from animal sources like dried bodies of certain insects, shellfish, cochineal, lac etc. as well as from certain microorganisms [4]. It is a well known practice to extract the natural colors from the plant sources but the yield is very low and they have low eco-efficiency [5]. Therefore, there is an emerging need for searching for new sources apart from these plant based natural dyes. Extraction of colours from the microbial source is an upcoming field. Various microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, yeasts and algae are coloured and natural colours can be extracted from these sources using simple and * All correspondence should be addressed to, Sudha, Department of Fabric & Apparel Science, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, Hauz khas, Delhi 282

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BIOTECHNOLOGY also reported to have antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities [11-13]. In view of these aspects, the present study involved the isolation of pigment producing fungi; optimize their colour production and check in the dyeing ability of different fabrics with these colorants. Further dyed fabrics were assessed for colour fastness and toxicity.

colored culture filtrate (supernatant) was used as dye liquor. 2.3. Materials for dyeing For dyeing purpose desized and scoured 100% cotton, silk and wool having thread count 130, 234 and 117 respectively were used. Metallic mordants like alum, copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate of analytical grade were used for silk and wool, whereas, Harad (Myrobalan) was used for cotton. The percentages of mordants taken were on the weight of the fabric (o.w.f) as 5%, 10% and 20% and the method used for mordanting was pre-mordanting at a MLR 1:30 at 60°C for 30 min.

2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Fungal Isolates Pigment producing fungi were isolated from air and soil of nearby locality using PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) plates (extract of 300 g peeled potato, 2.5 g glucose, 15 g agar in 1000 ml distilled water). For isolation of fungi from air, PDA plates were exposed in air for 5 mins at different areas within the college. For soil, samples were collected randomly and 1 g of each was dissolved in 10 ml of sterile distilled water in a test tube. Then 0.1 ml of soil solution was spread onto the PDA plates with the help of sterile spreader. All PDA plates were kept in B.O.D incubator at 28ºC±2ºC for 3-4 days. Different fungal colonies appeared on PDA plates from which pure cultures of the pigment producing fungi were obtained by transferring them onto fresh PDA plates and incubating at 28ºC±2ºC for 3-4 days. After screening one member of samples color producing species was Rhizopus spp. obtained from soil. Another fungal sample i.e. Penicillium vinaceum used in the study was sourced from Division of Plant Pathology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

2.4. Dyeing Before dyeing pH of the supernatant was checked and then 50 ml of each of the colored culture filtrate (supernatant) was used to dye 1g unmordanted and mordanted silk, wool and cotton samples at 70°-80° for 45 min. The dyed samples underwent sequential treatments: rinsing with cold water, washing in a bath containing 3 g/l nonionic detergent at a material/liquor ratio of 1:30 at ambient temperature for 5 min, a second rinsing with cold water, and drying in air.

2.2. Pigment production For color production, mycelia disk (5mm diameter) from pure cultures of Rhizopus spp. and Penicillium vinaceum was taken from PDA plates and inoculated individually in different culture media viz. Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB), Czapek Dox Broth (CZB) and Minimal Media Broth (MMB). Incubation was done for 3 weeks at different temperatures i.e. 15°C, 28°C and 37°C to standardise the optimum temperature. Incubation was also done both under stationary and shaking conditions to maximise the color production.

2.5.2. Color measurement Color strength (K/S), L*, a* and b* values were calculated using Computer color matching system (Macbeth3100, Premier colour scan Instruments Pvt. Ltd., Samata Nagar, Thane).

After about 3 weeks of incubation fungal cultures showing color were filtered out using nylon mesh. Further to extract color, fungal mycelia separated out from supernatant liquid were crushed using the Homogeniser (Remi Motors). Crushed mycelia was then divided into 2 parts and to each part 10 ml of methanol and 10 ml of chloroform was added and stirred using Magnetic stirrer (Remi Motors). As no colorant was extracted from the mycelia of two fungi after homogenisation it was discarded. Only Jan - Feb 2014

2.5.3. Color fastness The dyed fabrics were evaluated for color fastness to rubbing (crockMETER-1™ ISO 9001:2000 group, Paramount Instruments Pvt. Ltd., India) and colour fastness to washing using (digiWASH-INX™ ISO 9001: Certified group, Paramount Instruments Pvt. Ltd., India).

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Journal of the TEXTILE Association

2.5. Analysis of dyed fabrics 2.5.1. Percentage absorbance A Scanning Minispec SL 177 (ELICO) Spectrophotometer was used to calculate the Percentage absorbance of the dyed fabrics using equation (1): O.D b - O.D a % absorption = × 100 .....(1) O.D b Where O.D b represents Optical density of the dye liquor before dyeing and O.D a represents Optical density of the dye liquor after dyeing.


BIOTECHNOLOGY 2.5.4. Toxicity test To find out the possible toxicity of the fungal colorant on the human skin a simple patch test was done. In this test, a swatch of 1Ă—1 inch of dyed samples was fixed on the arm of around 30 subjects for about 48 hours and during this time bathing and swimming was refrained. This was done to check for signs of rashes, swelling or any other form of skin allergy.

Penicillium vinaceum and Rhizopus spp. for attaining the maximum pigmentation. 3.2. Dyeing Before dyeing, pH of the colored culture filtrate was also tested to see a change in pH. As quoted by some researchers fungus growing in the medium and the medium itself can alter its pH [14]. The pH of the culture filtrate obtained from Penicillium vinaceum both in CZB and PDB at 280C was neutral i.e. 7. Whereas it was acidic i.e. 3 for Rhizopus spp. grown in PDB at 15°C. On dyeing, only silk and wool were dyed and cotton did not stain at all even when pH of the

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

2.6. Analysis of colorant via paper chromatography A simple paper chromatography was carried out for separation of pigments with the help of different solvents like: Water, Chloroform: Methanol: Acetic acid: Distilled water (25:15:4:2) and Butanol: Acetic acid: Distilled water (60:15:25). Chromatography columns were prepared using these three compositions and in each column a chromatography paper was set having concentrated dried spots of the colorants created with the help of capillary tubes. Columns were then left untouched till solvent ascended and various components separated out as spots or zones. After separation retention factor (Rf) value was calculated for the separated components. 3. Results and discussions 3.1. Fungal Pigments Two fungi namely Penicillium vinaceum and Rhizopus spp. were grown in different media to produce the pigments. It was found that color produced by both the fungi was extracellular. As no or little color production was obtained after use of MMB (minimal media broth), shaking incubation conditions and homogenisation extraction from fungal mycelia; these were not used further in the study. Penicillium vinaceum produced maximum pigmentation both in CZB and PDB at 370C but results of pigmentation were not consistent on repeating the experiment at this temperature. Hence 280C was considered the optimum temperature for maximum pigmentation and was used for further experimentation. At 370C Penicillium vinaceum produced two hues purple and brown in CZB and PDB respectively. Rhizopus spp. grown in PDA at 150C produced red hue. The incubation time for both the fungi was selected by analysing the optical density (O.D) of culture filtrate incubated for different time intervals at lmax 650 nm using Spectrophotometer.

Figure 3.1: Readings of optical density (O.D) recorded for Penicillium vinaceum over an incubation period of 21 days

Figure 3.2: Readings of optical density (O.D) recorded for Rhizopus spp. over an incubation period of 21 days

Highest optical density in culture filtrate of both the fungi was attained within 17 days after which the value of optical density remained same as shown in Figure 3.1 and 3.2. Hence, an incubation period of 17 days was chosen as best time period for growth of the fungi viz

colored liquor was made neutral. Unmordanted samples of silk and wool were successfully dyed in hues of purple, brown and red respectively. Whereas, mordanting with metallic mordants produced duller shades. This may be 284

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BIOTECHNOLOGY 100%. This shows that by standardizing the dye recipe in terms of pH, time, temperature and addition of auxiliaries, we can improve the absorption of the dye stuff to various fibres.

because of the colorant itself, as it is assumed to have some proteolytic enzymes that aid in dyeing protein fibers. There may be a possibility that the complexes of metallic mordants hinder the action of enzymes present in the colorant and the resultant dyeing is not proper.

3.3.2. Colour measurement Table 3.3 and 3.4 summarises K/S, L*, a* and b* values of wool and silk using computer colour matching system. From the table it is clear that wool has higher K/S value in all the cases than silk. This indicates that the colour produced on wool is intense and bright than silk.

3.3. Analysis of dyed fabrics 3.3.1. Percentage Absorption The optical density of all the culture filtrate before and after dyeing was recorded and used to calculate percentage absorption for wool and silk fabric as per Table 3.1 and 3.2.

3.3.3. Color fastness As per ratings of standard SDC Grey scale: BS 1006 the dyed samples exhibited good to excellent rub and wash fastness properties. It is evident from Table 3.5 and 3.6 that fastness to wash is excellent for all the samples. Whereas, rub fastness to dry and wet rubbing showed varied results i.e. for dry rubbing Penicillium vinaceum samples fastness was recorded as 4/5

Table 3.1: Percentage absorption of silk and wool dyed with Penicillium vinaceum Penicillium vinaceum PDB (28 C)

CZB (280C)

Optical Fabric density before dyeing

Optical density after dyeing

Absorption Optical % density before dyeing

Optica Absorption density % after dyeing

Silk

1.695

0.995

41.29

1.521

0.821

46.02

Wool

1.695

0.732

56.81

1.521

0.711

53.25

Table 3.3: K/S, L*, a*, b* values of dyed samples of silk and wool with Penicillium vinaceum and Rhizopus spp. Penicillium vinaceum

As evident from Table 3.1 and 3.2 the percentage absorption of colorant is more in wool than silk. This is because wool has more amino acids and higher amorphous areas than silk. Absorbency of wool is greater than that of silk [15]. It was also found that percentage absorption of wool is more for colorant obtained from Rhizopus than obtained from Penicillium vinaceum. It is because pH of Rhizopus spp. was 3 (more acidic) whereas for Penicillium vinaceum it was 7 (neutral). The wool fibre contains equal amount of amino and carboxyl groups which ionize and Table 3.2: Percentage absorption of silk and wool dyed with Rhizopus spp.

PDB (280C)

Silk

b*

K/S

L*

6.34

20.54 9.67 -2.46

a*

b*

Wool 12.12 21.40 3.86 0.992 8.98

18.98 13.45 -2.85

Fabric

K/S

L*

a*

b*

Silk

8.89

34.17

22.52

11.46

Wool

11.61

32.35

25.07

9.03

Absorption %

1.233

0.636

48.41

Wool 1.233

0.478

61.23

Textsmile

form a zwitter ion. At low pH the hydrogen ions are absorbed by carboxyl groups of wool protein (Keratin). At high pH, the protein loses hydrogen ion leaving behind ionized groups. Thus wool absorbs maximum dye at acidic medium [16]. Overall it was found by visual evaluation that dyed samples were darker in shade but the dye exhaustion is not complete so absorbance is not Jan - Feb 2014

a*

PDB (280C)

PDB (28 C) Optical density after dyeing

29.27 4.56 1.74

7.00

Rhizopus spp.

0

Optical density before dyeing

L*

Silk

Table 3.4: K/S, L*, a*, b* values of dyed samples of silk and wool with Rhizopus spp.

Rhizopus spp. Fabric

Fabric K/S

CZB (280C)

Small Kid: If people commit suicide because of too many problems, when will my‌ Maths book commit suicide ??? It has tons of problems 285

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

0


BIOTECHNOLOGY i.e. very less staining means very good dry rub fastness and for Rhizopus spp. samples it was recorded as 5 i.e. no staining which means excellent dry rub fastness. For wet rubbing Penicillium vinaceum samples fastness was ranged from 3/4 to 4 i.e. considerable to less staining which means good wet rub fastness and for Rhizopus spp. samples it varied from 4/5 to 5 i.e. very less staining to no staining which means very good to excellent wet rub fastness.

Table 3.5: Rub fastness tests on wool and silk samples dyed with Penicillium Vinaceum and Rhizopus spp. Rub fastness Dry Samples

Wet

Staining on Staining on standard cotton standard cotton cloth cloth

Wool (Pencillium vinaceum, CZB, 280C)

4/5

4

Silk (Pencillium vinaceum, CZB, 280C)

4/5

4

Wool (Pencillium vinaceum, PDB, 280C)

4/5

3/4

Silk (Pencillium vinaceum, PDB, 280C)

4/5

4

Wool (Rhizopus spp., PDB, 280C)

5

4/5

Silk (Rhizopus spp., PDB, 280C)

5

5

3.3.4 Toxicity test Results of toxicity tests of both silk and wool sample showed no signs of red marks, swelling, rashes, itching and irritation or any other form of skin allergy. This indicates that the fungal colorant used to dye silk and wool in the study is safer to use and nontoxic to human skin. 3.3.5 Analysis of colorant via paper chromatography Out of the three compositions used, only water composition revealed that the dye is multicomponent as it is showing range of colors or color zones on the chromatograph having different Rf values. Spot-A of Rhizopus spp. (PDB, 150C) had just a single color component (orangish brown) at a Rf value 0.885 whereas, Spot-B and C of Pencillium vinaceum in PDB and CZB had two color components (orange and brown) at a Rf value 0.596 and 0.783 and three components (pink, red and brown) at a Rf 0.42, 0.570 and 0.774 respectively.

Table 3.6: Wash fastness tests on wool and silk samples dyed with Penicillium Vinaceum and Rhizopus spp. Wash fastness Colour Staining on change in *standard *specimen fabric 1

Staining on *standard fabric 2

Wool (Pencillium vinaceum, CZB, 280C)

5

5

5

Silk (Pencillium vinaceum, CZB, 280C)

5

5

5

Wool (Pencillium vinaceum, PDB, 280C)

5

5

5

Silk (Pencillium vinaceum, PDB, 280C)

5

5

5

Wool (Rhizopus spp., PDB, 280C)

5

5

5

Silk (Rhizopus spp., PDB, 280C)

5

5

5

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Samples

4. Conclusion Textile bio-colorants were efficiently extracted from two fungi namely Penicillium vinaceum and Rhizopus spp. The colorants obtained were extracellular and no intracellular pigment was extracted from both the fungi. Further, it was found that physico-chemical growth conditions of the fungi can be controlled and optimized to get maximum pigmentation. Penicillium vinaceum grown in CZB and PDB at 280C produced two hues purple and brown respectively. On the other hand, Rhizopus spp. grown in PDA at 150C produced red hue. For both the fungi the highest optical density was observed within 17 days of incubation in stationary cultures after which no further change in colorant was seen. After extraction of optimized colorants dyeing of silk and wool samples, with and without mordanting was carried out. Mordanting seems to have no significant effect on the dyeing performance as its inability to produce different hues and hence was eliminated from the study. Without mordanting samples of silk and wool were successfully dyed into bright shades of purple, brown and red corresponding to it supernatant colors at 700-800C for

* Standard fabric 1 is same as specimen and standard fabric 2 is cotton. 286

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BIOTECHNOLOGY 5.

about 45 min. Dyed samples were then subjected to spectrophotometer analysis to calculate the percentage absorption and color value of the dyed samples and have been estimated to be greater for wool than silk. Fastness tests like rub and wash fastness revealed good to excellent fastness of the dyed samples. Moreover, toxicity test of pigments was found to have no effect on human skin and is safer to use. Analysis of pigments by paper chromatography revealed that the colored culture filtrate of Penicillium vinaceum is multi component, whereas, that of Rhizopus spp. is a single color component. Ultimately, this can be concluded that fungal sources can be exploited for color production for using as a textile dye under controlled experimentation either in a small setup or on a mass scale basis in an eco friendly manner on wide variety of substrates.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

References 1. 2. 3.

15.

16.

❑❑❑

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4.

Nelson D., Maria F.S., Roseli D. and Elisa E., Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition, 42, 53, (2002). Tiwari V. and Vankar P.S., Colourage, 48, 53, (2001). Gupta D., Kumari S., Gulrajani M., Coloration Technology, 117, 333, (2001). Atalla M.M., El-khrisy E.A.M., Youssef Y.A. and Mohamed A.A., Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, 7(1), 33, (2011).

Raisainen R., Nousiainen P. and Hynninen P.H., Textile Research Journal, 72(11), 973, (2002). Gupta C., Garg A.P., Prakash D., Goyal S. and Gupta S., Pharmacologyonline, 2, 1309, (2011). Hamlyn P.F., Textile Magazine, 3, 6, (1995). Youssef M.S., El-Maghraby O.M.O. and Ibrahimn Y.M., International Journal of Botany, 4, 349, (2008). Daniel J.D., Silvana T.S., Plinho F.H. and Adriano B., Process Biochemistry, 42, 904, (2007). Ferreira-Leitao V.S., Andrade de Carvalho M.E. and Bon E.P.S, Dyes and Pigments, 4, 230, (2007). Nagia F.A. and EL-Mohamedy R.S.R., Dyes and Pigments, 75, 550, (2007). Yagi A., Okamura N., Haraguchi H., Abo T. and Hashimoto K., Phytochemistry, 33, 87, (1993). Okamura N., Haraguchi H., Hashimoto K. and Yagi A., Phytochemistry, 34, 1005, (1993). Cho Y.J., Park J.P., Hwang H.J., Kim S.W., Choi J.W.M. and Yun J.W., Letters in Applied Microbiology, 35, 195, (2002). Gohl E.P.G. and Vilensky L.D., Textile Science: An Explanation of Fibre Properties, CBS Publishers, New Delhi, 75, (2005). Mathur J.P. and Bhandari C.S., Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research, 26, 432, (2001).

