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In this issue: Feature Articles Learner-Centered Instruction in the ELT Classroom: What, Why and How? - Ali Shehadeh The Vocabulary Knowledge of University Students in Saudi Arabia - Ahmed Al-Masrai, James Milton Beginning a Sentence with a Coordinating Conjunction: So What’s the Problem? - Sarah Al-Shammari

Lesson Ideas Reviews Networking TESOL Arabia News Chapter Reports SIG Reports

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C o n t e n t s

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Pe r s p e c t i ve s Volume 19 No. 3 November 2012

From the Editors

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Message from the President

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Letter from the Conference Co-Chairs

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Feature Articles Learner-Centered Instruction in the ELT Classroom: What, Why and How? Ali Shehadeh The Vocabulary Knowledge of University Students in Saudi Arabia Ahmed Al-Masrai, James Milton Beginning a Sentence with a Coordinating Conjunction: So What’s the Problem? Sarah Al-Shammari

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Lesson Ideas Apps for Learning with iPads

Denise McQueen Ozdeniz

iFiles: Managing, Creating and Sharing files on an iPad Puppet Pals

Sevhan Acar Hammudeh Helene Demirci

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Reigniting, Retooling, Retiring in English Language Teaching Alison M. Youngblood Black Cat Readers Neil McBeath Reading Explorer 5 Fatima Ahmed, Awatif Mohammed English Unlimited Pre-intermediate Bridget M. W. Palmer, Shireen Taha

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Reviews

Networking iCelebrate Conference Lisa Amira Rutherford TESOL International Conference Report Sufian Abu-Rmaileh Reflection on the 18th International TESOL Arabia Conference 2012 Hala El Muniawai TESOL Arabia: Achieving Excellence Through Life Skills Education Nataliia Reutska

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TESOL Arabia News International Travel Grants: Guidelines

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Rehab Rejab

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From Feature the Article Editors 2

Editors Melanie Gobert Abu Dhabi Men’s College Tandy Bailey Abu Dhabi Women’s College

Dear Readers, We hope you had a great summer and welcome back! We have a great line up for you in this issue. First of all, we have a feature article by Ali Shehadeh on “Learner-Centered Instruction in the ELT Classroom: What, Why and How?” Our second feature, “The Vocabulary Knowledge of University Students in Saudi Arabia,” by Ahmed AlMasrai and James Milton, describes a new test for measuring students’ vocabulary sizes. Our third feature article is “Beginning a Sentence with a Coordinating Conjunction: So What’s the Problem?” by Sara Al-Shammari.

Reviews Editor

In this issue our Lesson Ideas features reviews of some iPad Apps that teachers can use who are teaching in iPad delivery programs. As our new SIG Coordinator Sandra Zaher pointed out in her presentation at a recent Dubai Chapter/Young Learner’s SIG joint event, in the 21st century classroom, “Technology won’t replace teachers. But, those teachers that use technology in their classrooms daily will replace those teachers that don’t.”

Christopher Morrow Daniel Mangrum Janet Olearski Kourosh Lachini Lynne Ronesi Mohammad Azaza Rania Jabr Paul James Dessoir Peter McLaren Saleh S. Al-Busaidi Patrick Dougherty Neil McBeath Rachel Lange Lobat Asadi Ibrahim M. Shaabi Joanna Buckle Laura Lau Richard Lau Mick King

Finally, we also have our regular Networking, SIG, Chapter, and TESOL Arabia news sections, as well as our regular Reviews section, led by our new Reviews Editor, Paul Dessoir, of United Arab Emirates University. We’d also like to thank our previous Reviews Editor, Cindy Gunn, for the outstanding job she did in leading our reviews section and cultivating new reviewers. If you want to review any books or materials for us, please contact Paul at pdessoir@uaeu.ac.ae. Writing reviews and lesson ideas is a great way to start getting published along your professional development path. And last, but not least, your feedback on Perspectives is always welcome. We hope you enjoy reading a great issue of Perspectives!

Paul Dessoir United Arab Emirates University

Advisory Panel

CREDITS Layout / Artwork Sudeep Kumar

Melanie Gobert

Tandy Bailey

Printing

Editors, Perspectives

International Printing Press Dubai, UAE

November Cover Photo The editors would like to remind the readers that the views expressed in this periodical are those of the individual authors. These views are not necessarily shared by the other authors in this issue or by TESOL Arabia. Responsibility for

Peter Waters Higher Colleges of Technology

the content and opinion of articles and advertisements rests with the authors. TESOL Arabia is a non-profit organization based in the United Arab Emirates with membership from the Arabian Gulf and beyond. TESOL Arabia does not discriminate against any person on the basis of race, gender, national origin, disability, religion, age, or native language. For more information, please visit our website: http://www.tesolarabia.org

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Message Feature Article from the President

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Dear Colleagues, I hope you all had a very restful but eventful summer to recharge your batteries. I imagine for many of you, if you are anything like me, summer seems far away now with the flurry of activity needed to launch a new school year. I hope, however, it has been a smooth and productive start for you. I would like to take the opportunity in this issue to update you on our progress since the June publication of Perspectives. September was a very productive time for the organization. On the 13, 14, and 15th of the month, TESOL Arabia held its annual retreat at the Jumeirah Ramada in Bur Dubai. We accomplished many things over the three-day event. Our retreat is a crucial component of our meeting schedule because it is the one time all TA officers, chapter representatives, and SIG chairs can meet jointly to brainstorm new ideas, discuss current issues and challenges, and plan our events. Our SIGs and Chapters have developed a dynamic calendar of individual and joint events for the upcoming year. These can be seen on our website calendar. One of the major goals of the retreat, as a whole group, was to launch a new platform for organizational communication and to effectively archive our materials. Thanks to Rehab Rejab, we have successfully begun the transition from Yahoo Groups to the more user friendly and functional Edmodo platform. One important item that did come up during the retreat was the fact that many of our grants are being under-utilized.TESOL Arabia offers four grants that serve a variety of functions from professional development to international travel. We set aside a significant budget each year to help our members in these areas. Please take a moment to review these opportunities, outlined in this issue, and take advantage of them. I would love to be able to say that we have used the entire budget at our next AGM. You may have noticed that TESOL Arabia has a new logo. This has been in the works for well over a year and has been a concentrated team effort. Our goal was to modernize our past logo while keeping some of the aspects of it that our members have come to identify us with over the years. I believe that has been accomplished and I am proud of our new face. Along with this, our marketing campaign has been moving forward with new brochures, posters and signage for the SIGs, Chapters and the upcoming conference. I am happy to announce that we are welcoming three new members to the TESOL Arabia Executive Council. Jillian Hill has joined us over the summer and has been actively working on resurrecting our Western Region Chapter after a long period of no representation. Ian Taylor has also stepped up to serve as Acting Al Ain Chapter Representative. Last, but not least, Sandra Zaher recently stepped down as co-chair of our ESP SIG only to step up as our new Acting SIG Coordinator. In addition, Bridie Farah has joined us as the new Independent Learning SIG Chair. We are very pleased to have them join the team. Elections are fast approaching and we have several elected positions on the Council open. This year we will be looking for people interested in the positions of Vice President (President-Elect), Member at Large, Publications Coordinator (Conference Proceedings), Dubai Chapter Representative, Al Ain Chapter Representative, and Eastern Region Chapter Representative. In addition to these openings, we are also looking to find an acting representative to restart the Ras Al Khaimah Chapter. In each case, it is a wonderful opportunity to get involved with one of the largest affiliates of TESOL International in the world. The nomination election process is quite simple and the eligibility requirements and an online nomination form are currently published on our website. The plans for our upcoming conference are in full swing and coming along smoothly with seasoned co-chairs Sandra Oddy and Les Kirkham and their committee hard at work organizing a four-day event packed with high quality speakers, a cutting edge pre-conference program and a comprehensive ELT exhibition. We are hoping TACon 2013 will surpass last year’s delegate numbers of over 1,600. The pre-conference certificate courses will be held on March 13 and the main conference will run from March 14-16 at the Hyatt Regency, Dubai. Periodically check our website for updates and remember that membership and early registration will save you a considerable amount of money. In closing, I would like to thank everyone on the Executive Council, our chapter representatives, SIG chairs and their committees for laying the groundwork for what is shaping up to be very rich year of opportunities to share, learn, and grow. Not including our conference, TESOL Arabia has thirty-three events planned thus far this year with more to come. Please check out our website’s calendar for dates, locations, and timings. That’s it for now except to wish you all a very productive and enriching next few months. Best regards,

James McDonald President TESOL Arabia Volume 19

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19th International Tesol Arabia Conference and Exhibition 2013 From KG to Collegeto Career March 14-16, 2013, Hyatt Regency, Dubai, UAE

Dear Colleagues, The 19th Annual International TESOL Arabia Conference & Exhibition will be held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Dubai from March 14-16, 2013. The theme of this year’s conference, “From KG to College to Career,” focuses on the use of English at all levels of formal education and for lifelong learning. Continuing the TESOL Arabia tradition of top quality conference features, the 2013 Conference will include special preconference courses, an additional special certificate course which will run during the three days of the main conference, and the Innovative Showcase strand where various organisations, publishers and companies will be presenting their latest services and materials. This is all in addition to the main conference program which will offer over 200 breakout sessions and more than 20 plenary and featured sessions. With its superb lineup of speakers, the 2013 TESOL Arabia International Conference & Exhibition will continue to be the premier professional educational development event in the region. For book lovers and material writers, as well as those looking for the latest teaching aids or edition of their preferred texts, the TESOL Arabia Exhibition will once again host the major education publishers and distributors. Many tertiary institutions will also be present for those interested in continuing their education with MAs and PhDs. The 2013 Conference will continue to offer a comprehensive Job Fair, which will once again bring together job seekers and the major recruiting organizations in the region. Looking for qualified candidates to fill a variety of posts, including some that are filled onsite, the TESOL Arabia Job Fair retains its position as the premier employment opportunity in the region for both recruiters and job seekers in the EFL teaching profession. Please note that job seekers must register for the Conference in order to attend the Job Fair. The conference would not be possible without generous sponsorship from our wide range of sponsors, many of whom have already committed to TESOL Arabia 2013. TESOL Arabia is very grateful for their unflagging support and their contribution to the professional development of educators in the Gulf region. Look out for more information regarding all aspects of the Conference & Exhibition as it appears on our website. Les Kirkham & Sandra Oddy Conference Co-Chairs, 2012

Don’t miss The TESOL Arabia Conference and Exhibition 2013. Register now for the Early Bird rate. See you there!

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Learner-Centered Instruction in the ELT Classroom: What, Why and How? In the last 15-20 years, there has been a noticeable shift towards—and a considerable interest in— Learner-Centered Instruction (LCI) in education in general, and Second/Foreign Language (2L) teaching in particular. In language teaching, the consequence of this shift was a change from teachercentered/directed instruction (a teaching situation in which most decisions are made and carried out by the teacher based on his/her priorities) to LCI (a teaching situation that makes the learner “central to all aspects of language teaching, including planning teaching, and evaluation” (Richards & Schmidt, 2010, pp. 326-327). This change, in turn, is in line with recent and current approaches to L2 teaching that also make the learner central to all aspects of language teaching, such as communicative language teaching and task-based language teaching (for a review of these approaches, see Larsen-Freeman, 2011). However, when pressed hard, very few practicing teachers and instructors know what LCI is exactly, why it is more effective for L2 learning and teaching, and how to implement it in the ELT classroom. The article will first define LCI and identify its main characterizing features. Next, it will illustrate the Second Language Acquisition (SLA) basis of LCI. After that, it will present ways of implementing LCI in the ELT classroom.

What is Learner-Centered Instruction, or LCI? LCI in L2 teaching is a teaching situation in which the learner is central to all aspects of the learning and teaching process. LCI promotes such concepts as learner independence, student self-evaluation, individualized instruction, student-student

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Ali Shehadeh United Arab Emirates University Al Ain, UAE

interaction, pair and group work, and collaborative learning. More specifically, LCI is a teaching situation in which: ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆

◆ ◆

◆ ◆ ◆

Learners take part in setting goals and objectives. There is concern about learners’ needs, goals, likes, dislikes, feelings and values. There is concern about learners’ prior knowledge. There is concern about learners’ different learning styles and learning preferences. Learners are seen as active, rather than passive, participants in the learning/teaching process. Learners take much of the responsibility for their own learning. Learners are actively involved in shaping how they learn; that is, students co-construct knowledge rather than just receive it. There is ample teacher-student and studentstudent interactions. There is an abundance of brainstorming activities, pair work and small group work. The teacher is seen as a facilitator of learning rather than an instructor or lecturer who spoon feeds learners with knowledge (see Benson, 2007; Richards & Schmidt, 2010).

The SLA Basis of Learner-Centered Instruction Although there is broad interest in the potential value of LCI to enhance language teaching and learning, there is also considerable diversity in the theoretical scope, applied practice, and research that

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corresponds with LCI (e.g., Benson, 2007). The next section describes two major views on SLA that provide strong support for LCI: interaction and SLA, and the social constructivist view of learning. For each of these, the main premises of the view will first be illustrated, and then how LCI can be facilitated from this particular perspective will be shown.

Interaction and SLA The interaction aspect of SLA has mainly been investigated from two different perspectives: the input perspective and the output perspective. These will be illustrated and discussed separately below.

The Input Perspective According to the input perspective, interaction provides learners with an opportunity to provide feedback on the level of their comprehension in L2. This feedback induces conversational partners to initiate a range of modifications of the conversation such as comprehension checks, clarification requests, and verification of meaning. These negotiated modifications enable the conversational partners to modify their utterances semantically and/or formally towards comprehensibility (i.e., provide learners with comprehensible input as in Examples 1 and 2), and comprehensible input in turn is necessary for L2 learning (Krashen, 1994; Long, 1996).

Example 1: Semantic modification of input Teacher:

Student: Teacher: Student:

Can you put up with all the pressure from your family to marry the man they choose for you? Can I what? Can your bear, can you accept all the pressure from your family to…to…? Yes, yes, now I understand. No, I actually, I decide and my family only help me to choose…

(observation data)

Example 2: Formal modification of input NS: NNS: NS: NNS: NS:

With a small pat of butter on it and above the plate. Hm hmm what is buv da plate? Above Above the plate? Yeah

(Pica, 1992, p. 225) Likewise, negotiated interaction serves to raise learners’

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awareness of the formal properties of the L2 (known as consciousness-raising, input enhancement or enriched input) as in Example 3; and learners’ noticing of form (i.e., focusing their attention on the formal properties of the TL, is also believed to be necessary for L2 learning learning [Schmidt, 1995]).

Example 3: Focus on form Student: Teacher: Student: Teacher:

Sir, I give you my assignment yesterday. You give me your assignment yesterday? Yes. You mean you gave me your assignment yesterday! Student: Yes, yes, sorry, I gave you my assignment yesterday. (observation data)

How is LCI facilitated from this perspective? Research has shown that learner-learner and teacher-learner interactions, which are key features of LCI, provide learners with excellent opportunities for receiving modified, comprehensible input, and for raising their awareness of the formal properties of the L2 (Schmidt, 1995; Long, 1996).

The Output Perspective Interaction is also important for SLA because it encourages learner output, and learner output plays an important role in the acquisition process (Swain, 1985, 1998). According to Swain, in producing the L2, a learner will, on occasion, become aware of (i.e., notice) a linguistic problem (brought to his/ her attention either by external feedback [e.g., clarification requests] or internal feedback). Noticing a problem “pushes” the learner to modify his/her output. In doing so, the learner may sometimes be forced into a more syntactic processing mode than might occur in comprehension. This noticing of a gap leads to mental processes that lead to the production of modified, reprocessed output, and this “may represent the internalization of new linguistic knowledge, or the consolidation of existing knowledge” (Swain & Lapkin, 1995, (p. 384). In other words, output enables learners to notice a gap between what they can say and what they want to say, which prompts them to stretch their current interlanguage capacity in order to fill in the gap, and this enables learners to control and internalize linguistic knowledge. Swain (1998, p. 68)

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strongly argues that “it may be that the modified, or reprocessed, output can be considered to represent the leading edge of a learner’s interlanguage.” Swain termed this the “comprehensible output hypothesis” for SLA (1985, p. 249). The basic premise of the comprehensible output hypothesis postulates that producing the L2 “pushes” learners to make their output more precise, coherent, and appropriate. Swain (1985, p. 249) argues that output “may be the trigger that forces the learner to pay attention to the means of expression needed in order to successfully convey his or her own intended meaning.” Thus, the output requirement presents learners with a unique opportunity to process language that may not be decisively necessary for simple comprehension like active deployment of L2 knowledge and being involved in more active cognitive processes than comprehension (Izumi, 2002; Shehadeh, 1999). Consequently, Swain (1998) concludes that learner output is not just a sign of acquired knowledge, but also a sign of learning at work. Excerpts 4 - 6 below are examples of learners’ production of modified, or reprocessed, output in response to other-initiation (OI) or external feedback:

Example 4: Modified output in learnerlearner interaction NNS1: NNS2: NNS1: NNS2:

Two small bottle. Two small what? Bot (1.0 pause in seconds) small bottles. Yeah.

TS (Trouble Source) OI (Other Initiation)

O (Outcome) RO (Reaction to the Outcome) (Shehadeh, 1999, p. 645)

Example 5: Modified output in teacherstudent interaction Learner: Last weekend, a man painting, painting “Beware of the dog.” Teacher: Sorry? Learner: A man painted, painted, painted on the wall “Beware of the dog.”

(Nobuyoshi & Ellis, 1993, p. 205)

Example 6: Reprocessed output in learnerlearner interaction NNS1:

And another side one in that er (1.0 second pause) in side of table emm nabikin is hanging. TS

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NNS2: NNS1: NNS2: NNS1: NNS2:

NNS1: NNS2:

What? Nappikin or towil. What? Towel or nappkin for...er... rubbing hand. I don’t know what is it (1.0 second pause) what is this for? For men to dry hands after washing towel towel. Uhh…washing to dry hands… yes…yes.

OI O/TS OI O/TS

OI O RO

(Shehadeh, 1999, p. 645) Excerpt 7 is an example of a learner’s production of modified output in response to internal feedback or self-initiation (SI) in the course of learner-learner interaction.

Example 7: Modified output in response to internal feedback NNS:Yes because if the woman is (0.8 seconds)… the wife always go out (0.6 seconds)…goes out and left his his husband eh (1.0 seconds) her husband and her son in the home (0.7 seconds)…at home it’s it’s not reasonable for for... (Shehadeh, 1999, p. 645)

How is LCI facilitated from this perspective? Learner-learner and teacher-student interactions, two of the cornerstones of LCI, promote learner output, and learner output, as mentioned above, presents learners with unique opportunities towards active deployment of their cognitive resources. It makes learners more actively engaged in the learning process. Similarly, the modified, or reprocessed, output is considered to constitute the leading edge of the learner’s interlanguage (Swain, 1998, p. 68).

