Table of Contents
Volume 4 Number 3 â€˘ Summer 2019
10 Editorial Muriel Lee
Limes & Tigers and Berries, Oh my!
Artist Mary Beacon
Judge Bergit Coady-Kabel
Native Irish Terrier Breeds
On the Burial of a Favorite Pet
X-ray Positioning & OFA Grading
WKC & Crufts Terrier Coverage
TerrierGroup Interview TerrierGroup Interview Muriel Lee
Dr. Theresa Nesbitt M.D. Muriel Lee
Dr. Lonnie Davis DVM DABVP, Dr. Nancy Malone Ph.D.
Femoral Heads in Acetabula
A Look at Books Muriel Lee
Pelvis Pubis Ischium Obturator foramina Figure 2: Canine Hip Anatomy
TerrierGroup 2019. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is strictly prohibited. Disclaimer: the editor reserves the right to refuse, edit, shorten or modify any material submitted. The editorâ€™s decision on all printed material is final. The views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the publisher. The publisher can not be held responsible for breach of copyright rising from any material supplied. No responsibility is taken for errors and inaccuracies or claims in advertisements. Anyone wishing to contribute their artwork, short stories or comments can submit them to firstname.lastname@example.org
Advertisers â€˘ Summer 2019 Ingrid David......................................................................... 9
Lisa and Eric Leady........................................... Back Cover
Paula Fox.....................................................Cover, 2-3, 6-7, 8
Theresa Nesbitt.............................................................. 34-25
Alex Geisler.................................................................. 29, 41
Reita and Craig Nicholson.......................................... 56-57
Dr. Barbara Gibson....................................................... 16-17
Lisa Nonog......................................................................... 23
Dr. Natalia Kunze DVM, DACT....................................... 62-63
United States Kerry Blue Terrier Club................................ 61
Thank you advertisers!
Muriel Lee • EDITORIAL
TerrierGroup Editorial After a long winter in many parts of the country we are ready for sunshine and daffodils. However, as I wrote this I saw Chicago in the midst of a snow storm and Minneapolis is still getting rid of snow since our last winter storm a few days ago, and we do hope it’s the last as spring flowers can’t come soon enough. What a winter! Along with spring, comes the summer reminder – In the heat of the day don’t take your dog to the outdoor flea markets – remember that these furry guys walking around in fur coats on hot sidewalks, and their paws have no protection from the hot tar paths. This issue has two gardening articles since spring is in the air and where else will you find gardening articles in a terrier magazine than in TerrierGroup. Kris Kibbee’s column gives a quick lesson in gardening and how to grow herbs and vegetables that your dog will love. A Look at Books covers several books on how to identify strange things that arrive in your garden, are unwelcome pests, and how to identify and get rid of them. We have two good interviews with this issue. Mary Beacon, well known terrier artist, gives us her background and how she became a well-known artist, displaying her wares at the Montgomery County Kennel Club show. Bergit Coady Kabel has moved from handling a
terrier in the ring with expertise, to now judging the terriers. Bergit has been around for years and it will be a welcomed sight to everyone to see someone in the middle of the ring who not only understands terriers, but appreciates the work that goes into a show terrier. On the travelling end, Theresa Nesbitt was fortunate to travel to Ireland and the Irish Kennel Club show and writes about the Irish terrier breeds. Olga Forlicz also traveled extensively, to New York for the Westminster Kennel Club show and sends us the results of that show and of the 2019 Crufts show. Her friend, Leslie Jaseph, gives us a good rundown on the Westminster weekend. Olga will write about the new AKC Museum of the Dog in the next issue. There is an article on Percy Roberts, esteemed all-breed judge and terrier man (1881-1977). He is written about because if you started showing after the 1970s you did not have the opportunity to show under him and he is still considered one of the great dog men in America…a name that everyone in dogs should be aware of. We’ve seen lots of articles on carved dog monuments in cemeteries honoring a fallen hero or beloved pet. In this issue you will find an article on how to honor your little guy, right in your own garden. On to news around the country and the world. Actually, since we had a rather isolated winter, most of my news comes from local sources.
Since we had this endless winter in Minnesota there was a nice article in our Star Tribune about ways to play with your dog in the snow by participating in the highly recommended
skijoring. “You don skis and strap yourself to a dog. The dog pulls you along, proving once again that the creature is, as the saying goes, man’s (or woman’s) best friend.” What a happy looking dog! There are designated trails around the city, but those groomed for cross country skiing are not to be used by the canines. An enterprising couple in suburban Minneapolis have opened up a shop reselling lightly used pet supplies, running it like a Half-Price Books or Once Upon a Child store. The couple, owners and originators of the idea, have fostered
various animals for the county humane society and wondered why the idea of reselling lightly used dog items had not done before. They started the resale operation in their garage selling used supplies for dogs, cats, gerbils, hamsters etc. Items rarely cost more than $10 and everything is cleaned and sanitized before being put on sale. The majority of the items are ones that the pets outgrew or never used. Clever idea and one they hope to franchise. People and Pets Together is an organization that assists families who feel they are no longer able to care for their pet. This is a nonprofit food bank and veterinary assistance program, found in several communities, which works to keep a pet and his caregiver together during times of economic hardship. The organization’s motto is, “You have to feed the whole family, not just the human family.” In 2018 our local organization served up 80,000 pounds of food for dogs, cats, rabbits, birds and fish. The organization relies primarily on donations, and have collection boxes in pet stores and veterinary clinics. They also partner with various veterinary clinics to offer some financial assistance when needed. Their budget is about $50,000 per year with two part-time employees and many volunteers. Their goal? To keep people and their pets together in times of stress and need. Sounds like a worthy cause.
Enjoy the spring and summer and keep yourselves and your terriers well. Send us your ideas for articles and interviews and especially send us your adsvertising! Muriel Lee • Editor
Limes and Tigers and Berries, Oh my!
Creating Your Very Own Dog-friendly Garden
Well friends, it appears that despite
storming back in the proverbial room several more times and hitting us with, “Just one more thing!” Old Man Winter has finally had his say and left us for good. The daisies are peeking, the tulips are sprouting and it feels like the whole world is alive with Spring. And if your furry family members are anything like mine, they’re drifting towards the fissures of sunlight suddenly creeping through every window. It’s time to soak that vitamin D deep down into the marrow and enjoy what Mother Nature has to offer. And while we’re at it, why not roll up our sleeves and give her a hand? The seeds of a delicious summer are lying in wait and with a little care and careful planning, you and your dog can be enjoying your very own collection of caninefriendly edibles just in time for the really good weather!
Big or Small, makes no difference at all!
Just remember to: • Use organic soils • Place small rocks in your carton wells for drainage • Place herbs in a location where they will receive at least four hours of full sunlight
It’s important to double-check that none of the herbs you’re growing are toxic to pets (www.aspca.org/toxicplants), but some inexpensive and foolproof favorites include: • Cilantro
• Greek Oregano
Certain smaller vegetables can even be grown indoors and come with a whole host of health benefits too.
Whether you’ve got just a windowsill to work with or a sprawling country garden, there’s always space to indulge your pooch.
A little space. A lot of love. If you’re dealing with limited outdoor area and/or live in an urban setting, you can still take advantage of some fabulous grow-your-own options for those lovely little four-leggers of yours. Herbs are fabulous and inexpensive way to spoil your pets in a holistic way, and they require as few resources as a used egg carton, a spare bit of soil, and a few seeds from your local big-box store’s garden section.
Limes and Tigers and Berries oh my!
Garlic, for example, is a super immune booster and it’s quite easy to grow in grass form. Simply get yourself one of those plump little bulbs at the local grocery store and push the cloves under a quality soil, pointed sideup. Give those clever little cloves some sun, water and maybe a few melodic renditions of Luciano Pavarotti (as I can only assume that garlic cloves prefer Italian singers), and wah-lah---garlic grass!