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TESTING

Application of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Technique for the Selection of Vegetable Dyes Prabir Kumar Choudhuri* Visva Bharati, Textile Section, Dept. of Silpa Sadana, Sriniketan. Abstract Multi-criteria decision making technique is a branch of operation research (OR), now popularly applied in the field of engineering, banking, fixing policy matters etc. It can also be applied for taking decisions in daily life like selecting a car to purchase, selecting bride or groom and many others. Various MCDM methods namely Weighted sum model (WSM), Weighted product model (WPM), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solutions (TOPSIS) and Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) are there to solve many decision making problems, each having its own limitations. However it is very difficult to decide which MCDM method is the best. MCDM methods are prospective quantitative approaches for solving decision problems involving finite number of alternatives and criteria. So the MCDM technique provides enough scope to be applied for the selection of vegetable dyes or ranking the dyes among them on the basis of some selection criteria. The present paper is an attempt to explore the scope of applying the AHP method of multi-criteria decision making technique to determine the quality values of the vegetable dyes under consideration on the basis of some important criteria like Fastness properties, cost & polygenetic properties and to select or rank them accordingly. Keywords MCDM, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Vegetable dye, Quality values.

2. Overview of MCDM and AHP Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) is a very popular discipline of Operation Research (OR), having relatively short history of about 40 years. Its development has accelerated with the rapid development of computer technology. Computer programming has helped to handle huge data related to criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives, their systematic analysis to tackle MCDM problems, complex in nature. This has made MCDM extremely important and useful tools in solving business decision making problems.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

1. Introduction Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) refers to making decisions in the presence of multiple, usually conflicting, criteria. MCDM problems are common in everyday life. In personal context, a house or a car one buys may be characterized in terms of price, size, style, safety, comfort, etc. MCDM techniques are very much applicable for selecting students to provide scholarships. In business context, MCDM problems are more complicated and deal with many criteria and sub-criteria to arrive at a decision among many alternatives. Clear understanding on the subject can explore newer fields for its application to make decisions.

There are many methods available which have enjoyed a wide acceptance in the academic area and many realworld applications. Each of these methods has its own characteristics and background logic. The Weighted sum model (WSM), Weighted product model (WPM), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solutions (TOPSIS) and Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) are among the most popular ones. Each has some advantages and disadvantages. User has to choose the suitable method according to complexity of the problems. So, it is very difficult to say which one is the best MCDM method.

Although the selection of vegetable dyes can be made on the basis of experience or some other ways, MCDM technique are yet to find its place for its quality evaluation in more scientific manner. This paper deals with the exploration of possibilities of applying AHP method of MCDM technique for selection of vegetable dye among finite alternatives based on finite number of decision criteria. * All correspondence should be addressed to, Dr. Prabir Kumar Choudhuri Visva Bharati (A Central University), Textile section, Dept. of Silpa Sadana, Sriniketan - 731236. Email: pkc1@rediffmail.com 288

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TESTING The Analytic Hierarchy Process (or AHP) method was developed by Professor Thomas Saaty [1-4]. This is one of the frequently discussed methods of decision-making. The reason of its popularity lies in the fact that it can handle the objective as well as subjective factors [5] and the criteria weights and alternative scores are elicited through the formation of a comparison pair-wise matrix which is the heart of the AHP. Since the introduction of AHP, it has evolved into several different variants like revised AHP proposed by Belton and Gear in 1983 [6] and multiplicative AHP proposed by Barzilai and Lootsma in 1994 [7]. These methods have been widely used to solve a broad range of multi-criteria decision problems.

The normalized weight of the i-th criteria (wi ) is determined by calculating the geometric mean of the i-th row (GMi ) of the above matrix and then normalizing the geometric mean of rows. This can be represented as follows: 1

GMi = {Unj=1cij}n and wi =

The principal eigen vector lmax of the above matrix of the original pair-wise comparison matrix C1 is calculated. To check the consistency in pair-wise comparison judgment, consistency index C1 and consistency ratio CR are calculated by following equations:

2.1. AHP Methodology AHP decomposes a complex MCDM problem into a system of hierarchy. The final step in AHP deals with the structure of a m 4 n matrix. The matrix is constructed by using the relative importance of alternatives in terms of each criterion. The process of working out the problem starts with the formation of a decision hierarchy where the hierarchy of the problem is formed by keeping the overall objective or goal at the top and the alternatives at the bottom. Relevant attributes of the decision problem such as criteria and sub-criteria are placed at the intermediate levels. Next, the pair-wise comparison matrix is formed, in this step the relative importance of different criteria with respect to the objective of the problem is determined by using the AHP. For doing this, a pair wise comparison matrix of criteria is constructed using a scale of relative importance proposed by Saaty which is shown in Table 2.1. The judgments are entered by using that fundamental scale of AHP. In AHP the number of pair-wise comparisons in a decision problem having alternatives and criteria is expressed by the equation; n(n-1) m(m-1) +n 2 2 For criteria, the matrix will be m 4 n order. The entry cij will denote the comparative importance of i criteria with respect to j criteria. In the matrix cij = 1 when i = j and cji = 1 c ji The pair-wise comparison matrix c1 is shown as,c1 =

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GMi n Si=1GMi

and, C1 =

lmax n-1

-n

and, CR =

CI RCI

Where, RCI = random consistency index and its value can be obtained from table 2.2. If the value of CR is 0.1 or less, then the judgment is considered to be consistent and therefore acceptable. Otherwise the decision maker has to reconsider the entries of pair-wise comparison matrix.

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In order to calculate the relative importance of sub criteria with respect to corresponding criteria, the pair-wise comparison between the attributes of sub-criteria are made in the same way as discussed earlier. The global weights of sub-criteria are calculated by multiplying the relative weight of sub-criteria with respect to the corresponding criterion and the relative weight of criterion with respect to the objective.


TESTING Table 2.1: The fundamental relational scale for pair-wise comparisons [1]. Intensity of Definition importance on an absolute scale

Explanation

1

Equal importance

3

Moderate importance Experience and judg of one over another ment slightly favour one activity over an other.

5

Essential or strong importance

Experience and judg ment strongly favour one activity over an other

7

Very strong importance

An activity is strongly favoured and its dominance is demonstrated in practice.

9

Extreme importance

The evidence favouring one activ ity over another is of the highest possible order of affirmation

Intermediate values between two adja cent judgment

When compromise is needed.

2,4,6,8

Reciprocal

lar MCDM approaches namely, technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solutions (TOPSIS) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Ranking of navels was elicited in accordance with the relative closeness value determined by TOPSIS method. For the determination of technological value of cotton fibre Majumdar A et al. [5] have used Multi-criteria decision- making approach and compared its efficacy with existing approach. The MCDM approach was found to give better correlation between fibre quality and yarn strength. Hybrid AHPTOPSIS method of Multi-criteria decision-making was also found to be effective as shown by Majumdar et al. [9] in their study for ranking the cotton fibres which gave good agreement with the ranking of yarn in terms of tenacity. 4. Application of Multiplicative AHP in selection of vegetable dyes 4.1. Hierarchy formulation The goal or objective of the present investigation is to determine the acceptance value of vegetable dyes which should reflect the achievable level of Fastness properties, cost and polygenetic properties. So, the dye properties criteria of this problem can be classified under three headings, namely fastness properties, cost and polygenetic properties. Fastness properties can be divided into three sub-criteria, washing fastness (WF), rubbing fastness (RF) and light fastness (LF) whereas cost criteria and polygenetic properties are solely represented by raw material cost (RMC ) and no. of available shades (NAS) respectively.

Two activities con tribute equally to the objective.

If activity p has one of the above numbers assigned to it when compared with activ ity q, then q has the reciprocal value when compared with p

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

After obtaining the global weights of each attributes, the priority index is calculated according to the variant of AHP followed. Finally the ranking of the alternatives are made on the basis of index obtained Table 2.2: RCI values of different number of alternatives

M

1 2 3

4

5

6

7

8

9

RCI 0 0 0.58 0.90 1.12 1.24 1.32 1.41 1.45 3. Some application of MCDM techniques in textiles Some published research works have been reported in the area of textiles manufacture. Majumdar A et al. [8] in their work has selected a suitable navel out of ten navels for denim fabrics using a combination of two popu-

Figure 4.1: Hierarchical structure of dye properties 290

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TESTING At the lowest level of the hierarchy, there are the different alternatives of dye types namely A, B, C, D, ……, N which should be ranked according to their acceptance value. The schematic representation of the problem is depicted in Figure 4.1. 4.2. Determination of criteria weights and rankings of alternatives With respect of the objective of the problem, the pairwise comparison matrix of three criteria is given in Table 4.1. Here the comparison is made according to Saaty's scale given in Table 2.1.

In order to calculate the relative weights of sub criteria with respect to corresponding criteria, the pair-wise comparison between sub-criteria of fastness properties and the derived weight vectors are shown in Table 4.2 Then the global weights of sub-criteria are calculated by multiplying the relative weight of sub-criteria with respect to the corresponding criterion and the relative weight of criterion with respect to the objective. Hence, the global weight of washing fastness is 0.538×0.731=0.393, the global weight of rubbing fastness is 0.164×0.731=0.119, and the global weight of light fastness is 0.298×0.731=0.218.

Table 4.1: Pair-wise comparison matrix of criteria with respect to objective

The global weight of cost parameter and polygenic properties are 0.081 and 0.188 respectively.

Fastness

Cost Shade Geometric Normalized variation Mean(GM) GM

Fastness

1

Table 4.2: Pair-wise comparison of sub-criteria with respect to fastness properties

7

5

3.271

0.731

Cost 1/7 Polygenetic

1

1/3

0.362

0.081

Tensile Washing Rubbing Light GM properties fastness fastness fastness

properties

3

1

0.843

0.188

Washing fastness

1

3

2

1.817 0.538

Rubbing fastness

1/3

1

1/2

0.550 0.164

Light fastness

1/2

2

1

1

1/5

It can be inferred from Table 4.1 that fastness properties very strongly predominate over the cost parameter and essentially predominate over polygenetic properties whereas the dominance of polygenetic properties over cost parameter is moderate. The normalized column of table 3 indicates that the fastness properties of dye have the most dominant influence with a relative weight of 0.730. The relative weights of cost and polygenetic properties are 0.080 and 0.188 respectively. For the measurement of consistency of judgment, the original matrix is multiplied by the weight vector to obtain the product as shown below, 1 7 5 0.731 2.230 1/7 1 1/3 ✕ 0.081 = 0.247 1/5 3 1 0.188 0.574

[

Therefore, according to the multiplicative AHP model, the equation to calculate the acceptance value of yarns (MIAHP) becomes; MIAHP =

][ ][ ]

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WF 0.393 RF = 0.119 LF 0.218 NAS 0.188

RMC

0.081

values of MIAHP for A, B, C, D, .… N type of vegetable dyes can be calculated on the basis of actual values of parameters against corresponding dye type. The dye having highest MIAHP value will rank top and is most acceptable. The descending order in the values will be the ranking of dyes on priority.

The consistency in the pair-wise judgment is found to be justified as confirmed from calculating the consistency index (CI) and consistency ratio (CR) putting the value of random consistency index (RCI) against corresponding number of alternatives from table 2.2. Therefore, 3.065-3 CI 0.0325 = 0.0325 & CR = = 3-1 RCI 0.58 (acceptable)

0.298

CR = 0.012

2.223 0.247 0.547 Now, lmax = ( 0.731 + 0.081 + 0.188 ) / 3 = 3.065

(CI) =

Normalised GM

5. Conclusions It can be concluded that the selection of natural dyes can effectively be made using multiplicative AHP technique very well. In the prevailing practice the selection of dyes are often made based on either quality characteristics or cost factor which does not reflect the quality - cost optimization. But the present methodology can effectively help to select dyes according to their rank

= 0.056< 0.1

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Criteria


TESTING considering the quality characteristics and cost parameter altogether. This technique also offers flexibility in the sense that the user can change the relative weights of the concerned parameters as per the need and get the right selection.

5. 6.

7. References 1. 2. 3.

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4.

Saaty T L, The Analytic Hierarchy Process, Mcgraw-Hill International, New York (1980). Saaty T L, European J. of Operational Res., 48, 9-26, (1990). Vaidya O S and Kumar S, European J. of Operational Res., 169, 1-29, (2006). Saaty T L, European J. of Operational Res., 32 (7), 841-855, (1983).

8. 9.

Majumdar A, Majumdar P K and Sarkar B, AUTEX Res. J, 5(2), 71-80, (2005). Belton V. and Gear A E "On a shortcoming of Saaty's method of analytic hierarchies," Omega, 13, 143144, (1983). Barzilai J, Lootsma F A, Forman EH (ed.), "Power Relations and Group Aggregation in the Multiplicative AHP and SMART," Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on the AHP, George Washington University, Washington, DC, U.S.A 157-168 (1994). Majumdar A, Kaplan S and GoKtepe O, J text. Ins 101 (4) 304-309, (2010). Majumdar A, Sarkar B and Majumdar P K, J text. Ins, 96 (5) 303-309, (2005). ❑❑❑

Published regularly since 1939 Subscribe Today 292

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MANAGMENT

Enterprise Social Responsibility: A Pledge for Knitwear Industry of Ludhiana 1

Prabhjot Kaur*1 & Navjot Kaur*2 Department of Clothing and Textiles, Government Home Science College, 2 Continental Group of Institute, Jalvehra (Fatehgarh Sahib).

Abstract Enterprise Social Responsibility (ESR) is not a fad or a passing trend, it is a business imperative that many Indian companies had begun to think about or are engaging with in one way or another. This study was undertaken to comparatively analyze the commitment of knitwear units towards social practices among inward oriented and outward oriented units of Ludhiana. Eighty industrial knitwear units belonging to Knitwear Apparel cluster of Ludhiana (Punjab) were surveyed. Random sampling method (Lottery method) was used for the selection of 80 units from 4 major area blocks in Ludhiana. Interview Questionnaire schedule was used to collect the data regarding their ESR practices. The results revealed that Enterprise Social Responsibility had become increasingly important because of the today's heightened interest in the proper role of business in society. Majority of units believed that profit motive and social responsibility are contradictory to each other. Most of the Outward oriented units were more committed towards social practices and were involved in one or the other social betterment practices in comparison to inward oriented units. Inspite of being involved in community betterment work, most of the units did not publicize their social activities among common people.

in the press in regard to outsourcing by developed countries of low-tech, labor intensive production for developing countries. Not only Consumer organizations increasingly demand information about production conditions and routes to market but also Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and various trade unions approach companies with requests and demands regarding their commitment to the society. Social responsibility is the combined effort by mankind to make this world a safer, more nurturing, and caring place [1]. Although the implementation of social responsible activities involves time, effort and resources, yet the industry owners have realized that it is very important nowadays as it not only improves both the public image of the company and productivity, increases employees satisfaction from their work but also paves the way for more innovation and market flexibility, and hence ultimately the brand gains in value. The perception of the apparel firm improves among its stakeholders, i.e. clients, suppliers, retail chains, public authorities, and stock market investors, all of whom work more willingly with the company and/ or use its services. Hence, CSR activities are now being undertaken throughout the globe. The 1950's saw the start of the modern era of CSR when it was more commonly known as responsibility.

1. Introduction "Business is not separate from societyâ&#x20AC;Ś. Companies are not only engines of economic growth but also pivotal agents of social and political integration" Fombrun [4] Social compliance is a burning issue in the challenging world market now days. It has become one of the key business trends of the past decade. Prominent buyers from developed countries are increasingly emphasizing on compliance of standards as their consumers are much more concerned about this issue. Almost every Fortune 100 company now makes meaningful charitable contributions each year. Moreover, a new consciousness concerning 3Fs (Fair Price, Fair Say, Fair Share) and 4Cs (Produce clean, Eat clean, Wear clean, Live clean) has arisen in the 'developed' world. So Social Responsibility has become an issue of increasing importance and is taking up more and more space * All correspondence should be addressed to, Mrs. Prabhjot Kaur Department of Clothing and Textiles Government Home Science College Sector-10, Chandigarh(UT) Email : prabhjot00076@gmail.com Jan - Feb 2014

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Key words Knitwear units, Random Sampling Method, Profit motive, Social responsibility.


MANAGMENT company has on people-even indirectly. This includes the people within the company; in the supply chain of the company, as well as customers of the company.

In 1953, Howard Bowen published his book, 'Social Responsibility of the Business', and he is largely credited with coining the phrase Corporate Social Responsibility and is perhaps the father of modern CSR. Bowen advocates that CSR was "industry's obligation to pursue those policies, to make those decisions or to follow those lines of actions which are desirable in term of objective and values of society" [2].

1.1. The social aspect of CSR for an organization Corporation owes a responsibility to society that goes beyond mere production of goods and services. Every corporate or business entity not only has a responsibility to add to the problems of the society but help to solve social problems.

The entirety of CSR can be discerned from the three words phrase: Corporate, Social, and Responsibility.CSR covers the relationship between corporations and the society with which they interact.CSR also includes the responsibilities that are inherent on both sides of these relationships.CSR defines the society in its widest sense and on many levels, to include all the stakeholder and the constituent groups that maintain an ongoing interest in the organization's operations [6].