The Social Constructivist Perspective of Learning Originally based on the work of Vygotsky (1978), the social constructivist perspective of learning posits that human development is inherently a socially situated activity. In first language (L1) contexts, the child’s (novice) cognitive and linguistic development arises in social interactions with more able members of society (experts), who provide the novice with the appropriate level of assistance. Such assistance,

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now referred to as “scaffolding,” enables children to stretch their cognitive and linguistic development beyond their current level towards their potential level of development. Research has shown that such scaffolding can also occur in an L2 context among peers when working in pairs and groups (e.g., Nassaji & Tian, 2010; Swain, 1998, 2010; Swain, Lapkin, Knouzi, Suzuki, & Brooks, 2009). In particular, these researchers have shown that dictogloss tasks (tasks in which students reconstruct in pairs or groups a text read by the teacher as closely as possible to the original text) were successfully accomplished by learners as a collaborative or joint activity, and that such jointly performed tasks enabled learners to solve linguistic problems that lay beyond their individual abilities. Further, these researchers have found on delayed posttests that there was a strong tendency for students to stick with the knowledge that they had constructed collaboratively, right or wrong (Swain 1998). Consequently, it has been argued that students’ collaborative dialogues mediate the construction of linguistic knowledge and that this process of joint accomplishment of a task contributes to L2 learning (Swain, 1998, 2010; Swain et al., 2009). Swain and her colleagues based these conclusions on similar research findings from a number of studies which analyzed students’ pair/group talk (called language-related episodes, metalinguistic talk, metatalk, and more recently languaging) during various tasks in such collaborative dialogues (see Swain, 2010; Swain et al., 2009).

How is LCI facilitated from this perspective? As mentioned above, research has shown that tasks in pair work and group work, which are major features of LCI, are successfully accomplished by learners as a joint activity, and that this process of joint accomplishment of a task does indeed contribute to L2 learning. In addition, these researchers have shown that collaboratively performed tasks, again a major feature of LCI, enable students to solve linguistic problems that lie beyond their individual abilities (e.g., Swain, 2010).

describe two major ways that follow from the SLA research findings illustrated above for utilizing LCI in the ELT classroom: task-based language teaching, and repair strategies and error correction techniques. Task-based Language Teaching, or TBLT. One major way for utilizing LCI in the ELT classroom is by using task-based language teaching, or TBLT. TBLT is an educational framework and an approach for the theory and practice of second/ foreign language learning and teaching, and a teaching methodology in which classroom tasks constitute the main focus of instruction (Van den Branden, Bygate, & Norris, 2009). A classroom task is defined as an activity that is (a) goal-oriented, (b) content-focused, (c) has a real outcome, and (d) reflects real-life language use and language need (e.g., Shehadeh, 2005).The syllabus in TBLT is organized around activities and tasks rather than in terms of grammar or vocabulary (Van den Branden et al., 2009). A number of task types have been identified and proposed for implementing TBLT in the L2 classroom (e.g., Nunan, 1989; Pica, Kanagy, & Falodun, 1993). Pica et al. (1993), in particular, proposed a detailed framework for choosing and using communication tasks for both second language research and instruction. Pica and her team identified five main types of communication tasks used in L2 research and pedagogy: jigsaw, information-gap, problem-solving, opinion-exchange and decisionmaking. For convenience, each of these task-types is briefly described below: ◆ Jig-saw tasks: Tasks that require speakers to exchange given information (e.g., completing a chart with partially missing information). ◆

Information-gap tasks: Tasks that involve organizing given information (e.g., arranging historical events in a chronological order, ordering pictures to make a story, describing a picture to a partner to reproduce based on his/her description).

Problem-solving tasks: Tasks that require the exchange of information to solve a problem (e.g., how to reduce environmental pollution, predicting the final part of a story).

Opinion exchange tasks: Tasks that require the exchange of opinions (e.g., mixed-

Classroom Implementation How do teachers implement LCI principles in the ELT classroom? LCI can be implemented in the ELT classroom in a number of ways. In this section, the author will

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gender education, students wearing uniforms at secondary school). ◆

Decision-making tasks: Tasks that require the exchange of opinions and making decisions or reaching unanimity (e.g., conducting a project, planning a party).

The example below illustrates a decision-making task that targets developing students’ fluency in groups. It works with students of different proficiency levels. First of all, choose a recent newspaper article such as “Arab language panel discusses action plan” (Arab, 2012).

Instructions: 1. Get into groups of three. Read the newspaper article. 2. Discuss how to boost the initiative of promoting Arabic as the language of science and technology. 3. Suggest specific innovative solutions that would help realize the objectives of the initiative, including reforms in the teaching and learning of Arabic as a mother tongue and as a second/foreign language. 4. Try to reach unanimity or agreement on your suggested solutions. 5. Take as much time as you like, but you will probably need 15-20 minutes to discuss the initiative and reach some kind of agreement. 6. Be prepared to give an oral presentation (5-6 minutes) on your suggested solutions and the rationale for them. A number of frameworks have been proposed for the actual implementation of TBLT activities like the one above in the L2 classroom (e.g., Skehan, 1996; Willis, 1996a). Willis’s (1996a) model (see Figure 1) is the most commonly cited and employed model by classroom teachers and teacher researchers. The model falls into three main parts: pre-task, the task cycle, and language focus. The pre-task phase provides the necessary background, knowledge and procedure, introduces students to—and familiarizes them with—the topic and the task to be performed. In the case of the task used here, this involves the teacher’s

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oral explanation and/or written instructions of the task including issues like procedures, group formats, timing, and so on. In the task phase, learners carry out a meaningfocused activity. It does not matter if the task is achieved through the use of language which is far from the target in terms of accuracy and complexity. They are more likely to concentrate on fluency, producing forms of the language that come readily to them. In the case of the task used here, this involves the students’ (a) reading of the article, (b) discussing how to boost the initiative of promoting Arabic as the language of science and technology, (c) suggesting specific innovative solutions for realizing the objectives of the initiative, and (d) reaching some kind of agreement on their suggested solutions. In the report phase, learners are required to present the results of their task phase work to the whole class. In the case of the task used here, this involves the students’ oral presentation of their suggested solutions and the rationale for them. In this public performance learners will be motivated to produce Ali Shehadeh is Associate Professor in and past chair of the Department of Linguistics at UAE University. He has published in Language Learning, TESOL Quarterly, System, and Journal of Applied Linguistics, and served on the editorial boards of a number of international journals. Currently he is the editor of Brief Reports and Summaries of TESOL Quarterly and editor of the Asian Journal of English Language Teaching. His latest book is Task-Based Language Teaching in Foreign Language Contexts: Research and Implementation (2012), published by John Benjamin’s and co-edited with Christine Coombe. He can be contacted at: ali.shehadeh@uaeu. ac.ae.

not only fluent but also accurate language—a more “prestige” variety. Thus, the report stage ensures “a smooth transition from private to more public interaction” (Willis, 1996b, p. 56). To allow for this, learners are given a planning phase between task and report. During the planning phase, learners will attend to form in preparation for the report phase based on the assumption that when given planning time, learners will focus on form and try to produce more complex language. As such, this task provides opportunities for fluency, accuracy and complexity to develop.

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Figure 1. Components of the task-based learning framework (Willis, 1996a, p. 38). (Figure reproduced with permission.) No wonder, therefore, that TBLT has been shown to be an ideal tool for utilizing the principles of LCI in the L2 classroom. Indeed, research has shown that task-based pair and group activities like the one illustrated in this article ensure (a) that students take on responsibility for much of the work, and (b) a greater student involvement in the learning process. At the same time, such activities free the teacher to focus on monitoring and providing relevant feedback, which are all major distinguishing features of LCI (for recent overviews of TBLT, see e.g.,Van den Branden et al., 2009; Shehadeh, 2012). Another major way for utilizing LCI in the ELT classroom is by encouraging proper repair strategies and error correction techniques. Specifically, teachers must encourage self-initiated self-completed repairs in the ELT classroom (a major characteristic of LCI) over other-initiated, other-completed repairs. This

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is not just because these were found to be more prevalent and more frequent than other-initiated, other-completed repairs, but also because research has shown that self-initiated self-completed repairs as internally determined devices (internal attentiondrawing devices), rather than other-initiated, othercompleted repair, as externally imposed techniques (external attention-drawing devices), are more facilitative of L2 learning (Izumi, 2002). In utilizing these repair strategies and error correction techniques in their teaching, EFL/ESL teachers should make principled decisions with regard to (a) when to correct, (b) why to correct,(c) who to correct, and (d) how to correct. A number of corresponding and progressive considerations should be taken when teachers make these decisions. First, with respect to when to correct, teachers should decide whether the learner has made a mistake or

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an error. The former is an aspect of performance which can be self-corrected, the latter is an aspect of competence (or lack of knowledge) and which usually cannot be self-corrected but needs othercorrection. The former tends to be temporary, but the latter more durable and permanent in the learner’s language. Second, with respect to why to correct, the teacher should decide whether the error is local or global. Local errors do not usually interfere with the intelligibility of the message; they affect only one part of an utterance or sentence, and therefore do not require (immediate) correction. Global errors on the other hand, usually tend to interfere with the intelligibility of the whole message and therefore require (immediate) correction. Third, with respect to who to correct, the teacher should first encourage self-correction before peer correction, and peer correction before teacher correction, because self-correction is more facilitative of L2 learning (e.g., Izumi, 2002). Fourth, finally, with respect to how to correct, the teacher should promote indirect or implicit corrections before direct or explicit corrections, again because these were found to be more effective for SLA than direct or explicit correction (ibid.). This is important when we know that some classroom studies have observed that students were not given sufficient time or opportunity to self-correct in a classroom situation. For example, McHoul (1990) observed that teachers initiated corrections “either (a) immediately a troublesource is over, with usually no gap occurring or (b) immediately the repairable (i.e., the trouble-source) itself is spoken/heard” (p. 375). He goes on to say that “The latter cases of other-initiations either (i) overlap the trouble-source turn or (ii) interrupt it. In instances of (i), teacher and student can both be heard to be speaking, albeit briefly, at the same time. In instances of (ii), the student immediately yields the floor to the teacher” (ibid.).

Conclusion For the ultimate goal of making practice in the ELT classroom more informed, more principled, and more effective, this article drew on recent and current theories of SLA and research findings in addressing three basic issues related to learnercentered instruction: defining LCI, understanding its

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SLA basis, and ways of implementing it in the ELT classroom. It is hoped that the main characteristics of LCI, some of its major theoretical underlying principles, and ways of implementing it in the ELT classroom are now made more accessible to the practicing teacher.

References Arab language panel discusses action plan. (2012, September 2.) Gulf News. Retrieved from http:// gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/government/arablanguage-panel-discusses-action-plan-1.1069314 Benson, P. (2007). Autonomy in language teaching and learning. Language Teaching, 40, 21-40. Izumi, S. (2002). Output, input enhancement, and the noticing hypothesis: An experimental study on ESL relativization. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 541-577. Krashen, S. (1994). The input hypothesis and its rivals. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 45-77). London: Academic Press. Larsen-Freeman, D. (2011). Techniques and principles in language teaching (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Long, M. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie & T.J. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. McHoul, A. (1990). The organization of repair in classroom talk. Language in Society, 19, 349-377. Nassaji, H. & Tian, J. (2010). Collaborative and individual output tasks and their effects on learning English phrasal verbs. Language Teaching Research, 14, 397-419. Nobuyoshi, J. & Ellis, R. (1993). Focused communication tasks and second language acquisition. ELT Journal, 47, 203-210. Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Pica, T. (1992). The textual outcomes of native speaker-non-native speaker negotiation: What do they reveal about second language learning? In C. Kramsch & S. McConnell-Ginet (Eds.), Text and context: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on language study. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath & Company.

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Pica, T., Kanagy, R., & Falodun, J. (1993). Choosing and using communication tasks for second language research and instruction. In G. Crookes & S. Gass (Eds.), Tasks and language learning: Integrating theory and practice (pp. 9-34). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Richards, J. & Schmidt, R. (2010). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics (4th ed.). London: Longman. Schmidt, R. (1995). Consciousness and foreign language learning: A tutorial on the role of attention and awareness in learning. In R. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning. Honolulu, HI: Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center. Shehadeh, A. (1999). Non-native speakers’ production of modified comprehensible output and second language learning. Language Learning, 49(4), 627-675. Shehadeh, A. (2005). Task-based language learning and teaching: Theories and applications. In C. Edwards & J. Willis (Eds.), Teachers exploring tasks in English language teaching, (pp. 1330). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Shehadeh, A. (2012). Broadening the perspective of task-based language teaching scholarship: The contribution of research in foreign language contexts. In A. Shehadeh & C. Coombe (Eds.), Task-based language teaching in foreign language contexts: Research and implementation, (pp. 1-20). Amsterdam: John Benjamin’s. Skehan, P. (1996). A framework for the implementation of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 17(1), 38-62. Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Swain, M. (1998). Focus on form through conscious reflection. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Swain, M. (2010). Talking-it through: Languaging as a source of learning. In R. Batstone (Ed.), Sociocognitive perspectives on language use/learning. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

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Swain, M. & Lapkin, S. (1995). Problems in output and the cognitive processes they generate: A step towards second language learning. Applied Linguistics,16, 371-391. Swain, M., Lapkin, S., Knouzi, I., Suzuki, W., & Brooks, L. (2009). Languaging: University students learn the grammatical concept of voice in French. The Modern Language Journal, 93, 5-29. Van den Branden, K., Bygate, M., & Norris, J. (Eds.). (2009). Task-based language teaching: A reader. Amsterdam: John Benjamin’s. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society:The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Willis, J. (1996a). A framework for task-based learning. Harlow, UK: Longman Addison-Wesley. (Republished in 2012 as an E-Book by Intrinsic Publications, www.intrinsicbooks.co.uk) Willis, J. (1996b). A flexible framework for task-based learning. In J. Willis & D. Willis (Eds.), Challenge and change in language teaching (pp. 52-62). Oxford, UK: Heinemann ELT. ❉

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The Vocabulary Knowledge of University Students in Saudi Arabia

Ahmed Al-Masrai Swansea University, UK

James Milton Swansea University, UK This paper presents an empirical study that investigates the vocabulary knowledge of 92 Saudi university learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) near the start and near the end of their university studies. Two tests were used to measure the participants’ vocabulary size: the well-established Eurocentres Vocabulary Size Test (EVST) (Meara & Jones, 1990) test and a newly created XK_Lex (AlMasrai, 2009), designed to make a more accurate measurement of vocabulary size. Results suggest that Saudi university students’ vocabulary size is about 2000 to 3000 words on entry to university and around 5000 words nearer graduation. These figures thus emphasise that Saudi university learners’ level is, on average, some way short of the kind of level associated with complete fluency in EFL. Thus, the study suggests further English language support for the graduated students.

Introduction Researchers, teachers, students and materials writers can all agree that mastering the vocabulary of a foreign language is essential if the second language as a whole is to be mastered. However, as Schmitt (2008) points out, the ideal approach for learning vocabulary is yet to be found. He attributes this to several factors, but particularly to the lack of clear Volume 19

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descriptions and guidelines in teaching materials. It is unclear exactly how much vocabulary should be learned, and which vocabulary should be learned at any stage of the process of learning. To discover this kind of information, it is important to have good tests of vocabulary knowledge to establish the kind of norms of progress that might inform teachers and learners alike. There is a substantial body of research in vocabulary testing, yet few studies (e.g., Milton, 2006a, 2006b) have dealt with assessing and monitoring the progress of learners’ vocabulary knowledge. However, measuring learner’s vocabulary knowledge and showing their progress should prove very useful. Therefore, this paper seeks to establish the norms of vocabulary knowledge and progress among EFL learners at a Saudi Arabian university, and to compare these figures with learners elsewhere. This information should better inform the process of learning and teaching EFL in Saudi Arabia.

Background The importance of vocabulary knowledge Over the past two decades or so, research in vocabulary testing, teaching and learning has increased in volume. This research shows that vocabulary is considered an essential part almost in every aspect of language knowledge (Daller, TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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Milton & Treffers-Daller, 2007). The literature reveals a strong relationship between EFL learners’ vocabulary knowledge and language skills in general and reading comprehension in particular. EFL/ESL language abilities are heavily dependent on learners’ vocabulary knowledge (Shen, 2008). Nation (1990) notes in particular the importance of vocabulary size as an overall predictor of reading performance. Since vocabulary knowledge is at the heart of foreign language ability and development, then assessing its level and progress is believed to be very useful. Once a teacher knows the size and type of vocabulary learners know, s/he can try to implement certain methods to improve their vocabulary level. If learners’ vocabulary knowledge appears low then steps can be taken to increase it, which should have a beneficial effect on overall language performance. Or, if a teacher knows after testing her/his learners’ vocabulary knowledge that they have problems with knowing most of the high frequency words, then s/ he can give priority to teaching these words. Testing vocabulary knowledge The importance of testing vocabulary knowledge goes in line with the importance of vocabulary knowledge itself. According to Pearson, Hiebert and Kamil, (2007, p. 282), “in order to teach vocabulary more effectively and better understand its relation to comprehension, we need first to address how vocabulary knowledge and growth are assessed.” The significance of tests of this kind is that, provided they are well-constructed and give reliable and, most important of all, trustworthy estimates of EFL learners’ vocabulary knowledge, it becomes possible to monitor the vocabulary knowledge and progress of learners (Milton & Hopkins, 2006). Without this information neither teachers nor learners can be aware of whether they have appropriate vocabulary, and sufficient volumes of vocabulary, for the tasks or the exams being undertaken. There are a few tests that, it can be argued, are reliable and valid in the area of vocabulary and these are based on the most frequent words in English. For example, the X_Lex test can provide what are argued to be good estimates of knowledge of the 5000 most frequent words and can give accurate indications of comparative levels of knowledge (Milton, 2009). Results from these tests compare well with estimates of the vocabulary knowledge needed for comprehension derived from coverage estimates (e.g., Nation 2006). These methods recognise that Volume 19

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learners tend to learn vocabulary fairly predictably and that vocabulary uptake is likely to be strongly influenced by word frequency. Figure 1 demonstrates clearly how the X_Lex test functions to give normative figures for test takers and shows the scale of knowledge in each of the first five 1000 word frequency bands in English.

1: Frequency profile Greek Fi Figure 1 F p fil for f G k llearners off EFL (cited from Milton, 2006a, p. 32) It can be seen from Figure 1 that learners tend to know more vocabulary in the first 1000 words level, less in the second thousand, and so on. Statistical analysis in Milton’s study confirms the relationship between the frequency bands and the vocabulary size. This evidence supports the claim that the higher the frequency of a word the better the chance of its learnability, as a rule of thumb. The implication of this is that a test based on the most frequent words of English is likely to give a good overall estimate of a learner’s vocabulary size, since knowledge outside these most frequent bands appears to be small.

Normative figures for vocabulary knowledge Research has shown how much vocabulary knowledge is needed to use a foreign language efficiently. In this section, we will shed some light on some figures reported in the literature as a threshold to perform well in a foreign language. However, most of the research concerning the relationship between vocabulary size and language proficiency has been carried out within the realm of reading (Staehr, 2008). A study by Laufer (1989) concluded that knowledge of at least 95% of the vocabulary of a text is required for comprehension. Further, Hu and Nation (2000) and Nation (2006) suggest that coverage of 98-99% of a text is necessary for reading TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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for pleasure. On the basis of coverage figures of this kind the literature suggests that learners might need to know around 8000-9000 word families in order to read authentic texts.Technical and academic texts might require a higher vocabulary and in a recent study, Nation and Webb (2011) claim that a learner would need a vocabulary size of around 20,000 words in order to read an academic text comfortably.The literature which indicates the volume of vocabulary needed for mastery in the other skill areas is less extensive but Nation (2006) suggests that a vocabulary size of 6000-7000 word families is needed to comprehend spoken discourse.This finding probably fits well with Milton (2009), which states that EFL learners need vocabulary knowledge of around 3000 words or more for basic communication, out of the most frequent 5000 words in English, besides the most predictable and formulaic exchanges in speech and listening. Regardless of the skill, however, it is generally assumed that the more words learners know, the better the chance they have of understanding while reading or listening in the foreign language.