• Snow Peas
A Pint-sized Plot of Earth
If you’ve got a little bit of outdoor space to work with and want to use that wee postage stamp exclusively for Fido (because, let’s face it, it’s all about the dogs), you just farmed yourself a whole new crop of possibilities! Even in tight quarters you can “branch” out (*giggles*) to some larger herbs and even a healthy array of veggies too! While there are more dog-friendly outdoor herbs than meets the curious Cairn Terrier eye, a few of our favorites include:
If you’re one of the fortunate few who have ample outdoor space to work with and/or an existing garden, you’re probably working with a totally different animal (a.k.a. Gardenzilla!). In this scenario you may be eyeing a bigger crop and/or incorporating a doggie garden into human one, or vice versa. This gives you a squash-load of options (*giggles, even harder*) and probably just as many headaches! While you can now shine up your green thumb to grow such large, dog-friendly delicacies as:
• Burdock herb (great for digestive and kidney issues)
• Milk thistle (good for liver disorders)
• Winter Squash
• Peppermint (useful for indigestion and nausea)
• Astragalus herb (used for lowering blood pressure, decreasing blood sugar, improving digestion, and promoting healing)
• And better yet, since even outdoor herbs don’t take up much space, you should still have room left for a few vivacious veggies. Some smaller, pooch-palatable varieties include:
• Summer Squash • Kale • Swiss Chard • Asparagus
you’ll also need to inventory anything else that winds its way into your garden in order to ensure that it’s dog-friendly. Creating a joint human/doggie garden or dog-proofing your existing garden means that you’ll need to be hyper-vigilant about each and every plant, shrub and veggie within your curious canine’s reach. Seemingly innocuous and oft-beautiful gifts from Mother Nature can turn deadly in the wrong paws! Even our title subjects, for instance (limes, tiger lilies, and many berries) can be toxic to dogs. Other commonly planted and enjoyed garden favorites like: • Aloe Vera
• (many) Fruit Trees
• (many) Nut Trees
are also bad news for Beagles, Beaucerons, and every pooch in between! There are, however, many dog-friendly garden staples that are sure to grow on you. For hearty shrubberies that won’t be mangled by even the mightiest of paws, might we suggest? • Lilac
• Red-twig Dogwood
• Smoke tree
and for keeping that ground shielded and those paws clean, no doggie garden can do without stellar ground-cover plants like: • Elfin Thyme
• Labrador Violet
• Irish Mosh
• Snow in Summer
• Miniature Stonecrop
Remember too that something as simple as mulch can be dangerous to your dog. Cocoa bean or shell mulch is a perfect example of a material that seems entirely innocent, but can be toxic to your precious pup. And some wood mulches (especially those filled with tree oils) can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in dogs. Sticking with cedar, pine, or rubber mulch is typically a safe bet. Garden gnomes, on the other hand, are notoriously wicked and any variety whatsoever will surely spell a catastrophic end for both you and your pet. * *Disclaimer—This final fact is entirely fabricated and intended to leave you with a smile. Enjoy this time outdoors with your dog. Delicious days and sunny rays await you both!
Sources Cited: https://pettao.com/best-plants-edible-garden-for-pets/ www.aspca.org/toxicplants https://www.petmd.com/dog/wellness/evr_multi_ herb_n_living https://dengarden.com/gardening/Dog-Friendly-Garden https://www.epicgardening.com/pet-safe-garden/
Artist Interview…Mary Beacon
Mary has always had a natural love and affinity for dogs since childhood, particularly the Irish Terriers in her younger life. Her boundless love for dogs and her passion for art began at an early age. From the moment her fingers could grasp a crayon her gift to transform her imagination to paper was evident. Her appetite to share her creativity, from the whimsical to the classic portrait, has never ceased. It is only natural that she would forge a relationship between dogs and art that would endeavor to define her life’s passion. In 1977 Mary moved to Chicago to study at the Chicago Art Institute. She continued her studies at the Scottsdale Artists School, The Art Students League of Denver and continues with workshops and mentorships under several well-known Artists. Currently her studio is near Charlottesville, Virginia, which she shares with her ever-present and inspirational Smooth Fox Terriers. Many have come to recognize Mary as a respected and collected canine artist, most notably known for her depiction of Terriers in oil. She states, “I love the terrier temperament, their
attitude, and their love of mischief, whether good or not so good!” While dogs, especially Terriers, are a recurring theme, she does paint many other subjects including figurative, landscapes, and animals. ‘When I am choosing what to paint, I let the subject and setting help me decide how to approach a painting. Some subjects and lighting ask for a dark dramatic approach (i.e., Wire Fox Terrier), while other subjects and lighting suggest a light-filled, more color saturated, effect (i.e., Westie). Mary’s artwork can be seen in person at her booth every year at the Montgomery County Kennel Club dog show. “I am currently working on several large, new Terrier paintings, which can be seen and will only be available at my booth at the MCKC show. My paintings can also be purchased online through my new artist page on Facebook (Mary Beacon Artist) beginning in April, and also online through website (marybeacon.com).” Mary is a member of the Society of Animal Artists, Oil Painters of America, and the American Impressionist Society.
TerrierGroup Interview with artist Mary Beacon
TerrierGroup Interview with artist Mary Beacon
Bergit Coady Kabel Bergit Coady Kabel has been a well-known figure around the terrier ring for many years, and this year she has made the move from professional handler to AKC judge of the terrier group. For an in-depth interview with Bergit and her handling days, you can check out Purebred Talk, Podcast #178, under People and Places. Bergit was born in Southern Germany, found her interest in dogs at a very young age and started working for a local dog grooming shop when still a youngster. She began by learning the rudiments of the trade - cleaning teeth and ears, bathing and expressing anal glands. Upon graduation from high school she was interested in working full time for the grooming shop, but since they didnâ€™t need another employee they sent her to England where she worked for Elsie Meyers and the Reanda kennels. She spent two years with Elsie and Reanda before coming to America (fifty years ago!) to work for Betty Malinka and the Sandoone Kennels.
TG: When you went to the Reanda Kennels it must have been a big change for you from working in the grooming shop in Germany. What did you learn there? BCK: In England at Reanda most of my time was spent caring for the dogs as well as learning every aspect of breeding, whelping and trimming. We usually had about 25 adult Scotties and 15 plus puppies of different ages. Needless to say, the action was non-stop! 24
Mrs. Meyer was knowledgeable, smart, hardworking and driven. I will be forever grateful for all she taught me and all she instilled in me about a lot of things, not just about Scottish Terriers. She decided that I should also learn about West Highland White Terriers as well. Close by lived a well-known Westie breeder who allowed me to come once a month and spend a day learning her grooming techniques for a Westie. Mrs. Meyer also did not mind that on my days off I would hop her fence and spend the day in her neighbor’s racing Greyhound kennel. I worked and learned how to train young Greyhound puppies to chase rabbits, and after a while they took me along to the racetracks outside of London. I became a groom – the one who leads dogs around the track and puts them in the starting box – wearing velvet cap and all! I also whelped Greyhound litters, which came mostly at night, of course, and helped with breedings. Mrs. Meyers’ beautiful Reanda Scottish Terriers were shown by a talented handler named George Barr, and eventually I was taken to dog shows as well. Mrs. Meyer allowed me to bring over a very good Westie from Germany, bred by friends of mine, Mr. and Mrs. Flerlage. I had shown “Bobby” in Europe before. Everywhere we went we created uproar in both Germany and England. George Barr wanted to show him (every handler wants to show a good dog…) and he told me that I would never be able to win with him, being a young, unknown kid and all. But I wanted to try and Bobby became an English champion within three months.
TG: Tell us about your years of working for Betty Malinka and your impression of the U.S. and the Chicago area. BCK: While working at Reanda many foreign Scottie breeders visited the kennel and that is how I met Betty Malinka. She invited me to come to America, a dream so big I could hardly grasp it at the time. After convincing my parents it would only be for a short time, I came to the U.S., along with Bobby, 52 years ago! Betty was a devout politician and city clerk of Gary, Indiana for 16 years. She owned a big, beautiful two level house at the Southern tip of
GCh Allaruth Just Kidding
Lake Michigan. Her Scotties lived in different parts of the house and there were runs on all levels. I took care of the dogs conditioning and trimmed them. In my memories are the walks in the sand along the beach – to the left one saw the stunning skyline of Chicago and to the right the impressive steel mills of Gary. Needless to say, with the sand the muscle tone of the dogs and the handler was excellent! Between Lake Michigan and Betty’s house were the Sandoones, hence her kennel name. All you had to
do was run through the sandoones and you could swim in Lake Michigan. I truly was in heaven! Betty liked to travel and liked dog shows, so off we went! I was able to show her beautiful Scotties and after a while she owned a Bobby daughter as well! Betty was a “people person” and through her I met a lot of dog people as well as some entertainers such as Harry Bellefonte, and Sammy Davis Jr. Due to her job Betty had to attend political dinners and sometimes she would take me along as well. While on the East coast we visited Mr. and Mrs. Brumby’s Rannoch Dune Kennel, with about 100 dogs, mostly Westies and some Scotties. We saw Blanche Reeg’s Blanart kennel as well as the Stalter’s Barbery Knowe kennel.
TG: By now, you were married to Clay Coady and made the move from the Midwest to Southern California. Did you find “change of scenery” helpful for the grooming and handling business? BCK: Clay and I met at dog shows. He was raised in Arizona and always wanted to move back West. We got married in 1970 and started our business outside of Chicago. Four years later we had established ourselves pretty well when the decision was made to move west. California was more central for dog shows than Arizona so Palmdale, California it was! The trigger to this question was not the “change of scenery” but the change of weather! I have to say that at the time I did not understand the weather, having grown up in Hamburg, the weather was the same in London and then a repeat in Chicago – I knew that weather was “shitty” all year round wherever you lived. I had NO idea what full time sunshine and blue sky could be like! The rude awakening came as quite a pleasant surprise and I hoped to never leave the West coast again. We were lucky to have clients who let their dogs come West with us, to give us a good start. In the show world we had to start from scratch, so to speak. Outstanding West coast handlers were reigning at the time, with names like Ric Chashoudian, Eddy Boyes, Corky Vroom and Daisy Austad, just to mention a few. We persevered and three years later, in 1977, we were able to buy Ric Chashoudian’s “Bonnie Briar” kennels in Sun Valley. Sadly, due to my illness, I had
Ch. Denbars Democrat of Sandoone
to sell the kennel exactly forty years after we bought it.