1.1.1. Responsibility towards Owners Every business should provide fair return on capital, maintain safety of investment and disclose material information about business and market. 1.1.2. Responsibility towards customers Every business should provide goods and services required to fulfill wants, quality goods and services, produce and supply harmful goods, charge reasonable price and remain fair in dealings.

CSR is the recognition on the part of management of an obligation to the society. It serves not only for maximum economic performance, but also for humane and constructive social policies as well. It can be thought of in terms of "good neighborliness". The concept involves two phases. On the one hand, it means not doing things that spoils the neighborhood. On the other, it may be expressed as the voluntary assumption of the obligation to help solve neighborhood problems. Neighborliness may be substituted with the term social responsibility implying the commitment of a business or Business in general, to an active role in the solution of broad social problems, such as racial discrimination, pollution, transportation, or urban decay [3].

1.1.3. Responsibility towards employees A Business has a responsibility to provide them with fair and competitive wages, good working conditions, proper safety measures to avoid health and life hazards, training and prospects for growth and development and no discrimination between different employees on the basis of caste and colour. 1.1.4. Responsibility towards local community Business has a responsibility of not polluting the immediate environment, not to dump waste around, aid the community with health care facilities and education and improve surrounding infrastructure [5] 1.2.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

◆ ◆ Figure 1.1: Social Aspect of CSR

Many organizations are becoming increasingly active in addressing the social concerns. Social responsibility means, being accountable of the social effects the

Aims and objectives To find out the adoption status of CSR with special reference to social practices in Knitwear units of Ludhiana. To comparatively analyze the commitment towards social practices among inward oriented and outward oriented Knitwear units of Ludhiana. To find out various society related betterment practices followed by knitwear units. To find out various medical and community related activities performed by unit or its employees.

2. Materials and methods The related literature was reviewed. The sampling unit 294

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MANAGMENT selected for the study was the individual knitwear unit in Ludhiana which was a member of Knitwear club. Knitwear club has membership of 800 Knitwear units. Treating this as a proxy for the population, 80 medium knitwear units (10% of the population) were selected which were considered adequate and manageable to obtain the required data. Sample area was divided in four regions i.e. Area I, II, III & IV. Twenty units were randomly selected from each area. The information regarding the industrial unit's social commitment was collected personally by the researcher through personal interview of the unit owners or their representatives after taking telephonic appointment. The data collected was coded, tabulated and analysed.

In Ludhiana, 69% of units believed that profit motive and social responsibility were contradictory to each other. This shows their thinking in context to CSR that it is more of financial liability for the units.

Figure 3.2: Column diagram showing respondents on the basis of engagement in social responsible activities

Forty four percent knitwear units were following social responsible occasional activities related to business strategy as compared to 26% units which did not support CSR activities. Majority of the outward oriented units were more regular in relation to social responsible activities as compared to inward oriented units. This was mainly because of the periodical factory audits conducted by the international buyers to check the social compliance. Figure 2.1: Area Distribution of Ludhiana

Figure 3.3: Column diagram showing respondents on the basis of the promotion of society related betterment practices

Majority of the knitwear units provided maximum employment opportunities and made efforts towards health and safety of men and women like regular free medical check-up, installation of silencers on the generators (so no noise pollution is created) and proper

Figure 3.1: Pie chart showing respondents on the basis of the type of unit Jan - Feb 2014

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3. Results & discussion The results of the survey conducted to study the awareness and commitment of 80 knitwear units towards social practices in Ludhiana is given below.In Ludhiana, out of 80 knitwear units surveyed, 89% of units were garment manufacturing, 9% of units were composite (Knitting, having sewing & processing facility under one roof), and 2% of units were of fabricating.


MANAGMENT disposal of waste (chemicals, fabric scrap, paper polluted water etc). Only few units organized recreational events, partnership projects of social solidarity, conservation of local heritage and conducted cause related marketing campaign. Majority of the outward oriented units gave charities to less fortunate & needy people in the society. They conducted group marriages of poor girls in gurdwaras and also provided them financial assistance through NGO's , industrial training along with jobs, carried out educative activities like appointing teacher to teach very poor students free of cost, recruit disabled or handicapped people in administered work etc in comparison to inward oriented units.

Forty one percent of units were donating money to hospitals for treating poor & old people, while only few (19%) organized free medical camps for the local community. All the outward oriented units were engaged in one or the other medical related activities like blood donation, eye treatment camps, awareness lectures on chewing tobacco, cigarette smoking, drugs, HIV aids etc while only 29% inward oriented units were involved in such activities.

Figure 3.6: Column diagram showing respondents on the basis of the educative initiatives for the community

Majority of units were involved in educative initiatives like providing donation to schools, training centers for sports facilities, and scholarships to poor students and free education to the children. Almost all the outward oriented units were involved in providing educational facilities for the community like appointing teachers to teach poor students free of cost, donate money in the schools and colleges through NGO's, provide special industrial training in comparison to only 33% inward oriented units.

Figure 3.4: Column diagram showing respondents on the basis of the charitable services provided to community

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Thirty nine percent of the Knitwear units had conducted community marriages while only few (10%) units ran community kitchens like providing langars on gurupuravs in gurdwara and chabil for local communities. None of the units provided loans or insurance/ pension to the local community. Majority of the outward oriented units were engaged in more charitable services like donations to religious bodies, charitable organizations working for the poor, old, handicapped, blind, mentally challenged children and people in comparison to inward oriented units.

Figure 3.7: Column diagram showing respondents on the basis of the employees participation in local community activities

Majority of the units i.e. 72% motivated their employees to participate in local community activities like skill training, donation to the needy, open dialogue with the local community on adverse, controversial or sensitive issues and education. All the outward units send their

Figure 3.5: Column diagram showing respondents on the basis of the performance of medical related activities 296

Jan - Feb 2014


MANAGMENT employees for various social activities like providing skill training especially to ladies like performing various garment manufacturing processes, and then employing them in their unit and every employee was motivated to contribute towards the donation for poor children in comparison to 51% inward oriented units.

Figure 3.10: Column diagram showing respondents on the basis of the degree of participation in social activities in future

Only 37% of the units were interested to increase the participation in social activities in future. Majority were outward oriented units as they were under pressure from international buyers. Figure 3.8: Column diagram showing respondents on the basis of the public support for its social responsible activities

Only 14% of units have received public support for its socially responsible activities in a form of tax incentive, Subsidy/grant, free of charge consultancy service etc, which included 29% outward and 2% inward oriented units.

References 1. Banerjee P. M., & Shastri V., Social Responsibility and Environment Sustainability in Business, SAGE publications Ltd, New Delhi, 12,(2010). 2. Bowen, R.,Retrieved March, 3, 2012 from (http:/ /www.cipr.co.UK /groups/spacial/CSRnetwork/ special6e-3.htm), (2003). 3. Eilbert H. & Parket I.R., Business Horizons, 16, 7, (1973). 4. Fomburn C.J., Corporate Global Citizenship: doing Busines in the public Eye, The New Lexington Press, San Francisco ,27-42,(1998). 5. Sunita, Politics, Ethics and Social Responsibility of Business, Paragon Books, New Delhi,250,253-255,(2005). 6. Werther W. B., & Chandler D., Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility, SAGE publications India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, (2010).

Figure 3.9: Column diagram showing respondents on the basis of the factors creating awareness regarding social contributions to the society

Majority of the units (67%) did not create awareness regarding social contributions to the society. Majority (79%) of the outward oriented units created awareness through internet, newspaper, broachers/pamphlet and television/radio of outward oriented units in comparison to 23% of inward oriented.

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GLOSSSARY 1. Inward oriented unit : - Unit which caters to domestic market. 2. Outward oriented unit : - Unit which caters to international market. ❑❑❑ 297

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4. Conclusion Henry Ford was right in saying that Social Responsibility is fundamentally the same as it has always been i.e. to earn profits for shareholders by serving consumer wants with maximum efficiency. The only way that any enterprise will continue to have the support of the people who enfranchised is to perform in ways that are socially desirable.


OTHERS

'Branded or Non Branded Garments?' A Study on Consumers Preference M. D. Teli*, Sanket P. Valia, & Shruti Venkatram Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology. Abstract A survey aimed at gaining an insight into the clothing habits in the age group of 18 to 50 was carried out and a total of 60 persons responded to the questionnaire. The said set of people were questioned on their choice of clothes; branded or non-branded, their reason for choosing the same as well as their knowledge and opinions on the environmental aspects of the manufacturing of the apparels they purchased and subsequently used. The survey was divided into a number of sub-parts, one focusing on people's preference i.e. branded or non-branded clothes and the other sub-parts which focused on the purchasing details of specific apparels viz. jeans, t-shirts and the last sub-part entailing the environmental aspects of the manufacturing process of the apparels. The study indicates clear preference of purchasing branded apparels. The inner desire of the customers to encourage ecofriendly processing is also revealed in this work. Keywords Brand, Customers, Eco-labels, Environmental aspects. 1. Introduction Within the current marketing environment, the competition between products and services is becoming increasingly tough. Each producer of goods and services attempts to obtain a share of the market potential by making consumers believe that they have the answer to all their personal needs and desires [1]. Brand is the "name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's product distinct from those of other sellers"[2].

the brand and is known as the brand experience. The brand experience is a brand's action perceived by a person. The psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image, is a symbolic construct created within the minds of people, consisting of all the information and expectations associated with a product, service or the company providing them. People engaged in branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the brand experience, creating the impression that a brand associated with a product or service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique.

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Proper branding can result in higher sales of not only one product, but many other products associated with that brand. Brand is the personality that identifies a product, service or company (name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or combination of them) and how it relates to key constituencies: customers, staff, partners, investors etc.

Brand awareness refers to customers' ability to recall and recognize the brand under different conditions and link to the brand name, logo, and jingles and so on to certain associations in memory. It consists of both brand recognition and brand recall. Brand awareness is of critical importance since customers will not consider your brand if they are not aware of it [3].

Some people distinguish the psychological aspect, the brand associate with like thoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so on that become linked to the brand. The experiential aspect of brand consists of the sum of all points of contact with

A new piece of research confirms what many, not least in the marketing departments of fashion houses, will long have suspected: that it is not the design itself that counts, but the label.

* All correspondence should be addressed to, Prof. (Dr.) M.D. Teli, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga (E), Mumbai-400019, Email : mdt9pub@gmail.com

Rob Nelissen and Marijn Meijers [4] of Tilburg Univer298

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OTHERS sity in the Netherlands examined people's reactions to experimental stooges who were wearing clothes made by Lacoste and Tommy Hilfiger, two well-known brands that sell what they are pleased to refer to as designer clothing. The two researchers showed in this paper that such clothes did bring the benefits promised: co-operation from others, job recommendations and even the ability to collect more money when soliciting for charity. But this was possible only when the origin of the clothes in question was quite obvious. This study confirms a wider phenomenon. A value of work of art, for example, can change radically, depending on who is believed to have created it, even though the artwork itself is unchanged. And people will willingly buy counterfeit goods, knowing they are knock-offs, if they bear the right label. What is interesting is that the label is so persuasive. But humans often fail to see beyond the superficial. For humans, then, the status-assessment mechanism is going wrong [5].

Figure 3.2: The places where the respondents generally shop for clothes

As shown in Figure 2, votes were received in favor of purchasing clothes from malls. However of 28% votes were received for hawkers. Only 5 respondents purchased clothes from online stores probably due to the inability of a shopper to determine the fitting of garments online.

2. Methodology In the present survey in all 60 people participated, 45% (27) male and 55% (33) female. Within that too, 42% (25) were students and non earners; 32% (19) earned more than Rs 5 lakhs/annum, 18% (11) earned between Rs 1 lakh to 5 lakhs/annum and 8% (5) earned below 1 lakh/annum. 3. Results and Discussion Responding to the questions with regard to their preference for clothing, the response is shown in Figure 1. The total responses or votes are same time more than the number of respondents was only because some respondents chose to give more than one choices.

Figure 3.3: Parameters of clothes looked while buying the clothes

Figure 3.1: Preference of their clothing

A total of 40 out of 60 respondents, i.e. majority said that they purchased both, Indian branded and foreign branded clothes. Out of this lot, 23 respondents said that they preferred to purchase foreign branded clothes and remaining 17 liked to buy Indian branded clothes. In other words 66% people brought branded clothing. Jan - Feb 2014

Figure 3.4: Frequency of their shopping clothes

A majority of respondents purchased clothes every 3 months, followed by purchasing during festivals and special occasions. 299

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Quality topped their preference drive, whereas value for money followed by fashion trends was next parameter for taking purchase decision.


OTHERS 3.1. With reference to branded clothes only The names of any 2 brands that is frequently used by the respondents,

A total of 52 out of 108 votes were given for the superior quality of branded goods. 20% voted for consistency in quality of the brand in terms of design, quality etc. The uniqueness and rarity of a brand was the 3rd most preferred reason for buying branded clothes because of the exclusivity it offers.

Some popular brands stated by the respondents were VERO MODA, ZARA, ALLEN SOLLY and MANGO. What was the reason they first bought branded clothes? Most respondents said that GOOD WORD OF (to) MOUTH REVIEWS was the reason they first purchased branded clothes. Interesting add campaigns in newspapers, magazines, on T.V., films etc did not contribute much to their reasons for purchase.

Figure 3.7: With reference to QUALITY of branded clothes only, what parameters do they look for in the clothes they purchase?

Parameters noted in terms of quality while purchasing branded clothes. The questionnaire was put to the respondents to tick all the options of their choice for the above questions. Total 51 out of 60 respondents purchased branded clothes for comfort and fitting that they offered. A close second was the superior quality of the fabric and the feel of the fabric which was followed by the exclusivity of the branded fabric in terms of design and color.

Figure 3.5: Duration of using clothes.

About 30% respondents constituting the majority said that they wore the branded clothes till they were worn out. More than 2 years was a close second for the above question.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Do they buy branded clothes on discount only? This question was aimed to find out whether the respondents purchased branded clothes at a discounted price in order to reap the social appreciation a brand demanded without having to pay the full price. However, only 18 out of 60 respondents i.e. around 30% of the respondents purchased branded clothes on discounted prices. This corresponds with the earlier inferences drawn that where majority of the respondents purchased clothes for its quality over value for money.

What do they do with the branded clothes which they wear no more? Most respondents said that they donated these clothes away to charity. 3.2. With Reference to Jeans only The names of any 2 brands that they frequently use, Some popular brands stated by the respondents were LEVIS', PEPE, LEE, WRANGLER and SPYKAR.

Figure 3.8: Preference of type of jeans

Figure 3.6: Reasons for buying branded clothes. 300

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OTHERS The questionnaire asked the respondents to tick all the options of their choice for the above question. A majority consisting of 39 people out of 60 respondents said they preferred foreign branded jeans. Indian branded and both, branded and non-branded came as the second most preferred choice. Responding to the question about the amount spent on a pair of jeans, 83% of the respondents purchased jeans worth Rs 1000-5000 INR range. Where do they purchase their jeans from? A total of 51 out of 60 respondents purchased their jeans from malls. Exclusive brand outlets (24) were a second close choice for purchasing jeans. They used (47% of them) their pair of jeans till it was worn out.

Figure 3.10: Preferred fabric type used to make their Tshirt

The preference of fabric for T-shirt was invariably cotton and then followed polyester/cotton.

Responding to as to why do they choose to buy a pair of jeans, 52 out of 60 respondents, purchased a pair of jeans for the superior quality it offered, followed by the consistency of a brand in terms of its design, comfort, feel etc.

Responding to the amount spent on single T-shirt 70% of the respondents purchase and use T-shirts worth between INR 300-1,000 and 80% of respondents buy them from malls and half of them prefer to buy from exclusive brand outlets in malls. Responding to the question of how long do they use a Tshirt, 49% of the total demographic responded that they did not wear T-shirts for more than 1 year. Their response to what makes them buy T-shirts from particular brand, indicated that 80% of them purchased T-shirt for the superior quality and consistency of a brand in terms of maintain the design, comfort, feel of the T-shirts.

Within Quality 55 out of 60 respondents purchased a pair of jeans for the comfort and the fit it offered. Quality of the fabric and the design and colour of the fabric came as the 2nd most preferred qualitative reason for purchasing a pair of jeans. 3.3. With Reference to T-shirts only: The names of any 2 brands that they frequently use: Some popular brands stated by the respondents were VERO MODA, NIKE, ZARA, PUMA and TOMMY HILFIGER. Out of 60, 50% respondents preferred foreign brands.

Jan - Feb 2014

Figure 3.11: With reference to QUALITY ONLY, parameters they look for in a T-shirt

A total of 53 out of 60 respondents purchased a T-shirt for the comfort and the fit it offered. Quality of the fabric and the design and colour of the fabric came as the second most preferred qualitative reason for purchasing a T-shirt. 301

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Figure 3. 9: With reference to QUALITY ONLY, parameters they look for in a pair of jeans


OTHERS 3.4. With Respect to Environmental and Ethical practices used to manufacture clothes: Following six questions were asked to the respondents and their cumulative response is given below:-

they purchased were manufactured under ethical and environmentally friendly conditions. 4. Conclusion As seen from the forgoing discussion on the survey the branded clothes are preferred over non-branded clothes. The main reason for choosing branded clothes was the superior quality it offered. Quality, comfort and fitting of the branded clothes as well as consistency in design etc were the main parameters for consumers when they purchase branded clothes. Almost all the respondents said that they donated these garments away to charity once their use is over. The details of ecological impact of the manufacturing of branded garments were not known to most of the respondents and only 27% of them are aware of the harmful effects of effluents and the need for buying ecofriendly clothing. However, majority of these respondents are ready to encourage ecofriendly processing and ethical manufacturing and to boost such good practices, they are ready to buy such items at higher price too. This further confirms, the desire from within to be respectful to nature and being ethical.