Normative figures for vocabulary knowledge: Saudi students Since it was introduced in 1927 (Assah, 1969, cited in Al-Hazemi, 1993), EFL has become an established part of the Saudi curriculum. In the Ahmed Al-Masrai is a lecturer in English language at King Abdulaziz Military Academy in Riyadh and is currently enrolled in a full-time PhD program at Swansea University, UK, researching the effects of L1 Arabic lexical organization on L2 English lexical learning.

matter of vocabulary teaching, the Saudi Ministry of Education (MOE) documented that students are expected to leave high school with a vocabulary size of around 3000 words. However, research has questioned whether the majority of the students reach this vocabulary size. Two particular studies have investigated Saudi learners’ vocabulary knowledge: Al-Hazemi (1993) and Al-Bogami (1995). These two studies suggested that Saudi students leave high school with disappointingly low vocabulary knowledge. According to Al-Hazemi (1993), learners in his study scored between 800 and 2000 words with a mean score of around 1000 words. AlBogami’s (1995) findings conform to Al-Hazemi’s and suggest that Saudi students score very poorly in vocabulary size tests. It appears most learners leave Volume 19

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high school with vocabulary knowledge below the threshold for anything but the most limited communication (Nation, 2001). If learning in schools is poor, then this should have consequences for the study of English at a university. It should not be surprising to find low vocabulary size among learners at a university level, although it might be expected that university students would be a subgroup of the most able school learners. Limited knowledge would inevitably hinder learners’ progress in their higher educational study and place a high learning burden on the students to gain the levels of knowledge expected of university graduates. We have some evidence of this since it appears that lexical deficiency hinders the reading and comprehending of the texts used at university (e.g., Al-Homoud & Schmitt, 2009). However, we lack direct evidence of the vocabulary knowledge among university learners and the scale of this deficiency if, indeed, it does exist.

Aims and objectives Based on the normative figures of vocabulary knowledge reported in the literature review section, this study will investigate the EFL vocabulary size of Saudi students majoring in English language at the university level. The main research questions addressed in this study are: (a) what is Saudi university students’ EFL vocabulary size and (b) what implications does this have?

Methodology Participants This study involved 92 male Saudi learners of English from two different university levels. The first group comprised 55 participants from level 2 who had received 935 hours of English language teaching. The other group comprised 37 subjects from the final year (level 10) who had received around 2177 classroom hours of instruction. The participants selected for this study were majoring in English language and will become English language teachers after they have graduated. Level 2 participants were at the end of the second semester of their first year at the university when tested. The participants in the other group (Level 10) were also at the end of the second semester of their final year at the university, year five. The two measurements used in this study, which will be described in the following section, are expected to provide some indications of learners’ vocabulary knowledge near their time of entry to the university and near their graduation. TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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Instruments Two types of vocabulary size tests were used to collect data for this study: ◆ XK_Lex (Al-Masrai, 2009): a test designed for this study and intended to make more accurate estimates of learners’ vocabulary ◆ The computerised EVST test (Meara & Jones, 1990) Both measures are Yes/No tests and constructed to measure learners’ breadth of vocabulary knowledge of the most 10,000 frequent words of English. XK_Lex differs from the EVST in the respect that the XK_Lex is designed to monitor learners’ vocabulary knowledge profile in the first ten 1000 word frequency bands and makes an overall estimate from sub-estimates at each of the ten bands. EVST is well documented in the literature but, crucially from the point of view of making accurate overall calculations, discounts from its estimate knowledge of vocabulary in the less frequent bands. If a learner scores low in any of the first frequent levels the test, systematically, stops testing the next vocabulary levels and assumes no knowledge in these infrequent bands. For this particular shortcoming the XK_Lex is designed to fill this gap and to test whether there are significant volumes of vocabulary omitted from the EVST estimate. XK_Lex is constructed to test knowledge of the most frequently occurring 10,000 words in English and presents an estimate of the overall breadth knowledge of this vocabulary. The lexical items on which the test is based are drawn from Nation (1984) and Kilgarriff (2006) and are lemmatised. It is a paper-and-pencil Yes/No test that presents learners with 100 words listed in ten columns, ten words in each. Learners should choose each word they know. There are also 20 “pseudo” words that are designed to look and sound like real English words. Two of these 20 words are set in each of the ten frequency bands. As suggested by Anderson and Freebody (1983), pseudo words can reduce the chance that learners will overestimate their vocabulary knowledge. Claiming knowledge of nonwords can lead to adjusting learners’ final scores after deducting the marks of the non-words from the real English words to give a reasonable estimate of learners’ vocabulary knowledge. The time needed to run one form of the test generally takes five to ten Volume 19

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minutes. In order to calculate learners’ vocabulary knowledge to get a raw score of 10,000, the number of Yes responses to real words is added together and multiplied by 100. The number of Yes responses to pseudo words is then calculated and multiplied by 500. This number is deducted from the raw score to provide an adjusted final score. The participants were given two paper and pencil forms (A and B) of the XK_Lex, using different words and pseudo words, and also sat the computerized EVST test after they had completed the XK_Lex test.

Results Saudi University Students’ vocabulary size Tables 1 and 2 summarize the vocabulary knowledge of two levels of university learners. Table 1 Summary of the high level learners’ scores Test format N Minimum Maximum EVST

Mean

Std. Deviation

37

2400

7450

4198.65 1201.532

XK-Lex A 37

2400

7800

5262.16 1265.647

XK-Lex B 37

2400

7600

5186.49 1188.407

Table 1 summarizes the means, the minimum, the maximum scores, and the standard deviation of the vocabulary level of the learners in the final year at the English language department in KSU. The results highlighted in this table show that the mean score of vocabulary size of the Level 10 students, in both forms of the XK_Lex, are almost the same. The estimate made by EVST is lower. Table 2 Summary of the low level learners’ scores Test format N Minimum Maximum EVST

Mean

Std. Deviation

55

550

2450

1680.91

520.549

XK-Lex A 55

1200

5400

3025.45

895.714

XK-Lex B 55

1300

4300

2907.27

759.106

Figures in Table 2 summarize the level of the second year students in KSU. These scores are, as might be expected, lower than the Level 10 students’ scores. The difference between the scores on each test is statistically significant: EVST t (90) = 13.765 sig < TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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.001; XK_LexA t (90) = 9.768, sig, .001; XK_LexB t (90) = 11.233, sig < .001. The scores produced by the two forms of the XK_Lex tests are again very similar while the EVST test produces a noticeably lower estimate of vocabulary size. Parallel forms and split half analysis, together with the frequency profile these results demonstrate, suggest that the tests are valid and are performing reliably (Al-Masrai, 2009).

Discussion We began this paper by pointing out that vocabulary is an essential area of knowledge for successful foreign language acquisition, and it is vocabulary size in particular that appears to impact a learner’s language skills. Therefore, the major aim of this study was to investigate Saudi university students’ vocabulary knowledge in order to establish their levels of vocabulary knowledge and to make judgements as to whether their knowledge is at a level suitable for university study through the medium of English. Two tests were used to test learners’ vocabulary size-- the well-established EVST and the newly created XK_Lex tests. Results from this study reveal that Saudi university learners know, on average, between 1650 and 3000 words in English around the time of entry to university. By the time they graduate, their knowledge has increased and the results suggest they know, on average, between about 3000 and 5000 words in English. This range of scores is produced by differences between the EVST scores which are usually lower and the XK_Lex scores, which usually provide higher estimates. It was mentioned earlier that EVST assumes vocabulary is learned in strict frequency order and therefore discounts knowledge of much infrequent vocabulary. It assumes no knowledge at all in these areas, once vocabulary scores in a frequency band drop below the highest of levels. However, it appears that learners know considerable infrequent vocabulary which EVST does not include in its estimate. It is assumed, therefore, that EVST will underestimate learners’ vocabulary knowledge and the XK_Lex will provide a better calculation of overall vocabulary size since it includes estimates in these levels. It can be assumed, therefore, that learners probably know approximately 2000 to 3000 of the most frequent 10,000 words of English when they enter university and something Volume 19

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over half of this range of words, about 5000 words, when they leave. These estimates probably fit well with estimates of the scale of vocabulary knowledge of learners in Saudi schools. It is suggested (e.g., Al-Hazemi, 1993) that Saudi learners probably finish school with, on average, about 1000 words in English. If it is assumed that only the most able of these learners progress to study English at university, then an estimate of about 2000 or 3000 words around the time of entry is believable. This figure suggests that university learners, while progressing through school, make the kind of progress that learners of EFL in other environments make, and acquire some 3 to 4 words per contact hour. Table 3 makes estimates of the approximate rate of lexical uptake per contact hour that learners in this study make before and during their university courses. Milton and Meara (1998) suggest that this rate of vocabulary uptake is typical of learners in Europe and the Far East. Laufer (2010) produces a slightly lower estimate of 2 to 3 words per contact hour, but worked with learners more predominantly in the Middle East and this may be because such learners have comparatively little exposure to the language outside the classroom. It appears that learners in this study acquire vocabulary at a slightly slower rate, about two and half words per contact hour, during their study at university and while this rate still falls within the norms described above, it is not immediately obvious why progress should be slow. Table 3 The mean scores, classroom hours and vocabulary uptake rate per contact hour

Test

XK_Lex

Vocabulary Classroom Uptake Level N Mean Hours Average per hour 2

55 3025.45

935

3.24

10

37 5262.16

2177

2.42

These figures also suggest that students of English at university are some ways away from the levels of knowledge which suggest they can study authentic texts independently, or have reached the levels of fluency associated with, say, CEFR levels C1 and C2 which might require scores approaching 9000. The average score of approximately 5000 words, obtained by learners in this study, probably indicate a CEFR level of about B2 (Milton & Alexiou, 2009). It will TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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be recalled that Laufer’s (1989) estimate that about 5000 words provides 95% coverage of normal texts sufficient, if only just, for comprehension, was made with learners at this B2 level. Participants in this study were selected from students at university level, majoring in English. Those learners are assumed to be qualified to teach English to learners in Saudi public schools at various levels.

teaching practices if the learners’ time at university is to be optimised. A vocabulary size score of around 5000 words at about the time of graduation suggests learners will be competent rather than fluent users of English and if these learners are to become successful teachers of English as a foreign language, they will need language support and in-service training during their professional careers.

References James Milton is Professor of Applied Linguistics at Swansea University, UK. A long-term interest in measuring lexical breadth and establishing normative data for learning and progress has led to extensive publications including Modelling and Assessing Vocabulary Knowledge (CUP, 2007 with Michael Daller and Jeanine Treffers-Daller) and Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition (Multilingual Matters, 2009).

It may be the case that students with this level of English knowledge will become successful teachers of English particularly at the lower levels of the EFL curriculum. However, it must be borne in mind that such learners are not fluent and will require, if they are to become and to stay fully professional teachers in this area, considerable support and continued language enhancement. It suggests that continued and in-service training would be a real asset to such teachers and would help raise the levels of English in the school sector.

Conclusion The results of this study suggest that it is possible to make good estimates of the levels of vocabulary knowledge among learners in Saudi universities. The scores the learners obtain on these tests suggest that while English major students at Saudi universities make relatively good progress in acquiring English vocabulary at school and university, they nonetheless appear to fall short of the kind of standards of knowledge expected by the Saudi curriculum authorities. If these learners have smaller vocabularies in English than are expected, they will probably be less able overall in English than might be expected or desired. Knowledge of 3000 words or so on entry to university suggests that these learners will be far from fluent and will struggle to understand authentic texts without considerable support. The teachers of English in Saudi universities will need to reflect and respect this level of knowledge in their

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Al-Bogami, A. (1995). Teaching English vocabualry to EFL male students at intermediate and secondary public schools in Riyadh. (Unpublished master’s thesis). King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Al-Hazemi, H. (1993). Low level EFL vocabualry tests for Arabic speakers. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation.) University of Wales, Swansea, UK. Al-Homoud, F. & Schmitt, N. (2009). Extensive reading in a challenging environment: A comparison of extensive and intensive reading approaches in Saudi Arabia. Language Teaching Research, 13, 383-401. Al-Masrai, A. (2009). Measuring the English vocabulary size of Saudi university students:Validating a new 10,000 word vocabulary size test. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Swansea University, Swansea, UK. Anderson, A. & Freebody, P. (1983). Reading comprehension and the assessment and acquisition of word knowledge. Advances in Reading/Language Research, 2, 231-256. Assah, A. (1969). Miracle of the desert kingdom, Dublin: Cahill & Co., Ltd. Daller, H., Milton, J. & Treffers-Daller, J. (Eds.). (2007). Modelling and assessing vocabulary knowledge, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Hu, M. & Nation, P. (2000).Vocabulary density and reading comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, 23, 403-430. Kilgarriff, A. (2006). BNC database and word frequency lists. Retrieved from http://www. kilgarriff.co.uk/bnc-readme.html#lemmatised Laufer, B. (1989). What percentage of text is essential for comprehension? In C. Lauren & M. Nordman (Eds.) Special language:From humans thinking to thinking machines (pp. 316-323). Cleveden, UK: Multilingual Matters. Laufer, B. (2010). Form-focussed instruction in

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second language vocabulary learning. In R. Chacón-Beltrán, C. Abello-Contesse, M. Torreblanca-López & M. López-Jiménez (Eds.) Further insights into non-native vocabulary teaching and learning (pp.15-27). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Meara, P. & Jones, G. (1990). Eurocentre’s Vocabulary Size Test. User’s Guide. Zurich, Eurocentres. Milton, J. (2006a). Language lite? Learning French vocabulary in school. Journal of French Language Studies, 16, 187-205. Milton, J. (2006b). X-Lex: The Swansea vocabulary levels test. In C. Coombe, P. Davidson, P. & D. Lloyd, (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th and 8th current trends in English language testing (CTELT) conference. Dubai, UAE: TESOL Arabia. Milton, J. (2009). Measuring second language vocabulary acquisition. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. Milton, J., & Alexiou, T. (2009).Vocabulary size and the Common European Framework of Reference for languages. In B. Richards, M. Daller, D. Malvern, P. Meara, J. Milton, & J. Treffers-Daller (Eds.), Vocabulary studies in first and second language acquisition (pp. 194-221). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave. Milton, J. & Hopkins, N. (2006) Comparing phonological and orthographic vocabulary size: Do vocabulary tests underestimate the knowledge of some learners. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 63, 127-147. Milton, J., & Meara, P. (1998). Are the British really bad at learning foreign languages? Language Learning Journal, 18, 68-76. Nation, P. (1984). Vocabulary lists:Words, affixes and stems. English University of Wellington, New Zealand: English Language Institute. Nation, P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. New York: Heinle & Heinle. Nation, I. S. P., (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Nation, P. (2006). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? The Canadian Modern Language Review, 63, 59-82. Nation, I. S. P., & Webb, S. (2011). Researching and analyzing vocabulary. Boston, MA: Heinle.

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Pearson, P. D., Hiebert, E. H., & Kamil, M. L. (2007). Vocabulary assessment: What we know and what we need to learn. Reading Research Quarterly, 42, 282-296. Schmitt, N. (2008). Review article: Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12, 329-363. Shen, Z. (2008). The roles of depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge in EFL reading performance. Asian Social Science, 4, 135-137. Staehr, L. (2008) Vocabulary size and the skills of listening, reading and writing. Language Learning, 36, 139-152. ❉

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Beginning a Sentence with a Coordinating Conjunction: So What’s the Problem?

Sarah Al-Shammari American University of Sharjah Sharjah, UAE

Students make it through primary and secondary school and end up in college with the firm belief that they cannot begin a sentence with a conjunction. This belief is instilled deep within them by their teachers, but where the teachers came up with the idea is a mystery. “Usually…it turns out that they cannot remember any explicit ban,” Struck (1965, p. 43) remarks. This article is an investigation into how and why people are so anti sentence-initial conjunctions, what the grammarians and writers have to say about the phenomenon, and finally whether or not usage really does have the last word. To begin in the typical way, the Paperback Oxford English Dictionary defines a conjunction as being “used to connect words or clauses of a sentence together, as in the sentence, ‘It was Monday morning and I was in bed.’” It goes on to say that “some people believe that it is wrong to start a sentence with a conjunction such as and, because, or but, but it is possible to do this as a way of creating a particular effect, for example: ‘What are the government’s chances of winning in court? And what are the consequences?’” (2001, p. 173). This edition of the dictionary prides itself on how English “is actually used today” (p. vi) and so gives pointers on acceptable grammar. Conjunctions are simple words that work hard at connecting various parts of a sentence. Schmidt (1995, pp. 358-359) divides conjunctions into three groups: Correlative conjunctions: Pairs of words like either…or, neither…nor, both…and, and not Volume 19

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only…but also are used to connect words, phrases and sometimes clauses. ◆ Coordinating conjunctions: Words like and, but, or, yet may connect two or more nouns, noun phrases, verbs, verb phrases, adjectives, adjective phrases, adverbs, prepositional phrases, infinitives, and gerunds. Coordinating conjunctions like and, but, or, yet…may connect two independent clauses to form compound sentences. ◆ Subordinating conjunctions: Words like because, when, before, after, while, if, that, whether, and who connect dependent (subordinate) clauses to independent clauses to form complex sentences. For our purposes, it does not matter how correlative conjunctions are defined, only that we distinguish them from coordinating conjunctions. Nor will we pay attention to subordinating conjunctions, since it is natural to use them at the beginning of a sentence, as in:

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Because of the late hour, they decided not to go out. After I heard about it, I could never look at her the same way. Although Emily is our second cousin, she’s closer to us than our first cousins.

This article, therefore, will be focusing narrowly on coordinating conjunctions. It is not a comprehensive study of all grammar books that mention conjunctions; however, those grammar books that have been studied do not mention any kind of ban TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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regarding sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions. Greenbaum (1991) describes the traditional use of coordinating conjunctions: A multiple sentence is a sentence that contains one or more clauses (structures that can be analyzed in terms of sentence elements such as subject). If the multiple sentence consists of two or more coordinated clauses, it is a compound sentence. The coordinated clauses are normally linked by a coordinator (or coordinating conjunction)…. Instead of linking main clauses with a coordinator, we can often juxtapose them (place them side by side), and link them with a semicolon…. If we put a full stop between them, we have two orthographic sentences. (pp. 105-106) Greenbaum does not allow for another possibility, that you can put a full stop after a main clause and begin the next main clause with a coordinating conjunction, but he does not expressly forbid it. None of the grammar books studied forbade it; in fact, the following authors argue about when and in what context sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions are used. Schmidt (1995) explains, A sentence that begins with But…doesn’t fit readily into any of the simple sentence types, and it can’t really be called a part of a compound sentence. One might classify the sentence as a simple sentence with a compound ‘flavor’ because the conjunction but relates one simple sentence to another in the same way a compound sentence relates two independent clauses. In academic prose, the coordinating conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs are often used to start sentences and are not necessarily neatly placed between independent clauses and punctuated with semicolons and commas. (pp. 360-361) According to Schmidt, we may begin a sentence with a coordinating conjunction only in academic texts. Azar (1999), however, states that “in informal writing, a conjunction sometimes begins a sentence” (p. 355). Palmer (2003) has yet another view on things: Provided one uses the practice sparingly, it is perfectly in order to begin sentences with conjunctions: for one thing, the resultant capital emphasizes the word in a way not possible in normal circumstances, and sometimes one Volume 19

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21 desires such a stress. That principle is even more important with and, which is so common a word as to be almost invisible in the normal run of things…. Used with discretion it can be a very valuable tool. (p. 5) As these examples demonstrate, there is not much agreement among grammar textbook authors about the use of sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions, but there is one point of consensus: there is nothing to stop us from using them.