TG: You are known as a terrier handler but you have handled breeds in other groups. Why did you stay with the terriers and not become an “all-rounder” handling many different breeds in many groups? BCK: I enjoyed handling different breeds from different groups successfully, but the time factor always became a problem. Most all of the terriers that we showed stayed with us at the kennel, for weekly conditioning, coat work, as well as show trimming, so a client pays board and grooming fee as well as a handling fee. We had to make sure that we made it into the ring with their dog. It was always hard enough to deal with conflicts within the terrier breeds, yet to also have to worry about other breeds.
TG: You’ve always been a supporter of the Scottish Terrier Club of America and have given many grooming seminars around the country. Do you enjoy helping others – giving back to the breed? BCK: Yes, I have helped many people in the Scottie world as well as many other breeds. Trimming and conditioning takes time and if someone seriously
wants to pursue this as a hobby or more, it is worthwhile helping them. I have also helped clients understand how all the systems work at a dog show, as well as understanding the breed standards. I think you get more out of whatever you want to be involved in, if you understand all of it.
the veteran class in 2017 under Geri Kelly. That was the first show I made after my two years absence.
TG: You’ve had too many wins to even mention, but which one or two were the ones that stood out and gave you the most pleasure – and why?
TG: You were waylaid for a few years due to illness and during that time you must have given some thought to your future in dogs. What went through your mind when you thought about becoming an AKC judge?
BCK: The accomplishment that I am proudest of was the campaigning of Ted, an incredibly gorgeous Westie show dog. Clay and I had split up in 1990 and he moved back to Arizona, and I carried on at Bonnie Briar. We were used to finish between 45 and 55 dogs a year, besides campaigning specials. The co-breeders of Ted, whom I had never met and lived on the East Coast, called and said they had the right dog for me. So here came this stunning creature worthy of a great campaign. However, I was committed to all of the other dogs as well. Along with my able assistants at that time, we made a plan and followed it. We started Ted off in 1992 with a goal of 51 best in shows, and in 1993 Ted was number four all breeds, and finished his career with 51 best in shows and 146 group firsts. We took one weekend off that year. Ted ended up the second top winning Westie of all time, plus I finished 45 champions as well in 1993.
We have always been fortunate to have had the opportunity to show many good dogs in many breeds, for appreciative and wonderful clients. Truly, all wins were treasured.
BCK: I had never been sick in my life and this came as a complete shock. I was out of commission for two years and in the beginning did not know what to think or expect. I was hoping to return to my normal life which I loved as a handler and working in our kennel. Little by little I realized that I had to be grateful with my outcome and had to abandon my dreams. I did not know if I would like judging, but after my Great Western assignments last year, I realized that I liked it.
My ten Scottish Terrier best of breed wins at Montgomery County count as my top wins as well. Winning best in show number thirteen in 2013 under Toddy Clark in Indianapolis also stood out. To break the all-time best in show record for Miniature Schnauzers with was incredible, too. We went best of breed two days later at Westminster under Chris Erikson, Swedish judge, (??) was exciting, as well as best of breed at Montgomery from Ch. Holyrood’s Hotspur O’Shelly Bay
TG: And one of your first assignments was judging Scottish Terriers at the 2018 Montgomery County show! What were your thoughts when you stood in the center of the ring, in the ring where you must have shown Scotties for 30 or more years? BCK: It was like “heaven on earth!” An entire day, at the most prestigious terrier show on earth, surrounded by all people I love, in and out of the ring, judging 135 gorgeous Scottish terriers! My ‘heart breed’, all in good spirit and condition. What more could one want? I hoped that, from up above, all of my mentors of the past watched and were proud of me.
TG: Congratulations, Bergit! You’ve come a long ways from the time you were a little girl in Germany and walked the neighbor’s dog, to standing at the center of the Scottish Terrier ring at Montgomery County!
Editor – many thanks, Bergit for this informative, readable and enjoyable interview! The only way it could have been better is if we were sitting together and enjoying a glass of wine while talking. Bergit and I met fifty years ago, shortly after she came to the U.S. My mentor, John Sheehan of Scottish Terriers said after he introduced me to Bergit, “Watch this one – she’s going to be great!” It’s hard to believe where the time has gone – and with many changes for both of us.
Gr Ch. Blueberry’s Attitude Dancing 2004, 2005 BB Montgomery County Kennel Club • 2007 – Top Terrie 2008 – Best of Breed, from Veteran’s class, Montgomery County
Percy Roberts The Dog Man of the Twentieth Century If you showed dogs prior to 1970 you knew who Percy Roberts was and you had probably shown under him. He came from the time of the Great Dog Men. You don’t hear that expression much anymore so what IS a “great dog man?” This is a man (and now more women are included as, fortunately, times have changed) who was an individual that was involved in dogs in every area of his life. He knew his breeds and was constantly studying and appraising dogs; he spent time talking to breeders about their breed and watched other judges while they were judging dogs. He knew that there was always something new to be learned and a great dog to be found. Percy Roberts was born in England in 1881 into a family where his father was a knowledgeable individual who dealt in horses, selling the good ones to the English upper classes. At a very young age, Percy decided that he had an interest in horses but he had a greater interest in dogs and from there he started upon his lifelong career.
He came to the United States in 1913 and was almost immediately known
as a professional handler and an importer of top British dogs. Dressed as a dapper Englishman he had an ability to promote himself, and to the end of his life he maintained his English look. He had an astounding knowledge of dogs and an eye to find the best specimens from abroad and to bring them back to his elite clientele of wealthy Americans. And at that time, the wealthy were the ones who made up the sport in America, and the ones who craved and could afford the best from the British shores. The breed of dog he imported made little difference, but he always looked for the best being offered in a specific breed, always keeping in mind a possible buyer in the U.S. However, terriers were his favorite and he imported a number that became stars in the ring. Of course, these stars were found at the end of Percy’s leash.
In 1926 he won the Westminster Kennel Club show with the imported Wire Fox Terrier, Ch. Signal Circuit of Halleston, owned by Halleston Kennels in Chappaqua, NY. However before he won BIS he had to defeat 200 Fox Terriers in the breed ring, which was by far the largest entry in the show. In 1927 he won Westminster again with the imported Sealyham Terrier, Ch. Pinegrade Perfection owned by Frederic C. Brown. In 1934 Percy notched up his third
Westminster BIS with the English bred Wire Fox Terrier, Ch. Beau Brummel of Wildoaks, owned by Stanley Halle, second BIS Westminster win for this owner. His fourth BIS at Westminster came in 1937 with another English bred Wire Fox Terrier, and again owned by Stanley Halle of Halleston Kennels. Four best in shows at Westminster! It took many years before anyone repeated this feat, and that was Peter Green.
In 1950 Roberts made the move from handler and kennel manager to judging dogs and immediately became a popular judge. His knowledge and advice was highly sought after and even while judging he imparted bits of information to those showing under him. My first Scottish Terrier came from a breeding he suggested at a show he was judging in the Midwest. Upon In 1965, at her last WKC show as a handler, awarding the ribbons he said to the Annie Clark won the Non-Sporting Group under Judge Percy Roberts owner of the best of winners bitch, “When she comes into season, breed her to this dog.” (The best of breed dog.) She did Although Roberts was very active in the show ring just that and that was the breeding that my first he also had time for marriage and a home in Scottie came from. Noroton, Ct. He loved his family, his wife Esetelle and two daughters, and Anne Rogers Clark wrote, “Percy was first a worked hard to support great horseman, and a very great stockman. them . His wife was an When he went into dogs as a kennel manager attractive helpmate, taking and handler, he imported care of correspondence and and sold dogs. Percy was the books and also holding always looking for a dog of dogs at ringside when any breed to upgrade the necessary. existing quality of that
Percy Roberts breed. He was a top flight Terrier man, but also a great Whippet and Greyhound man, and a Poodle person. When he hung up his lead and donned his tailor-made judging outfits, he carried over to the woolsack his ideals that had stood him in good stead as an importer – classic type and an animal that can benefit the breed at this point in time. What a lesson to take as an aspiring judge.” In 1967 he judged The Westminster Kennel Club show, putting up the English import Scottish Terrier Ch. Bardene Bingo, handled by Bob Bartos, for best in show.