Q.1 Are you aware of the term Eco-labels? A total of 52% respondents were aware of the term eco-labels. Q.2 Are you aware of the term Eco-labels in Jeans? A total of 47% respondents were aware of the term eco-labels. Q.3 Are you aware of the term Eco-labels in Tshirts? A total of 46% respondents were aware of the term eco-labels. Q.4 Are you familiar with the environmentally friendly and ethical practices used to manufacture branded clothes? Only 32% of the respondents were familiar if ethical and environmental friendly practices were used to manufacture their branded clothes and the details of these practices.

References

Q.5 Are you familiar with the environmentally friendly and ethical practices used to manufacture jeans as well as T-shirts? Only 27% of the respondents were familiar if ethical and environmental friendly practices were used to manufacture their jeans and T-shirts and the details of these practices.

1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

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Q.6 Will you buy branded clothes which are slightly more expensive than usual if the difference in cost contributes to a good social cause or ethical manufacturing process? A total of 77% of the respondents said that they will be willing to spend more money if the branded clothes

Namita Rajput Consumers' Attitude towards Branded Apparels: Gender Perspective International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4 (2); April 2012. American Marketing Association Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-06-29. http://www.flasingapore.org/info_branding.php www.economist.com A. V. Eck, A.F. Grobler, F.J. Herbst. (2004) Perceptions of branding in the clothing industry: A survey among black adolescents. Communicare, 23 (1). ❑❑❑

Attention All Members of THE TEXTILE ASSOCIATION (INDIA) Please update their profile & contact information by Sending us e-mail to update our website www.textileassociationindia.org E-mail: taicnt@gmail.com, 302

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TEXPERIENCE

Case Studies

Mr. Edward Walter Menezes, currently is the Director of Rossari Biotech Ltd., Mumbai. This is his own venture which he started in 1996. Mr. Edward has a degree of MMM from Welingkar Institute of Management, Mumbai. He did his B.Sc. (Chemistry) from Mumbai University and B.Sc. Tech (Textile Chemistry) from UICT. Before starting his own venture, he was with renowned companies like, Britacel Silicones (1995-1996) as the Director, was a Business Development Manager at Sandoz (India) Ltd. between 1987-1995, was a Tech Sales Executive in Jaysynth Dyechem between 1985-1987, was a Dyeing Supervisor in D C Processors. He has two awards in his kitty, Distinguished Alumnus Technology Day Award 2013 by Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai and K.S. Shah Memorial best Lecture Award 2011-2013 by Textile Association (India) Ahmedabad. He has attended various seminars and conferences and is an eminent speaker too. He has paper publications in various Textile Magazines. He is also a visiting lecturer in various Textile Technology and Engineering colleges all over India. Mr. Edward Menezes was born on 31st October 1960, is a sports loving person; have represented school and college in football, volleyball, hockey, cricket and athletics. He also represented Sandoz (India) Ltd. for Cricket in the EMerck shield. Jan - Feb 2014

Case I Top dyed yarn fabric processingProblem faced When mercerized yarn dyed fabric was scoured or washed streaks appeared especially on areas of the fabric that was of a lighter shade, whereas in the grey form no streakiness was seen. Lot of investigations were done to understand this problem of streaky dyeing after processing. The yarn was dyed using different chemicals, fixing agents and core alkali neutralizers. After many trials it was found that the cationic fixing agent was responsible for this problem. Remedial measures It was concluded that the cationic dye fixing agent was the reason. Most cationic dye fixing agents exhaust unevenly on to dyed yarn. When the yarn dyed fabric is subjected to scouring or washing, colour from dark shades bleed into the bath and this is exhausted and fixed at the unevenly exhausted cationic dye fixed areas. The treatment with Greenclear TCSR Liq. minimizes this problem. As a preventive measure the selection of dye fixing agent becomes important. A cationic dye fixer that had a low strike rate and did not change shade on fixation was selected and this problem could be overcome. In case of many shades, an additional soaping can be done and the application of fixer could be avoided which eliminates this problem.

Washed fabric with capsule dyeing

Fabric treated with Greenclear

TCSR Liq. 303

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Mr. Edward Walter Menezes

The textile industry is comprised of a diverse, fragmented group of establishments that receive and prepare fibres, transform fibres into yarn, convert the yarn into fabric or related products, and dye and finish these materials at various stages of production. Textiles generally go through three stages that include pretreatment, dyeing, -finishing which are complex stages. In each step various parameters need to be optimized to get good subsequent treatments and ultimately quality of final textile goods. The processing parameters like temperature, pH, time, water quality, type of machine, type of fibre, type of blend are so complex that one has to have a thorough knowledge of each step with vast experience to produce a great finished fabric. Therefore, textile processing is considered to be an art rather than a science to produce and deliver on time finished fabric all the time with zero defects. Following are some of our experiences and challenges that we would like to share with you.


TEXPERIENCE Case II Uneven Dyeing in Textured Heat Setted Yarn The dyeing with Brilliant Blues is a task in order to get maximum brilliancy of shade. As in this case dyeing with Disp Blue 354, some points need to be taken care off while dyeing 1) Liquor ratio needs to be optimum (on higher side as much possible) 2) Critical Temperature Zone Concept - Dyeing program to set as per CTZ. 3) Contacts/min between fabric and liquor jet (Higher the contacts/min, better the results.)

ness of shade. Due to the dispersion stability, molecular weight and fast exhaustion at near top temperature of 1300C, use of diffusion accelerant often help to flatten the dyeing curve as the exhaustion starts early and hence dyeing slope is decreased. 2. The loading of the fabric- If you are using a Jet dyeing machine then you have to see that the loop length of the fabric is such that at least one gets 1 contact per minute ...if not 1 contact per 2 minutes. e.g.- if the fabric is 200 meters and the reel speed is 100 meters per minute, then the contact at the Jet will be 1 contact in 2 minutes. If you load the machine with double loop, the loop length will decrease to 100 meters and fabric will have 1 contact per minute. 3. pH of the bath should be strictly 4.5 minimum ...and good buffer....do not use just acetic acid 4. Blue 354 has a CTZ(critical temperature zone) starting at 900C for light shades and ending at 1200C — For 0.1 % shade...for darker shades the CTZ starts at l000C and up to 1350C„, say for 1 % shade. In this zone we should have the rate of rise of temperature at 0.50C. CTZ for Blue 354 w.r.t.l % depth

Critical Temperature Zone is the temperature range in which 80% of the dyestuff gets exhausted on the polyester. In order to apply the principle of CTZ, 80% of the exhaustion of the dyestuff in the bath must be controlled in the second phase of dyeing process. The dye that gets exhausted before and after the CTZ does not contribute to unlevel dyeings. CTZ varies w.r.t depth of shade. The CTZ shifts to the left for lighter shades and to the right for darker shades. Blue 354 is one of the brightest shades in Blue that is available in disperse dyes. However, this dye is difficult to dye because of its very narrow CTZ and large molecular size ...many precautions need to be taken to get successful dyeing.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Steps l . The Dye dispersion is to be done very carefully. Sprinkle the dye in a container containing water at 55 -600C. Dye to water ratio should be l : 10 to 15. Dye dispersion is also of much importance while dyeing. The Dye-stuff should be dispersed by setting following conditions (Dye dispersion is important due to the nature of this dyestuff and its high molecular weight). a) Water for dilution should be of the soft quality and temperature 40-500C b) Dye should be sprinkled onto the water under slow speed stirring 30-40 rpm on hand stirring. c) The dye preparation bath should already contain 50% of the dispersing agent and 50% of the leveling agent that is necessary for dyeing operation.

5.

The dyestuff should be added at as high temperature as possible i.e first add the chemicals, raise the temperature to 80°C and then run the colour before machine is pressurized. 6. The dyeing cycle should be as follows a. Shade is less than 0.3% 0 Add chemicals at 60 C / pH buffer - Dymax NDA Liq.- for pH 4.5 Levelling agent- Barel KB liq - 1.5 gpl Dispersing agent -Dispa HOT Liq. - 1 gpl Diffusion accelerator -Gentrate EN 200 Liq.- 1% .. / run for 5 min

The dispersion should be prepared and left standing for 10-20 min for proper dye molecule wetting. The bath should be strictly buffered to pH 4.5. The use of diffusion accelerants plays a significant role in the level304

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TEXPERIENCE 0

Remedial 1. Demineralisation to remove metals from the fibre 2. Treatment of water to remove metal contaminants 3. Use of appropriate complexing agents/ stabiliser(s)

b. If Shade > 0.5% Add chemicals run S mins, / 0 0 increase temperature to 80 C @ 2 C per min / Add Blue 354...run for 5 minutes / 0 0 Raise temperature to 100 C at 2 C per minute, / 0 0 Raise temperature from 100 to 13 5 C @ 0.5 C per minutes. Hold for 30 mins, cool and drain. Dye dispersion, number of contacts per minute and pH are very important.

Demineralisation- Removal of metal impurities like Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu from the Process water and fabric. Mechanism 1. Free metal and its oxide is converted into its ionic form by protonic treatment (demineralization) This ionic form is water soluble. Reaction of the oxidation of iron that may be described as follows Fe . Fe2+2cThe following redox reaction takes place 4 Fe2+ + O . 4 Fe3 + + 2 O2-

Case III Pin hole damage Pin hole damage in itself is an indication of higher degree of damage and indicates that damage has occurred on other areas of fabric, only not to that extent to form a pin hole. Pin-holes are the result of localized fiber degradation by hydrogen peroxide and is usually catalyzed by metal ions such as iron, Copper and Zinc ( Zinc comes from caustic lye from the rayon plants). There are many sources of these metal ions that should be checked. They may be present in the water supply. A common source of iron is rust from water and steam supply lines. Rust may also be present on the fabric as a result of contact between wet fabric and metal. Metal shavings from previous processing may also be a source of metals in the fabric. In addition, metal ions are inherently complexed with the fibers, and the amount will vary with source of fibers and/or growing conditions.

Jan - Feb 2014

2. The next step is chelation. The metal ion in solution is chelated and inactivated hence does not interfere in the bleaching application 3+ Fe Sequestering agent . Metal chelate complex The iron content on textiles can be determined qualitative by spotting with Nitric acid + Pottasium thiocyanate. The presence of iron will be indicated by the appearance of a red color. The higher the intensity of the coloration more is the amount of iron present. One of our customer was facing severe problem of pin hole damage in poplin processing. Rossari offers Pin hole damage package which includes Fastrack A pdr., Kleerix PER Liq., Zystab REV Liq. and Kleenox BAS liq. to resolve the pinhole problem caused by the presence metal to achieve better fabric protection.

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0

Increase temperature to 80 C @â&#x20AC;&#x2122;2 C per min ( Rate of rise should be high as dye does not exhaust and will simply run through the pump because of which the dispersion will become unstable) / Add Blue 354...n.m for 5 minutes / 0 0 Raise temperature to 90 C at 2 C per minute, / 0 Raise temperature from 90 to 110 @ 0.5 C per minutes. Hold at 110°C for 10 min / 0 0 0 Raise temperature from 1 10 C to 135 C @ 1 C per minute, hold for 30 mins and cool and drain.


TEXPERIENCE a health hazard in the coning department. In the case of fabric - 100% Polyester, the Oligomer gets entrapped in the fibre structure, especially heavy gsm fabric. This leads to white stains on the fabric that are very difficult to remove. Oligomer is a smaller chain length of polyester made up of two or more molecules of basic ethylene terephthlate i.e. dimer or trimer, produced as a side reaction during the manufacture of polyester. The Oligoester because of its smaller chain length is in the form of a fine powder that is entrapped in basic polyester and migrates to the surface during high temperature polyester dyeing. Higher the depth more is the displacement of Oligomer to the fibre surface: Approximately 0.1% to 1.0% of Oligomer is produced as a side reaction in the manufacture of basic polyester.

Case IV- Coloured / dirt rings in Cheese dyeing One of our customer was facing problem of color rings in 100% white cotton yarn processing. Initially it was thought that this may be due to dirt in the machine, water hardness, processing chemicals etc. So proper machine cleaning and hardness of water was checked. But still problem persisted. Then they tried strong dispersing agent and adjusted OBA dosages in bath which reduced the problem to some extent. Then we added Instabrite paste (a great product for attracting insoluble soil and contaminants) plus Zycol TSA liq. (Special dispersant and suspending agent) in process. After addition of above chemicals they found no colour rings and 4 degree improvement in whiteness index.

Problems caused by Oligomer deposits leading to unlevel dyeings. 1. Filtration effect (Inside - out variation) due to build up of Oligomers in package. 2. Improper pump pressure due to deposits on pump. 3. Choking of spindle holes 4. Variation in rate of rise of temperature due to deposits on heating elements. 5. Duller shades 6. Dusting during coning 7. Higher energy costs.

Instabrite as emulsifier/detergent for carbon soil + Mineral oil & Silicone Oil

Oligomer problem- It is a problem of process management and not like other problems where it can be prevented or completely solved. Understand that Oligomers are present from 0.1 % to 3% in the PES yarn itself and will keep coming out of the yarn or fibre during every stage of processing. It is like diabetes and has to be managed rather than look at removal. Various steps.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

l. 2.

3. Case V Oligomer problems - Many of our polyester yarn dyeing customers face problem of severe dusting and problems in winding/brealkages during coning and tight wound cones. This is due to the deposits on machine parts that leads to higher friction. Dusting also causes

4.

5. 306

Oligomers are soluble at high temperature 1300C. So hot drain is a must. Oligomers are hydrolyzed by caustic and Oligo EM Liq.a special additive, hence in R/C treatment, amount of caustic has to be increased. Under alkaline conditions with increase in temp the Oligomers are hydrolyzed., so higher R/C temperature is recommended upto 80-850C. Oligomers deposit on the inside of the machine where no mechanical cleaning is possible, hence machine cleaning is the first step. Longer the dyeing cycle and darker the shade Jan - Feb 2014


TEXPERIENCE more Oligomer comes out or is displaced from the fibre, hence use shorter dyeing cycles (high rate of rise and as short as possible hold times at top temperature). 6. Higher the top temperature, more the Oligomer will tend to come out, hence do not go to temperatures of 1350C...preferably dye at l300C or even lower l250C. 7. Use dispersing agents like Gritacol OR Lliq. or Dispa HOT liq in dyeing are used at higher dosages to disperse the insoluble Oligomer. 8. Use Oligo EM Liq. in the R/C as it accelerates the hydrolysis of Oligomers and makes them soluble. 9. Use a dispersing and detergent like agent- any of our detergent like Kleenox PSF Liq. or Kleenox Knitz Liq. in the R/C and washing baths will help. A detergent during dyeing can also help to keep the Oligomers in suspension. 10. It has been found that treatment of the 100% polyester yarn with a carrier at 1100C or even 1300C as a pretreatment greatly reduces the Oligomer deposits. 11. Finally if still problem is not minimized, use finishing agents like Lubril HDR Liq. in final finish to bind the oligomer so that dusting is considerably reduced on machine.

cellulose. Biscouring treatment at raised temperature of 950C gives better results compared to caustic boil treatment. With use of Lubeshine soft Liq. in finish, we observed improvement in yarn elongation at package bottom compared to running process. Yarn hairiness observed visually is same as in the case of grey yarn. Wax ring was not observed on packages after final winding. Soiling is caused by mud and other impurities coming through water sources. We recommended to incorporate Instabrite Paste in bleach system, until clean process water was ensured. Case VII Controlled biopolishing - On of our customer complained of loss of strength after biopolishing. After investigation it was found that the fabric blend was Linen/ Cotton. Controlled Biopolishing is also one such process where selection of proper cellulase enzyme is an important step. Because some times we simply use cellulase enzymes blindly in the bio-polishing bath to get desired effect without considering type of substrate/garment present in the bath. If reactivity of your cellulase is high on a given substrate it will damage the fabric leading to strength loss. Following diagram shows rate of hydrolysis on different types of celluloses with the cellulase enzyme. It shows that rate of fibre degradation is low for lyocell fabric whereas it is very high on Linen fabric. Hence, in the above case since it was a cotton linen blend, the dosage had to be optimized for linen part of the blend and a less aggressive neutral bio-polishing agent was used.

Case VI Problems in Yarn finishing Problem of wax ring in black shade after final winding, Yarn Hairiness particularly in dark shades. Soiling on yarn packages in bleach white lots. Yarn elongation at package bottom.

Effect of Cellulase Enzyme on type of cellulose

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Lyocell < Polynosic Rayon < Viscose Rayon < Cotton ÂŤ Linen High

Remedial actionWax ring and hairiness in black shades : Process modification was done in view to have better pectin removal from yarn without hampering the strength of


TEXNOTE

A Series of Papers on Biotechnology and its Application in Textiles The series of chapters under the title, 'Biotechnology and its application in textiles' will be published in this Journal of the Textile Association over the next year or so, will introduce the basics of biotechnology, industrially useful biotechnologically derived products, their areas of application in textiles and recent advances in biotechnology for textiles. This series is written primarily as an introductory text for an audience comprised of those interested in or already working in, textile related areas, who wish to acquire a broad knowledge of biotechnology and its application in textiles. The First Chapter is intended to serve as an introductory text for those who wish to expand their understanding of biotechnology.