According to Linguists The use of coordinating conjunctions at the beginning of sentences has largely been avoided by students. Kies (1994) says of the few cases he has come across, “The choice of a sentence-initial conjunction is interesting, given that many students have had years of proscriptive language instruction forbidding that structure.” And yet, as we have just seen from the sample of grammar books looked at, there is nothing that bans them from doing so. Struck (1965) muses, My experience suggests three causes: (1) secondary (and perhaps elementary) school students convert their teachers’ legitimate dictum against linking a string of independent clauses in a single sentence with coordinates into a dictum against beginning their sentences with them; (2) a few secondary teachers themselves actually believe that it is incorrect to open with conjunctions; and (3) some college teachers, particularly those in scientific and technical fields, help keep the myth alive because they too were once secondary school students. (p. 43) Sarah Al-Shammari is a graduate of the American University of Sharjah, with a BA in English Literature and an MA in TESOL. She’s currently teaching in the Achievement Academy at AUS. Half American and half Kuwaiti, she’s a native speaker of both English and Arabic. She recently published a paper in David Prescott’s (2011), Resolving Classroom Management and School Leadership Issues in ELT: Action Research Reports from the United Arab Emirates entitled “Getting Them to Talk: Participation in an Undergraduate Classroom.”

This is speculation, but Struck gives some interesting suggestions. He says that we should allow students to use sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions because “besides the fact that they are a distinct feature of good essayists and expositors, they give writing ease and naturalness because they are much closer to speech practices than their normal alternatives” (pp. 43-44). By this he means the TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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difference between starting a sentence with and or starting it with moreover or furthermore. In casual conversation, we hardly ever begin with moreover – it sounds awkward and perhaps pretentious. Long (1967) gives a great example in the two sentences: ◆

Heaven and hell are one place. And we all go there. Heaven and hell are one place. Furthermore we all go there.

Struck (1965) reinforces his point by stating that “There would, for example, have been a notable difference in a famous passage from John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address if he had begun the second sentence with however: ‘Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate’…. And as [this] passage and others show, the naturalness achieved with conjunctions is clearly not bought at the expense of dignity” (pp. 43-44). Writers of linguistic articles seem to have given a lot more thought to this issue, generating more literature than the grammarians. Struck offers an analysis of the use of sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions: “As a group, respected expository writers in the United States open about one sentence in ten with a coordinating conjunction, and British writers probably open considerably more; but is the most frequent, followed by and and yet; the rest – chiefly for, nor, or, so – also appear, though less frequently” (p. 43). The word but is given emphasis here, but as both Struck and Kies have pointed out, but is used more often than other coordinating conjunctions to start a sentence. Struck explains, Coherence calls frequently for a contrast signal, and partly because but is one of the briefest available, it is hardly surprising that experts open an amazing number of paragraphs with it… It alerts a reader for a fresh tack or an opposing viewpoint, and it alerts him with maximum speed (p. 44). We now plunge into our own investigation on the use of but and other common coordinating conjunctions at the beginning of sentences. We will be examining three oral texts–the inauguration addresses of Barack Obama and John F. Kennedy, and an interview with Bill Clinton–and two written Volume 19

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texts. One of them is the short story “A Rose for Emily,” by William Faulkner and the other is a personal essay by Zora Neale Hurston, “How It Feels to Be Colored Me.”

A Quantitative Investigation The most common sentence-initial coordinators are but, and, yet, nor, for, or, and so. We also marked correlative conjunctions to avoid confusion, since they consist of a coordinating conjunction correlated with another word: either…or, neither…nor, both… and, and not (only)…but (also), for instance. The coordinating conjunctions in these pairs, however, were not included in our analysis of sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions, since it is acceptable to start a sentence with one half of a correlative conjunction. It was also imperative not to confuse the conjunctions so, for, and yet for their non-conjunctive counterparts. Yet can function as an adverb, for can function as a preposition, and so can also take the meaning of as. Notice the following sentences: ◆ ◆ ◆

It is not so pretty as the other dress. We had to wait for her to finish. The doctor hasn’t come yet.

Once these contentions were removed, we tracked the actual usage of sentence-initial coordinators, first in the oral texts. Table 1 shows their frequency in President Barack Obama’s Inauguration Speech on January 20, 2009. Table 1 Frequency of Sentences with a Coordinating Conjunction in Obama’s Inaugural Address Type of sentences

Number

Percentage

Sentences not starting with

88

82% of all sentences

Sentences starting with

19

18% of all sentences

Total sentences in corpus: 107 Table 1 compares the sentences that start with a coordinating conjunction to the sentences that do not. Table 2 compares the sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions in the same speech to the sentence-medial ones. TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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Table 2 Frequency of Sentence-Initial Coordinating Conjunctions in Obama’s Inaugural Address Type of conjunctions

Number

Percentage

Sentence-initial

19

12% of all coordinating conjunctions

133

88% of all coordinating conjunctions

Sentence-medial

Total coordinating conjunctions in corpus: 152 As we can see from Table 1, the majority of the sentences do not start with a coordinating conjunction, and Table 2 shows that most coordinators are not sentence-initial, but both of these conclusions are to be expected. What is relevant is that this is an analysis of the current U.S. President’s speech. If he–or, really, his speechwriter–is using coordinating conjunctions to begin sentences, surely it must mean there is nothing prohibiting the action today. Let us now look at the speech of a previous president of the United States, John F. Kennedy. Tables 3 and 4 are from an analysis of his inaugural address from January 20, 1961, more than forty-eight years ago. Table 3 Frequency of Sentences Starting with a Coordinating Conjunction in JFK’s Inaugural Address Type of sentences

Number

Percentage

Sentence not starting with

35

71% of all sentences

Sentence starting with

14

28% of all sentences

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Astonishingly, though Kennedy’s speech has less than half the number of sentences in Obama’s speech, 29 per cent of them start with a coordinating conjunction, as opposed to Obama’s 18 per cent. And though Kennedy’s speech has a third of Obama’s coordinating conjunctions, 24 per cent of them start sentences. In Obama’s speech, only 12 per cent of them do. Tables 5 and 6 depict the analysis of Clinton’s interview with Al Hunt on September 28, 2007. When looking at these figures, we should keep in mind that this was unrehearsed, spontaneous speech. Table 5 Frequency of Sentences Starting with a Coordinating Conjunction in Clinton’s Interview Type of sentences

Number

Percentage

Sentences not starting with

46

70% of all sentences

Sentences starting with

20

30% of all sentences

Total sentences in corpus: 66 Table 6 Frequency of Sentence-Initial Coordinating Conjunctions in Clinton’s Interview Type of conjunctions

Number

Percentage

Sentence-initial

20

29% of all coordinating conjunctions

Sentence-medial

49

71% of all coordinating conjunctions

Total sentences in corpus: 49

Total coordinating conjunctions in corpus: 69 Table 4 Frequency of Sentence-Initial Coordinating Conjunctions in JFK’s Inaugural Address Type of conjunctions

Number

Percentage

Sentence-initial

14

24% of all coordinating conjunctions

Sentence-medial

45

76% of all coordinating conjunctions

Total coordinating conjunctions in corpus: 59 Volume 19

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This is the shortest text, and yet it has by far the highest number of sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions compared to the total number of coordinating conjunctions, 29 per cent. It also has proportionally the most sentences starting with a coordinating conjunction, 30 per cent.This is most likely due to the nature of the interview, in which President Clinton and his interviewer are speaking naturally. Now, to the written texts. Below, in Tables 7 and 8, we examine the short story “A Rose for Emily,” by William Faulkner. Written in 1931, it has been TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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used in countless college textbooks as a literary and grammatical example. Table 7 Frequency of Sentences Starting with a Coordinating Conjunction in “A Rose for Emily” Type of sentences

Number

Percentage

Sentences not starting with

191

90% of all sentences

Sentence starting with

21

10% of all sentences

Table 8 Frequency of Sentence-Initial Coordinating Conjunctions in “A Rose for Emily” Number

Percentage

Sentence-initial

21

12% of all coordinating conjunctions

Sentence-medial

148

88% of all coordinating conjunctions

Total coordinating conjunctions in corpus: 169 Faulkner is one of the most famous and respected authors in American history, and he also uses sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions, despite the unwritten rule banning their use. Another esteemed writer is Zora Neale Hurston, who wrote “How It Feels to Be Colored Me,” a biographical essay, in 1928. Tables 7 and 8 illustrate the data gathered from this essay. Table 9 Frequency of Sentences Starting with a Coordinating Conjunction in “How It Feels to Be Colored Me” Type of sentences Sentences not starting with Sentence starting with

Number 99 6

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Number

Percentage

Sentence-initial

6

9% of all coordinating conjunctions

Sentence-medial

58

91% of all coordinating conjunctions

This text is shorter than the Faulkner’s short story, but the percentages of sentence-initial coordinators occurring are also smaller. This, then, is the opposite of the case with the oral texts, where the shorter speech saw a higher frequency. We will make our tentative conclusions later, based on this sample. For now, though, we will examine the other claim made by linguistic experts: that some coordinators appear more frequently than others in the sentence-initial position. Struck (1965, p. 43) was mentioned earlier as saying, “but is the most frequent, followed by and and yet; the rest–chiefly for, nor, or, so–also appear, though less frequently.” Tables 11-15 list the occurrence of every coordinating conjunction at the beginning of a sentence. Table 11 Frequency of Different Sentence-Initial Coordinating Conjunctions in Obama’s Inaugural Address Conjunctions

Number

Percentage

But

3

16% of all sentence-initial coordinators

And

7

37% of all sentence-initial coordinators

So

3

16% of all sentence-initial coordinators

Nor

1

5% of all sentence-initial coordinators

For

5

26% of all sentence-initial coordinators

Percentage 94% of all sentences 6% of all sentences

Total sentences in corpus: 105 Volume 19

Type of conjunctions

Total coordinating conjunctions in corpus: 64

Total sentences in corpus: 212

Type of conjunctions

Table 10 Frequency of Sentence-Initial Coordinating Conjunctions in “How It Feels to Be Colored Me”

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Total sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions in corpus: 19 TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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Table 11 is an analysis of President Obama’s inauguration speech. The clear winner here is and, with 37 per cent of the total. But comes in at third place, tying with so. Table 12 Frequency of Different Sentence-Initial Coordinating Conjunctions in JFK’s Inaugural Address

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Table 14 Frequency of Different Sentence-Initial Coordinating Conjunctions in “A Rose for Emily” Conjunctions

Number

Percentage

But

9

43% of all sentenceinitial coordinators

Conjunctions

Number

Percentage

And

6

28.5% of all sentenceinitial coordinators

But

5

36% of all sentenceinitial coordinators

So

6

28.5% of all sentenceinitial coordinators

And

4

29% of all sentenceinitial coordinators

Total sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions in corpus: 21

So

1

7% of all sentence-initial coordinators

Nor

1

7% of all sentence-initial coordinators

For

3

21% of all sentenceinitial coordinators

Total sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions in corpus: 14 In President Kennedy’s inauguration speech, analyzed in Table 12 above, but is the most frequent, with and at a close second place. Table 13 Frequency of Different Sentence-Initial Coordinating Conjunctions in Clinton’s interview Conjunctions

Number

Percentage

But

7

35% of all sentenceinitial coordinators

And

9

45% of all sentenceinitial coordinators

So

4

20% of all sentenceinitial coordinators

Total sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions in corpus: 20 In Table 13, which depicts President Clinton’s interview, we see again that and is the most frequent sentence-initial coordinating conjunction.

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Table 15 Frequency of Different Sentence-Initial Coordinating Conjunctions in “How It Feels to Be Colored Me” Conjunctions

Number

Percentage

But

6

100% of all sentenceinitial coordinators

Total sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions in corpus: 6 Tables 14 and 15 illustrate the sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions in the written texts we have been examining, “A Rose for Emily” by Faulkner and “How It Feels to Be Colored Me” by Hurston. Here, too, but occurs most often. Table 15, “How It Feels to Be Colored Me,” by Hurston, reveals at just a glance that but is the only conjunction to appear at the beginning of a sentence.

And the Conclusion Is… The very fact of these tables’ existence proves that there must be nothing wrong with using coordinating conjunctions at the beginning of sentences, despite the internalized ban forbidding students from using them. If Presidents Obama, Clinton and Kennedy and authors Faulkner and Hurston have all used them, it must mean the rest of us can, doesn’t it? Much earlier in this paper, we examined Schmidt’s (1995) assertion that we may use sentence-initial coordinating conjunctions in academic texts, and TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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Feature Article 26 Azar’s (1999) that we can only use them in informal writing. And yet we have just seen them used in presidential speeches to an entire nation, in an unrehearsed political interview, in a short story, and in an essay–different genres from different eras and with different subject matters and audiences. As for the popularity of one specific coordinator, in three out of the five texts, but is the most common sentence-initial coordinating conjunction. Does this mean Struck (1965) and Kies (1994) were right? Were Obama’s speech and Clinton’s interview just an anomaly, in that and appears far more often? We cannot say anything decisively after analyzing only five texts – a much bigger corpus is needed to decide for certain. Indeed, there is much we cannot be sure about until we examine more documents. For instance, Obama’s speech is longer than Kennedy’s, but a smaller percentage of its sentences begin with coordinators, 18 per cent to Kennedy’s 24 per cent. Does this mean we are starting sentences with coordinating conjunctions less now than we used to? We would need a corpus with a wider range of texts from different eras. But in the meantime, we can take a look at how but and the other coordinators act in the sentenceinitial position. Kies declared that “the hallmark of the adverbial but is its implied concession” and Struck suggested, “Coherence calls frequently for a contrast signal…it alerts a reader for a fresh tack or an opposing viewpoint.” Let us examine this passage from Hurston’s “How It Feels to Be Colored Me”: I was not Zora of Orange County any more, I was now a little colored girl…. In my heart as well as in the mirror, I became a fast brown– warranted not to rub nor run. But I am not tragically colored. There is not great sorrow dammed up in my soul, not lurking behind my eyes. (2003, p. 2098) Here, the but certainly does alert us quite quickly that Hurston is about to change her viewpoint, and it is a concession in the sense that it offers a fast qualification, a compromise. Struck and Kies only spoke in detail about the coordinator but. Struck also mentioned a line from Kennedy’s speech as evidence of his point when he said, “There would, for example, have been a

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notable difference in a famous passage from John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address if he had begun the second sentence with however: ‘Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate’” (pp. 43-44). And though he did not bring up and in the same context, I think the same needs to be said about this line from President Obama’s address: “Thank you. God bless you. And God bless the United States of America” (CNN, 2009). The effect would have been completely different if he had said, “God bless you. Also, God bless the United States of America.” And tends to be the second most common sentenceinitial coordinating conjunction (except in Obama’s and Clinton’s texts, where it was the first most common). It has just as much force and cohesive power as but does, though none of its negativity and concession. Instead, it can be used to add information, sometimes quite dramatically, like in the following paragraph from Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily”: Sure enough, after another week they departed. And, as we had expected all along, within three days Homer Barron was back in town. A neighbor saw the Negro man admit him at the kitchen door at dusk one evening. And that was the last we saw of Homer Barron. And of Miss Emily for some time. (2003, p. 2164) We must remove this unwritten ban on using coordinating conjunctions to begin sentences. Used properly, they can enrich a text and add versatility to a writer’s style. Both politicians and authors use them with grace and panache. Struck (1965) summarizes this neatly, “Almost all inexpert writers…are convinced that it is stylistically immoral to open a sentence with a coordinate conjunction. And since the myth seriously reduces a writer’s naturalness, force, and coherence, its demise would be highly beneficial” (p. 42).

References Azar, B. S. (1999). Understanding and using English grammar. New York, USA: Pearson Education. CNN. (2009). Obama’s inaugural speech. Retrieved March 15, 2009, from http://edition.cnn. com/2009/ POLITICS/ 01/20/obama.politics/ index.html

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Faulkner, W. (2003). A rose for Emily. In N. Baym (Ed.), The Norton anthology of American literature (6th ed., pp. 2160-2166). USA: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Greenbaum, S. (1991). An introduction to English grammar. England: AddisonWesley Longman Limited. Hurston, Z. N. (2003). How it feels to be colored me. In N. Baym (Ed.), The Norton anthology of American literature (6th ed., pp. 2097-2100). USA: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. (n.d.). Speeches of John F. Kennedy. Retrieved from http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/ Archives/ Reference+Desk/Speeches Kies, D. (1994). Adverbial but. The twentieth LACUS forum 1993. Retrieved March 15, 2009, from http:// papyr.com/hypertextbooks/grammar/ adverbial_but.htm

27 Long, R.B. (1967). The English “conjunctions.” American speech, 42(3), 163-177. McIntyre, J. & & Bevan, T. (2007). Interview with Bill Clinton. Retrieved from http://www. realclearpolitics.com/articles/2007/09/ interview_with_bill_ clinton.html Palmer, R. (2003). The good grammar guide. London, England: Routledge. Paperback Oxford English dictionary. (2001). New York, USA: Oxford University Press. Schmidt, H.H. (1995). Advanced English grammar. New Jersey, USA: Prentice-Hall Inc. Struck, H. R. (1965). The myth about initial conjunctions. The English journal, 54(1), 42-44.

A new, flexible way to develop your teaching career ɥƭɥɥ .(-ɥɥ/1#23(%(.42ɥ!.,,4-(38ɥ.$ɥ+-%4%#ɥ 3#!'(-%ɥ/1.$#22(.-+2ƥ ƭɥ*#ɥ'(%'Lj04+(38Ʀɥ.-+(-#ɥ/1.$#22(.-+ɥ"#5#+./,#-3ɥ!.412#2ƥ ƭɥɥ -3#1!3ɥ6(3'ɥ.3'#1ɥ3#!'#12ɥ-"ɥ+#"(-%ɥ-,#2ɥ(-ɥ-%+(2'ɥ +-%4%#ɥ3#!'(-%ɥ3'1.4%'ɥ6# (-12ɥ-"ɥ"(2!422(.-ɥ$.14,2ƥ ƭɥɥ#-#Ɗɥ3ɥ$1.,ɥɥ+( 118ɥ.$ɥ, 1("%#ɥ1#2.41!#2ƥɥ ƭɥɥɥ4(+"ɥ-ɥ.-+(-#ɥ/1.$#22(.-+ɥ"#5#+./,#-3ɥ/1.Ɗɥ+#ɥ 3'3ɥ2'.6!2#2ɥ8.41ɥ!'(#5#,#-32ƥɥ

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Feature Lesson Article Idea 28

Apps for Learning with iPads Providing Feedback, Giving Instructions and Developing Games and Quizzes

Skitch Skitch is free and can be accessed via its website or as an App. It allows users to annotate and share a new photo, one from their Camera Roll, or a web screen shot, making it a very flexible classroom tool.

Denise McQueen Ozdeniz Abu Dhabi Menâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s College the marked work is emailed to students who save it, insert it into a writing document and make the changes necessary to improve their work.

An Aid to Classroom Management Students can be photographed either individually or according to where they usually sit at the beginning of term, and their names or college identity numbers can then be written over the photo. This will help the teacher learn student names quickly or at least have a quick reference tool when in class. Students who have individual iPads can take a photo of something easily identifiable to them and use Skitch to write their name on the photo. This can be set as the Home Screen and Set Lock Screen, so that the device is easily identifiable. The blank slate function can also act as a whiteboard which teachers can use when moving amongst students. It can be used with individual Customize your screen students or with the whole with Skitch. class via the projector.

