ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN STUDIO: AIR
MARIA ESTHER VENTOSA 615901 SEMESTER 1, 2013 PROFESSORS: DAVID AND ALEX
INDEX TABLE OF CONTENTS:
PART A. CASE FOR INNOVATION 1.0.0 ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE
1.1.1 PERSONAL PROJECT.
1.1.2 STATE OF THE ART PROJECT - FELIX CANDELA, RESTAURANT LOS MANATIALES 1.1.3 STATE OF THE ART PROJECT - SANTIAGO CALATRAVA, BAC DE RODA BRIDGE.
1.2.0 COMPUTATION IN ARCHITECTURE
Simon Sandler, Archigram: Architecture without architecture, (London: MIT Press, 2005). p.
“Buildings with no capacity of change can only become slums or ancient monument.”
2. Rober Ivy. An interview with Santiago Calatrava, Architectural Record, 27 (2008) http:// archrecord.construction.com/people/interviews/archives/0008calatrava-1.asp , pp. 1-4.
3. C.J. Hughes, Bringing Space and light to the Underground, (2004) http://archrecord.construction.com/news/2011/09/Space-Light-Underground.asp, p.1.
Andrés Martín, Francisco Ramón, Análisis gráfico de obras emblemáticas de félix candela,
CASE FOR INNOVATION
1.1.0 ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCORSURE
â€œThere is repetition, but each repetition of a homogeneous surface brings a slight fluctuation or differentiation.â€? 6 As time passes by, and experience is gained, designers begin to develop better design attributes and get to discover their own unique designing style, that will set them apart from all others. All this process is greatly related with the great phenomenon that is constantly changing, innovation. Innovation by nature, arise this impulse on designers to create something that over goes their imagination, that will generate new ideas and new ways of thinking, that in the future, will evolve and lead to something even better. Better not only on the physical, structural or even the sustainable aspect, but on the effect that it creates on the people, on the community, by breaking social barriers and creating new relationships. Even though this is not an easy road, but a path of hard work and dedication, of great study and comparison of what already exists and how can it be improved, this is what us as architects, aspire to. What will be the discourse in digital architecture in a few years? This is a question most of us donÂ´t know the answer to, because as I recall I was born with innovation and all my learning process in the architecture field has been based on the use of electronic devices and tools that integrate my work environment, and on which I have become very dependable. But something that must be reflected , is that innovations have been created before, with the half of the knowledge and technology that is present at the time, making us reflect that, now is more possible than ever to accomplish it.
1.1.1 PERSONAL PROJECT MARIA ESTHER LINDA VENTOSA TORRES MONTERREY, MEXICO. ARCHITECTURE 13/11/1991 6TH SEMESTER
As the technology is constantly evolving and creating new innovations , new methodologies have been created that have led to the development of computer aided drafting tools , that since recent decades have allowed architects and designers to get a new type of architectural knowledge and be able to explode their imagination even more . Through what has been my architecture career I have been experimenting as a I designer with many different assignments on the design studios and digital tools subjects, that have various objectives to fulfil depending on the user and the main goal of the project. For the development and fully design of the projects , the use of the softwareÂ´s such as Revit, 3d MAX and Autocad was essential to do the 2D, 3D modelling and rendering process.
On my last semester studio course, the goal was to design architectural projects within the theme of habitability, basing the proposals on theory and being able to resolve the spatial, functional, and contextual aspects, by the representation and modelling practices.
â€œMINISTERIOS DE AMORâ€? is a non-profit organization that aids orphans by providing them a home and good quality education. The main objective goal of this project was to accomplish the creation of just not a building, but a house that will have a welcoming atmosphere and that gives the user the feeling of being at home.
Many variables were taken into account for the development of this project in order to achieve a flexible, sustainable and cosy program for the users. As mentioned before, innovation is a variable that is constantly evolving in a way that it may help lead a change from the traditional methods to more sustainable and flexible spaces. All this was achieved by: The implementation of inclined roofs, with different lengths and inclinations, that provide not only sun protection at critical times, but also because the roofs were all aligned to the green spaces and provided rainwater irrigation, leading to ecological and economical savings.
1.1.2. CASE FOR INNOVATION
ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE
“The aim was to conquer the new freedom in shape and size that concrete had to offer, combined with the development of a new way of thinking during Modernism. “- FELIX CANDELA 5
Candela acquired its reputation by building more than 800 concrete Thin-Shells, which have not only a rational and optimal resistant form, but also a great structural advantage where the form rules over the function and the design doesn´ t have a structural barrier. Besides, this process is highly optimal for fast productions and low cost constructions but at the same time innovative and sculptural beauty.