Chapter 4 : Enzymes: The Vital Tools in Textile Industry Manasi Damle, Madhura Nerurkar, Ravindra Adivarekar

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

In continuation with the series of biotechnology in textiles, present article includes the application of enzymes in the textile industry. This article mainly deals with the brief introduction to enzymes, their working and the use of various enzymes in the different areas of textile processing. As mentioned in the previous articles, biotechnology refers to the use of microorganisms such as bacteria or biological substances such as enzymes, to perform industrial or manufacturing processes. Thus, the use of biological substances like enzymes in the fields of textiles very well explains the relation of biotechnology and textiles.

nature's catalysts.' Enzymes are chemically proteins in nature that consist of long chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds. They are present in all living cells, where they perform a vital function by controlling the metabolic processes, whereby nutrients are converted into energy and new cells. The advantages of using enzymes as biocatalysts in the industrial processes include substrate specificity, mild conditions and reduced waste. The specific action of enzymes minimizes unwanted side reactions or byproducts that appear in the waste stream. The industry using enzymatic reactions can be built and operated at much lower capital and energy cost. Enzyme-based processes tend to have lower waste treatment costs. Enzymes are chemically proteins in nature. Hence, when degraded, the amino acids on which they are structured are readily absorbed back into the nature making them biodegradable (Posorske L.H., 1984).

Need for Enzymes in the Textile Industry The processing of the grey fabrics in the textile industries comprises of various vital processes like desizing, scouring, bleaching and finishing. The conventional textile wet processes involve the use of solutions of concentrated sodium hydroxide, surfactants and chelating agents at boiling temperatures (Lewin and Pearce, 1998). These chemicals, after use, are discharged into the nearby freshwater reserves as effluent. This leads to contamination of the fresh water making it unfit for human consumption. Moreover, these chemicals damage the outer mucus layer that coats the fishes protecting them from parasitic bacteria, fungi and protozoa. According to Lenntech, consumption of such contaminated fresh water disrupts the digestive and endocrine system of humans. In addition, these processes requires a high energy input, generate a large amount of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand. On the fabric level, oxidative damage may also take place resulting in reduced tensile strength of the fabric. To prevent any damage to the ecosystem, it is important to minimize the use of traditional chemicals in the various stages of textile processing. Thus, inclusion of enzymes in the textile wet processes is the need of the hour.

Fruit, cereals, milk, fats, meat, cotton, leather and wood are some typical substrates for enzymatic conversion in industry. Both the usable products and the waste of most enzymatic reactions are non-toxic and readily broken down. Finally, industrial enzymes can be produced in an ecologically sound way where the waste sludge is recycled as fertiliser. Microbial enzymes are often more useful than the plant and animal derived enzymes because of the great variety of catalytic activities available, fast life cycle, comparatively high yields, easy handling and transport, production using controlled fermentation techniques, minimum space required for storage of microbes, regular supply due to absence of seasonal variations and rapid growth of microorganisms on inexpensive media. Microbial enzymes are also more stable than their corresponding plant and animal enzymes and their production is more convenient and safer (Wiseman A., 1995). Mechanism of Enzyme Action The basic mechanism by which enzymes catalyze chemical reactions start on, is by the binding of the substrate (or substrates) to the active site on the enzyme. The active site

What are enzymes? As stated by Louwrier A., 1998 'Enzymes are considered as 308

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TEXNOTE is the specific region of the enzyme which joins to the substrate. Enzymes are large protein molecules, the molecular weights of which range from several thousand to several million. The substrates on which enzymes act usually have molecular weights of several hundred. Due to the difference in size between the two, only a fraction of the enzyme is in contact with the substrate; the region of contact is called the active site. Usually, each subunit of an enzyme has one active site capable of binding substrate. The binding of the substrate to the enzyme bring about changes in the distribution of electrons in the chemical bonds of the substrate and ultimately accelerates the reactions that lead to the formation of products. The products are released from the enzyme surface to regenerate the enzyme for another reaction cycle.

form catalytic reaction effectively. Enzyme (E) wraps around substrate (S) to distort it and forms an enzyme-substrate complex (ES) .fast reaction to produce product (P) E + S . ES . P + E Enzyme is not used up in the reaction (unlike substrates)

Solubility : Enzymes as proteins are soluble in water or dilute salt solution.

Molecular Weight : Enzymes have a very high molecular weight varying from 10000 to several thousands.

Enzymes are charged molecules : Due to presence of amino acids, each enzyme has a charge. The charge depends on the pH of the solution. At a very low pH the amino acids are fully protonated and there is a positive charge on the proteins, as the pH is increased, the protein loses the proton to neutrilize the OH group and becomes a zwitter ion. As more alkali is added, the NH3 group gives its H+ and protein becomes positively charged.

The active site has a unique geometric shape that is complementary to the geometric shape of a substrate molecule, similar to the fit of puzzle pieces. This means that enzymes specifically react with only one or a very few similar compounds.

Enzymes have Buffering capacity : Enzymes are amphoteric molecules i.e. they behave as both acids and bases due to the presence of both carboxyl groups and amino groups.

Lock and Key Theory The specific action of an enzyme with a single substrate can be explained using a Lock and Key analogy first postulated in 1894 by Emil Fischer. In this analogy, the lock is the enzyme and the key is the substrate. Only the correctly sized key (substrate) fits into the key hole (active site) of the lock (enzyme).

Each enzyme has a specific isoelectric pH [PI] : It is the pH where the net charge on the protein is equal to zero so they do not move in an electric field. Above PI, negatively charged enzyme can move in an electric field. Below PI, enzyme is positively charged and can move under a electric field.

Co-factors and co-enzymes : A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is bound to the enzyme and is required for the enzyme's activity. Egs: Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+. Coenzymes are organic molecules that are required by certain enzymes to carry out catalysis. Eg: NAD, FAD, TPP.

Apoenzyme and Holoenzyme : An inactive enzyme, without the cofactor is called an apoenzyme while the complete enzyme with cofactor is the holoenzyme.

Enzyme activity : It is defined as the amount of enzyme that will convert a certain amount of Substrate to Product in a specified period of time under conditions of constant temperature and pH. The international Enzyme Commission (IEC) has adapted a standard unit of enzyme activity called The International Unit (IU). It is defined as the amount of enzyme that can convert one ?mole of substrate into product per minute at 25°C.(1 .mmole = 1 x 10-6moles). Katal: It is defined as the number of moles of substrate transformed into product

The forces that attract the substrate to the surface of an enzyme may be of a physical or a chemical nature. Electrostatic bonds may occur between oppositely charged groups. Such electrostatic bonds can occur with groups that are completely positively or negatively charged (i.e., ionic groups) or with groups that are partially charged (i.e., dipoles). The attractive forces between substrate and enzyme may also involve so-called hydrophobic bonds, in which the oily, or hydrocarbons of the enzyme and the substrate are forced together in the same way as oil droplets tend to coalesce in water.

Smaller keys, larger keys, or incorrectly positioned teeth on keys (incorrectly shaped or sized substrate molecules) do not fit into the lock (enzyme). Induced fit theory The favored model for the enzyme-substrate interaction is the induced fit model. This model proposes that the initial interaction between enzyme and substrate is relatively weak, but these weak interactions rapidly induce conformational changes in the enzyme that strengthen binding. The induced fit theory was proposed by Daniel Koshland in 1958. The theory can be summarized as follows: ◆ ◆

Enzyme's shape changes when substrate binds to active site. Amino acids are moulded into a precise form to per-

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Properties of Enzymes


TEXNOTE ◆

per second at 25°C I.U. = 10-6mole/60 sec= 16.7 x 109 (mole/sec) IU(katal) ◆

Enzyme turnover Number : It is redefined as the number of moles of substrate transformed per minute per mole of enzyme (Units per mmole of active site or catalytic center under optimum conditions.

Enzymes are target specific : Enzymes are very specific in their action as compared to inorganic catalysts such as acids, bases, metals and metal oxides. Enzyme can break down particular compounds. In some cases, their action is limited to specific bonds in the compounds with which, they react.

Classification of enzymes Sr. No. 1

Enzyme Group Oxidoreductase

2

Transferases

3

Hydrolases

Reaction catalyzed Transfer of hydrogen and oxygen atoms or electrons from one substrate to another Transfer of functional group from one substrate to another Hydrolysis of substrate

4

Isomerases

Change of molecular form of substrate

5

Lyases

Nonhydrolytic removal of group

6

Ligases

Joining of two molecules by formation of new bonds

Examples Dehydrogenases Oxidases Transaminase Kinases Esterases Digestive enzymes Phospho hexo isomerase Fumarase Decarboxylases Aldolases Citric acid synthetase

Application of enzymes in Textiles A range of enzymes like amylases, cellulases, catalase, pectinase and protease for various textile wet-processing applications like desizing, bio-polishing, denim finishing, bleach clean-up, bio-scouring and de-wooling are being used.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Enzymes Amylase

Name of the Process in which enzyme is used Desizing

Cellulase

1] Biopolishing

Role of Enzyme Starch has for a long time been used as a protective glue of fibres in weaving of fabrics. This is called sizing. Enzymes are used to remove the starch in a process called desizing. Amylases are used in this process since they do not harm the textile fibres. Appearance and feel of cotton and other natural fibres based on cellulose can be improved by an enzymatic treatment known as BioPolishing. This treat ment gives the fabric a smoother and glossier appe arance. The treatment is used to remove 'fuzz' - the tiny strands of fibre that protrude from the surface of yarn. A ball of fuzz is called a 'pill' in the textile trade. After BioPolishing, the fuzz and pilling are reduced. The other benefits of removing fuzz are a softer and smoother handle, and superior colour brightness. Enzymes have replaced the use of volcanic lava stones in the preparation of Denim (special soft cotton based fibre where the dye has been partially faded away) from an indigo-dyed cotton fibre to achieve a high degree of dye fading. The stones caused consider able damage to fibres and machines. The same effect can be obtained with cellulase enzymes. Natural fabrics such as cotton are normally bleached with hydrogen peroxide before dyeing. Bleaches are highly reactive chemicals and any peroxide left on the fabric can interfere with the dyeing process. A thorough 'Bleach

2] Denim Washing

Catalase

Bleaching

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TEXNOTE

Pectinase

Proteases

Cleanup' is necessary. The traditional method is to neutralize the bleach with a reducing agent, but the dose has to be controlled precisely. Enzymes present a more convenient alternative because they are easier and quicker to use. A small dose of catalase is capable of breaking down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Compared with the traditional clean-up methods, the enzymatic process results in cleaner waste water or reduced water consumption. Catalase for bleach clean-up i.e.removal of residual hydrogen peroxide (as peroxide killers) after the bleaching of cotton Removal of pectic substances from cotton fibres. Bast fibres are soft fibres formed in the groups outside the xylem, phloem or pericycle eg. Ramie and sun hemp. The fibre contains gum which must be removed before its use in textile making. The chemical degumming method is polluting, non-toxic and non-biodegradable. Hence, pectinases are used in the removal of this gum. Pectinases have been used in the retting of flax to separate the fibres and eliminate pectins.

1] Scouring 2] Degumming of bast fibres

3] Retting of Plant fibres 1] Wool Processing

The use of protease enzymes for a range of wool finishing treatments aims at increased comfort (reduced prickle, greater softness) as well as improved surface appearance and pilling performance. Proteases help in the complete and uniform sericin removal, retention of tensile properties, and improvement of surface smoothness, handle, and lustre of silk. The weight reduction of Polyester fabric to improve the hydrophilicity. Lipases are used as an additive in the detergent industry to remove oil stains and sebum from the fabric.

2] Degumming of Silk

Lipases

1] Polyester

Laccase

2] Detergents: Effluent Treatment

Lacasse is used in the decolourization of synthetic dyes.

In this chapter we have focused upon enzyme mechanism and their role in textile industry. Enzymes are used in textile wet processing and enzymes like cellulase are used for finishing purpose of textile. One of the important finishes on textile that is being looked upon in almost every area of textile manufacture is antimicrobial finishes. In the upcoming chapter, different antimicrobial agents, their mode of action and testing methods to study antimicrobial efficiency of fabric will be stressed upon.

1.

2. 3. 4.

5.

David L. Nelson, Albert L. Lehninger, Michael M. Cox, Principles of Biochemistry W. H. Freeman, 2008 Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1997 http://www.novozymes.com/en/solutions/textile/Pages/default.aspx Enzymes in industry Production and applications. Edited by Wolfgang Aehle, WILEY-VCH, 3rd edition 2007 Textile processing with enzymes edited by A. Cavaco-Paulo and G. M. Gubitz , Woodhead publishing ltd. 2003

Jan - Feb 2014

About the Authors Madhura Nerurkar has completed her Ph.D. in biotechnology in the department of Fibres and Textiles Processing Technology, under Dr. Ravindra V. Adivarekar, at the Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Mumbai, India. Her research area of interest includes microbial enzymes and their applications, fermentation, microbial colorants, detergency and antimicrobial property of fabrics. Manasi Joshi is currently pursuing Ph.D. in biotechnology in the department of Fibres and Textiles Processing Technology, under Dr. Ravindra V. Adivarekar, at Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Mumbai, India. Her research areas of interest are microbial enzymes and their applications, biofilms, fermentation, antimicrobial property of fabrics and detergency. Ravindra Adivarekar is currently a Professor and the head of the Department of Fibres and Textiles Processing Technology at the Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Mumbai, India. His research areas of interest are microbial enzymes for textile processing, detergent formulations, natural dyes and mordants, dyeing and printing of textiles, medical textiles, fiber modification, composites and energy conservation.

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References


UNIT ACTIVITY clusion of new members. 10 life membership forms were made available to prospective members. Prof. Alok Agrawal, Treasurer delivered the Vote of thanks.

The Textile Association (India) TAI - GWALIOR After a gap of many years, The Textile Association (India) - Gwalior Unit again re-activated with full swing to perform well with regular activities along with membership drive. Unit organized a Managing Committee Meeting and then Seminar on 'Technical Textiles' on 11th January, 2014 at the Textile Department of Government Polytechnic, Gwalior.

Dr. Shashi Vikasit, Hon. Secretary, TAI Gwalior Unit delivering his presentation

Dr. Shashi Vikasit, Hon. Secretary, delivered the lecture that provided basic information and current status of "Technical Textiles". The seminar was well appreciated by one and all of about 30 life members who marked their presence with enthusiasm and active participation.

The seminar was followed by Managing Committee cum General Body meeting and following resolutions were passed:-

Er. R.K. Khetan, President, TAI Gwalior Unit welcoming the audience

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Er. R.K. Khetan, President emphasised the need to promote all activities of the association as well as in-

1.

The existing office bearers (President, Secretary and Treasurer) will continue to work for 03 months till election for the remaining period of 2011-15 are held. The dormant bank accounts will be activated and any two of office bearer will be eligible to carry out necessary transactions.

2.

The status of bank accounts will be made available in the next meeting to be held in Last-February of the year.

3.

President/ Secretary will ensure their presence in oncoming G.C. meetings.

4.

Seminars will be arranged every month. The next topic will be 'Textile Park in Gwalior'.

5.

All the directives from central office shall be actively responded.

alists & technocrats Sri. K. Srinivasan, Sri. G.K. Sundram, and Sri. G.V. Durai Samy was President and Vice Presidents. The Managing Committee Members were Sri. R.K. Kandaswamy, Sri. R. Muthusamy, Sri. K. Venkateslu, Sri. M. Ramasamy, Sri. Soundaraj, Sri. Richard Southworth, Sri. B. Venkatesan, Sri. L. Kandaswamy, Sri. V.C. Raja, Sri. P. Thangavelu. Sri. M.V. Narasimha Iyngar was the Hon. Secretary and Sri. V.G. Deshpande was the Hon. Treasurer.

TAI - COIMBATORE The Textile Association (India), South India unit started during the year 1950 due to the enthusiasm shown by Sri. K Srinivasan, then Manager of Kasthuri Mills Limited (who became the Director SITRA later), & then Sri. G.K. Sundram then Director of Coimbatore Cotton mills (who became Chairman, The Laksmi Mills Company Limited later) with 20 life members & 80 ordinary members. The inaugural function took place in Woodlands Hotel on 16th may, 1950. The top industri-

In the beginning, due to the efforts of all office bearers Lectures, Seminars, Mill visits were organized at fre312

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UNIT ACTIVITY quent intervals and almost all the members attended the meeting. At that time, The South India Textile Research Association was not in existence.

not very active due to unforeseen circumstances. From 1985 onwards it is very active due to organizing classes for A.T.A Examination, Lectures and Seminars. The All India Textile Conference was hosted by South India Unit in 1993 which was a grand success. The south zone units were also monitored by our committee member Sri. K.G.N. Pillai, who was the Zonal coordinator.

The 10th All India Textile Conference and industrial Exhibition was held at Coimbatore during May, 1953 under the President ship of Sri. C.S. Rathnasbapathy Mudaliar, very well known as father of Coimbatore City. Sri. G.K. Sundaram, Sri. G.V. Durai Samy, Sri. R. Muthusamy, Sri. K. Venkateslu, Sri. R. Muthusamy and Sri. G.R. Govindarajulu were the Chairmen of various organizing committees to conduct the conference and exhibition.