An Aid in Providing Feedback in Written Work Teachers can take a screen shot of student work, which then becomes saved in Camera Roll. After importing the photograph into Skitch, they can annotate the student authored text using a variety of colors and choose between handwriting and typing. Lexical items, sentences or areas of text can also be boxed and commented on. Now in image format, Volume 19

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Skitch can provide color-coded written feedback.

An Aid to Giving Clear Instructions Annotated images provide students with clear directions on which icons to tap, the sequence to follow, the codes to submit, and so on. Individual images can be embedded into a Keynote Presentation or a Camera Roll Slideshow, and used in whole class lockstep or at the learnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s individual pace. These instructional clips enable teachers to circulate and provide individual help. Skitch annotations can also be embedded into PDF instructional sheets.

Skitch annotations can be embedded in PDF instructional sheets. TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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Feature Idea Lesson Article

An Aid to Classroom Games The Pixel-blur function helps create information gaps which lead to genuine classroom communication. For example, target vocabulary items can be partially blurred, adding another dimension to naming lexical items. Instead of simply asking “Can you name this object in English?” the teacher challenges students to use their imagination.

29

Before being interviewed by the police, the witnesses also share their descriptions with each other.

Witness 1 describes a thief.

Ease of Use

Skitch can blur images. Denise McQueen Ozdeniz has worked with English Language students and teachers since 1985. She is interested in m-learning as a means of self-empowerment and student to student interdependency. Check out her and Sevhan’s (App review below) blog at http://www.sevhandenise.eblogs.org She works for the HCT in the UAE.

The same effect can be achieved with the crop function. Blurred images can be effectively used in tandem with the flashcard App called A+ Pro. Blurred images prompt the use of modals of possibility, as in the man up the ladder might be cleaning the windows or he may be locked out of his house.

Skitch is very easy to use and share, although there are occasional glitches such as when the delete icon keeps reappearing whilst users try to write with the pen, and sometimes marks slide down the page. One tip is to save the image to Camera Roll before writing too much. As Skitch is owned by Evernote, it also works more reliably and offers a save option if you have an Evernote account to which it is synchronized. I would certainly recommend this versatile program as a key mainstay of your teaching toolkit.

Socrative Quiz Builder

The Socrative Quiz Building program comprises two Apps: Socrative Teacher and Socrative Student. Teachers create quizzes on a laptop via m.socrative. com. On enrolling, educators are given a room number which is the passkey by which students can access their quizzes. Quizzes fall into three response categories: open ended, true/false, and multiple choice. Quizzes can be teacher paced: moving on to the next question when they teacher wishes to; or student paced: progressing at the pace of individual learners. He may be cleaning the window. In the thieves’ scenario below, one witness can describe Thief 1 to the police and, the other Thief 2.

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Real Time Feedback Systems The real value of a Socrative Quiz is that it provides detailed reports of all student answers, allowing for

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Feature Lesson Article Idea 30

targeted feedback and personalized student tracking, which are both keystones of m-learning (Couch, 2012). Reports can be live, illustrating how many students chose which answer in bar chart form, or postactivity, documenting the discrete decisions of each student. If instructors design tests so that the same item tests the same linguistic phenomenon over a series of quizzes, it will be easy to discern if a student is making progress in a certain area or not. For example, if in every grammar test item five targets third person â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;sâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and a student always gets question five incorrect, then both the student and teacher know that remedial work is necessary in this area. Even if quiz design is carried out in a laissez faire fashion, students benefit from an analysis of their results.

student to student teaching.

Space race is a fun way to promote interdependence.

Many Cooks Make Light Work Socrative Teacher is generative in that quizzes created by one teacher can also be used by others through an invited share system. Student designed quizzes can also be created on a Socrative Teacher platform, encouraging lessons from the learners. For example, groups of students can decide upon the questions that should go into a quiz and whilst classmates work on alternative tasks, group secretaries can take it in turn to enter test items. The quiz is then used with the class as a whole. Such quizzes are often deemed to test what has been taught, and students report that they learn more from reviewing the learning items covered to decide what merits entry into the evaluative task, than from taking the test itself.

A Survey and Brainstorming Tool

A screenshot of a Socrative report shows studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; responses.

An Element of Fun Puentedura, (2012) creator of the Substitution, Augmentation Modification, Redefinition (SAMR) model of change and innovative implementation, says that the gaming element of e-learning engages students and this seems to be the case in Space Race, a quiz set up that pits teams against each other in their attempt to drive their rockets the furthest, the fastest. Rocket fuel equates with getting all members of the team to answer a set of questions correctly, developing student interdependence and promoting Volume 19

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As answers are collated, the Socrative quiz is an ideal information gathering tool. For example, at the beginning of a semester students can write down important information, email addresses, learner preferences and so on, and this is all stored in one sheet in the quiz report. Teachers can elicit information on which aspects of the lesson learners find most useful or least useful using an Exit Quiz. Similarly repeated questions, to which students have to provide different answers can be a fertile brainstorming device. For instance, students may be required to voice different reasons for becoming a vegetarian or for switching to alternative energy sources. The ensuing report provides all students with a comprehensive record of all ideas put forward, ready for selection and use in a writing or speaking activity.

References Couch, J. (2012, September). The future of education. Paper presented at The First Annual Mobile Global Learning Congress, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Puentedura, R. (2012, September). Thinking about change in learning and technology. Paper presented at The First Annual Mobile Global Learning Congress, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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iFiles: Managing, Creating and Sharing files on an iPad Two of the biggest challenges teachers face in using iPads is the management of multiple accounts and sharing files with other teachers and students. These challenges stem from the fact that the iPad has no built-in file structure or file browser like a desktop computer or laptop. iFiles is an App that presents solutions to these two challenges. It is described by Apple Store as “a file manager, document viewer, text editor, voice recorder, Wi-Fi drive, and many more for iPad, iPhone and iTouch.” iFiles not only allows users to manage multiple accounts under one umbrella and browse for files that are located in different accounts, but also create content within the App on the iPad. iFiles enables teachers to: Sevhan Acar Hammudeh works as an Academic Coordinator and English Faculty at Abu Dhabi Men’s College, and acts as the Secretary and Networking Coordinator of the TESOL Arabia Research SIG. Her research interests are in the fields of Educational Management and Educational Technology. She and Denise (App review above) have a blog at http://www.sevhandenise.eblogs.org

Manage multiple accounts, including WebDav connections to college portal and shared drives, BB mobile, eBackpack, Googledocs, SugarSync and many more.

Share files with other faculty members

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Sevhan Acar Hammudeh Abu Dhabi Men’s College

and students easily through a WebDav connection, direct emailing, Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. ◆

Move a file from one account to another (e.g., from a dropbox to shared college portal) easily within the iFiles App without having to sign in and out of different accounts.

Create new voice recording, folder, text file or photo directly from within iFiles App.

Zip/unzip

Manage multiple formats (iWorks: Pages, Numbers, Keynote; MS Office: Word, Excel, Power Point, PDF, HTML; images: jpg, etc., audio and movies: MP3, M4A and many more). iWorks Apps all have the built-in function of saving directly to iFiles, without having to create WebDav connections.

Manage shared and private folders.

Set a pass code for private files and folders.

Customize folders and files by changing their icons, labels and names.

Sort files and folders by title, kind, date and size.

Air Print documents.

Open documents in other Apps with one tap.

iFiles is a paid App (15 AED), but it is one App I would recommend all teachers teaching through iPads to invest in and use in order to manage, create and share files and folders on iPads. ❉

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Feature Lesson Article Idea 32

Puppet Pals

Helene Demirci Abu Dhabi Men’s College Since the introduction of the iPad to our teaching context engaging students has become much easier thanks to Apps like Puppet Pals.This amazing App enables students of all ages to create fun animated shows and I have found it to be extremely engaging with my 18-year-old male students who are keen to organise a scenario, collaborate with others whilst preparing the show and to share the shows they create.

At the title screen, select “Press to Start” to begin. You are then taken to the characters page. Select the characters you want to use by clicking on them.

Students who are uncomfortable acting in movies or having their photographs taken for use in Keynote presentations will find Puppet Pals a relief to use because they can participate as another character and recreate themselves or connect with a character that fits their personality. In doing this they will not feel self-conscious, stressed or pressurised when participating in the animation. Puppet Pals is a wonderful replacement for Go Animate one of my favourite websites that I cannot use on the iPad.

Creating a Show The best part about this App is that it is so easy to use. About 5 minutes of playing around with it is all you will really need to be able to use it and because it is so easy to use, students won’t be afraid of it. A quick how-to screen accessible from the “i” in the top right corner on the title screen gives you the basics.

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If you decide to add a character from your camera, you will be taken to a quick editing screen. Simply draw an outline of the figure you want and it will show you the finished product. Tap accept to send it to characters.

Cut out characters from your camera roll.

Five minutes gives you the basics. Volume 19

Tap on Press to Start to go to the character page.

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After selecting your characters, you move on to choose your backdrop.You can also select your own backdrops by importing them from your photos which you can also crop like before.

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When the show is complete tap Save and type a title in the space provided.You can then access your saved shows from “Saved Shows” on the App launch page. When you tap “Saved Shows” you will be given the option to “Export” to your camera roll and from your camera roll you can share via MMS, email or You Tube.

In Action I used Puppet Pals in a prewriting activity. The aim was for students to collect information about a friend’s daily routine and to practice simple Helene Demirci is an English faculty member at Abu Dhabi Men’s College. She has taught English at Primary, Secondary and Tertiary levels over the last 18 years in England and Turkey and most recently the UAE. Her interests lie in developing interesting and innovative ways of teaching and learning with mobile technology. She holds a PGDip in Education and an MA in TEFL from the University of Reading.

Choose characters for your show. And then it is on to edit.You can resize the characters and move them around the project screen by tap, hold, move or pinching. Make sure you have your characters positioned in the correct place before you tap the red record button. Pressing the record button will record the audio, so you can narrate the action. It is a good idea to move or jiggle the characters when they are speaking. This not only makes the student feel more connected to the character and thus helps them get into the role better, but the movement focuses the audience onto who is speaking.You can change the backdrop by pulling down the ropes. Change the project screen size by sliding the arrow from left to right.

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present tense question forms. I wanted to liven up the classical question and answer “interview your partner” activity that usually results in much L1 being spoken to obtain the answers quickly. At the same time I wanted to stimulate the creative side of the students and ensure that the different learning styles of the students were being catered for. There was a 100% completion rate, with all students participating in their show in English. Students were keen to personalise the animations and quickly learned how to upload and crop their own photos. In this screenshot from the students’ animation they created a familiar desert scene where they were sat chatting about their daily routines by the fire. Maybe not very imaginative for these students as it is something they often do, but they went about it in a very creative way.

Students were keen to personalize their animations. November 2012

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All the students wanted to share their animations by email and they watched the shows from the other groups attentively with much amusement. Peer correction, listening and other activities can also be created for this part in the lesson. Students went on to vote for the best animation through a poll in Edmodo.

Further Educational Uses ◆

Retell readers by animating book chapters after reading

Create stories, past tense narratives, daily routines

Record a summary of the days learning and use it as a review the next lesson

Animate dialogues from course books

Document events and report opinions

Explain a process to teach others

You will find that students can quickly and easily prepare a show, but to enhance the learning experience teachers need to ensure that students are given clear directions about the task. This can be achieved by asking students to do the following

not allow you to add text, but that is easily remedied by asking students to create a storyboard or write the questions or dialogue in Notes, Pages, or even on paper to be read when creating the show. Puppet Pals gave me the opportunity to provide a fun, memorable learning experience for all. Given the ease of use, the versatility, the high level of student engagement and the students’ enthusiasm to complete and share tasks I thoroughly recommend the App. ❉

REGISTER ONLINE for TACON 2013 MEMBERS: Early Registration (to December 12th) AED 470.00

Plan the Storyboard: Write the scenario before recording the show.

Plan Dialogue and Stage Direction: Plan who is saying what and where the actors will be positioned.

Pre-Registration (to February 13th) AED 580.00

Assign Group Roles: Not everyone has to act in the actual show. Some may be part of the creative team and writing. Others could help with changing the backdrop and positioning the characters.

On-site Registration (CASH ONLY) AED 700.00

Rehearsal: Practice before the final recording.

Early Registration (to December 12th) AED 640.00

Drawbacks The free App includes only the basic version of one set of characters and one set of backdrops. If you want more than six characters you have to pay 12 AED for the HD Director’s Pass which includes many sets of characters and the option to include and take your own photos. Like many other occasions when you cannot send large files by email, the files would have to be uploaded to You Tube, which means you need an account and then you must make the video private if you want to restrict viewing. Sadly the App does Volume 19

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NON-MEMBERS:

Pre-Registration (to February 13th) AED 750.00 On-site Registration (CASH ONLY)AED 870.00

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Feature ReviewsArticle

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Reigniting, Retooling, Retiring in English Language Teaching Christine Coombe, Liz England, & John Schmidt (Eds.) University of Michigan Press, 2012 ISBN: 978-0-472-03386-7 201 pp. The teaching profession is certainly no stranger to criticism, stress, and demanding schedules. However, discussions of English teacher burnout are generally limited to K-12 English as a Second Language (ESL) contexts and thus ignore the diverse environments of English Language Teaching (ELT). At long last, there is a book that frankly addresses this important issue in ELT and offers concrete suggestions and resources. In Reigniting, Retooling, and Retiring in English Language Teaching, the editors and chapter authors offer English language teachers a manual to recharge their professional identities whether they are just starting out or adjusting to retirement. The book is divided into three parts based on the key themes listed in the title. Each part contains chapters that include a well-developed narrative and resources, and each chapter is supplemented with a mix of suggested discussion questions, further readings, or activities. In Part 1, “Reigniting,” topics range from avoiding burnout, developing reflective practitioner skills and leadership skills, conducting action research, creating teacher portfolios, and bringing fun back into instruction. In Part 2, “Retooling,” the book covers becoming a lifelong learner, pursing an advanced degree, moving instruction to online classrooms, publishing, consulting, transitioning from teacher to administrator, and using knowledge related to hobbies to teach English for Specific Purposes. Finally, Part 3, “Retiring,” addresses working after retirement, rethinking retirement, and developing financial freedom. As a doctoral student transitioning from a practitioner of ELT to a teacher educator and Volume 19

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researcher, I found the chapter on conducting action research, written by David Nunan, helpful in working with in-service and pre-service teachers. The chapter makes a clear case for the power that action research gives to teachers by explaining a systematic approach to resolving problems that occur in the classroom. Most importantly, it reassures practitioners that a perceived lack of time, expertise in research design, and administrative support are common fears. The realistic solutions to these TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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Feature Reviews Article 36 problems provided by the authors give the reader a sense of empowerment. Another relevant chapter is the one on becoming a leader in TESOL. The author, Neil J. Anderson, presents readers with four metaphors to show the different kinds of leadership needed in different contexts. For example, consider driving a speedboat on a lake. As the driver gets more confident, he or she might want to show off. However, this makes the other passengers nervous. Anderson’s analogy leads into an illuminating discussion of the role of ego in leadership. Overall, this chapter illustrates why it is important to be aware of the different environments in which individuals are entrusted to be a leader and modify their approach accordingly. As a whole, the book is extremely well written and engaging. However, a couple of the links to suggested resources were no longer accurate, which is understandable given the highly fluid nature of online resources. Nevertheless, I was able to locate the suggested resources with a simple Internet search or was redirected by the host website automatically. My sole criticism of the text would be related to the section on retiring. I initially picked up the book because I was thrilled to see the word “retirement” in the title and table of contents. This is an issue that I feel is often overlooked in the professional development literature and dialogues of our field. Unfortunately, this important section is by far the shortest one of the book. Ultimately, this section is only three chapters, or 24 pages long, and only ten of those discuss financial concerns directly. While the information is helpful, I was anticipating a more thorough discussion. This informative book, which encourages teachers to rediscover the joy and camaraderie of language teaching, is an ideal resource for use in a peer book club or professional development group in both ESL and EFL contexts. More specifically, I see the value of this book for teachers working in the Middle East as a springboard for professional collaboration to more thoroughly understand and address the intersections of language education and cultural values in the Middle Eastern EFL classroom. A professional learning group that brings together teachers with varying levels of experience and from both native and non-native speaking

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backgrounds is a very powerful tool to ultimately empower educators and students alike. Using the works of 27 authors, the editors have created a very accessible resource to serve as a departure point for successfully reigniting, retooling, and retiring in the field of English language teaching. In fact, I purchased several copies of this book as a gift for my MATESOL student-interns who graduated this past semester and entered the field. I think it is a valuable addition to any teacher’s professional library.

Alison M. Youngblood Doctoral Student University of Central Florida College of Education Orlando, FL

Have you been to an exciting

conference or professional development event recently? Why not write a review? Contact the editors at Pespectives@tesolarabia.org TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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Reviews Feature Article

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Black Cat Readers The Pickwick Papers Charles Dickens (Adapted by Maud Jackson), 2011 ISBN 978-88-530-1095-7 128 pp.

Moby Dick Hermann Melville (Retold by Gina B. D. Clemen), 2007 ISBN 978-88-530-0610-3 144 pp.

The Last of the Mohicans James Fennimore Cooper (Adapted by Gina B. D. Clemen), 2003 ISBN 978-88-530-0029-3 144 pp.

A Tale of Two Cities Charles Dickens (Retold by James Butler), 2007 (revised edition) ISBN 978-88-530-0805-3 159 pp. Silas Marner George Eliot (Retold by Maud Jackson), 2003 ISBN 978-88-7754-934-1 112 pp.