Percy Roberts retired from judging and died in 1977. However, his story did not end there. Percy could almost be considered a pack rat as he saved everything that passed through his hands, and upon his death his huge assortment of boxes holding his mementos of the years passed on to one of his daughters where they were stored for nearly thirty years in the upper level of a barn in Virginia. After her death the property was bought by developers and Percy’s vast collection of dog photographs, diaries, pins, catalogs, correspondence, etc. were put up for auction. Leandar Little wrote in a Canine Chronicle article in February 2013 about how Kerrin Winston-Churchill, a breeder and writer, discovered the treasure trove, now owned by a couple who were ready to sell the collection piecemeal. It was not an easy task to purchase the collection as the dealers were asking a price of $100,000. However, in time Kerrin formed a friendship with the dealers and they eventually dropped the price to something reasonable and do-able. The Western Reserve Kennel Club has been a supporter of the Cleveland Public Library’s Dog Collection with an annual donation. Churchill made a proposal to the library, with the WRKC advocacy, that the library purchase the collection to add to their Dog Collection. In 2008 the library approved the funds to purchase the collection and it became a permanent part of the Cleveland Public Library’s Dog Collection, available to anyone who has an interest in Percy Robert and his lifetime in dogs.
Percy Roberts – a gentleman who made a huge impact on the American dog show scene for six decades.
1964 Beverly Hills KC - Kerry Ble Terrier, CH Melbees Chances Are handled by Ric Chashoudian
Collection of correspondence, photographs, and ephemera of noted show dog handler, trainer, and judge, Percy Roberts Available through the Cleveland Public Library’s Dog Collection Collection includes photographs of various show dogs and images of Percy Roberts personal life and career. The collection contains over five hundred photographs beginning with images from the 1920’s up through the late 1970’s. All major dog photographers are represented including Thomas Fall, Harry Hedges and Company (official photographers to the Royal Family), Percy T. Jones, William Brown, DePaulo, Joan Ludwig, Evelyn Schafer and the immortal Rudolph Tauskey. Also contained in the collection is a large amount of personal correspondence between Roberts and his many customers - the bulk of which are from the year 1928. Included also in the collection are stud books from the English Kennel Club as well as a handful of marked dog show catagologues and many holiday greeting cards from Roberts friends and fans from all over the United States.
ATTENTION ALL-TERRIER CLUBS We know you are out there! As the editor of TerrierGroup magazine I’m interested in doing a series of articles on how all-breed terrier only clubs got their start and when and who were the founding members. I would also like to know how active your club is with monthly meetings and shows. And what do you include in your show in addition to conformation judging? I would love to run a series of these articles, but I need to know which clubs are interested and who to contact.
SOURCES: Annie on…Dogs! by Anne Rogers Clark Cannine Chronicle, February 2013 Dogs in Review, January, 2009, April 2009, 2009 Annual The Dog Show: 125 Years of Westminster, by William Stifel
Send me information and I will get to work! Muriel Lee, editor TerrierGroup
You can find me at email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org or 763-566-6795
Native Irish Terriers The Pluck of the Irish I had the good luck this year to spend my St Patrick’s Day at the Dublin Show Centre attending the traditional opening day show for the Irish Kennel Club. Ireland is passionate about their purebreds and understandably proud of the nine native Irish breeds. A feature of the show is a parade of the best of breed winners along with a wee bit of breed history with trivia woven in. It got me thinking about the terriers of Ireland - the Kerry Blue, the Irish, the Glen of Imaal and the Soft Coated Wheaten, and the characteristics that distinguish them from the bulk of the other terriers of the British Isles.
In Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) terriers were bred to be specialists at vermin eradication and hunting of small mammals in specific terrain, and often after specific quarry. They frequently burrowed underground or in the rocks in pursuit of quarry…thus a small, short legged earth dog was highly valued. In contrast from parts of the Britsh Isles, Ireland terriers acted as generalists so the typical “form follows function” dictum doesn’t fit. Irish farmers used terriers for a variety of purposes including vermin control, driving livestock, herding sheep, hunting, guarding property, companionship and even “nanny duties.” Glen of Imaal Terriers from Abberann Glens • Theresa Nesbitt
For modern-day working terriers, only the Glen of Imaal is permitted to compete in American Working Terrier trials and the Kerry Blue and Soft Coated Wheatens are allowed to compete in AKC Herding Dog trials. The native breeds of Ireland include the dogs of the gentry - a sighthound (Irish Wolfhound), a scent hound (the foxhound sized Kerry Beagle), the gun dogs (Red Setter, Red and White Setter and Irish Water Spaniel) - as well as the farm dogs of the peasantry and poor. These farm dogs evolved into the modern Irish Terrier breeds. It’s an undeniable truth that the 800 years of English rule and subsequent Irish rebellions influenced the development of the terriers of Ireland. This began with the Norman invasion in 1171, but there was only minimal impact on the native canine population until a much later date.
stayed an old-fashioned breed as stated in their standard “Unrefined to this day, the breed still possesses “antique” features once common to many early terrier types.” It wasn’t just soldiers that Cromwell left behind after reconquering Ireland. As a devout protestant Cromwell instated the “penal laws” which sowed the seeds of religious divisiveness that has plagued Ireland for centuries. The Penal laws are very much like apartheid except instead of suppressing the majority population with extremely punitive edicts based on race, the penal laws subjugated the majority Irish Catholic population using religion. Penal laws barred Catholics from owning land, voting, holding public office, possession of firearms or serving in the armed forces, and teaching. The Irish peasantry was not allowed to own a horse or a
In 1649 Commander Oliver Cromwell brought his “New Model Army” to Ireland to quash still another Irish insurrection. Cromwell was permitted to compensate soldiers with Irish land. It’s likely that this is how the single retrogene common to all achondroplastic breeds (Bassett Hounds, Corgis, Dachshunds, etc.) ended up in Ireland. The Glen of Imaal Terrier is the only dwarf breed native to Ireland. It’ s believed to be a very old breed that existed in geographic seclusion in the Glen (valley) of Imaal nestled in the Wicklow mountains. Undisturbed by outside influences the modern Glen of Imaal Terrier has Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier (right) Bluestar Wheatens Jennifer Langguth • Orla Fire of the Hearth showing proper Irish coat (below) - Nancy Draper.
Native Irish Breeds
dog worth more than five pounds, or to own any dog over 19 inches at the shoulder. Dog ownership was also heavily taxed and proof of payment was a docked tail. As a result, dogs owned by the farmers and fisherman of Ireland tended to be medium-sized with short or docked tails. They performed a variety of duties, a veritable jack of all trades. What developed over time were several geographic clusters of landrace “terriers” that with selective breeding became the longlegged terriers of Ireland. The first clear example of this was the development of the Irish Terrier near Belfast. The racy red daredevil dog we know today was heavily influenced by the dedicated efforts of William Graham. He promoted his distinctive terriers at so many dog shows outside of Ireland that he became known as the “Irish Ambassador.”
The Irish Terrier Standard was drawn up in 1879. The breed enjoyed great popularity in Ireland and England and were the first members of t he terrier group to be recognized by the British Kennel Club as a native Irish Breed. The first Irish Terrier was exhibited at Westminster in 1881, when the American Kennel Club officially recognized the breed. The breed was felt to be quintessentially Irish - fiery in looks and temperament - earning them the nickname that has lasted centuries - “The Daredevil.” But the worldwide appeal of the Irish Terrier soon took on a more ominous tone; they became the dog most closely associated with World War I. It began when retired British officer Colonel Edwin Richardson considered that dogs could be quite useful on the battlefield, particularly in delivering messages. They were faster and more agile than human soldiers and were much harder to catch or kill. In 1917 Richardson established a War Dog School in association with the British War Office. Col. Richardson believed Irish Terriers to be the ideal war dog - spirited, brave and intelligent. They were highly recruited and beloved by the troops. They were called “Micks” and they served as more than messengers. In the grim trenches these entertaining charmers did much to boost morale. The popularity and service of the Irish Terrier proved a near death sentence for the breed
Irish Terriers from Thunder Winds Kennel
in the aftermath of the war. Over 200,000 Irish soldiers fought for the Allies under British leadership, but Irish Nationalism was at a peak in the wake of the Easter Rising in 1916. Neither the humans nor the brave red dogs faced a warm welcome back in their homeland. Meanwhile, in the rest of Great Britain, the distinctive Irish Terrier became a symbol of a war they wanted to put behind them.
Michael Collin’s passion for the Kerry Blues resulted in a huge surge in popularity that continued for many years after his death. Following the success of the Blue Terrier Show in Dublin in 1920, the club decided to have an all-breed show the following year on Saint Patrick’s Day. There was an entry of more than 250 Kerry Blue Terriers - certainly an enviable number today!
The sharp decline in Irish Terrier numbers was balanced by a massive burst in the popularity of the Kerry Blue Terriers. At this time the Kerries were closely associated with the struggle for Irish Independence. The Blue Terrier Club formed in 1918 became a convenient meeting place for many of Ireland’s young revolutionaries. The club held their first show in Dublin in 1920. The show was notable in that one of the exhibitors was the notorious insurgent Michael Collins who had a £10,000 price on his head.
The show was momentous for two reasons. First of all, it was held without the required license from the British Kennel Club. Secondly, it took place on the same day that the British Club held their own show in Dublin. The all-breed show was a smashing success. The Blue Terrier Club became the Irish Kennel Club. Every year the Irish dog show season opens with the St. Paddy’s Day show in Dublin - the tradition I was so thrilled to attend this year.