Now the south India unit is 63 years old and the President of the Association is Sri. C. Soundaraj, Vice Presidents are Sri. S. Dorairaj and Sri. T.L. Viswanthan. Sri. G.T. Bharth is the Hon. Secretary, Sri. A. Sivaramakrishnan is the Hon. Jt. Secretary and Sri. E. Mounagurusamy is the Hon. Treasurer. Today we have 1401 Life members 81 Patron members and 08 Organization members. The library is also functioning at our office at Perumal complex, Pappanaiken Palayam, Coimbatore with latest books and journals published by the Textile Association (India) and others.

The inaugural function was presided by Honurable Sri. P.S. Kumarasamy Raja, then Chief Minister of Madras state. Sir C.V. Raman inaugurated the conference and Honurable Sri. C. Subramaniam, then Finance Minister Madras state opened exhibition. The 21st All India conference was also held in Coimbatore during may 1964 for two days. The two day conference was inaugurated by Mr. P.V. Macay, then Chairman of The South India Mills Association. Sri. G.K. Sundaram, Sri. D.C. Kothari, Sri. G. Rangasamy, and Sri. G.R. Dhamotharan, Sri. T.V.Rathnam were the important Office bearers of various organizing committees.

The activities of the South India Unit were so good that the Unit was awarded the Best Unit Trophy for three consecutive years between 2002 and 2004. There were many recipients of the Hon. Membership of the Association from the South India unit, notable among them being Sri. G.K. Devarajulu, Sri. G.K. Sundaram and Sri. G.K. Rajagopal. Two of our committee members were also privileged to hold Vice Chairman Position of the Central office namely, Sri. K. Gopalan and Sri. T.L. Viswanathan.

The 34th All India Textile Conference was held at Coimbatore during December 1977. The Conference was inaugurated by Sri. G.R. Rangasamy, Vice Chancellor of Tamilnadu Agricultural University. The South India unit was very active from 1951 to 1976 by conducting Lectures Seminars, conference under Presidentship of Sri. K. Srinivasan and Sri. G.K. Sundaram. From 1977 to1985 the South India unit was

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Journal of the TEXTILE Association

The unit is making every effort in remaining active by organising Seminars, Lecture meetings etc from time to time and also actively taking part in the Governing Council Meetings of the Central office.


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Birla Cellulose in Association with The Images Group Presents "In Fashion & India Fashion Forum 2014" strategy on developing its product and customer portfolio. The strategy stems from consumer studies conducted by the company, which highlights the emerging trends in consumers' preference for softer clothing. With already 6 fibre plants and 5 pulp plants spread strategically across the world to cater to global viscose demand, the brand is on an expansion spree. Their 7th fibre plant in Vilayat, Gujarat is emphasizing the demand and importance of this product. All the major retail and brands in India and internationally have a share of their portfolio with Birla Cellulose fibres.

This is India's premier fashion business event that brings together the entire value chain under one platform from fibre companies, spinners, fabricators to end brands. Birla Cellulose - the umbrella brand of Aditya Birla Group, in association with, The Images Group presents one of the biggest fashion business events in India India Fashion Forum (IFF) & In Fashion 2014. The two-day event got a completely different look this year. The event saw industry stalwarts, sessions by masters of the profession, trend workshops, Images Fashion Awards, exhibitions, fashion shows by brands, live performances and interviews. India Fashion Forum is all about networking, gaining knowledge about fashion and trade.

To take a higher ground on fashion and also to provide international design support to their partners Birla Cellulose is working on building a consumer and trade brand "LIVA" for its range of cellulosic fibres. The product is extremely fluid, fashionable and comfortable. Demonstrating its thought leadership in the space,

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Expressing his views on this association, Mr. Manohar Samuel (President - Marketing and Business Development) said, "Birla Cellulose is glad to be a part of India Fashion Forum this year and we are looking forward to build a long term association with The Images Group. We are excited to showcase LiVA's SS15 collection." "LiVA is a premium product offering to the consumers and an alternate to cotton. We want to collaborate with top fashionable brands and designers and provide a great product while staying sustainable and give back to the environment." He added.

Birla Cellulose, a worldwide leader in Viscose Staple Fibre (VSF) work towards integrating the entire value chain from spinners to fabricators to garmenters to front end retail brands. Birla Cellulose fibres are naturally sourced and provide high level of comfort. They are 100% biodegradable, environment friendly, excellent in quality and highly absorbent. With its fully integrated manufacturing facilities extending from plantation to pulp to fibre; it is spread across countries with its plantations in Canada, Laos, India, and now Sweden, fibre manufacturing facilities in China, Indonesia, Thailand and India reaching out to customers across 70 countries. The brand promotes the concept of green fashion and is entirely focused on creating a sustainable leadership with the help of innovations in processes and product.

Delhi based designer and diva - Pooja Nayyar demonstrated the fashionable aspect of LiVA through her spectacular collection made entirely using the SS15 LiVA range. Models flaunted the exiting range and graced the stage in a wonderfully choreographed fashion show at the IFF. To celebrate excellence in the business of cellulosic fibres, Birla Cellulose initiated a unique category of awards at the award ceremony of In Fashion & IFF 2014 - a prestigious platform in the business of textile trade and fashion called 'Birla Cellulose Excellence Awards'. The endeavour was to acknowledge the contribution of various partners across the value chains who have contributed in growing the cellulosic fibres

Birla Cellulose has witnessed a year on year growth in the market and has therefore come up with a focused 314

Jan - Feb 2014


NEWS category in the country. The brand was delighted to felicitate its partners across categories that included; 1) 2)

3) 4)

Excellence in VSF Knitting with focus on Domestic market : Suditi Industries Excellence in VSF Knitting with focus on international market: Mercury

5)

Excellence in Suiting Fabrics Manufacturing : Siyarams Excellence in Women Wear Fabrics Manufacturing : BRFL Excellence in Fashion Retailing : Global Desi

For further information, please contact, nischal@mediamoments.in

Bräcker, Graf, Novibra and Suessen: Unique presentation of premium quality at Texfair 2013 With an impressive appearance at the Texfair 2013, the four companies Bräcker, Graf, Novibra and Suessen exhibited their premium products to the numerous visitors during December 13-16, 2013 at Coimbatore. Bräcker presented an amazing 3D animated movie about the RAPID inserting tool in addition to Bräcker's traveller AP system, which was received by numerous visitors with great interest. RAPID inserting tools allow spinning mills to change travellers very quickly and efficiently. Graf, the leading manufacturer of card clothing and combing components displayed the large available range of shapes and surfaces through a microscope connected on a flat screen. The visitors were impressed to have a close look at these details. Additionally, Graf displayed their new range of wires, camel and hipro, as models on the respective showcase.

Bräcker, Graf, Novibra & Suessen @Texfair 2013

Novibra, the leader in spindle technology and the only 100% in-house spindle maker presented their wide range of spindles which has been developed to meet all requirements of yarn producers and spinning machine manufacturers world-wide.

Suessen demonstrated their position as the market leader in Compact Ring Spinning and OE Rotor Spinning Technology. They exhibited their best-selling EliTe®Compact Spinning System and the HP-GX Top Weighting Arm family for ring spinning and roving machines. Also the Premium Parts for Autocoro rotor spinning machines attracted a lot of visitors which lead them to have a closer look at the displayed exhibits in the show case.

Various interested visitors at PTC booth

Through the competent performance of the sales team and the comprehensive display of premium products, the visitors were able to see and experience the difference of the premium products from Bräcker, Graf, Novibra and Suessen. Jan - Feb 2014

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Journal of the TEXTILE Association

The new Novibra clamping crown CROCOdoff, which enables perfect doffing without under-winding, was shown to the various interested visitors with its improved "CROCO teeth" design further evolve well proven solution of clamping the yarn.


NEWS

Over 16,000 visitors meet 100 exhibitors at ITMACH 2014 Industry stalwarts hail ITMACH 2014, Bhiwandi The inaugural function of ITMACH 2014 exhibition was organized with much fanfare on January 22, 2014, in Bhiwandi.

Bhiwandi (East), and M Y Momin, a veteran in the Indian textile industry and President, Bhiwandi Weavers' Federation.

A maiden venture of Textile Excellence, the country's leading textile publication, ITMACH 2014, from January 22-24, was also the first textile machinery event of its kind, organized in the country's largest powerloom weaving cluster. ITMACH 2014, Bhiwandi, was the first in the series of localized textile engineering exhibitions that the organizers - Textile Excellence - have planned.

The guests of honor, in their address, hailed the efforts of Textile Excellence for organizing the show in Bhiwandi cluster. According to Rasheed Tahir Momin, "Weavers in this cluster today realize that they need to upgrade and move up the value chain to survive in a competitive market. Technology upgradation for this is very important. Bringing in the right machines to this market, through a show like ITMACH, is very helpful for this cluster. I am sure the show will be very successful." Rupesh Mhatre, in his address, said, "Powerlooms are the mainstay of the economy of Bhiwandi. Millions of families are dependent on this industry. With changing times, weavers here are realizing the importance of improving their production and productivity. ITMACH will help them to understand the kind of machines and technologies they can invest in."

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Shri Rupesh Mhatre, MLA, Bhiwandi (East), lightening the traditional lamp

Shri M.Y. Momin, President, Bhiwandi Weaver's Federation lightening the traditional lamp

Speaking during the inaugural program, M Y Momin congratulated Textile Excellence on its pioneering initiative. "Bhiwandi is the country's largest powerloom cluster, accounting for a majority share of the fabric production in the country. There are many government schemes for the betterment of this sector. Weavers need to come forward to avail of these benefits. Opportunities to grow in the market are many today, as the industry tries to increase exports. Bhiwandi powerloom weavers must realize these opportunities

Shri Rasheed Tahir Momin, MLA, Bhiwandi (West), lightening the traditional lamp

The exhibition, at Indian Corporation Premises at Bhiwandi, was inaugurated by Rasheed Tahir Momin, MLA, Bhiwandi (West), Rupesh Mhatre, MLA, 316

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NEWS managed show, and serious business visitors came to the show from all over the country.

and move ahead." Around 100 machinery suppliers - Indian and international participated in ITMACH 2014. Around 4,000 business visitors came to the show on the first day.

Companies showcasing Indian made and Chinese machines, in particular, have booked many orders at the show. According to Hemant Shah, Director, Manisha Overseas, they showcased Waterjet looms and other very unique technologies for the Bhiwandi and the decentralized powerloom sector. He said that the response was overwhelming. Bhiwandi weavers need to be made aware of the various technologies in the market, and this show has fulfilled this objective.

Out of 23 lakh registered powerlooms in the country, only 1.05 lakh looms are shuttleless loom. Offtake of powerloom sector under TUFS has been negligible. This highlights the immense investment potential in machinery in Bhiwandi and other powerloom clusters. The government, through its comprehensive cluster development scheme, is encouraging investment in TUFS compatible machinery, as a minimum benchmark.

Hasmukh Textile Works is another company that offers rapier machines and other weaving and processing machines, imported from China. "There is a great deal of interest in these machines from the decentralized sector. The machines are cost-effective, have good performance, and are well suited to the needs of the powerloom sector. This sector still hesitates to invest in high end technology. The medium range Chinese machines are much in demand here. It will take some more years for this industry to upgrade to higher technology levels."

Flow of visitors was continued on 2nd Day and recorded over 6000 visitor registrations. Exhibitors evidenced satisfaction with the response at the show. While visitors from Bhiwandi were there, business delegates also came in from Ichalkaranji, Malegaon, Solapur, Ujjain, Ludhiana, Panipat, and also from southern India.

The exhibition showcased technologies and machines related to weaving and weaving preparatory, spinning, processing and finishing, printing, and other related segments. ITMACH 2014 offered a one-of-a-kind opportunity to business visitors from Bhiwandi and other textile clusters across the country, to see the latest and most appropriate technologies spanning the textile value chain.

Exhibitors received serious enquiries during the show. Many business deals have been finalized. There was a lot of interest in weaving and allied technologies, especially of Indian origin. Weavers are finding these machines to be a good fit for their up-gradation needs towards shuttleless looms, in terms of productivity, price, service etc. International exhibitors too received good response.

With encouraging response from exhibitors and visitors, the organizers have announced ITMACH 2015. Most of the first-time exhibitors have confirmed participation in ITMACH 2015. "The local industry and exhibitors have evinced keen interest in such sustained efforts. The industry in Bhiwandi has given us wholehearted support in this venture. We will therefore strive to make this a regular event, with the objective of helping the industry's up-gradation process," said the organizers.

On the last day of ITMACH 2014 there was a huge crowd descending on the exhibition grounds, as there was there a weekly holiday in Bhiwandi. Around 15,000 business delegates visited the show, over the three days from January 22-24. Exhibitors were happy with the overall organization of the show. It was a wellJan - Feb 2014

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Surjit Singh Mahajan, Director, Staubli India Pvt. Ltd. says that the decentralized market has begun enquiring about European high end machines too. "We do have some installations in Bhiwandi, these are very few now. For Staubli, Bhiwandi is a potential market, and we expect to see a lot of improvement here over the next few years."

Mr. Arvind Semlani, Director, Textile Excellence along with dignitaries on dais


NEWS

R 35 guarantees excellent piecing for high acceptance in downstream processing In today's yarn markets, an inadequate piecing quality alone can cause an otherwise high-quality yarn not being accepted in downstream processing. For the new Rieter R 35 semi-automated rotor spinning machine the renowned AMIspin piecing process has been optimized and is more operator-independent.

individual feed drive for the sliver, applying piecing technology known from other Rieter rotor spinning machines. After preparing the yarn end and cleaning the rotor, the piecing process is launched automatically as soon as the box is closed. As a result the quality, speed and success rate of AMIspin piecings have been improved. Optimized yarn entry for fast and easy piecing With the R 35 the insertion of the prepared yarn end into the exit tube has been simplified, because the yarn entry is now from the front (Fig.1). This accelerates the piecing operation and allows reduction of the operator time. It guarantees excellent piecing quality with high value for the yarn users. For the spinner it helps to maintain higher machine efficiency even with a high ends down rate and fewer operators. Individual sliver feeding drive for better piecing quality Immediately after each yarn break, the single feed drive pulls back the sliver into a protected position, thus ensuring that the piecing always is formed from undamaged fibers. During piecing the individual drive allows more exact sliver feeding to further optimize the appearance and strength of the piecing.

Fig. 1 - Optimized yarn entry leads to a fast and easy piecing operation. The new R 35 semi-automated rotor spinning machine has been designed exactly to meet following needs: ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆

AMIspin quality more operator-independent

Higher productivity Better yarn quality Minimized piecing quality variation Effective yarn quality monitoring Reduced energy consumption per kilogram of produced yarn Ergonomic and operator-friendly handling

With optimized yarn entry, individual drive for sliver feeding and loop compensator on the R 35 rotor spinning machine, piecing quality becomes more operatorindependent even with a semi-automatic machines. About Rieter Rieter is a leading supplier on the world market for textile machinery and components used in short staple fiber spinning. Based in Winterthur (Switzerland), the company develops and manufactures systems, machinery and technology components used to convert natural and manmade fibers and their blends into yarns. Rieter is the only supplier worldwide to cover spinning preparation processes as well as all four final spinning processes currently established in the market. With 18 manufacturing locations in 10 countries, the company employs a global workforce of some 4, 700, about 27 % of whom are based in Switzerland. Rieter is listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange, under ticker symbol RIEN.

With a semi-automated machine, ergonomic and operator-friendly design and ease of the piecing operation are necessary for better machine performance and to secure highest quality and productivity. Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Optimal machine working height for any operation Optimal working conditions are decisive in order to reduce operator errors when cleaning the rotor, doing the piecing preparation or removing yarn faults from the package. For this reason, the R 35 rotor spinning machine has optimal low working height combined with excellent accessibility. This secures the machine efficiency and the yarn quality. AMIspin - the most reliable and easy semi-automated piecing system

For more information, please visit, www.rieter.com

AMIspin is unique for its simplicity and reliability. The handling of AMIspin has been improved by using an 318

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2013 financial year: significant increase in new orders and sales Rieter recorded a pleasing trend in business in the 2013 financial year. The improvement in its market position enabled the company to post significant growth in both order intake and sales. Order intake of 1 259.4 million CHF was 50% higher. Sales totaled 1 035.3 million CHF, equivalent to an increase of 17%. Rieter had a backlog of orders in hand of some 765 million CHF at the end of 2013. This will ensure a high capacity utilization until well into 2014. Rieter will publish its full annual financial statements and annual report for 2013 on March 18, 2014. CHF million

2013

2012

Change Change in local currencies

Orders received

1259.4

839.7

50%

51%

◆ Spun Yarn Systems

1084.3

695.0

56%

57%

◆ Premium Textile Components 175.1

144.7

21%

21%

Sales

1035.3

888.5

17%

17%

◆ Spun Yarn Systems

857.8

727.6

18%

19%

◆ Premium Textile Components 177.5

160.9

10%

10%

Orders received In the year under review, new orders received by Rieter increased by 50% to 1 259.4 million CHF. After developing especially vigorously in the first half of 2013, order intake slowed slightly in the second six months, but still remained above the long-term average. This trend was especially true in Turkey, where demand had been particularly strong with the support of government development schemes. Rieter booked substantial new orders in China, especially in the first six months, due to the further expansion of its local presence. However, investments by Chinese spinning mills waned toward year-end due to large raw material inventories and growing difficulties with financing investment projects. Healthy demand for Rieter products nevertheless continued throughout the year in a number of Asian countries, such as Pakistan, Uzbekistan, South Korea, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Vietnam. Spinning mills in the US are renewing capacity as the industry benefits from a competitive cost structure. Business here developed briskly in the second half in particular, and Rieter secured substantial orders for rotor spinning machines. Orders received in India rose in the second half, albeit still at a modest level. Rieter posted an increase in order intake at both Business Groups, with the striking momentum in the first six months being attributable especially to orders for complete installations from Spun Yarn Systems. Compared to 2012, Spun Yarn Systems (the machinery business) posted a 56% increase in new orders to 1 084.3 million CHF. At Premium Textile Components (the components business) order intake increased by 21% in 2013 to 175.1 million CHF.