Firstly, pay no attention to the dates of these graded readers. They are all new to readers of TESOL Arabia Perspectives, being the latest offerings from the Black Cat Publishers’ display at TACON 2012. The second point here, of course, is that all these readers are supported by constantly updated web materials, and so when you buy the book, you not only get a CD with a full recording of the text, extra readings and training activities, you all get access to free web activities. All this is part of what Black Cat call their “expansive reading” philosophy. The books currently under review have been listed according to their CEFR rating. The Pickwick Papers comes in at B1.2, or PET level. The Last of the Mohicans and Moby Dick are at the intermediate B2.1, while A Tale of Two Cities is at B2.2, or FCE. Silas Marner comes in at the upper level of C1, or CAE. That information, however, is probably of more use to those teaching European students than it is to teachers in the Arab Gulf. For TESOL Arabia members, the main attraction of these books must be the wealth of extraneous information that accompanies the original story. All five books begin with introductory information about their authors, although there is a little more about Dickens in A Tale of Two Cities than in The Pickwick Papers. The biographical background to Volume 19

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Fennimore Cooper, moreover, is supplemented with a short chapter “Cooper and the American Frontier” (pp. 8-11) which explains the writer’s ambivalent feelings towards the western march of the USA. For the rest, The Pickwick Papers offers information on sports in 19th century England (pp. 34-35), the Fleet Prison (pp. 117-118) and a dossier on “Changes in England at the Time of The Pickwick Papers” (pp. 69-73). The Last of the Mohicans offers one excellent dossier, complete with map, on The French and Indian War (pp. 28-31) and others on The Origins of the Indian People (pp. 44-45); the Typical American Fort (pp. 56-57); the Iroquois Confederacy (pp. 84-86); the Powwow (pp. 113-115); Tales and Legends (pp. 133134) and the Indian Experience (pp. 134-137). It is no exaggeration to suggest that this book could produce enough stimulus material for at least a dozen projects. Moby Dick is equally rich. Apart from the dossier – A Short History of Whaling (pp. 86-91), it offers internet projects on Nantucket (p. 31); movie versions of Moby Dick (p. 53); the Voyage of the Odyssey (p. 62) and Whales of the Atlantic (p. 83). A Tale of Two Cities offers similar Internet projects on Dickens on Stage and Screen (p. 52); the Declaration of the Rights of Man (p. 95) and the French Revolution (p. 134) along with two dossiers: the first on the French Revolution (pp. 64-68) and the second on the French Revolution in A Tale of Two Cities (pp. 131-132). The distinction is important TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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because, as Orwell (1968, 457) points out, Dickens’ “radicalism is of the vaguest kind. He sees the evils in a system, but makes no constructive suggestions about how they might be reformed.” Ironically, it is the most linguistically demanding of the books that offers the least by way of extension. There are two dossiers, one on Evolutionary Theory (pp. 49-52) and the other on Weaving and the Industrial Revolution (pp. 102-105). These are informative, but we have come to expect more from Black Cat. So far as the “feel” of the books is concerned, much depends on the illustrations, and here again, the quality varies. Libero Gozzini’s jokey caricatures in The Pickwick Papers are unlikely to be to everyone’s taste, although they are entirely faithful to the books light-hearted tone. Alfredo Belli’s work in The Last of the Mohicans, by contrast, is a triumph. Magua oozes menace every time he appears, but he is at his most dynamic on page 71 waiting in ambush. Gianni De Conno, in Moby Dick, uses a washed-out, almost sepia-tinted style that gives the impression of fog and, again, a brooding menace. Given the theme of revenge that dominates Moby Dick, this realistic, yet heavily atmospheric approach is compelling, and in total contrast with Anna and Elena Balbusso’s treatment of A Tale of Two Cities.They favor an angular, wooden style that simply did not work for this reviewer. On pages 124-125 it is almost hard to determine which of the women is Madame Defarge, and which Miss Pross. Madame Defarge’s friend Vengeance, moreover, when knitting at the foot of the guillotine, looks very like a Jane Austen character catching up on some fancy work. It really is not good enough. Finally, Fabio Visintin’s illustrations for Silas Marner, while pleasant water colors, give the unfortunate impression that Silas is always half asleep. The exception to this is his expression at the drawing of lots on page 21, when Silas’ cultish religious group find him guilty of theft and expel him from their community. This leads to Silas’ loss of faith “because what he believed to be true – that God intervenes in Human matters – is proven false by empirical evidence” (p. 51). Under those circumstances, poor Silas has every right to look startled. In short, these books are something of a mixed bag. The Last of the Mohicans and Moby Dick could hardly be

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bettered. Silas Marner raises some important issues, which are still matters of acrimonious debate in the USA, but this version of the book does not offer the extended support that we have come to expect from Black Cat. The Pickwick Papers and A Tale of Two Cities are possibly undercut by their illustrations, and why, oh why, did James Butler cut Sydney Cartons’s “It is a far, far better thing that I do now, than I have ever done before?”

References Orwell, G. (1968). Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell,Vol. 1. London: Secker and Warburg.

Neil McBeath Sultan Qaboos University Sultanate of Oman

Book now for TACON 2013 Pre-Conference Courses: 21st Century Children: Language, Literacy, and Learning Mobile Technology for the 21st Century Classroom

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Reviews Feature Article

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Reading Explorer 5 Nancy Douglas, Helen Huntley, & Bruce Rogers Heinle Cengage ELT, 2012 ISBN: 1-111-35600-9 256 pp.

Reading Explorer 5 is part of a six-level series of reading textbooks that offers English language learners a collection of articles and exercises with a twist – all of its text, images, and videos are adapted from the archives of National Geographic. Thanks to a partnership between Heinle ELT and National Geographic, the textbook’s twelve units and supplementary CD teaches advanced beginners reading skills and academic vocabulary while exploring a wide range of popular topics, including science, history, and economics. Each unit in Reading Explorer 5 features two articles adapted from National Geographic Magazine that explore real-world issues such as “Wealth and Finance,” “Health and Genes,” and “Tradition and Change.” Students in the Arabian Gulf will also be pleasantly surprised to find an entire unit dedicated to the Islamic world. All twenty-four articles in the textbook orient students with a pre-reading section that includes vocabulary, skimming, and predicting tasks. The vocabulary exercises contain five to eight key terms from the text for students to match with their definitions or place in a sentence. For the more complex topics, background information and student-friendly charts, maps, and timelines also help familiarize students before they begin the passage. Along with vocabulary, the pre-reading section teaches Volume 19

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students to become better readers by skimming to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. The articles feature a highly readable magazine-like layout that could appear on any page of National Geographic Magazine. Large headings, highlighted vocabulary, and captioned photographs of National Geographic’s award-winning photography invite students to explore each article. Every fifth line is also numbered, and additional footnotes explain topic-specific words, phrases, and expressions. These features complement Reading Explorer’s goal of teaching essential reading skills to students. Large headings and captioned images, for example, help learners identify the main ideas of an article, while numbered lines enable students and teachers to quickly refer to specific locations. However, it was odd that the authors provided definitions for topic-specific terms and phrases in the footnotes but did not include any definitions within the text for highlighted vocabulary words. Many of these words are listed in the glossary’s “Academic Word List Index” of the most important word families students need, yet outside of a few exercises, no definitions appear for critical terms such as “valid” or “ambiguous.” The exclusion of these definitions may encourage students to use contextual clues, but weak students will find their absence frustrating. Compared to other EFL textbooks in the field, the TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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articles found in Reading Explorer 5 are longer than average, with most articles three pages in length. This length allows each article to include more in-depth analysis and greater detail than normally found in similar textbooks. The book’s longer passages and academic content also provide students with a more authentic reading experience that reinforces the skimming and predicting skills taught in the prereading exercises. These core reading strategies help students become not just better readers but better test-takers on standardized English tests. Following each passage is a series of exercises divided into “Reading Comprehension,” “Strategy Focus,” and “Vocabulary Practice.” “Reading Comprehension” contains eight multiple-choice questions that reinforce reading skills tested on the TOEFL, TOEIC, and IELTS tests. In fact, each question labels the type of skill assessed, such as “inference,” “rhetorical purpose,” “detail,” and “paraphrase,” which allows both students and teachers to quickly identify any problem areas or skills they wish to target. “Strategy Focus” expands these reading comprehension skills with clear explanations of reading and writing strategies. Each article highlights a specific strategy such as scanning for details or classifying ideas, followed by exercises, critical thinking questions, and graphic organizers. These varied tasks not only develop visual literacy, but also enhance analytical skills needed for academic study. Finally, “Vocabulary Practice” reinforces highfrequency academic words highlighted in the article. Like the exercises found in the pre-reading section, “Vocabulary Practice” features fill in the blank definitions and sentences. Although the textbook lacks an answer key, the CD contains additional self-scoring reading comprehension and vocabulary questions, along with audio recordings and subtitles for all of the articles and videos featured in the book. Both students and teachers can use these recordings for listening and pronunciation practice. As teachers, we appreciate the flexibility Reading Explorer 5 offers. Teachers and students can read the passages in any order since the book functions primarily as a collection of articles. However, we hesitate to recommend this book for students in the Arabian Gulf because several articles require background knowledge which students may Volume 19

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lack. In particular, students will likely find “The Collapse of Angkor” and “Decoding Leonardo” to be challenging because of their terminology and historical content. The length of the articles may also intimidate or demotivate some students, especially if they are not interested in the topic. Despite minor shortcomings, Reading Explorer 5’s wealth of breathtaking photography, compelling articles, and enriching multimedia provide students with a rich and fulfilling learning experience. While the textbook teaches English language learners vital reading skills and vocabulary words, Reading Explorer 5 does more than that - it teaches students to question, to wonder, and to explore our world.

Fatima Ahmed Awatif Mohammed American University of Sharjah Sharjah, United Arab Emirates ❉

Are you interested in reviewing materials for Perspectives? Contact Paul Dessoir, the Reviews Editor at pdessoir@uaeu.ac.ae TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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English Unlimited Preintermediate Coursebook (B1) Alex Tilbury, Theresa Clementson, Leslie Anne Hendra, & David Rea Cambridge, 2010 ISBN: 978-0-521-69777-4 pp. 160.

English Unlimited Pre-intermediate Coursebook (B1), a 2010 offering from Cambridge University Press, promises a robust, goals-based course for adults, focusing on global communication and the development of the learner’s intercultural competence. The Coursebook is complemented by a Pre-intermediate Teacher’s Pack and Self-study Pack; the Coursebook, with its accompanying DVDs, is the focus of this review. English Unlimited Pre-intermediate Coursebook (B1) can be seamlessly integrated with any curriculum operating under the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), with the Pre-intermediate level corresponding with CEFR’s B1 designation. The stated goals at the beginning of each unit are specifically based on CEFR’s “can-do” statements, and feature the most frequent words and authentic language forms in use among speakers of English around the world. Each of the 14 units in English Unlimited Preintermediate Coursebook (B1) is eight pages long and follows the same sequence of learning activities, so that teachers (and students) know what to expect even as the topics and tasks of the activities vary. The lessons begin with an introductory vocabulary exercise, often reinforced with a listening or reading segment. The lessons then progress through additional listening tasks, speaking practice, and Volume 19

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a grammar segment, with pronunciation features occasionally highlighted. The fifth page of each unit features a central task, called the Target Activity, which embodies the core of the unit’s content. Unit features also include expansion of key words, discussion prompts regarding the cultural setting of the current topic, independent learning ideas, and a writing assignment. The final page of each unit is a “Look Again” at the main points covered, providing a useful summary of learned material as well as a brief opportunity for self-assessment. Further opportunities for self-assessment and material enrichment can be found in the Self-study Pack, complete with DVDs that students can use to highlight individual problem areas and track their progress. All together, the material included in English Unlimited Pre-intermediate Coursebook (B1) provides 80-90 teaching hours. The additional enrichment material contained in the Teacher’s Pack, such as extra printable activities, tests, and videos on the DVD, can extend the course to as many as 120 teaching hours. The construct of English Unlimited Pre-intermediate Coursebook (B1) is clearly task-based, starting with the unit goals (talk about food and eating, make and change arrangements, etc.) stated explicitly at the top of each even-numbered page of the coursebook. These goals, and the related coursebook activities, TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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present diverse life experiences and draw on them to enrich the classroom. Overall, English Unlimited Pre-intermediate Coursebook (B1) is a good example of a communicative language text that encourages use of real-life situations and language forms to teach students how to communicate in relevant language communities. While there is explicit grammar instruction included in each unit, nuances of pragmatics and usage are also presented to provide a robust and realistic context for the students. The ideal classroom for English Unlimited Preintermediate Coursebook (B1) could be either mixedor single-language, though a mixed class might make for more engaging discussions of the course material since many of the prompts ask students to compare their answers with classmates and see how their life experiences differ. Teachers attempting to use English Unlimited Pre-intermediate Coursebook (B1) in classes made up of students who are young teenagers, however, may have trouble engaging them with the material, because it assumes a shared understanding of various careers and non-schoolbased social practices; as indicated by the authors, this is truly a course for adults. The content of English Unlimited Pre-intermediate Coursebook (B1) is sensitive to diverse belief systems and contains tasteful, conservative images, making it culturally appropriate for use in the Middle East. However, teachers should be sensitive to Middle Eastern learners who might hesitate to participate in class discussions because they do not want to be judged by their peers as having low proficiency. The layout of English Unlimited Pre-intermediate Coursebook (B1) is sleek and colorful, with the attractive presentation of the material accented by photographs, illustrations, maps, and screenshots. The pictures suggest the truly global focus of the book, with no one location or nationality receiving special attention. Also in line with the global feel of English Unlimited Pre-intermediate Coursebook (B1) is its acceptance of non-native accents of English as the norm. Rather than focusing on a specific native accent as the ideal, the listening exercises and video resources feature English speakers from all over the world, including Finland, Mauritius, Eritrea, and more, though native speakers from the UK and elsewhere also appear. Careful study of the listening exercises and video resources (the latter features

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helpful subtitles for all dialogues) will assist students in developing solid comprehension skills regardless of differences in the accents of their interlocutors. English Unlimited Pre-intermediate Coursebook (B1) is a solid addition to the coursebooks on offer; however there are areas of concern. For example, although the overall layout is attractive and colorful, the pages of the units at times appear cramped. A great deal of information is presented on each page, and the tight fit makes for a slim, light coursebook, but a sometimes overwhelming teaching/learning experience. This sense of information overload also applies to the Teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Pack. The amount of guidance presented there may be too specific for all but the most inexperienced teacher willing to plan each moment of the lesson down to every detail. However, despite the great attention to detail in the Teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Pack, the audio-only listening exercises referred to in each unit could not be located. A helpful location note (which path of clicks on the DVD) might do more to meaningfully assist experienced teachers in preparing their lessons. In addition, students who are not computer literate will need extra guidance from the teacher in order to significantly benefit from the activities provided on the DVD. For the ESL/EFL teacher with a diverse, adultage classroom, English Unlimited is an excellent communicative, task-based fit. Its inclusion of so many nationalities, accents, locations, and cultural issues in its pages make it a truly intercultural experience that will produce globally minded speakers of English.

Bridget M. W. Palmer

Shireen Taha

American University of Sharjah Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

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Calendar of Upcoming Events December 2012

6-8. (Asia and Oceania) The Fifth CLS International Conference, CLaSIC 2012, “Culture in Foreign Language Learning: Framing and Reframing the Issue,” Singapore. Website: http://www.fas.nus.edu.sg/cls/clasic2012/ 13-15. (Africa and the Middle East) TESOL Sudan, “Inside the Classroom,” Sudan International University, Khartoum, Sudan. Email: elsheikhaymen@ hotmail.com. Website: http://www.tesol-sudan.org

January 2013

25-26. (Asia and Oceania) Thailand TESOL, The 33rd Annual Thailand TESOL International Conference, “‘E’-novation and Communities in ELT,” KhonKaen, Thailand. Website: http://www.thaitesol.org/ 25-27. (Europe and Eurasia) 1st HUPE Teacher Development MiniConference, ‘‘Information Technology - With or Without You?’’ Croatia, Opatija, Grand Hotel Adriatic. Website: http://www.hupe.hr 28-29. (Africa and the Middle East) NileTESOL, “Revolutionizing TESOL: Techniques and Strategies,” American University in Cairo, New Cairo Campus, Cairo, Egypt. Email: skillsconf@aucegypt.edu. Website: http://niletesol.org/

February 2013

2-3. (Europe and Eurasia) Center of English Teaching Excellence, “Intercultural Competence Development at EFL/ESL Lessons,” Ilia State University, Tbilsi, Georgia. Email: cete08@gmail.com 16. (North America) The 10th TESOL/Applied Linguistics Graduate Students (TALGS) Conference, “Research Meets Practice. Practice Meets Research,” East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA. Email: talgs@ecu. edu. Website http://www.ecu.edu/cs-cas/engl/talgs/

March 2013

14-16. (Middle East).The 18th Annual TESOL Arabia Conference and Exhibition, “From KG to College to Career,” Hyatt Regency, Dubai, UAE.Website: www. tesolarabia.org 20-23. (North America) TESOL 2013 International Convention & English Language Expo, “Harmonizing Language, Heritage, and Cultures,” Dallas Convention Center, Dallas,Texas, USA.Website: http://www.tesolconvention.org/ 30-31. (Europe and Eurasia) TESOL Greece, “Innovation - Motivation - Education,” Hellenic American Union, Athens, Greece. Email: chair@ tesolgreece.org. Website: http://www.tesolgreece.org

April 2013

8-12. (Europe and Eurasia). 47th Annual IATEFL Conference and Exhibition, Liverpool, UK. Website: http://www.iatefl.org/information/annual-conference-and-exhibition 12-14. (North America) International Linguistic Association, “English: Global and Local,” Kingsborough Community College, Brooklyn, New York, USA. Email: cathymcclure@yahoo.com. Website: http://ilaword.org 18-21. (Europe and Eurasia) 21st Annual HUPE Conference, Croatia, Opatija, Grand Hotel Adriatic. Website: http://www.hupe.hr Volume 19

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Feature Networking Article 44

iCelebrate Conference Khalifa City Women’s College

3 Apps Used to Develop Writing Skills Emily Quiroga, Dubai Colleges Lisa Amira Rutherford United Arab Emirates University Al Ain, UAE

As a part of the UAE iPad education initiative and the Apple strategic partnership, the iCelebrate event was held at Khalifa City Women’s College, Khalifa City, UAE on June 20, 2012. Several universities from the UAE participated in this one-day event which consisted of 15-minute roundtable sessions and 45-minute lectures. Below are the details of some of the 45-minute lectures I had the privilege to attend. Reading Apps (Approaches and Applications) Chloe Burrige, Dubai Colleges Chloe gave an interesting presentation on Reading Apps. First she discussed the most common ways to access reading materials such as through iBook (free), Kindle (free), public domain e-pubs (free), pdf books, and some newspaper apps (Gulf Times, Khaleej Times and Arab Times newspapers Apps are free). Then, she discussed the functions of iBook, namely, highlight, copy, define, speak, bookmark, and outlining. She discussed in more detail about the iBook audio book function (see below). Chloe also discussed how to convert a Word file into an e-pub by using e-pub3 Apps (located at http://www.2epub.com). She suggested several approaches to reading using an iPad such as graded readers, extensive reading, IELTS preparation, and realia such as newspapers and magazines. She also suggested using the Socrative App to quiz students on their reading assignments.

Reading & Audio Book Tip: Enable the audio function in your iBook by going to settings/accessibility/speaking/on. Then, in your iBook, highlight the area you want on audio. Volume 19

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This was an interesting lecture on how to incorporate iPad Apps into writing class. Emily Quiroga introduced three iPad Apps which were used in her writing class: Popplet lite (free), Explain Everything (12 AED) and Educreations (free). These interesting educational Apps helped her students to brainstorm, organize ideas and summarize. Popplet lite was used to introduce topics, brainstorm and mind map, Explain Everything and Educreations were used to create audio visual presentations. When students completed their projects, they exported them to Dropbox for evaluation.

Classroom Management Tip: If you find your students off-task, ask them to touch the sleep button on the iPad so they may pay attention while you continue to lecture. Challenges and Success of the ZU iPad Pilot Project Elizabeth Birch, Zayed University Zayed University initiated an 8-week iPad pilot program in the Spring of 2012. This pilot program involved seven teachers and more than 100 students on two campuses. ZU’s stated purpose of this pilot program was to “gauge student participation, troubleshoot difficulties, and identify best practices.” The challenges were very few and consisted mostly of establishing the necessary infrastructure to support a wireless classroom environment. They tested Apple TV, Airplay Server and Reflections and found that Airplay Server suited the needs of the ZU classroom best. Teachers also reconfigured the classroom layout to a U-shaped classroom, rather than rows, in order to support iPad learning. The successes were numerous and included improved student motivation and participation, improved organizational skills TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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Networking Feature Article

and problem-solving skills, and a nearly paperless classroom. Some of the suggested Apps that these

45 ZU teachers found useful are listed below:

Utilities

Creation

Context

Interactive/Quiz makers

Calendar (installed) Dropbox (free) Evernote (free) Good Reader Edmodo (free) Blackboard Mobile (free)

Explain Everything Educreations (free) Keynote Notability Popplet lite (free) Synch Space iMovie Creative Book Builder

Flipboard (free) iTunes podcasts (free) iBooks (free)

Socrative Teacher (free) Socrative Student (free) Nearpod Student (free) Nearpod Teacher (free)

Like Zayed University, United Arab Emirates University also had an iPad pilot program in the spring of 2012 called iTechnology. Unlike the ZU program, which was used in Foundation English classes, the UAEU pilot program was used in Foundation IT classes. The iTechnology pilot program was conducted on the female campus and involved 35 female foundation student participants. Like the ZU pilot program, UAEU initially had concerns with wireless access and classroom layout. However, the successes outnumbered the concerns.