In the following year, Michael Collins signed the Anglo-Irish Treaty on behalf of the provisional Irish Government, ending British rule in the 26 counties of Ireland. It took only months before a bitter civil war broke out in Ireland. Collins found himself fighting against many of his old comrades in arms, but he still found time to draft papers to officially recognize the Kerry Blue Terrier as Ireland’s national dog. These plans, as well as many others, ended with the assassination of Collins in 1922.
Kerry Blue Terriers from Turbo Kerry Blue Terriers
On the Burial of a Favorite Pet’s Remains Our last dog, Ch. Bushaway Bijou Lefox, a French Bulldog, died in 2010 at the age of fourteen, old for a Frenchie. He had been the perfect pet as he was smart, good looking, healthy, fast and fun. He was our second Frenchie after years of Scotties and some cats, and he left this world as mannerly and as easily as he had lived in it. He took ill about five PM and I held him until my husband came home from work. We placed him in his bed in the bedroom and kept an eye on him until about 2:00 AM and my husband said, “He’s gone.” We had him cremated and kept his ashes in a special porcelain box for a few years while deciding what to do with the remains. When our new garden was settled in we decided to place his ashes in the garden (near where he liked to lift his leg) and set about finding a marker for him. I looked online and found only two monument businesses in our area and called St May’s, where we had purchased a statue some years earlier. “No way can we do a marker so small.” I then called the Jewish monument company and was told that if I could find a piece of granite that small, they would do the engraving.
I again checked online and found a granite shop in our neighborhood, and filled out a handy email box that was on the site. “I need a piece of granite 5” x 5” and left my phone number. Within minutes I had a phone call and the answer was, “Sorry, five feet by five feet is way too small for us.” “Oh, no,” I said, “I just want a five inch piece.” “Why on earth do you want a piece so small” and I told them what it was for. They loved it and said, “Come on by and pick out any sample you want” and we did just that. We then went to the monument office, closed Friday afternoons, and standing among the huge engraved monuments that were waiting to go out, we presented our little piece of granite…and they were impressed…so small! We noted what we wanted on it and then came the comment, “Ah, he lived fourteen years.” We made our down payment and then waited. And waited. The garden faded and still no marker. I called and said, “Where is our marker?” and the return phone call told us that it was so small that it had been lost in the truck. We picked up our marker but winter had set in so we waited until the following July, when the garden was at its peak and then placed the marker in its spot. We had another couple over who loved Bijou and we had a little ceremony in the garden, and we all put a portion of Bijou’s ashes in the prepared ground. We gave him a toast with champagne and, of course, being a Frenchie, this was his favorite. Such a nice memory for such a wonderful pet. Often in the summer mornings when I go into the garden I give Bijou a little “Good morning!” And thank him for his wonderful memories.
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Dr. Lonnie L. Davis, DVM, DABVP (Canine/Feline) with Dr. Nancy P. Melone, Ph.D.
X-ray Positioning in OFA Hip Dysplasia Grading: The Devil is in the Details! Abstract. Hip dysplasia, a debilitating orthopedic disease, affects many breeds, particularly large and giant breeds. Consequently, hip grading and hip certification of purebred dogs has become increasingly important to breeders, pet owners, and veterinarians alike in efforts to reduce the disease. A correct diagnosis of hip dysplasia is essential when a breeder evaluates breeding stock, a veterinarian advises dog owners, or a pet owner considers treatments and therapies for the family dog. This article discusses the detrimental impact that an incorrectly positioned X-ray can have on the accurate diagnosis of hip dysplasia or hip grading and certification. The case is explored empirically in a study of 200 dogs initially submitted to OFA for hip grading and then resubmitted to OFA after follow-up X-rays were taken using the Precise Positioning Technique® developed by the first author. These data show the importance of correct positioning in capturing the true anatomical structure of the dog on the X-ray for the purpose of accurately identifying canine hip dysplasia. Breeders make substantial reputational, emotional, and financial investments in the dogs associated with their breeding programs. Campaigning an outstanding show dog over a period of time to develop a reputation can cost well over $250,000. Providing quality veterinary care for brood bitches, stud dogs, and their litters also carries a hefty price tag. Layered on top of this are the costs associated with finding the right stud dog, collecting and shipping semen, progesterone testing for the bitch to ensure precise timing for insemination, and the occasional emergency C-section. 42
Like responsible breeders, responsible pet owners also make emotional and financial investments in their pets. Pet owners depend on their breeders to look out for their interests as careful stewards of the breed. At the top of the pet owner’s list of desires is that their pet be healthy and free of debilitating disease or defects that might shorten or compromise the pet’s life. Similarly, pet owners rely on their veterinarian to recognize, correctly diagnose, and if need be help them monitor and manage the disease. Obviously, not all breeds confront the same health issues; therefore different breeds require different tests depending on the prevalence of disease or defect in the breed and the existence and quality of tests for those diseases or defects. Indeed, an entire industry has grown up around the development of canine health tests, the analysis of test results, and the certification of health status based on the evaluation of test outcomes. Hip dysplasia affects many breeds, particularly the large and giant breeds. Hence, hip grading and hip certification of purebred dogs has become increasingly important to breeders and veterinarians over the last 40 years in their efforts to reduce the incidence of the disease.1
Canine Hip Registries in the US There are two recognized authorities in the US for evaluating canine hip dysplasia. The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA), the oldest authority in the US, is recognized both nationallyand internationally. More recently, PennHIP, now associated with Antech, also has
developed a method for evaluating hip dysplasia. While the approaches used by these two organizations differ, both have similar goals (evaluate hip dysplasia), and both rely on radiographs as inputs into their evaluation processes. In both cases, the quality of the radiograph plays a major role in determining the accuracy of the evaluation. In this paper, we focus only on processes and methods used by OFA. In existence for over 40 years, OFA is recognized as the final judgment for most official breeds on whether a dog is free from hip dysplasia and is therefore a candidate for breeding or whether the dog has hip dysplasia and the breeder should consider removing it from their breeding program. Dogs with hips determined to be free of hip dysplasia can receive OFA grades of “excellent,” “good,” or “fair”; it is from this group of passing dogs that most breed clubs recommend selecting breeding bitches or stud dogs. PennHIP provides a numerical sliding scale comparing dogs of the same breed. Unfortunately, not all dogs are free from hip dysplasia. For those dogs showing evidence of hip dysplasia, such as remodeling of the femoral head or neck, the grades given by OFA will vary depending on the severity of the disorder. Failing OFA grades include “borderline,” “mild,” “moderate,” and “severe” dysplasia. The mode of inheritance for hip dysplasia is not known but thought to be polygenic (i.e., involving multiple genes), and so the recommendation for dogs with failing grades is drastic. Dysplastic dogs should be removed from breeding programs to avoid passing the disorder on to future generations, however it is passed.
Ensuring Accurate Diagnosis and Grading of Hip Dysplasia
its frequency. While there are many ways in which integrity can be compromised, the major areas where problems can occur are at the points of (1) capturing the anatomical structure of the hip as a radiographic image and (2) evaluating that image for the purpose of diagnosis or awarding or rejecting certification. This paper focuses primarily on the former, particularly on the importance of correct positioning in capturing the true anatomical structure of the dog on the radiograph for the purpose of identifying canine hip dysplasia. An OFA radiologist who receives a poor quality X-ray from a veterinarian has two options: attempt to read the X-ray anyway or reject it. Indeed, OFA rejects some of the X-rays it receives from veterinarians. Both processes (image capture and image evaluation) require the skills of veterinarians and radiologists with significant experience and expertise and an eye for detail. Where such skill at either stage is not present, the results can lead to errors in the identification of hip dysplasia and the failure to obtain certification on a valuable animal.
The Dilemma of the Failing Hip Grades Because orthopedic disease and defects can marginalize a dog’s quality of life, breeders, pet owners, and veterinarians have integrity of the tools and processes used to diagnose and reduce
Observation over 40 years of performing up to 400 hip radiographs annually revealed an interesting dilemma. Breeders and owners who Summer 2019
X-ray Hip Positioning in OFA Hip Dysplasia Grading
were referred to the first author’s practice reported that their dogs had received failing OFA hip grades, yet the dogs showed no signs or symptoms of dysplasia, and their lines had no history of the disorder. These breeders were distraught and at a loss to understand why their dogs were failing. To better understand the underlying causes for these failures, the practice took new radiographs of some of these failed dogs and submitted them again to OFA. This time the majority of these previously failed dogs received passing hip grades. How could the same dog go from being dysplastic to passing? To the extent a dog’s hip grade would change over time, the normal expectation is that the hip grade would become worse rather than better. That was clearly not what was happening. What could explain the improvement in hip grades? If one questions the likelihood of the true anatomy of hips going from failing (dysplastic) to passing, there is only one plausible explanation for these results—an error in image capture or in image evaluation. Because image capture is the input into the image evaluation process, it is logical to focus there first.
the stifle joints. It is essential, particularly in marginal cases, to obtain proper position and radiographic technique.2 This ventrodorsal position is endorsed by the American Veterinary Medical Association and the American Animal Hospital Association. While the description seems straightforward, the rounded anatomy of the dog’s back complicates the process. Unlike human beings, who have a relatively flat back that can be placed symmetrically and stably on an X-ray table, the dog’s back tends to roll to one side or the other, causing it to move out of symmetry. While the dog may appear visually on the table to be symmetric, a review of the radiograph taken in that position may indicate that the dog was not correctly positioned. The only way to tell that the dog is symmetrically positioned on the table is to look at the actual X-ray. Often this requires taking more than one X-ray. Figure 1 shows a hip radiograph that is relatively close to correct symmetric positioning. The dog whose hips are depicted in this radiograph received an OFA “excellent” hip score.