After a subdued start to the year, the market for shortstaple fiber machinery and components gained momentum in the course of 2013. Spinning mills' margins continued to develop favorably, and this stimulated customers' willingness to invest. This positive trend was broad-based in regional terms and apparent in a large number of national markets. Following a strong initial six months, demand stabilized in the second half of the year, but remained at a pleasingly high level. The positive trend in order intake and sales in 2013 underlines that Rieter is on the right track with the innovation and expansion strategy it has been implementing since 2012. Demand for the company's offering, expanded by major product launches, has been very good in both our traditional and new markets. Rieter has further developed its already strong market position with the implementation of the large-scale investment program in 2012/2013 aimed at further growth and focusing on expansion in Asia, innovation and proJan - Feb 2014

Rieter had a backlog of orders in hand of some 765 million CHF at the end of 2013, which will ensure high utilization until well into 2014 (compared to some 550 million CHF on December 31, 2012). 319

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cess improvements. With its product range centering on specific markets and its new plants the company is ideally positioned with a worldwide operating network. Spinning mills in all major markets are increasingly placing their confidence in machinery and components which enable a high degree of automation to be achieved in conjunction with higher productivity and yarn quality with lower energy consumption. As the sole global supplier of integrated systems for all four spinning processes, Rieter can optimize the entire spinning operation in line with customers' specific needs. This is a crucial and lasting competitive advantage.


NEWS Sales The sales trend at Rieter in 2013 was also very good. The figure of 1 035.3 million CHF was 17% higher than a year earlier. All regions recorded increases, with only Europe posting slightly lower sales. Expanded and modernized manufacturing capacity enabled Rieter to process orders promptly and post a 17% increase in sales in the second half of the year compared with the first six months. Spun Yarn Systems reported sales of 857.8 million CHF in 2013, equivalent to an increase of 18% compared with the previous year. Premium Textile Components posted a 10% increase in sales to third parties, to a figure of 177.5 million CHF.

Ltd. will be held in the Eulach Hall in Winterthur on April 9. Any proposals regarding the agenda must be submitted in writing to Rieter Holding Ltd., Office of the Company Secretary, Klosterstrasse 32, CH-8406 Winterthur, Switzerland, by February 21, 2014, at the latest, including the relevant motions and evidence of the necessary shareholdings (par value of 0.5 million CHF as stipulated by Art. 699 of the Swiss Code of Obligations and ยง9 of the Articles of Association). For further information please contact, Rieter Holding Ltd. Investor Relations Joris Grรถflin Chief Financial Officer T +41 52 208 70 18 F +41 52 208 70 60 E-mail: investor@rieter.com

Profit outlook for 2013 The margins earned in the machinery business in the second half of the year were better than expected and above the average of existing orders in hand. With this improvement in operating profitability and volume growth, Rieter foresees net profits around 3.5% of sales for the 2013 financial year. Rieter's full annual financial statements for 2013 and the annual report will be published on March 18, 2014, at the results press conference and presentation to analysts in Winterthur.

Rieter Management Ltd. Media Relations Cornelia Schreier Head Corporate Communications T +41 52 208 70 32 F +41 52 208 70 60 E-mail: media@rieter.com

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Annual General Meeting on April 9, 2014 The 2014 Annual General Meeting of Rieter Holding

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Textile & Garment import and export in China 2013 In 2013, China's textile and apparel export faced the negative situations from 2012: rise of labor costs, the great gap of cotton price in domestic and international markets, soaring exchange rate of RMB and transfer of orders, etc. However, there are opportunities amidst these difficulties: gradual economic recovery of major economies, slight rebound of international demands and the domestic policies and measures stabilizing the growth of foreign trade that have shown effect. Thanks to the transformation and upgrade of export-oriented enterprises, China's textile and apparel export in 2013 stood the pressure and gradually maintained rapid growth. By November, the export value totaled $258.07 billion, up 11.8 percent, and the import value reached $24.7 billion, up 10.8 percent.

A. Import and Export 1. Starting the second quarter, the import and export have been growing stably and rapidly. The whole year's growth will outnumber our expectation. 2.

In general trade, both the import and the export grew and the export trade modes and structures were further optimized.

3.

Enterprises of all types maintained growth in import and export, with private enterprises taking the lead.

4.

Exports to major markets varied and China's shares in Europe, the United States and Japan went down.

Japan was the only traditional market where China's textile and apparel export reduced.

China's export to ASEAN grew rapidly and apparel has become the major product pushing the growth.

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The growth in emerging markets continued and China's share in non-traditional markets went up.

The share of China's products in Europe, the United States and Japan reduced.

5.

Export of commodities of various categories went up with apparel export growing in quantity and price.

6.

Most provinces and municipalities in China maintained growth with different characters in the east China and central-west China.

7.

Cotton import plummeted greatly compared with the previous year and the gap in cotton price in domestic and international markets maintained large.

B.

Future planning for the development of Industry

1.

China's position in the global textile and apparel trade.

2.

Measures taken by the Chinese enterprises.

Attaching greater importance to the domestic market.

High-grade enterprises paying more attention to brand construction and development.

Reaching consensus in strengthening research, development and design to produce high valueadded products.

Some enterprise tried e-commerce in cross-border business and have maintained certain markets with small amount of high-quality but inexpensive products.

Owing to the high cotton price and labor costs, as well as free trade agreements, some enterprises established factories overseas. It's not bad to transfer some low-end orders to overseas markets.

3.

Owing to the rebound in European and American markets, the fire disaster in Bangladesh, unstable situation in Cambodia and the problems in labor productivity, some orders came back to the Chinese market.

4.

If you cannot change the environment, please change yourself immediately.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

NEWS


NEWS ation with determination and find solutions. Therefore their policy of facing out many products into the adjoining countries such as Vietnam, Burma etc. will make them stronger and politically also this will bring positive results.

Sourced and Compiled by Mr. Arvind Sinha, CEO & Chief Advisor M/s. Business Advisors Group Cell No. 9820062612, Email: arpsinha09@gmail.com, lionasinha@gmail.com

China is very determined, they have established very huge capacities in last many years, total investment on Industrial production fund is almost 23 trillion dollars and therefore they are going to face very tough situ-

Trützschler delivers 10,000th card in India

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

The Trützschler Group and A.T.E. reached a new milestone with the delivery of the 10,000th Trützschler card in India recently. The card was delivered to Arisht Spinning Mills, a unit of the Vardhman Group. It was also a happy coincidence that with the delivery of the 10,000th card, the total number of cards in Vardhman Group has reached 502, probably the highest number of cards purchased by any single company in the world! The Vardhman Group probably has all models of Trützschler cards from DK 760, DK 803, DK 903, TC 03, TC 5 and TC 11, manufactured by Trützschler, Germany, Trumac and Truetzschler India.

Mr. Heinrich Trützschler handing over a special plate on 10000th card to Mr. S.P. Oswal

In his welcome speech Mr. Oswal happily informed that Vardhman Group is the first organization in India to cross the 1 million spindles mark. Mr. Oswal also commended that over the years Trützschler organization has brought new technologies to the Indian shore by having a joint venture here.

A special function was held to commemorate this unique occasion at the Arisht unit in Baddi. The function was attended by Mr. S.P. Oswal, Chairman and Managing Director of Vardhman, Mr. Heinrich Trützschler and Mr. J.P. Bhatt from Truetzschler, Mr. Anuj Bhagwati, Mr. G.V. Aras, and Mr. Sunil Bhatnagar from A.T.E. along with some of its sales team members, and many top manager and technicians from all nearby Vardhman mills. The function began by Mr. S.P Oswal and Mr. Heinrich Trützschler jointly cutting a special ribbon made for the occasion and placing a special plate on the 10,000th card. This was followed by breaking coconuts by all dignitaries, which is considered auspicious.

Mr. Heinrich Trützschler handing over a special replica of TC 5 to Mr. S.P. Oswal 322

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NEWS Mr. Heinrich Trützschler, while addressing the gathering, thanked Mr. Oswal for giving Trützschler the first opportunity in 1994 in the VMT project and for its continued support for the last 20 years, and further hoped that it will continue in future also with the launch of Trützschler comber in India.

In his speech, Mr. Anuj Bhagwati, Managing Director of A.T.E., emphasized that the success of all three organizations, Vardhman, Trützschler and A.T.E. was based on their strong values and commitments to their customers. He also pointed out that for all the three companies there is another significance as Trützschler is celebrating its 125th years, A.T.E. its 75th year and Vardhman its 50th years, that each one could be proud of.

Mr. Trützschler handed over a specially made replica of TC 5 card to Mr. S.P. Oswal on this occasion and also a golden card for crossing the 500 number mark by the group.

Birla Cellulose from the house of Aditya Birla Group gets into retail Consumer brand LIVA, from Birla Cellulose launches 'Spring Summer' Collection & Trends for 2015 in association with Asia's top fashion designer Puja Nayyar National, January 2014: Birla Cellulose, World leaders in manufacturing Viscose Fibres from the house of Aditya Birla Group launches its Spring Summer Collection & trend themes in fabric and garments for 2015. The fabric collection & trend themes forecast for SS 2015 is conceptualized and created by East Central Studio, London under the aegis of Sandy MacLennan while the women-wear collection is being created exclusively by Puja Nayyar, one of the five Asian designers chosen to showcase at the 'Mercedes Benz Asia Fashion Week'. Birla Cellulose engaged international buyers with its collection at India's premier textile show 'Tex Trends' in New Delhi. Eminent personalities like Virender Uppal, Chairman of Apparel Export Promotion Council of India; Prem Malik Chairman, Confederation of Indian Textile Industry (CITI); H K L Magu, Chairman (F& B)- Apparel Export Promotion Council; Rakesh Mehra, Chairman- SRTEPC; Sudhir Sekhri, Chairman, Export Promotion Committee, AEPC; Mohan Sadhwani, Executive Director, Clothing Manufacturers Association of India (CMAI); Vijay Sharma, DY Secretary CMAI amongst others also launched the 'Trend Book' for Spring Summer 2015 collection on the occasion of the collection launch. The book brings alive the inspiration, thought & idea behind the SS 2015 collection.

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Les Jardins: This range showcases bright pastel shades, vivacious floral designs, fruity tones, pretty fluid transparencies mixed with modern digital geometrics & elegant drapes that are inspired from the Paris Gardens

Zen lifestyle: A gilded graduation of warm woody neutrals & cool grey with a hint of pink & burgundy shades for minimal yet an interesting look

Raw Tech: Perfect combination of nature & technology, natural fibres are treated to give a graceful & sharp look to formal clothing. Indigo shades, textured denims, array of coatings & laminations will give a new twist to work wear

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

The collection of fabrics and garments was launched with three sub themes


NEWS stand consumer sentiments in India. Being global leaders in Viscose fibres, our core focus also lies in offering efficient Supply chain solutions to customers through the Accreditation Partner Forum. The objective of launching the collection 18 months in advance is to ensure various brands & retails houses in India adapt our designs and bring innovative patterns to consumers." About Birla Cellulose: Birla Cellulose belongs to the house of Aditya Birla Group which is 40 million US $ corporate & is the league of Fortune 500. Fibre business is one of the oldest businesses of the Aditya Birla group having started in 1954. Birla Cellulose Fibre is a global leader in Viscose Staple fibre & has a consistent focus on building a sustainable leadership by creating value through innovations in products & processes, excellence in quality, people management & environmental friendliness. It comprises of versatile sub brands called Birla Modal, Birla Viscose, Birla Spunshades, Birla Excel. Birla Cellulose has steered the movement in eco-friendly man made textiles in India. The company has its fully integrated manufacturing facilities extending from plantation to pulp to fibre in countries such as India, Canada, Laos & Sweden & fibre manufacturing facilities in China, Indonesia, Thailand & India.

Created using the best quality Viscose Fibres from a 100% natural & renewable source, the collection consists of, dresses, jumpsuits, palazzo pants, tunics in playful and clever cuts, banjara pants, bold rompers, gypsy kaftans, mint pants in refreshing colors like neon pinks, sorbet oranges, minty limes, sunny yellows, lime greens and soothing blues. Through this collection, Birla Cellulose reaches out to front end brands and international buying houses to adopt more and more collections made using LIVA Excited about the launch, Mr. Manohar Samuel, President (Marketing& Business Development), Birla Cellulose says, "We are thrilled to launch the Spring Summer 2015 collection that manifests Indian sensibilities to global fashion trends. With an aim to offer best quality fabric and innovative designs, our creation is based on an extensive research conducted to under-

For further information: Manva Hunswadkar; +91-9028709384, manva@whitemarquesolutions.com

ATTENTION

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

(1939-2014)

Due to uncertain political situations in Thailand (Bangkok), we are rescheduling the Global Textile Congress, which was scheduled to be held on 23, 24 & 25th May, 2014 at Bangkok. The new dates will be announced in due course of time.

THE TEXTILE ASSOCIATION (INDIA) Platinum Jubilee Celebration

INVITATION The Textile Association (India), the foremost leading and largest national body having more than 23,000 textile professionals of India, striving for the growth of India's largest single textile industry for over 7 decades, is celebrating its 75 years glorious journey, Platinum Jubilee on Wednesday, 09th April, 2014 at Siddhivinayak Temple, Prabhadevi, Mumbai.

Texttreasure If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; that is where they should be. Now put foundations under them.. - Henry David Thoreau.

We take immense pleasure in invite you for this event and would like you to grace this occasion with your presence. Tel.: 022-24461145, Fax: 022-24474971 E-mail: taicnt@gmail.com 324

Jan - Feb 2014


NEWS TENCEL® improves the crease recovery after washing, which leads to a better ironing behavior.

The natural connection TENCEL® shirts with cotton

Market expansion of the shirt segment

At the Parisian trade fairs this season, TENCEL® shirts in a blend with cotton have priority. The cotton blend concept "Natural Connection" which was launched in September 2013 will be continued in 2014. A shirt with an added value

As an article of clothing, the shirt is traditionally made of natural materials since it is worn directly next to the skin. Cotton is particularly popular with consumers as a material for shirts. Adding TENCEL® to traditional shirt fabrics produces a host of advantages. The moisture management and skin sensory characteristics are improved due to the good skin sensory properties of TENCEL®. Cotton and TENCEL® are ideal partners in the shirt sector. They go together perfectly and enhance each other with their properties. Both fibers are from Nature and reveal similar benefits such as good breathing properties. "Even a small blending ratio with TENCEL® gives shirts of cotton a new definition. As a result of this admixture, the hand, moisture management and gloss can be influenced in a positive manner," Andreas Gürtler, head of the Performance Apparel Segment at Lenzing explains. Thus the innovative potential of cotton-TENCEL® fabrics is great. Depending on the blending ratio, the look and properties can be changed to suit your needs. Even easycare properties can be improved. The addition of Jan - Feb 2014

Order forms for the new labels are available now at: http://branding.lenzing.com 325

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

"In-house estimates tell us that 16,000 tons of cotton are used in woven shirts and blouses. The shirt segment is seen as a growth segment for TENCEL® for this very reason since even a small percent of TENCEL® can have a positive influence on processing and mean greater comfort for the end consumer," Andreas Gürtler says. "Particularly fabrics of longstaple cotton and TENCEL® are unbeatable in terms of the quality and look. Already 60% of the TENCEL® fabrics certified according to Lenzing's quality criteria are used for shirts and blouses. Of this one third is blended with cotton. The goal is to further increase the share with cotton blends in the seasons to come," Gürtler continues. To promote fabrics with cotton and TENCEL® more effectively, the Lenzing certification system will be further extended. A special sew-on label is offered for the minimum blend of 10% TENCEL® in a cotton fabric.


NEWS tops, trousers and caps have been made out of the TENCEL® shirts and now shine in their new splendor.

Upcycling Campaign: TENCEL® shirts shine in new glory

MILCH is an upcycling* pioneer. Upcycling is a trend which has developed in the fashion industry. The label has existed for 15 years and has made a name for itself for ethical and sustained fashion. "We pay attention to ecological and socio-cultural aspects in the production chain as a whole. The raw material (men's suits and shirts which have been laid aside) comes from Vienna and is processed in responsible factories," the designer explains.

What do you do with TENCEL® shirts which end their days as shelf-huggers in the company store at Lenzing because the colors and designs are no longer up-to-date? Upcycling! Just at the start of promotional activities for TENCEL® shirts, the styles from the Viennese fashion label "MILCH" were ready were will be presented at the Parisian trade fairs in February 2014 for the first time.