Figura 5: Hypars en el restaurante Los Manantiales.
His most significant building is the restaurant called “Los mantiales” ; located in Xochimlico, D.F., México, which after an accident, was rebuilt by the famous architect.
Figura 6: Imagen del restaurante Los Manantiales.
It is formed by four hyperbolic paraboloids. “The concept of the building is a lotus flower, because it is located at the center of a river, having an intimate relation to the natural enodelado vironment and due to its structural composition, looks like a floating flower over the water”. 5.
mo aplicación de la geometría digital se ha modelado la cubierta del ante de “Los Manantiales”. The hyperbolic paraboloids that com-
ra ello se ha empleado el programa informático Micro-Station.
pose the building are made of a ruled surface filled with concrete on a simple framework made of wooden tables that follow the main generating lines. Due to the structural system that is applied to this building, large clear span spaces are created, leading to a beautiful and clean geometric figure.
Figura 5: Hypars en el restaurante Los Manantiales.
He´s work has been an inspiration to many architects, in a way that it motivates them to go even further, explore their imagination and try new things such as he did, so in the future, more freedom on the architectural design and structural construction will be gained.
Max Borges Jr., a Cuban architect and actual architects such as Kell Muñoz and the famous Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, apply their knowledge and forms to their actual work.
1.1.3: CASE FOR INNOVATION
ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE
The Bac de Roda Bridge, located at the north of Barcelona, serves as a physical and symbolic connection between two previously isolated districts of the city: Sant Andreu and Sant Marti, which were considered centres of social and urban problems at the time.
tastic spaces, where the user does not just finds himself in just a bridge, but in a whole new and incredible experience.
Respect for the site is secured by limiting the maximum height in relationship to the surrounding buildings.
“Calatrava conceived the work with the style that characterizes him the most: curved forms inspired by the human bodylines, For that matter, the city council with the combination of light cowanted to create something more lours.” 2 than just a bridge that united these two districts. They wanted an icon “The structure consists of two to bring new life to two lesser- steel symmetrical arches forming known areas of the city, and to a parabola, which separate when reflect its new recovery initiative. meeting with the ground, and tension wires on both sides, on Built by the well recognized Span- a bridge adapted to both vehicle ish architect Santiago Calatrava, and pedestrian use.” 2 since his design, with the combination of aesthetical structural The bridge connects two streets frames and great care of the de- that run parallel to a railway line untails, lead to the creation of fan- derground.
Therefore, it is worthwhile, to cross this urban gateway that has the modern image of Sant Andreu, and behold, a neighbourhood in transition, and increasingly humanized. The first bridge by Santiago Calatrava is still a good example because of the positive influence of architecture in their immediate environment, which is affectionately called Calatrava Bridge by locals. Its now known use of anthropomorphic inspiration in the design of the bridge, away from preconceived notions of building bridges.
â€œIn the design of bridges there is a certain aesthetic engineering exercise that must be accomplished, and I feel that the integration of aesthetics and technology deserves special attentionâ€? (Calatrava).
REFERENCES 1.0: 1. Simon Sandler, Archigram: Architecture without architecture, (London: MIT Press, 2005). p. 94 2. Rober Ivy. An interview with Santiago Calatrava, Architectural Record, 27 (2008) http://archrecord.construction.com/people/interviews/ archives/0008calatrava-1.asp , pp. 1-4. 3. C.J. Hughes, Bringing Space and light to the Underground, (2004) http://archrecord.construction.com/news/2011/09/Space-LightUnderground.asp, p.1. 4. Andrés Martín, Francisco Ramón, Análisis gráfico de obras emblemáticas de félix candela, universidad de catanbria, (2005) pp. 1-25 5. Colin Faber, Las estructuras de Candela. ( México: Compañía Editorial Continental, S. A., 1970.) p. 55-78 6. Lynn, Greg (1998) “Why Tectonics is Square and Topology is Groovy”, in Fold, Bodies and Blobs: Collected Essays ed. by Greg Lynn (Bruxelles: La Lettre volée), p. 173
1.2.0 COMPUTATION IN ARCHITECTURE Why is it innovative? What has change through it´s use? What new developments have allowed architects to develop and explore? Architecture has always been on a constant evolution. Materials, structural systems and methodology have change from the most simple way, to complex structural shapes and systems, that we never imagine were possible to design, and less to be built. From time to time, the technology era has develop, where the design and construction process is not anymore just manual work, but a more technological and computational process that have helps us accomplished this complex innovations. Now a days the contemporary Architecture is recognized by its flexible configuration, good communication, share of information and ideas, and all is obtained through computation,
which allows architects to create new opportunities and to have the opportunity to experiment in the design, the fabrication ,and construction process, which leads to the creation of advanced and ground-breaking designs . But CAD softwares has make some people to question if their use has become a barrier which might limit or contained their creativity process? or if they might lead to fake creativity? “Computerisation aides designer as a mere drafting tool, were they simply digitize what they have conceived in their minds, and not limiting them in any ways but to help them increase efficiency. “ 7 In my opinion, computerisation is exact the opposite, it serves
as inspiration or helping tool, that provides designers the capacity of getting unanticipated or unexpected results that may lead them to produce complex forms and structures, that without the CAD softwares, they wouldn´t even imagine. Mouzhan Majidi has said: ‘This hasn’t simply transformed what we can design – it’s had a huge impact on how we build.’ 8 This innovative designs have change the building processes, creating a highly dependent relationship of the architects and engineers where they have to materialize the design and make it buildable.