Positioning of the Dog to Produce an Anatomically True Hip Image An accurate assessment of hip conformation begins with correct positioning of the dog so that the image captured for evaluation is that of the dog’s true hip anatomy. Errors in hip grading can occur easily if positioning is not done correctly. For that reason, OFA is quite specific on what is required of the veterinary staff taking the radiographs: In this standard hip extended position (ventrodorsal view), the animal is placed on its back with the pelvis symmetrical, both femurs extended and parallel, and with the stifles (knees) rotated internally placing the patellas (knee caps) on the midline. The radiograph should include the last two lumbar vertebra and
Figure 1: Example of close-to-symmetric positioning of hips on radiograph submitted to OFA and graded “excellent”
Research on how people become experts suggests that a veterinarian who takes many of these hip X-rays (e.g., more than 100 per year) is more likely to do a better job of recognizing an asymmetric radiograph that should be retaken over someone who takes only a few hip X-rays per year. Experience with specific breeds might be useful as well. A caveat worth noting is while expertise is virtually impossible to acquire without considerable practice, practice alone does not always produce an expert.3 These notions on expertise also apply in grading and evaluation of X-rays, but that is not the topic of this paper.4
Recognizing Incorrect Positioning Correct positioning of the dog during X-rays is important in obtaining an accurate evaluation of the hip joint. Figure 2 illustrates the various anatomical elements involved in evaluating the joint for hip dysplasia. The normal hip socket should look on X-ray like a tightly curved letter “C” that curves over the femoral head (ball of the hip). A shallow hip socket looks more like a parenthesis (i.e., showing less curve). When the pelvis of a dog with normal hips is not parallel with the X-ray table, the resulting X-ray can yield an inaccurate evaluation and make it appear that the dog has
Femoral Heads in Acetabula
subluxation in one or both hip joints when it does not. In layperson’s terms, an X-ray in which the left hip and right hip are at different heights from the X-ray table (i.e., they are not equidistant from the surface of the X-ray table) can make it appear that the femoral head (ball) of the hip joint is not seated deeply enough in the acetabulum (hip socket) on one or both sides of the hip. This incorrectly tilted pelvis can also create the appearance of an acetabulum (socket) that is too shallow. Ideally, if the dog is positioned levelly on the table, the obturator foramina, the two large openings created by the ischium and pubis bones of the pelvis, seen on both sides of the spine, are roughly symmetric (i.e., both openings are of equal size and shape). In addition, the femurs (thigh bones) should be roughly parallel with each other. One should not carry false hope regarding the power of correct positioning if a dog is truly dysplastic. If a dog has remodeling of the femoral head, remodeling of the femoral neck (the bone connecting the ball to the femur or thigh) or osteophytes (arthritic calcium deposits), the dog is dysplastic, and no amount of positioning or repositioning will suggest otherwise. In contrast, the question being asked here is: did the dog fail ONLY because of subluxation and/or shallow acetabula? If a dog fails on either or both of these defects, one should re-evaluate the position of the dog in the original X-ray closely to see if this could be an incorrect interpretation that resulted from poor positioning. An example illustrates the point.
Pelvis Pubis Ischium Obturator foramina Figure 2: Canine Hip Anatomy
The two X-rays in Figures 3a and 3b show a comparison of the same dog (as verified by microchip). The first image (Figure 3a) is that of the digital X-ray originally submitted to OFA by the other veterinarian and provided to the dog’s owner. The second image (Figure 3b) is a new film of the same dog taken by the first author using the Precise Positioning Technique®5 and subsequently submitted to OFA. Both films were accepted and read by OFA and issued official grades. Compare these X-rays with the OFA guidelines
X-ray Hip Positioning in OFA Hip Dysplasia Grading
Figure 3a: Original X-ray (by another clinic) graded by OFA as “mildly dysplastic” (failed)
An Empirical Study of the Impact of Incorrect Positioning on OFA Hip Grades Data and Method Two hundred purebred dogs of various breeds participated in the study. Radiographic and OFA grade data were collected for each dog over a period from June 14, 2010, to May 24, 2014. All dogs in the study had had previous X-rays submitted, accepted and graded by OFA. Of the 200 dogs in this study, 163 had previously received non-passing grades of “borderline,” “mild hip dysplasia,” or “moderate hip dysplasia”; 35 had received a passing grade of “fair”; and 2 had received grades of “good.” For each of the 200 dogs new follow-up X-rays using the Precise Positioning Technique®5 developed by the first author were taken. The new X-rays were subsequently submitted to, accepted, and graded by OFA.
Results The results of the study for dogs previously receiving failing hip grades (severe, moderate, mild, or borderline) are shown in Table 1. The numbers and percentages In Table 1 in the white cells indicate instances in which 46
Figure 3b: Second (retaken) X-ray of same dog as in Figure 3a submitted and regraded by OFA as “good” (passed)
there were no hip grade changes from the previous X-ray to the new X-ray using the Precise Positioning Technique®; those in tan cells indicate the instances in which there were improvements in hip grades; and those in the red cells indicate instances in which hip grades worsened. Of the 163 who had previously failed (i.e., were diagnosed as dysplastic) based on the original X-rays, 104 (63.8%) of these previously failed dogs went on to receive passing OFA hip grades based the new X-rays taken with Precise Positioning Technique®. The results for dogs previously receiving passing hip grades (fair or good) are also shown in Table 1. Focusing on the 35 X-rays of dogs that previously passed receiving grades of “fair,” 31 (88.5%) of these X-rays received improved OFA grades (in tan) based on the new X-rays using Precise Positioning Technique®. Of the 31 improved grades, 4 dogs (11.4%) improved from “fair” to “excellent” and 27 (77.1%) improved from “fair” to “good.” Three (8.6%) of the 35 dogs received the same “fair” grade and 1 was downgraded to “mildly dysplastic.” For the dogs that had previously received “fair” grades, there was an 88.5% improvement in hip grade based on the new X-ray. Both of the dogs that
Old OFA Grades X-Rays
New OFA Grades Moderate
2 (15.4%) 7 (53.8%)
7 (5.4%) 40 (30.8%)
2 (1.5%) 34 (26.2%) 45 (34.6%) 2 (1.5%) 10 (50%)
27 (77.1%) 4 (11.4%) 0 (0%)
Table 1: OFA hip grade changes after resubmission of new X-rays (Tan-filled boxes indicate improvements in hip grade; Red-filled boxes indicate worsening of hip grades; white boxes (with black borders) on the diagonal indicate no change in hip grade)
previously received a grade of “good” received improved grades of “excellent” based on the new X-rays. Of interest, only 45 (22.5%) of the 200 dogs in the study received the same grades on both the first X-ray submitted and the second X-ray submitted (i.e., the grades remained the same). Figure 4 shows the distribution of the actual grade-level changes (positive if improved, negative if worse, zero if no change) from the original X-ray to the Precise Positioning Technique® X-ray for all 200 dogs in the sample. If these changes were unbiased—i.e., solely the
result of random categorization errors in the original radiographs, the grade-level changes would have been symmetric around zero (no change). That is, the number of new grades that improved or became worse by one grade level should be similar to each other, as should those that changed by two grade levels, three grade levels, etc. The solid bars in Figure 4 show clearly that the preponderance of observations is in the direction of improved grades after the second X-ray with attention to positioning was submitted. Of the 163 dogs in the sample that received failing grades on the original
Percentage of the 200 dogs
30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%
Number of grade levels changed from original to new X-rays Figure 4: Graph of OFA grade changes after resubmission [(worse (-), same (0), better (+)] from original submission grade to resubmission grade
X-ray Hip Positioning in OFA Hip Dysplasia Grading
OFA hip evaluations with moderate, mild, or borderline hip dysplasia, 113 (69.3%) received improved grades when the new films were taken and submitted. Of these 113 dogs, fully 104 (92% of the 113, 63.8% of the 163) passed with fair, good, or excellent grades based on the new films. As mentioned above, had both the X-rays and evaluations been unbiased—that is, had the changes been due solely to random factors, the distribution of changes should have been roughly symmetric around “no change.” The data are not statistically consistent with this “no change” hypothesis. A statistical chi-square test confirms this strong visual observation; the likelihood of obtaining such a strong skew in the direction of improvement if all the changes from the original to the new radiograph and interpretation were random variations would be less than 1 chance in 100,000. These data show beyond any reasonable level of doubt the importance of correct positioning in capturing the true anatomical structure of the dog on the radiograph for the purpose of identifying canine hip dysplasia.