For Fuather information Contact Lenzing Christina Kreuzwieser Head of Global Marketing Communication Lenzing AG Werkstrasse 1 4860 Lenzing Telephone : +43 (0) 7672 7012331 E-Mail c.kreuzwieser@lenzing.com

The "retired men's shirts", as Cloed Priscilla Baumgartner (MILCH designer) likes to name these old but unworn TENCEL® shirts, have been revamped in a "special edition MILCH"" collection. Skirts, dresses,

Contact Milch Cloed Priscilla Baumgartner Yppenplatz 5 1160 Wien Telephone : +43 (0) 699 10703435 E-Mail: post@Milch.tm Website: www.Milch.tm

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

◆ Process of recycling existing materials Lenzing Aktiengesellschaft

Photo : Christina Leurer Make-up & Hair : Anna Katharina Winkelmeier

Location : coachingsalon.at Models : Sophia P. (tempomodels), Jasmin R. 326

Jan - Feb 2014


NEWS

Suditi Industries Limited launches Viscose Spandex Knit Legging Fabric In association with Grasim Industries Limited Suditi Industries Ltd, a public listed company who has been into knitted garment production from the past 20 years has recently launched Viscose Spandex Knit Legging Fabric in association with Grasim Industries Limited. This fabric is made keeping the Indian Trade in mind as Suditi believes in providing the best product to its consumers. According to the consumer research of Grasim, viscose spandex leggings are the most preferred today. The hall mark of the leggings is natural and the luxurious soft feel which ensures comfort throughout the day. The research even states that, many a times the imported fabrics are prone to pilling, fabric thinning, variation, hole formation and high shrinkage.

This fabric is available in 18 different colors. Spandex fabric not only uses the best of the raw materials but also offers delectable color range with dark clear prints which makes it even more attractive in nature. Hence, it is used to make leggings, jackets, T-shirts, etc.

About Suditi Industries : Established in 1991, BSE listed Suditi Industries Ltd is managed by Pawan Agarwal. Suditi Industries Ltd. aims to pursue the path of excellence in its manufacturing activity of knitted fabrics and products with the view to create backward integration and to give global standard products. It specializes in knitting, processing, printing, garmenting, embroidery and retail. Headquartered in Navi Mumbai, Suditi Industries is present in Turbhe and Bhiwandi with a work force of around 900 employees. The 1,00,000 sq feet manufacturing unit which produces 12 tons of fabric a day. It has won accolades and awards by TEXPROCIL and FIEO for innovation, quality and credibility. It has the certifications like ISO 9000-2000, Okotex and GOTS. For futher information Contact, Crisscross Communication TejalDaftary tejal@crisscross.in Divya Nandrajog divya@crisscross.in

To overcome these existing challenges and offer a domestic product to its consumers, Suditi Industries Ltd has developed Celstretch which is a superior viscose spandex knit fabric. Pawan Agarwal, Managing Director, Suditi Industries Ltd. states, 'We at Suditi Industries aspire to provide a brand which focuses on delivering good quality products as per the customer satisfaction. Keeping this in mind we have recently launched the Viscose Spandex Knit Legging Fabric'.

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Journal of the TEXTILE Association

One can place a minimum bulk order of 200 kg per color with a possibility of up charge of 25kgs and above.


NEWS

Digital Textile Printing for Fashion & Home Textiles

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Inkjet Forum India ventured in to Delhi with its flagship "Inkjet India" series of conferences. The conference focusing on digital textile printing for Fashion & Home Textiles held on February 26th, 2014 at The Shangri La's - Eros Hotel, New Delhi was well-received and attended by all the stakeholders from the global digital textile printing community and the textile printing industry from the North Indian region. The conference gave the participants an overview of the market trends and also helped determine the business potential which digital textile printing provides in the areas of apparel, fashion, home textiles & garments. With over 150 delegates from various disciplines of the Textile industry, it proved to be an interactive networking platform. The unique table top display areas allowed the technology providers to interact with the delegates, discuss further technical details about their products and display the capability of their technology.

cations are so large that many technology providers & ink manufacturers are investing largely in textile and textile-related products and systems." The conference was spread over four sessions focusing on Opportunities & Innovation in Digital Textile Printing, Digital printing Home Textiles & industry trends. Mr. Ashish Dhir (Wisedge Consulting) opened the conference sharing his insights on the Indian textile & apparel industry and the opportunities for digital textile printing in it. Jos Notermans (SPG Prints), spoke about the gradual developments and coming to age of Digital Textile Printing. According to Mr. Notermans, "Digital Printing is great for just-in-time production for fastfashion brands." Mr. Ayush Rathi (MS Orange) concluded the session by elaborating on latest printing technology developments and importance of Sublimation in Digital Textile Printing.

The conference was spread over four sessions focusing on Opportunities & Innovation in Digital Textile Printing, Digital printing Home Textiles & industry trends. Mr. Ashish Dhir (Wisedge Consulting) opened the conference sharing his insights on the Indian textile & apparel industry and the opportunities for digital textile printing in it. Jos Notermans (SPG Prints), spoke about the gradual developments and coming to age of Digital Textile Printing. According to Mr. Notermans, "Digital Printing is great for just-in-time production for fastfashion brands." Mr. Ayush Rathi (MS Orange) con-

The Conference began with a traditional lighting the lamp ceremony by Mr. Sudhish Aggarwala (President - TAI, Delhi), Mr. Ashish Dhir (Wisedge Consulting) & Mr. Gajanan Chandavarkar, (Convener - Inkjet India 2014). Aditya Chandavarkar, Founder & CEO, Inkjet Forum India welcomed the sponsors, speakers, esteemed guests & delegates to Inkjet India 2014. Mr. Chandavarkar emphasized "tremendous progress has been made, but there are still many challenges. However, the opportunities for digitally printed textile appli328

Jan - Feb 2014


NEWS cluded the session by elaborating on latest printing technology developments and importance of Sublimation in Digital Textile Printing.

digitally. "Neo-Pigment - The right way for digitally printing home textiles." Mr. Kulka concluded. Mr. Vinod Kumar (Reggiani Macchine) shared his views on the global solution for Home Textiles. Mr. Smitesh Jhaveri (Chimora Print) spoke about the challenges faced by the users of Digital Textile Printing and also showcased how Web to Fabric has revolutionized Digital Textile Printing.

The second session begun with Mr. Stephan Nocke (Sensient Imaging Technologies) sharing his views on the technology of Digital Sublimation and weighed its pros and cons. Ms. Samen Boota (National Textile University, Faisalabad) presented her research on how printers & exporters can drastically cut the costs in ethnic wear for ladies in Pakistan and how the Indian markets can adopt this. Dr. Sanjay Gupta (GD Goenka Institute, School of Fashion and Design) spoke on how Digital Printing is transforming luxury fashion products by providing limitless opportunities in Design. Mr. Nobuyuki Kimura (Konica Minolta) provided a perspective on business models companies should adopt to survive in the Digital Textile Printing scenario. "Textile inkjet printer is now not only for sampling machine." he concluded.

The concluding session of the conference comprised of interesting topics on how Digital Textile printing can revive Hand Embroidery and a Designers' Perspective on digital textile printing in India presented by Mr. James Wu (BlueJade TexInk) & Mr. Ashish Tagra (Aharin Design) respectively. The conference concluded with an interactive panel discussion moderated by Mr. Vinod Krisnamurthy (Mentor - Digital Printing, Inkjet Forum India) and include Mr. Jos Notermans, Mr Ashish Dhir, Mr Smitesh Jhaveri & Dr. Sanjiv Kamath (Kothari Infotech) on the panel. The topics discussed in the panel discussion evidenced the need for further standardization at every stage in the supply chain of the Indian digital textile printing industry and the fact that digital textile printing is coming to age in India with the next two years really poised to be the growth years for this disruptive technology!

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Session three focused on digital printing for home textiles. Mr. Omer Kulka (Kornit Digital Ltd.), emphasized on the future prospects of Home Textiles printed

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NEWS

Manmade Fibers

BCF plant business still on the road to success At this year's Domotex Asia from 25 - 27 March, Oerlikon Neumag and Oerlikon Barmag presented their solutions for an efficient carpet production. In Hall W3, booth F23, the focus of the information will be on the 3-end BCF plant S+ from Oerlikon Neumag, as well as on the new tape yarn solution for carpet backings, EvoTape with WinTape, from Oerlikon Barmag.

Domotex Hanover was a great success Oerlikon Neumag was very satisfied during the four lively fair days in Hanover mid January. After two very successful years in the BCF business, the market leader furthermore records very good transac-tions. Three contracts were successfully concluded during the Domotex. The BCF plants S+ und Sytec One are in high demand. Whereas the S+ convinces for commercial applications, the Sytec One is especially suitable for demanding production processes. "With the S+ and Sytec One, we have an excellent position on the BCF market. We can practically cover all cus-tomer requests with these two plants", summarized Martin Rademacher, Sales Director BCF.

The Asian market is still regarded as a small market with development potential due to its classical consumer behavior on the carpet sector, especially for export. The market is very much focused on the production of contractual goods. There seems to be a change coming. "Our customers are always looking for innovations and new products", explains Alfred Czaplinski, Sales Manager BCF. "Due to the high flexibility of our S+, we can practically cover every application".

About Oerlikon Manmade Fibers With its Oerlikon Barmag and Oerlikon Neumag brands, Oerlikon Manmade Fibers is the world market leader for manmade fiber filament spinning systems, texturing machines, BCF systems, staple fiber systems and artificial turf systems and - as a service provider - offers engineering solutions for the entire textile value added chain. As a future oriented company, the research and development at this division of the Oerlikon Group is driven by energy-efficiency and sustainable technologies. With the expansion of the product range to include poly-condensation systems and their key components, the company now caters to the entire process from the monomer all the way through to the textured yarn. The primary Oerlikon Barmag markets are in Asia, and - for Oerlikon Neumag - in the USA, Turkey and China. Correspondingly, Oerlikon Barmag and Oerlikon Neumag - with just under 2,500 employees has a worldwide presence in 120 countries as part of the Oerlikon Manmade Fibers net-work of production, sales and distribution and service organizations. At the R&D centers in Rem-scheid, Neum端nster and Chemnitz, highly-qualified engineers and technicians develop innovative and technologically-leading products for tomorrow's world.

Oerlikon Neumag focusses on the S+ The 3-end S+ not only convinces due to the efficiency of 99% and therefore raw material cost savings. It also covers a wide spectrum of producible total titers of 600 - 4000 dtex. Furthermore, all polymers from polyester, via polypropylene up to polyamide 6, can be processed on the multipolymer plants without conversions.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Since its introduction to the market in 2011, the S+ is the most-sold BCF plant and produces economi-cal, high-quality BCF yarns worldwide. Efficient combination of Oerlikon Barmag: EvoTape and WinTape Focussing on the new developments for tape yarn production for carpet backing, introduced at last year's Plastics Trade Fair, we have a significant increase in profitability: Oerlikon Barmag has achieved a quantum leap with up to 50% more output in comparison with usual market standard plants. The revolutionized process of the new EvoTape tape plant, in connection with the also newly developed, automatic winding system WinTape, enables this increase in efficiency.

For further information: www.oerlikon.com/manmade-fibers 330

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NEWS right policy and incentives. Mr. Thanawala suggested that the progressive State of Gujarat can also take up the task of formulating a MMF Industry Policy Framework for encouraging the polyester industry because the bulk of the petrochemical industry, which supplies raw material to MMF industry, is in the State of Gujarat.

Oerlikon Annual Technical Seminar cum Customer Meet

While highlighting the problem of shortage of labour and shortage of skills required to run today's high tech machines faced by the manmade fibre industry, Mr. Thanawla called upon Gujarat government for a clarification on eligibility of machines. He informed that the Government of Gujarat was providing interest subsidy of 5% to the weaving preparatory machines in an attempt to ensure that the high speed automatic loom are operating at its peak efficiency. This was only possible with perfect preparation.

Oerlikon Manmade Fibers arranged their annual technical Seminar cum Customer Meet on 20th February 2014 at Treat Resort in Silvassa. During the seminar various eminent speakers from Oerlikon Barmag & Oerlikon Neumag, Germany presented the latest developments in the field of POY, FDY, Staple Fiber & CP. Addressing the Oerlikon Manmade Fibers Customer Meet, Mr. Khursded Thanawala, Managing Director, Oerlikon Textile India Private Ltd. pointed out that over the years, great technological innovation and progress has been made in the manmade fibre industry, making this fibre user friendly, easy to produce and having a wide variety of application in clothing and industrial applications. He said that there is a great potential for the growth of the manmade fibre industry (MMF) in India, given the right policies and the right encouragement.

Mr. Thanawala pointed out and requested the Gujarat Government to clarify to the manmade fibre industry that the texturizing machine was classified under the machines for weaving preparatory and would be eligible for the same 5% interest.

Further, Mr. Thanawala emphasized that "we in the MMF industry to some extend feel like 'orphans'. The MMF industry is part of textile value chain. But when we go to Textile Ministry in New Delhi, the authorities say that we do not belong to textiles but to petrochemical industry. And when we go to Petrochemical Ministry, they are interested only in refineries and petroleum products and not concerned in manufacture of POY, FDY and other polyester products".

Dr. Chandan Chatterjee addressing the audience

Mr. Thanawala informed that 55% of India's polyester industry was located in the Union Territory of Silvassa and 43% in the State of Gujarat. The industry has flocked to the Union Territory of Silvassa due to cheap availability of power and other facilities and benefits. It is now well known that there is not much more physical room for expansion of this industry in the Union Territory of Silvassa, so entrepreneurs are now, beginning to look at alternate sites. Given the necessary inducements, almost all of them would be more than happy to expand in the State of Gujarat, Oerlikon Chief pointed out and called upon the Gujarat Government to look at this aspect and encourage the growth of the manmade fibre industry by the Jan - Feb 2014

View of the audience

The technical seminar was followed by entertainment program, cocktail & dinner. 331

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Dr. Chandan Chatterjee was the Guest of honor for the event. He briefed about the current scenario ofthe industry and highlighted the textile policy of Gujarat Government.


FORTHCOMING EVENTS INDIA

ABROAD

TECHNOTEX - 2014 3rd International Exhibition & Conference on Technical Textiles Date : 20th to 24th March, 2014 Venue : Bombay Exhibition Centre, Goregaon (E), Mumbai, India Contact : Mr. Manoj Mehta, Deputy Director FICCI Trade Fair Secretariat, Federation House, Tansen Marg, New Delhi - 110 001 Tel. : +91-11-23487581, Fax: +91-11-23359734 M. : +91-9654258258 E-mail : manoj.mehta@ficci.com, amit.kakkar@ficci.com, technotexindia@gmail.com

Techtextil - Russia Date : 11th to 13th March, 2014 Venue : International Exhibition Centre Expocentre Fair Ground, Moscow, Russia E-mail : techtextil@messefrankfurt.ru The Textile Association (India) organizes in Association with Thailand Convention & Exhibition Bureau (TCEB) WORLD TEXTILE CONGRESS 2014 Theme : "Global Textile - Opportunities & Challenges in an Integrated World" Date : August, 2014 (Date will be announced later) Venue : Bangkok, Thailand Contact : Mr. Arvind Sinha - Conference Chairman The Textile Association (India) - Central Office Pathare House, Next to State Bank of India, 67, Ranade Road, Dadar (W), Mumbai - 400 028 India Tel. : +91-022-24461145, Fax: +91-022-24474971 M. : +91-9820062612 E-mail : taicnt@gmail.com, lionasinha@gmail.com

9th Edition - Fibers & Yarns 2014 Date : 10th April to 12th April, 2014 Venue : Expo Centre, World Trade Centre, Cuff Parade, Mumbai - 400 005 Heimtextil India 2014 Date : 19th to 21st June, 2014 Venue : Pragati Maidan, New Delhi Tel. : +91-22-6144 5914, Fax : +91-22-6144 5999 E-mail : info@india.messefrankfurt.com Website : www.heimtextil-india.in

ITMA ASIA + CITME 2014 Date : 16th to 20th June, 2014 Venue: Shanghai New International Expo Centre, (SNIEC), Shanghai, China. Tel. : +86-10-85229662, 85229224 Fax : +86-10-85229480 E-mail : itmaasiacitme2@bijtime.com Website : www.itmaasia.com

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

10th India International Textile Machinery Exhibition(India ITME 2016) Date : 03rd to 08th December, 2016 Venue : Bombay Exhibition Centre, Goregaon (E), Mumbai, India Tel. : +91-22-2202 0032, 22828138, 2285 1579 Fax : +91-22-2285 1578 E-mail : itme@india-itme.com Website : www.india-itme.com

ITMA 2015 Date : 12h to 19th November, 2015 Venue : Fiera Milano (Rho), Strada Statale Del Sempione, 28, 20017 Rho, Milan, Italy Website : www.itma.com

Every effort is made to ensure that the information given is correct. You are however, advised to re-check the dates with the organizers, for any change in schedule, venue etc., before finalizing your travel plans. The views expressed in this journal are those of the authors. They are not necessarily the views of editor-publisher. All rights reserved. Neither this publication nor any part of it may be reproduced in any form or by any means, nor may it be printed, photocopied or stored on microfilm without the written permission of the editor-publisher. 332

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