This is very applicable to Frank Gehry designs. In my opinion Frank Gehry architecture is very ground breaking, due to the fact, that the Bilbao Museum was built 16 years ago, and it ´s still actually looked as an revolutionary icon, that marked the development of a new era, where through the use of CATIA ,a free form program ,and the use of titanium, Gehry was able to go over the limit and design this great building. This project gave architects the necessary inspiration and proof that complex structures are feasible. But as well as it is consider as an icon, it is highly criticize, because as having the form as the main issue and paying very little importance to the function and context of the city, which at first, due to it´s futuristic design , it accomplish it´s primary objective which was to make the city of Bilbao a touristic attraction, but at the same time it led to the lost of the Spanish typical architecture due to the lack of congruence with the context. For the Wyndham Gateway project, the merge of architecture and exploration will allow unexpected structures come to life. Experimenting design will play a mayor role on the execution of this project, where the technology and structure will need to join as one.
concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for COMPUTATION IN ARCHITECTURE architecture.
Architects are not only experimenting with computation on the structural and form aspect but as well with the building performance, with the objective to create more responsive designs, which in my opinion is the most important goal to achieve. This is because, it doesn´t matter if the building structure is rightly built or if it has attractives facades, the main objective of any architectural project should be, to accomplish the users needs, depending on the program. This examination helps designers to get a less abstract idea of the experience of the building and the meaning that it will generate on the people or the context that surrounds it. Aiding them to take better decisions and to make new design opportunities. “The meaning in architecture is constructed as an encounter between architecture and the public.”9 Stan Allen. The Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. , is a very good example.
By the utilization of the computer program created by Brady Peters, foster + Partners, were able to the design the new roof, taking into account many variables such as acoustics, and illumination which were fundamental for the true appreciation of the courtyard. For the development of this geometrical roof, that covers the courtyard of the new renovation program, the stimulation of computer performances was applied in order to explore different design proposals, and at the end, apply the one
that fit the best the museumÂ´s requirements. â€œThe new roof canopy is designed to maximize the potential of the courtyard bathing it in natural light - and developing structural and environmental themes.â€? 10 When I went to visit the Smithsonian Museum courtyard I was astonished by the welcome atmosphere and the great connection that the roof creates between the old and the new buildings, a
common relationship that takes place in a museum. Through this simulation process such important factors like illumination, acustics and many more are tested in order to create a good experience for the user , and to avoid creating spaces and atmosphere that do not accomplish all the user requirements or needs. For the Wyndham all this factors will be analyzed in order to attract the user and make him/ her want to visit the city and never leave.
REFERENCES 1.2: 7. Brady Peters and Xavier de Kestelier, AD: Computation Works- The building of Algorithmic through AD. (USA) Architectural Design (2013), p. 11 8. David Jenkins (ed), Norman Foster Works 4, Prestel Verlag (Munich), 2004, p 28. 9. Stan Allen, Practice: Architecture, Technique and Representation, Routledge (New York), 2008, p XIV. 10. Brady Peters, ‘The Smithsonian Courtyard Enclosure: Computer Programming as a Design Tool’, in Brian Lilley and Philip Beesley (eds), Expanding Bodies: Art, Cities, Environment. Proceedings of the ACADIA 2007 Conference, Riverside Press (Waterloo, London). Images: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/smithsonian-institution/ http://www.areturnondesign.com/hall_of_fame.page. http://www.garuyo.com/arte-y-cultura/frank-ghery-un-arquitecto-devanguardia http://www.gregnemes.com/natural-systems-computation/ http://drawingarchitecture.tumblr.com/post/4496468507/layeredperspective-by-daniel-houghton