Discussion and Implications The results are alarming because based on the initial X-rays and erroneous hip grades, otherwise fine dogs may have been eliminated from further breeding or showing. Knowing whether a dog is truly dysplastic, and to what degree, is important in determining the dog’s value to breeding programs. Culling a dog from breeding because of inaccurate grades based on poorly taken X-rays and not the dog’s actual anatomy is genetically, economically, and emotionally costly. Similarly, an incorrect diagnosis of dysplasia can cause the family pet
owner to incur emotional costs as well as the financial costs of any medications, therapies, or surgeries that are not needed.
The Bottom Line Any decision about the future of a dog, whether for pet, performance or show purposes, must be based on accurate diagnostic information. The results in this study demonstrate the potential for erroneously removing dogs from exhibition or performance events based on an incorrect diagnosis of hip dysplasia when, in reality, the illusion of subluxation or dysplastic changes was the result of poor positioning of the dog in the X-ray. The data further demonstrate that many dogs receiving a passing grade of “fair” may benefit from new X-rays and resubmission as evidenced by the improvement in grade of 88% of the dogs in this study previously evaluated as fair. Obviously, if bone changes such as remodeling or arthritis are present, repeat X-rays will be of little to no value; however, for those dogs with reports indicating subluxation and/or shallow acetabulum only, breeders, owners, and handlers should seriously consider retaking new X-rays for submission with strict attention paid to positioning the dog according to published standards. For the canine world to achieve its goal of reducing the incidence of canine hip dysplasia in purebred dogs, breeders, owners, veterinarians, radiologists, breed clubs, and evaluation registries such as OFA and PennHIP must work together. By establishing training and certification programs for veterinarians, grading appeal processes and procedures for resubmitting X-rays as well as educational opportunities for all parties, including pet owners, the goal of Illustrations by Melanie Feldges©
reducing or eliminating hip dysplasia can be furthered, improving both the general health and quality of life for all of our dogs. Hou, Y., Wang, Y., Lu, X., Zhang, X., Zhao, Q., Todhunter, R.J., Zhang, Z., Monitoring Hip and Elbow Dysplasia Achieved Modest Genetic Improvement of 74 Dog Breeds over 40 Years in USA. PLOS ONE(www.ploseone.org), October 2013 (8:10) e76390. 1
Keller, G., The Use of Health Databases and Selective Breeding: A Guide for Dog and Cat Breeders and Owners (5th Edition). Columbia, MO: Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, 2006, pp. 16-17. 2
Lesgold A.M. Acquiring Expertise. In: Anderson J.R., Kosslyn S.M., eds. Tutorials in Learning and Memory: Essays in Honor of Gordon Bower. San Francisco, CA: Freeman, 1984, pp. 31-60. 3
Lesgold A., Rubinson H., Feltovich P., Glaser R., Klopfer D., Wang Y. Expertise in a Complex Skill: Diagnosing X-ray Pictures. In: Chi M.T.H., Glaser R., Farr M.J, eds. The Nature of Expertise. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988, pp. 311-41. 4
Davis, Lonnie. The Importance of Precise Positioning to Obtain an Accurate OFA Evaluation. Lakewood, CO: American Animal Hospital Association, 2012. DVD. 5
About the authors. Lonnie L. Davis, D.V.M., DABVP (Canine/Feline Specialty), a graduate of The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, began his career at Shively Animal Hospital in Louisville, KY. Three years later, he opened his own practice, Troy Animal Hospital, in Troy, OH. Submitting up to 400 orthopedic X-rays annually to various certifying registries worldwide, including OFA, PennHIP and the BVA (British Veterinary Association), Dr. Davis’ advice on hip and elbow X-ray evaluation is sought frequently by top breeders, owners, and handlers from around the world. He is a frequent speaker at various breed clubs, breed universities, and national specialties. Nancy P. Melone, Ph.D., is a graduate of the University of Minnesota in Information and Decision Sciences. For her writing and editing, she was awarded the prestigious Dog Writers Association of America Maxwell Medallion, the Morris Animal Foundation Advances in Canine Veterinary Medicine Award, and the AKC Publication Excellence Award for her series on Canine Brucellosis. A breeder of health-tested, champion Bernese Mountain
Dogs under the kennel name, ThornCreek Reg.d., Dr. Melone is a former trustee/treasurer of The Berner-Garde (Health) Foundation, Inc. and Bernese Auction Rescue Coalition, Inc. and editor emerita of The Alpenhorn, national breed magazine for the Bernese Mountain Dog Club of America.
We wish to express sincere appreciation to Timothy W. McGuire, Sr., Ph.D. for his assistance in data analysis and display, Ellen Folke for her meticulous proofreading, and breeders, Sandy Dunaway Summit Bernese), Cindy Valco (Somerset St. Bernards), and Priscilla Young (Powder Keg Farm’s Bernese) for their suggestions on how to clarify our message to breeders and dog owners.
34 S. Weston Rd. • Troy, Ohio 45373 (937) 500-0490 troyanimalhospital.com Summer 2019
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BOB - CH Lynaire's Galilean Moon, breeder/owner Gerardo Linda Baake Jarvis BOS - GCHS CH Jet Aire's Cosmic Discovery, breeder/ owner Diane & John Turba
••American Hairless Terriers
BOB - GCHB CH Floriday's New Tide Risin@ Rip It Up, breeder Jaonne Lima, owner Patricia Smith & Marcia Martin BOS - CH Floridays Song Of The Sea, breeder Joanne Lima, owner Renee Sainato & Faith Quade & Thomas Hayes
••American Staffordshire Terriers
BOB - GCHS CH Alpine's LBK Living On The Road DS CGC TKN, breeder Ed & Karen Thomason, owner Ed Thomason & Karen Thomason & Lacey Keller & Kelly Townsend & Carly Kramer BOS - GCHB CH Dotcom-Alcala's Not Conceited Just Convinced, breeder Kelly McCabe & Judy Morris & Andre Smith & Gustavo Abud, owner Robert Whitlow & Samantha Whitlow & Kelly McCabe
BOB - GCHG CH Temora Say It With Bacon, breeder Julie M Seaton, owner Julie Seaton & Jennifer Sousa & Vicki McKee
BOB - GCHG CH Willow Wind Money's Still Talkin' At First Class, breeder Jacquelyn Fogel, owner Jacquelyn Fogel & David Ramsey BOS - CH Jewelbox Bonnie Blue Belle Of Sangeo BN RN CA BCAT RATN CGCA CGCU TKN, breeder Howard Raymond Solomon Jr, owner Sandra Bethea
BOB - GCH CH Surefyre's 'Round About Midnight, breeder Constance Bartlett, owner Constance Bartlett & Ben Staten & Carrie Staten BOS - GCHB CH Meadowlake Rekindled Spark Of Gusto JE, breeder Karen E Fitzpatrick & Cynthia Olson & Debra Steele, owner Cyndi Olson
••Bull Terriers (Colored)
BOB - GCHB CH Grabo Testarossa Formula For Drama, breeder Krista Prater-Piles & Franne Berez, owner Grace Thomas & Robert Thomas BOS - GCH CH Action Cosmic Kiss, breeder Dr Franne Berez & Krista Prater Piles, owner Alisha Hagen & Dr Franne Berez
••Bull Terriers (White)
BOB - GCH CH Silmaril Sextant, breeder/owner Carl Pew
BOB - GCHB CH Nicairn Angelonia Hjo Got The Spirit DCAT, breeder/owner Nicola Higgins & Carol Onstad BOS - GCH CH Counterpoint Jamestown, breeder Dr Mary W Goss, owner Dr Mary W Goss & June Chignon