The iTechnology program focused on information literacy to include note-taking, content management, document creation, document management and an inquiry-based course project. Khalid Yusuf Saed made the observation that over the 8-week period, the course transformed from the “how-to” of using the iPad to a demonstration of students’ higher order thinking skills. Likewise, the role of the teacher transformed from the lecturer to the guide/coach and the students became better independent learners. According to the presenters, the iTechnology pilot program has met with such success that this model course has been approved to become the foundation IT course next semester at UAEU.

Khalid Yusuf Saed and Yazid Ben-Chabane explain iTechnology success at UAEU.

Sundi Richard and Manual Eusebio attend a session at the iTechnology conference.

Integration of the iPad into the Classroom Khalid Yusuf Saed and Yazid Ben-Chabane, UAEU

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Feature Networking Article 46

TESOL International Conference Report Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

what behaviors and attitudes are associated with each style. Finally, I was able to discuss some implications for being and becoming successful leaders. The presentation room was packed with over 60 people attending. The presentation was well-received and many stayed after the presentation to ask for more resources to help them be good and effective leaders.

Sufian Abu-Rmaileh United Arab Emirates University Al Ain, UAE

I had the pleasure of attending the 2012 TESOL International Convention and English Language Expo March 27-30, 2012, in the historic city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The convention which had more than 1,500 presenters with a 23% acceptance rate of proposals was packed with over 6,000 attendees. I had the pleasure of conducting two presentations. The first presentation was for the Affiliate Leaders’ workshop. The affiliate leaders are part of the 105 representatives that affiliate themselves with TESOL International. The workshop which I conducted along with Gilda Martinez-Alba, Towson University, Towson, Maryland, USA, was about the challenges that affiliates like TESOL Arabia and Maryland TESOL face in dealing with membership issues. Some of the things talked about were website issues, retaining members, keeping members involved, and others. The attendees at the workshop were about 50 people and many also shared the challenges they face with their membership. The second presentation I conducted was on leadership in English Language Teaching.The topic was “Leadership Skills and Strategies in English Language Teaching.” In this presentation, I was able to discuss the factors affecting the style of leadership under which leaders operate and the six styles of leadership (directive, visionary, affiliative, democratic/ participative, pacesetting and coaching), and discuss

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At the TESOL International Conference, I was also able to meet with many people from different countries to network and share ideas that would help the learners, teachers and the teaching process. I was able to attend plenaries by Alberto Carvalho, William Labov, Kurt Kohn, our own TESOL Arabia’s, Christine Coombe, President of TESOL International, and Jun Liu. In addition to the presentations and plenary talks, I was able to attend two important meetings organized by TESOL International. The first was with the Libyan delegation to the conference which was about how to help them establish their own affiliate and how to overcome some of the challenges that other affiliates like TESOL Arabia have gone through. The other meeting was an organizational meeting for the 2012 Franklin/TESOL International SpellEvent which is a spelling competition held in 14 different countries, one of which is the United Arab Emirates. The meeting was informative and helpful in that it gave the different SpellEvent chairs the opportunity to discuss issues of concern like funding and the future involvement of Franklin and TESOL International. Finally, during the conference, I visited the English Language Expo where a great many publishers and exhibitors were selling, exhibiting, demonstrating publications and giving workshops about their publication, either in book form or electronically. I was able to buy many books on testing, methodology and best practice books.

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Reflection on the 18th International TESOL Arabia Conference 2012 Dubai Women’s College , Dubai, UAE Dave Allan gave a comprehensive presentation entitled “Taking TAE into the 21st Century,” leaving no inquiry in the mind of his audience about testing, exams, and assessments without an answer.

Hala El Muniawai Literature, Literacy, and Language Arts SIG Chair

“Remodelling Your Own Learning Environment” was the paper I presented, highlighting the importance of implementing computational agents such as social networking, blogs, wikis, online collaborative tools, media manipulation and distribution tools.

The TESOL Arabia Conference 2012 was one of the most important events for educators in the field. It combined two domains, the quality of teaching through addressing life skills.While attending the event, I tried to explore papers that addressed the most important issues.

Quantitative versus qualitative researching was another enjoyable topic presented by Fatima Alwan who displayed the results of a study she conducted on Madares Al Ghad Schools through which she could highlight the similarities and differences between the two approaches.

Christine Coombe described the effective language teacher as being someone who can relate his or her professional knowledge to learners through mutual understanding, care and compassion, love of the English language, patience and passion for life-long learning.

Jane Revell introduced NLP to ELT through concepts of multisensory learning and teaching in which the different learning styles of learners such as the visual, auditory or kinesthetic are met with the suitable teaching styles, building rapports with learners, and nurturing the senses to reach a state of reconciliation with oneself and the world around us.

Another outstanding presentation by featured speaker Steve Taylore-Knowles was “Teaching the Art of Life,” delivered in an artistic way with slides that described the language teacher as an artist and a sculptor who can shape attitudes and behavior and change the way learners deal with problems through adapting critical thinking and empowering the minds of learners. Christina Gitsaki and Ahmad Bourini presented on how to train students to take the IELTS. They presented the results of a project on bridging the gap between university and high school teaching, in an effort to help students on professional exams.

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The new 20x20 Powered by Pechakucha presentation was the final session I attended of which I enjoyed the most a paper presented by Nagwa Soliman on “Literature and Technology in EFL/ESL Contexts” in which she very successfully introduced her topic through twenty consecutive slides in a comprehensive and attractive style. What else could be said about the conference can be, in short, that it was a chance for all teachers to have an inspiring different perspective of the job of teaching, a profession that continues to survive in spite of all the challenges it faces. TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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Feature Networking Article 48

TESOL Arabia: Achieving Excellence Through Life Skills Education Dubai Women’s College , Dubai, UAE attendees was Mona El Samaty who teaches English for students of the University of Sharjah. I could say, “It’s a small world!”Together with Lyudmyla Kulakova and myself, Mona was also enrolled in the Online Professional Development Course in Leadership in English Language Teaching and Learning facilitated by Dr Christine Coombe in 2010.TESOL Arabia gave us a chance to meet in person!

Nataliia Reutska EFL teacher, Khmelnytskyi Gymnasia #1, Ukraine

The opportunity to participate in 18th International TESOL Arabia conference on “Achieving Excellence through Life Skills Education” is very much appreciated. So, when our proposal “Making the Best of Testing Cornerstones,” submitted jointly with Lyudmyla Kulakova, Khmelnitsky City Board EFL methodologist, was accepted by the organizing committee of TESOL Arabia the question was not “Should I come?” but “Can I afford to miss it?” Being my second TESOL Arabia Conference, once again it was a totally energizing experience for me with so many diverse, well-known people. It was indeed a privilege and a pleasure to have participated in what turned out to be a superb event.The conference was held in the impressive campus of Dubai Women’s College (DWC) where we were made to feel very comfortable and relaxed to present as well as to listen to the rich discussions by different people from different perspectives. Our joint presentation focused on showing how test preparation strategies and test designing techniques work in Ukraine. Our session provided the participants with an opportunity to discuss why MCQ in reading tests are so challenging for students as standardized tests and what the ways to enhance a deeper understanding of testing philosophy in MCQ format are. Participants were able to see how to tell the difference between a successful and unsuccessful reading test at levels Beginner to Intermediate.They learnt how to avoid test item violations in MCQ format when writing objective test items. A number of effective test writing tips for reliable teacher designed objective test items at classroom level were successfully demonstrated by Lyudmyla Kulakova. She shared her teaching materials with the participants at the workshop. One of the Volume 19

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The conference itself was brilliantly organized with a great blend of presentations! It had a very practical approach with useful tips and examples to illustrate excellent practice. All the presentations that we attended lived up to our expectations. Such wonderful presentations as “A Call: For Active Interventionist Teaching” by Jim Scrivener, “Teaching Vocabulary: Research Findings and Practical Classroom Considerations” by Keith Folse, “Critical Thinking Use in the Content Area” by Sufian Abu-Rmaileh, and “The Fifth Skill” by Rod Bolitho were very inspiring and motivating for us as professionals. But one of them “From Rags to Riches: A Story of Abu Dhabi” by Mohammed Abdul Jalil Al Fahim was the most impressive one. Mr Al Fahim has documented a very important time period in the history of the UAE through the eyes of his childhood and his knowledge of the people and the region.That was an exemplary story of a wise ruler who was able to take wise decisions for the sake of his people and his country. On behalf of us both I must say we were deeply impressed with the organization, the leadership style and the depth of personal intellectual input of the conference co-chairs Christine Coombe and Beth Wiens, and the proposals co-chairs Justin Shewell and Konrad Cedro and we must congratulate them on their fine and very capable associates.We both were enthused by the extraordinary individuals the organizing committee were able to gather together at the conference. As the recipients of Dr Lisa Barlow Memorial Travel Grants for 2012 we would like to extend our gratitude to the Dr Lisa Barlow Memorial Travel Grants Committee for covering our travel expenses.Thank you very much for inviting us to the conference.We wish TESOL Arabia many greater successes in the future. TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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Networking Feature Article

Guidelines

49

for

Contributors General Editorial Policies TESOL Arabia Perspectives is the official publication of TESOL Arabia, designed to meet the organization’s professional objectives by publishing articles that discuss the teaching and learning of English as an additional language at all levels and with a particular focus on the region (the Gulf, Middle East, North Africa and South Asia). TESOL Arabia Perspectives invites previously unpublished manuscripts that address the diverse topics that make up our profession, including, but not limited to, methodology, pedagogy, curriculum and materials development, assessment, classroom inquiry and research, teacher education and language and culture.

Submission Categories & Guidelines Feature Articles Features should generally be between 2000-4000 words in length, and address educational issues (theory leading to practice) relevant to the membership. The articles can document a critical survey of a particular aspect of the field, detail and analyze pedagogical issues, describe and discuss research findings, or highlight contextual factors and their implications for educational practice. All submissions should be thought through, organized, and clearly written. APA style format will be strictly adhered to regarding referencing. Submissions must be in Times New Roman, font size 12, double spaced. Submissions not meeting APA standards will not be reviewed. Every feature article will go through a review process where the reviewers consider how well it: discusses issues that seek to inform practice; contributes to the knowledge base for teaching and teacher education in general, and in the region in particular; addresses educational issues and needs of ELT in the region; identifies an educational research agenda.

Reviews Reviews should evaluate any recent textbook, resource book, CD/DVD audio or video title, or website. Reviews should be 500–1000 words in length and evaluate materials for their approach, content, appropriateness, adaptability, and relevancy. A list of

materials received for review will be made available periodically in Perspectives. Please contact Paul Dessoir the Reviews Editor, at pdessoir@uaeu.ac.ae.

Educational Technology This section will document short articles of about 5002000 words that provide overviews of educational technologies, their utilities and incorporation into practice. This could include software, hardware, and web-based resources.

Networking This section will feature conference and country reports. Reports will be about 500 words. Conference reports should provide the readers with a good overview of the conference in question as well as some personal insights of how it impacted the author. Photos with captions must accompany the submission.

Reader’s Response Reader’s Response gives the readers a forum to respond to articles published in previous issues or respond to a critical issue in the region. Responses should focus on the content of an article and provide reasoned feedback. Responses should be between 500-2000 words.

Lesson Ideas Do you have a great lesson idea or an activity that others should know about? Lesson Ideas offers teachers the opportunity to share their activities in context. Submissions should be between 500-2000 words and detail the activity as well as provide a context for usage. Lesson ideas can be a one-off lesson or a series of lessons.

Photographs and other images In order to avoid poor quality images, please submit the largest size and best resolution images you have. This should be at least 300 dpi and saved as a tiff, eps, or jpeg (in order of preference). Headshots and brief bios including the author's current professional affiliation must accompany all submissions.

Send your submissions to: Melanie Gobert & Tandy Bailey TESOL Arabia Perspectives Editors perspectives@tesolarabia.org

TESOL Arabia Perspectives is published three times a year: November, January and June

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TESOLArabia News Feature Article 50

International Travel Grants: Guidelines Rehab Rejab TESOL Arabia International Travel Grant Chair travelgrants@tesolarabia.org 1. Overview TESOL Arabia offers International Travel Grants to assist members in travel, accommodation, and living expenses incurred in participating in conferences, conventions, seminars, symposia and similar professionally-related events, other than TESOL Arabia events, outside the UAE. This grant provides limited financial support for individual eligible TESOL Arabia members to present papers, or play a significant role in such events which are relevant to TESOL Arabia.The grant is administered by the International Travel Grant Committee which is composed of the Vice President, who acts as the Committee Chair, one other member of the TESOL Arabia Executive Council, and three ordinary members of TESOL Arabia in good standing appointed at the discretion of the Chair.This Committee will field all applications. 2. Types of Events for which a Grant may be Requested 1. Any professionally-related conference or similar event held outside the UAE. 2.TESOL Arabia events such as the TESOL Arabia Annual International Conference are specifically excluded. Separate arrangements exist for offering grants to those events. 3. Current Limitations and Constraints Given funding limitations, the following constraints are necessary: 1. Financial support available through the International Travel Grant (ITG) will in many cases be modest and partial in terms of the full costs of the proposed activity.TESOL Arabia expects that the applicants will apply for other funds and use some of their own resources.This enables the allocated resources to benefit more members. 2. There is no absolute entitlement to money in any given year and when the funds are depleted no further applications will be accepted. 3. Applicants may only be funded for one ITG every two-budget-years. The budget year runs from 1st October to 30th September. 4. No ITG Grant shall exceed 50% of the total Volume 19

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expenses or the following limits: a) Up to 1,000 AED (Regional: Gulf States) b) Up to 1,500 AED (Middle East, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, India & Pakistan) c) Up to 3,000 AED (Europe & Africa â&#x20AC;&#x201C; With the exception of those countries listed as regional) d) Up to 4,000 AED (North America, South America, Asia & Far East â&#x20AC;&#x201C; With the exception of those listed as regional) 4. Eligibility All current active members of TESOL Arabia who have been a member of TESOL Arabia for at least one full calendar year are eligible to apply for funding. Current members of TESOL Arabia who have been members for less than one full calendar year are not eligible to apply for funding. 5. Applying for an International Travel Grant 1.Applicants are requested to complete the online application in full. This will automatically be sent to the Chair of the International Travel Grant Committee when it is submitted. 2.Documentation supporting your service to TESOL Arabia should be sent as an email attachment to The Committee Chair on the same day as you submit your application online. Supporting documentation is required if your service to TESOL Arabia includes possibly undocumented assistance at Chapter or SIG activities, in which case you should submit a recommendation stating your service to TESOL Arabia at these events from the appropriate Chapter Rep or SIG Chair. 3.Applications should only be submitted for the budget year in which the event will be held. The budget year runs from 1st October to 30th September. 4.Incomplete documentation will not be considered. 5.Applications should be submitted at least three weeks before the event begins. The Committee will aim at giving the candidate its decision within two weeks of submission. TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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presentation, or their role in the event. 3. prove attendance. This would normally be in the form of a photocopy of the conference attendance certificate. 4. provide original receipts for registration, travel, accommodation and living expenses at least to the amount of the grant. 5. feedback to TESOL Arabia the knowledge gained from the event and its application to teaching English to speakers of other languages by a means agreed with the Chair. This may be one or more of the following: 1. submitting a report of at least 500 words for Perspectives 2. presenting a session for one of the TESOL Arabia Chapter or SIG events 3. completing another activity agreed with the Committee

6. Criteria for Awarding the International Travel Grant Funding is evaluated and awards made based on the following factors: 1. whether the applicant has previously received money from TESOL Arabia in the form of a TACon Travel Grant, an International Travel Grant, or a Professional Development Course Grant 2. the relevance of the event to TESOL Arabia for which money is requested 3. the applicant’s service to TESOL Arabia 4. whether the candidate is presenting a paper or has a significant role in the event In all cases, decisions made by the Committee are final and no correspondence regarding decisions reached will be entered into. 7. Responsibilities of the Grantee Before payment of the ITG can be made, the following conditions must be met.The grantee must: 1. provide proof of registration for the event. This would normally be in the form of original receipts or a letter of registration. 2. if applicable, provide proof of acceptance of a

All original receipts, photocopies of certificates, and the written report for Perspectives (or proof of the other activity agreed upon) should be sent within two weeks of the end of the event. For more information visit www.tesolarabia.org or rehab.rejab@tesolarabia.org

Call for book chapters Attitudes to Technology in the English Language Classroom Edited by Marina Dodigovic and Peter Davidson

❉ ❉ ❉ ❉ ❉ TESOL Arabia Publications would like to announce the call for chapters for a new book on attitudes to technology in the English Language classroom. The editors would welcome chapters that preferably focus on, but are not limited to: 1. Teachers’ attitudes to technology in the classroom 2. Students’ attitudes to technology in the classroom 3. Administrators’ attitudes to technology in the classroom

4. 5. 6.

Parents’ attitudes to technology in the classroom Corporate attitudes to technology in the classroom Government attitudes to technology in the classroom

It is anticipated that chapters may describe original research based on these areas, but may also be more theoretical in nature, based on a meta-analysis of available literature. Short chapters on practical issues, such as problems, solutions, lesson examples, or focus on particular skills, are equally welcome. If you have an idea for an article which is not listed above, please get in touch with the editors and let us know your ideas, before you submit the chapter. The deadline for submissions is September 1, 2013. However, early submission of articles is preferred to enable the editors to contact authors and advise of any revisions necessary. Please email articles to Marina Dodigovic at mdodigov@gmail.com and Peter Davidson at peter.davidson@zu.ac.ae

It is very important that you follow the guidelines outlined below:

• • • • • • •

On the first page include only your name, contact address, phone number, email address, and 50-word bio Articles should be no more than 4,000 words excluding references No more than 2 pages of appendices and two pages of references can be included for each chapter Articles should be typed using Times New Roman, font size 12, with 1½ line spacing If you include Tables and/ or Figures, make sure they are no wider than 10cms. Do not use colour in Tables or Figures Do not use footnotes or endnotes

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• • • • • •

Do not indent new paragraphs. Leave a blank line between paragraphs. Only use ‘portrait’ orientation – i.e. don’t insert any pages in ‘landscape’ orientation Remove all hyperlinks Authors should reference direct-quoted or paraphrased material (including citing page numbers) Include a complete list of references using APA style as outlined in the Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association Send articles electronically as a Word 2007 attachment

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Fundamentals of Language Assessment Montevideo, Uruguay Beth Wiens The TESOL Arabia Testing, Assessment and Evaluation (TAE) SIG co-chair, Dr Christine Coombe, and TAE SIG members Beth Wiens and Konrad Cedro presented a two-day workshop on the Fundamentals of Language Assessment in Montevideo, Uruguay, from July 12-13, 2012. The event was sponsored by the U.S. State Department in cooperation with the TAE SIG of TESOL Arabia. A variety of topics were presented and training was given to a group of about 80 teachers from all levels of education in Uruguay. On the first day, participants attended several training

Konrad Cedro presents at the FLA in Uruguay.

TESOL Arabia now has a facebook page!

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sessions, which focused on introducing assessment, developing assessments, writing objective test items, and assessing reading and listening. The second dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s focus was on assessing writing, speaking and alternative assessment. The teachers there were extremely nice and gracious participants. It was quite cold in the old post office where we gave our workshop since it was winter in South America. But everyone really enjoyed the two-day event and we were even asked to come back next year! We hope to see everyone there again when the time comes.

Christine Coombe aids participants at the FLA in Uruguay.

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Pioneers of the Field Hala El Muniawai Literature, Literacy, and Language Arts SIG Chair A wonderful morning it was as we drove to Al Ghurair University in Dubai Academic city. The hot beams of the sun smoothed by the morning soft breeze added a vivid flavor to our enthusiasm as the event schedule was a promising one. The Literature SIG joint event introduced six presenters with a variety of themes and well known names in the field of education. The introductory presentation by Dr Ghanim Samaraai was on how punctuation marks in a literary text can be analyzed to reach a deeper understanding of the writer’s meanings as the literary texts facial significance reveals. In referring to Shakespeare’s poetry and drama, Dr Ghanim brought the good old days back and we surfed through the passages he chose with his profound literary taste, an experience you wouldn’t have wanted to miss. We moved to the other room to attend Amr El Zarka’s session on how speaking can help learners be independent and enhance their language skills in many areas not only the oral ones. The opening video was remarkably funny and attractive and to the point. Later Amr was quite successful in covering all his topic’s aspects in one of the most interesting condensed presentations I have ever attended. Eli Ghazel’s curriculum map of success was the next unbelievable portrayal of how a professional educator can simplify a highly sophisticated issue and present it to his audience as a piece of cake. Samah Elshal presented a new introduction to the well-known story “The Tortoise and the Hare” as a literary elaboration of her ideas on the value of fostering teamwork in creating a work culture that values collaboration. Her message is best described in her own words: “In a teamwork environment, people understand and believe that thinking, planning, decisions and actions are better when done Volume 19

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cooperatively. People recognize, and even assimilate, the belief that ‘none of us is as good as all of us.’” Helping Students Prepare for IELTS Academic Writing was our final stop as the last session was cancelled due to time restrictions. Mohamed Ashraf EL-Zamil demonstrated a host of tried-out techniques that he has been using in his IELTS class. Then he highlighted some practical tips on how to prepare EFL students for the writing tasks of IELTS. If there had been a microscopic camera on a satellite scanning Al Ghurair University on Saturday May 19, 2012, it would have recorded the following: “In a meeting room on the second floor, there met thirteen people. They were discussing and exchanging ideas on education and teaching .They left their Saturday breakfast table, newspaper and morning coffee to take a long ride to Al Ghurair University to give some of their precious knowledge and grasp more from others. Those were the Elites in their fields and it is no wonder that the authenticity of education still survives.”

Hala El Muniawai presents Amr El Zarka with a presenter’s certificate at the LLLA SIG event.

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Special Interest Group Article Reports Feature 54

Promoting Fluency City School International, Dubai Kathy Gardner, Young Learners SIG Chair This one day event was jointly organized by the Young Learners Special Interest Group(YL SIG) and the Dubai Chapter of TESOL Arabia. It brought together presenters and participants from all over the UAE: Al Ain, Fujairah, Abu Dhabi and Dubai, to collaborate on fluency awareness in the classroom of ESL students aged 6-16 years old. The presenters and presentations were: Dr Negmeldin Alsheikh, UAE University: Strategies for Figuring Out Words: Phonological Awareness, Phonemic Awareness and Phonics. Mohammed Molhim, University of Sharjah: Teaching English to Young Learners: An Integrated Skills Approach.

Micheline Habib, children’s book writer: The Role of Drills in Language Learning and Teaching. The sessions were delivered on a similar theme to coordinate the day. Presenters discussed different approaches to reviewing speech in environments such as the UAE where cultures and languages are diverse. During very motivating presentations various perspectives on style and the role of speech in various facets of the classroom were explored, successfully creating stimulating dialogue between the presenters and the attendees. Light refreshments and lunch were made available and gave everyone the opportunity for networking. A small raffle took place at the end of the day and everyone received a Certificate of Attendance.

TESOL Arabia Ed Tech SIG Vance Stevens Will Richardson has just written an interesting book called Why School? In it he explains how schools are designed on models of information scarcity, when now that we live in a world of abundance, people can, and do, learn what they want to know, when they need to know it. This renders many aspects of the top-down model of teaching irrelevant, and there are two approaches to the problem. Since school is a $5 billion business in the USA, there is a money-politics faction that seeks to cash in on the solution by delivering the old model better. But Richardson argues that the answer is not better, but differently, yet educators whose experience with school is rooted in an era of scarcity are poorly equipped to grasp the concept of different in a world of abundance. Going on Herbert Gerjoy’s definition of illiterate as being not those who cannot read or write, but those who cannot “learn, unlearn, and Volume 19

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relearn,” Richardson articulates six steps to help teachers relearn their trade. These are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Share everything (or at least something) Discover, don’t deliver, the curriculum Talk to strangers (filter and interact with others in your personal learning network) Be a master learner Do real work, for real audiences Transfer the power (over who drives curriculum)

To help teachers become master learners, that is teachers adept at unlearning and relearning how an abundance of tools can be applied to transformative outcomes for students, a number of educators worldwide have been meeting regularly online each

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Special FeatureInterest Article Group Reports

Sunday afternoon (in the UAE) in some form or another for the past decade, but since 2010 as http:// Learning2gether.pbworks.com. Since the EdTech SIG started its Ning, Learning2gether events have always been listed at http://taedtech.ning.com/ events. Learning2gether is a wiki, which means that anyone who wishes to contribute a presentation, or lead a discussion, can join and write that event in. Through this way of learning together, we seek to model for one another how to best prepare students to relearn how to compete for jobs that may not yet exist. By discovering for ourselves how learning

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occurs, using online tools and connections with one another in real projects with meaningful outcomes, we learn how we can empower our students to learn likewise, once we have gained familiarity with the available tools and processes. Ning: http://taedtech.ning.com edtecharabia.twitter.com #taedtech

The TAE SIG and Braz-TESOL Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Beth Wiens, Christine Coombe and Konrad Cedro The TESOL Arabia Testing, Assessment and Evaluation (TAE) SIG co-chair, Dr Christine Coombe, and TAE SIG members Beth Wiens and Konrad Cedro presented a number of sessions at the 13th Annual Braz-TESOL Convention from July 16 -19, 2012. The convention took place at the Faculdade CCAA in Rio de Janeiro. Dr Christine Coombe gave a plenary on â&#x20AC;&#x153;10 Characteristics of Effective EF/SL Teachers.â&#x20AC;? Along with Konrad Cedro, she also gave a number of parallel presentations on such diverse topics as assessing young learners and infusing your classroom with fun activities, and she and Beth Wiens gave joint-presentations on the fundamentals of language assessment and creating reading assessments,

in particular. Dr Coombe gave her plenary to a full house of nearly 800 people. The number of participants in the other sessions ranged from 20 to 50. The delegates came from all areas of Brazil and from all areas of education. Like many other teachers around the world, their opportunities for professional development are limited, so this was a great conference for everyone. The whole TAE SIG team enjoyed Rio de Janeiro as it is a city of contrasts and beautiful places. During our stay, we visited the most famous sites, including the favelas where we visited a school. It was an eyeopening and heart-wrenching experience. We hope to make Brazil a regular stop to deliver more professional development on assessment in the future.

Christine Coombe, Konrad Cedro, and Beth Wiens present at the 13th Annual Braz-TESOL Convention. Volume 19

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ChapterArticle Report Feature 56

Sharjah Chapter Report Back in Action with New Potential Amr El Zarka Sharjah Chapter Rep Your Sharjah Chapter will warmly welcome you back with a completely new team. Amr El Zarka, the new representative, Ranya El Haddad, the new secretary, and Doa Saad, the new treasurer, will be receiving you to reactivate the chapter. It will be a great chance to see old faces and hopefully to welcome new ones to the chapter. I hope that the old members will spread the word that we are back to action with an ambitious plan to rebuild our chapter. We cordially appreciate and value the work of our previous colleagues Leo Schmitt and Mona El Samaty who did their best and made the chapter a reputable one. Halina Stolar, the last secretary was such an active bee as well and made an invaluable contribution to the chapter.

We are having five events this year. They are in the months of October, November, February, April and finally May. Three of them will be coevents with the READ SIG, the Teacher Training and Development SIG and the Research SIG. The other two will be solo events. We, at the same time, are looking forward to opening new doors with different venues. Therefore, we are going to have our first event at Sharjah Community College, a new and hospitable venue. Our ambition will also aim at reaching new members to join the chapter and make it bigger and more effective. We aim at making the chapter’s events anticipated Saturdays by all the professionals either from Sharjah or elsewhere.

Al Ain Chapter Report Being Observed: Al Ain Chapter and TAE SIG Joint Event Ian Taylor Al Ain Chapter Representative Is being observed teaching a lesson an assessment to be avoided or do you relish the feedback for your own development? Are students’ comments a waste of time or a constructive tool for improvement? Do you need to organize your past achievements, highlight your current talents and navigate your way to achieving your goals? Why not develop a portfolio? These were questions thrown up and answered by Peter Davidson and Christine Coombe who came to Al Ain as part of a joint Al Ain Chapter and Teaching, Assessment, and Evaluation (TAE) SIG event. Both speakers talked at length about the vexing and often controversial topic of teacher assessment. It was an excellent start to the Al Ain Chapter’s new year of events. Changes are coming thick and fast in Al Ain, with the chapter appointing a new representative in Ian Volume 19

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Taylor of Higher Colleges of Technology/Centre for Research and Applied Technology (HCT/CERT) while a new supporting member, Paul Beltrami, also of HCT/CERT, has been recruited to join the chapter team. Ann Riddel Akin is staying on as secretary and Mai Hassan is to continue as treasurer which will give continuity and experience. Our aim is to help develop careers, where we can, through events and quality speakers, such as Peter Davidson and Christine Coombe. We want to cover as many aspects of English language teaching as we can from leadership to young learners, technology to literature and everything in between. We have our ideas but we are open to any suggestions that can help us help you improve your professional development. We are more than willing to listen.You can contact me at itaylor1@hct.ac.ae. TESOL Arabia Perspectives

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Chapter Feature Report Article

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Western Region Re-launch Jill Hill Western Region Chapter Representative Saturday, October 13, saw the re-launch of TESOL Arabia in the Western Region with a conference held at the HCT Ruwais campus featuring guest speakers Dr Christine Coombe, Peter Davidson and Beth Wiens. Dr Coombe spoke on “Personal and Professional Growth through Life satisfaction,” focusing on her research into this area. Peter Davidson provoked the interest of attendees with his presentation on the future of education, while Beth Wiens dealt with professional development opportunities. In addition, Madinat Zayad/Ruwais Colleges Foundation Chair Peter Stanfield lead a group discussion on assessment of place-based learning. Jonathan Turner, a Higher Colleges of Technology-based CELTA and DELTA trainer, gave the first of what is expected to become a regular featured master class teaching demonstration. Organizers were especially delighted with the turnout of 27 public school teachers from the area schools with buses coming in from Liwa, Madinat Zayed, Mirfa, Sila, and Bed Al Matawa. A number of HCT Western Region faculty were also in attendance.

Refreshments were plentiful and provided by Spinneys. The conference was organized by Jill Hill, the newly appointed TESOL Arabia area representative and she was assisted on the day by Abir Ramadan as treasurer, and Mahmoud Zaki as membership secretary. Two graduates of the most recent HCT/CERT CELTA course were on hand to give information about CELTA and DELTA courses in the Western Region and this generated a lot of interest with questions about these, and the HCT/CERT-Deakin University (Australia) joint Master of Education program, being directed to Ms Hill, CERT’s Teaching and Learning Centre Coordinator in the Western Region. The event ended with Dr Phil Quirke, Director of Madinat Zayed HCT, thanking everyone for coming and issuing certificates to all who attended, along with door prizes to a lucky few.The interest in the event and in TESOL Arabia bodes well for the future.The next event, a mini workshop that will take place before the December break, is now in the planning stages.

Call for book chapters Teaching, Learning and Researching Reading in EFL TESOL Arabia Publications in the UAE would like to announce the call for contributions in the area of teaching, learning and researching reading in EFL/ ESL from a global perspective. The editors welcome articles on a wide range of topics. Articles should preferably focus on, but are not limited to: 1. Innovations in the teaching of reading in EFL/ ESL 4. Reading and young learners 2. Design of materials for teaching reading 5. The reading curriculum 3. Testing reading in EFL/ ESL 6. Teacher training and teacher education and reading It is anticipated that chapters may describe original research based on these areas but may also be more practical, focussing on teaching, learning and action research. If you have an idea for an article which is not listed above, please get in touch with the editors and let us know your ideas, before you submit the chapter. The deadline for submissions is September 1, 2013. However, early submission of articles is preferred to enable the editors to contact authors and advise of any revisions necessary. Please email articles to Helen Emery at emeryhelen@hotmail.com and Nick Moore at nick.moore@lycos.com It is very important that you follow the guidelines outlined below:

• • • • • • • •

On the first page include only your name, contact address, phone number Only use ‘portrait’ orientation – i.e. don’t insert any pages in and email address; an abstract of a maximum of 150 words and biodata up to ‘landscape’ orientation 50 words Remove all hyperlinks Articles should be no more than 4,000 words excluding references Authors should reference direct-quoted or paraphrased material No more than 2 pages of appendices and two pages of references can be (including citing page numbers) included for each chapter Include a complete list of references using APA style as outlined in the Articles should be typed using Times New Roman, font size 12, with 1½ line spacing Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association If you include Tables and/ or Figures, make sure they are no wider than 10cms. Send articles electronically as a Word 2003 or Word 2007 attachment Do not use colour in Tables or Figures Please use your family name and a brief title to name the file e.g., Al Habsi – Teaching EFL to Young Learners.doc Do not use footnotes or endnotes Do not indentVolume new paragraphs. Leave line between2012 paragraphs.TESOL Arabia Perspectives 19 No. 3a blank November www.tesolarabia.org

• • • • •


SpecialFeature InterestArticle Groups 58

English for Special Purposes SIG Phone: 02 644 0339 Email:: esptesolarabia@gmail.com

Saad Rabia Chair

Leadership & Management SIG

Najaat j Saadi Hezber Co-Chair

Literature, Literacy & Language Arts SIG

Phone: 050 619 4796 Email:: christine.coombe@hct.ac.ae

Phone: 050 527 7685 Email: tarabialit@gmail.com

Phone: 050 813 3148 Email:: pquirk r e@hct.ac.ae Dr Christine Coombe Co-Chair

Hala El Muniaw awai Chair

Phil Q Quirk r e Co-Chair

Teacher Training & Teacher Development SIG

Email: tatdsig@gmail.com Radhika Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Sulliv ivan Dr Marion Engin W Webmaster Co-Chair/Editor

Helen Donaghue Co-Chair

Young Learners SIG

Independent Learning SIG

Phone: 050 151 3613 Email: kathygardner007@gmail.com

Email: tailearn@yahoo.com Website: http://ilearn.20m.com

Kathy Gardner

Phone: 050 616 8059 (Bridie)

Testing, Assessment & Evaluation SIG

Mary r May ayall T easurer Tr

Phil Cozens Webmaster

Bridie Farah Chair

Read SIG

: 050 619 4796 Email:: christine.coombe@hct.ac.ae

Yasser a Salem Phone: 050 266 8937 Email: ya y ssersalem@yaho y o.com

Phone: 050 843 8782 Email:: peter.davidson@zu.a a c.ae Dr Christine Coombe Peter Davidso a n Co-Chair Co-Chair

Daniel Stebbins Phone: 050 464 5002 Email:Daniel.Stebbins@moe.gov.a v e Yasser Salem Chair

Daniel Stebbinss Trreasurer/Webmaster T m

Educational Technology SIG Email: edtechsig@gmail.com Ning: http://taedtech.ning.com edtecharabia.twitter.com #taedtech James Buckingham m

Heather Baba

V Vance Stevens e

Teresa Murphy

Research SIG Phone: 050 780 3988 Email: amelki22@yaho y o.com researchsig22@gmail.com

Mohammad Azaza Denise Mcqueen Sevhan Acar Hammude m h Helene Demirci Secretary/Net r w workin g Treasurer/Event Ozdeniz Chair r r Event Coordinator Coordinato Coordinator

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Chapter Feature Representatives Article

59

Abu Dhabi Representative

Ian Taylor

Al Ain Chapter Representative Higher Colleges of Technology/CERT P.O. Box 17155, Al Ain, UAE 050 277 3981 (mobile) itaylor1@hct.ac.ae

Amr El Zarka

Madaras Al Ghad (MAG) 050 711 7980 (mobile) amr2000r@yahoo.com

Dr Naziha Ali (EdD TESOL)

Emirates Aviation College - B P.O. Box 28444, Dubai, UAE 050 646 1788 (mobile) nazihaali2005@yahoo.co.uk

Jill Hill

Ruwais Colleges P.O. Box 12389, Ruwais,Western Region, UAE 050 128 6802 (mobile) 2 894 3800 ext. 866 (ofďŹ ce) jhill@hct.ac.ae

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Executive Council Feature Article 60

President

Executive Treasurer

James McDonald Academic Bridge Program Zayed University Dubai, UAE 04 402 1371 (office) james.mcdonald@zu.ac.ae

Sufian Abu Rmaileh UAE University - UGRU P. O. Box 17172 Al Ain, UAE 03 706 4562 (home) 050 713 1803 (mobile) sabu-rmaileh@uaeu.ac.ae

Vice-President/President-Elect

Conference Co-Chair/Membership Secretary

Rehab Rejab Dubai, UAE 050 637 5957 (mobile) rehab.rajab@tesolarabia.org Twitter: @tesolarabia || #tesolarabia

Les Kirkham c/o Al Ain Women’s College Higher College of Technology P. O. Box 17258, Al Ain, UAE Al Ain, UAE leskirkham@gmail.com

Executive Secretary

Conference Treasurer

David Mulvihill Instructor, Academic Bridge Program Zayed University – Dubai Campus P.O. Box 19282 Dubai, UAE 056 724 7927 (mobile) David.Mulvihill@zu.ac.ae

Beth Wiens Zayed University P. O. Box 19282, Dubai, UAE 04 402 1350 (office) 04 402 1003 (fax) 050 4620566 (mobile) beth.wiens@zu.ac.ae

Perspectives Editors Melanie Gobert Abu Dhabi Men's College Higher Colleges of Technology P. O. Box 25035 Abu Dhabi, UAE mgobert@hct.ac.ae

Tandy Bailey Abu Dhabi Women's College Higher Colleges of Technology P.O. Box 41012 Abu Dhabi, UAE tbailey-seffar@hct.ac.ae

Member-at-Large/Conference Co-Chair

Conference Proceedings Editor / Publications Coordinator

Sandra Oddy Al Ain Women's College Higher Colleges of Technology P. O. Box 17258 Al Ain, UAE 03 709 5319 (office) Sandra.Oddy@hct.ac.ae

Peter Davidson Zayed University Dubai, UAE 050 843 8782 (mobile) peter.davidson@zu.ac.ae

Webmaster

Acting SIG Coordinator

Konrad A Cedro Dubai Men's College Dubai, UAE 050 144 7680 (mobile) konard.cedro@hct.ac.ae

Sandra Zaher Higher Colleges of Technology Abu Dhabi, UAE 050 616 0934 (mobile) 2 692 2535 (office) szaher@hct.ac.ae

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Feature Article IPP WINS 8 AWARDS AT

DUBAI INTERNATIONAL

PRINT AWARD 2011 1 AWARD IN 2006

2 AWARDS IN 2007

4 AWARDS IN 2008

6 AWARDS IN 2009

8 AWARDS IN 2011 THE QUEST UEST FOR QUALITY CONTINUES CONT

5 GOLD 2 SILVER 1 BRONZE

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Feature Article 62

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