BOB - GCH CH Maruska Na Amaximis Of Cesky Dream's, breeder Michael Weser, owner Barbara Hopler BOS - CH Bimbo' CGC TKN, breeder Emanuela Tassi, owner Kimberly McCormick & Loren Marino
••Dandie Dinmont Terriers
BOB - CH King's Mtn. Fergus, breeder Sandra Pretari Hickson & B J Pumfrey & Betty-Ann Stenmark, owner John Schwartz & Nedianee H Koch BOS - GCH CH King's Mtn. Prima Ballerina, breeder/ owner Sandra Pretari Hickson & Betty-Anne Stenmark
••Fox Terriers (Smooth)
BOB - GCHP CH Hampton Court Broxden What In Carnation, breeder Hubert M Thomas & Madison M Weeks & Amy Booth & Phil Booth, owner Victor Malzoni & Amy & Phil Booth BOS - GCH CH Absolutely By Design, breeder/owner JW Smith & Dana Gabel
••Fox Terriers (Wire)
BOB - GCHB CH Kingarthur Van Foliny Home, breeder R De Munter & D Uiterwijk, owner Victor Malzoni Jr BOS - CH Gordon's Starlight With Steele, breeder/ owner Joyce Hanson & Torie Steele
••Glen of Imaal Terriers
BOB - GCH CH Abberann Lament For Owen Roe, breeder Theresa Nesbitt & Ann White & Amanda Purcell & Van Purcell, owner Theresa Nesbitt BOS - GCHG CH Kilkenny's Across The Universe At Setanta, breeder Susan Blum & Jake Blum & Kathy Georgianna,owner Theresa Nesbitt
BOB - GCHS CH Trackways Cassidy Pi'D Piper, breeder Cory Rivera & K Warner & Terry Cassidy, owner Terry & Cass Cassidy & Patty & Harvey Howard BOS - GCHB CH Laochragh's Hope Rises Like A Phoenix, breeder Kelly Marsh, owner Christine Marsh
••Kerry Blue Terriers
BOB - CH Cross The Rubicon Korvin Ray, breeder/ owner Natalia Samaj Kunze DVM DACT BOS - GCH CH Irisblu The Fiddler, breeder Harold Quigg & Mrs Harold Quigg, owner John Garahan & Harold Quigg & Carol & Bill Kearney
BOB - CH Ellenside Red Ike At Eskwyre, breeder Pete Vickers, owner Tim Fayram & Carey Fayram & Mike Vickers & Joanne Vickers BOS - GCH CH Elite's Mystical Spitfire, breeder/owner Dana & Craig Lawrence & Patricia Peters
••Manchester Terriers (Standard)
BOB - CH Cashlane Tulou Tagaloa, breeder Zoe Bolin & Shelley Cafferty, owner Gary Jon Uyeno DMV & Olivia Uyeno BOS - CH Earendil's To Be Or Not To Be At Tri-Star, breeder Sabra Weeks & Jeremy McClister & Rachel McClister, owner Sabra Weeks & Judy Ellis
••Miniature Bull Terriers
BOB - GCH CH Bulligomingo-Omega's Paella, breeder Kimberly Benoliel, Terry Moffitt & Meghan Barnes & David Moffitt & Stuart Cairns BOS - GCH CH Brownstone's Ultimate Weapon, breeder Crissy Brown-Stone & Steve Stone & Rosalind Clamper, owner Amy J Hogge MD & Crissy BrownStone & Andrea Johnson
BOB - GCHS CH Carmel Sky High Wish Upon A Star, breeder Carma Ewer & Susan Coulter, owner Carma Ewer & Susan Coulter & Silvia Soos-Kazel & Yvonne Phelps BOS - GCHG CH Beauideal Bombay Sapphire, breeder Dr Lisa G Sarvas & Catherine McMillan, owner Dr Lisa G Sarvas & Dr Oke Nwoko & Krystal Mason
BOB - GCHG CH Roserock's My Eyes Adored You, breeder Ellen Ford, owner Ellen Lucas BOS - CH Fly' N High Starburst Sensation, breeder Sharon Jones, owner Mary M Mang
••Parson Russell Terriers
BOB - GCHB CH Posey Canyon Classic Hijinx, breeder Tricia Stanczyk & Jennifer Johnston, owner Tricia Stanczyk & Jennifer Johnston & D Rathgeber & W Schwery BOS - GCHS CH Highland Downs Helltoupee TKN, breeder/owner Rita Ford
BOB - GCHS CH Hdk K2's Shockwave@Bellridge, breeder Tracey A Kallas & Rebekah Anthony, owner Tracey A Kallas BOS - GCHB CH Aacres R E S P E C T @ Dharts, breeder Catherine L Adams, owner Cory Downey Hart
BOB - GCHG CH Kanix Don Domingo, breeder Frederik Beathen, owner Mark Ulrich & Tenna Grenaae & Laurie Ulrich BOS - CH Wild Fires Star On Hollywood Blvd, breeder Jennifer Moxley, owner Jeffery Katz & Louis P Wolf Jr
BOB - GCHS CH Whiskybae Haslemere Habanera, breeder Carla LaCoe & June Price, owner Frederick Mellville & Carla LaCoe & Jeanice Barton BOS - GCHG CH Woburn Barbary Iron Man, breeder Steve & Debra Russell, owner Ron & Maurine McConnell & Debra & Steve Russell
BOB - GCH CH Thunder Road's Little Deuce Coupe, breeder Sarah W Hawks, owner Annette Hall BOS - GCHB CH Arterra's Lady Of Valour, breeder Ingrid David & Lisa Jowett, owner Ingrid David
BOB - CH Villassa Country Belle, breeder Barbara Miller & Karen Hurrion, owner Brickin Countrywide BOS - GCH CH Avalon's Rocket Man @ Rexroth, breeder Lori Pelletier, owner Leslie Walter & Steve Walter & Lori Pelletier
Olga Forlicz ••Skye Terriers
BOB - CH Juger Edelweiss Prince Lionheart, breeder Mihhail Knut & Julia Knut, owner Karen J'Anthony & Chris St John BOS - CH Belle Of The Ball Moravia Campanella, breeder Pavla Firlova, owner Lori Lucchetti & Lu Lobue
••Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers
BOB - GCHS CH J'Adores Stanley Cup Toews At Raelyn, breeder Kimberly Wright & Lynn Cone, owner Kim Munson & Kimberly Wright BOS - GCHS CH Serendipity October Quest, breeder Richard Allen Taylor & Camille Renee Taylor & Patricia Mullin, owner Susan Solsby
••Staffordshire Bull Terriers
BOB - GCHS CH Lackyle Bairille Dubailt, breeder James Byrnes, owner Alberto Gonzalez & Robert Gilbert & Emily Burdon BOS - CH Absolute Ly Here For Your Entertainment DJ TKP, breeder Blair Aguillard & Michelle Aguillard, owner Lisa Parsons
BOB - GCHS CH Abbeyrose Captain Jack, breeder Mary Duafala & Pamela Allen & Judith Anspach, owner Mary Duafala & Pamela Allen & Judith Anspach & Janice K Simmons BOS - CH Brightluck's Golden Girl, breeder/owner Janet McBrien
••West Highland White Terriers
BOB - GCH CH Magic Bruno Banani Vom Maerchengarten, breeder Inga Flamang, owner Dr Fred Askin & Francesco Zaccariello & Phavida Jaruthavee BOS - GCHS CH Skyehigh's Miss Hyperion, breeder/ owner Lindy Barrow & Antonio Celso Mollo
Terrier Group 1st (BIS) Fox Terrier (Wire) GCHB CH Kingarthur Van Foliny Home 2nd American Staffordshire Terrier GCHS CH Alpine's LBK Living On The Road DS CGC TKN 3rd Skye Terrier CH Juger Edelweiss Prince Lionheart 4th Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier GCHS CH J'Adores Stanley Cup Toews At Raelyn Photos by: Olga Forlicz
Crufts 2019 Dog Show BEST OF BREED WINNERS ••Airedale Terrier CH/INT/JP CH ROCKRIDGE JP I CAN'T STOP LOVIN YOU, ow. MR T, MS T & MRS E IWAHASHI, KANAYA & HAYAMA
••Manchester Terrier BLACK IDOL'S BRAD PIT, ow. MRS P BRENCIANI ••Norfolk Terrier CH WATERCROFT PINK FIZZ, ow. MRS R GEE ••Norwich Terrier RAGUS THE JUMPING JACK, ow. MRS L CRAWLEY
••Australian Terrier DK/LUX CH WYEAFON BLUE ILLUSION, ow. MRS M R JONES
••Parson Russell Terrier CH MINDLEN MAGNUM AT RATSCALLION, ow. MR J G & DR S H BROADBERRY
••Bedlington Terrier CH/IT/RUS/LAT/CZ CH L'END SHOW METTI SURPRISE AT GLARE WW/15 WW/16 WW/17 WW/18 EUW/15, ow. MRS E PYKHTAR
••Scottish Terrier MULTI CH FILISITE BRASH BEAUTY NEVER LIES WW/17,EW/17 JWW/16 JEW/16, ow. MRS V I POPOVA
••Border Terrier GLENBUCKET HIGHLAND LAD, ow. MRS N ANDERSON ••Bull Terrier CH NORDBULL NAUGHTY N'NICE AT ZABAKROL, ow. MR L ZABINSKI ••Bull Terrier (Miniature) CH OKI DOKI DE LCOSSTA, ow. MR E ROMAN ••Cairn Terrier UNIQUECOTTAGE WILD DILL, ow. MRS V D DANIELSSON ••Cesky Terrier JANSKI SEREN NADOLIG, ow. M VERWAERDE ••Dandie Dinmont Terrier GLAHMS COL BRANDON OF BARTON, ow. MR C & MS M ESPEJO & BATISTE ••Fox Terrier (Smooth) MOSVALLEY BRIAN MAY, ow. MRS C M, MRS S & MR J DAVIES & WATSON ••Fox Terrier (Wire) MLT IVRAM SPOT ON, ow. MR I & MR J CALLEGA & SCHEMBRI ••Glen of Imaal Terrier PAJANTICK RAZAMATAZ, ow. J WITHERS ••Irish Terrier CH LEAD THE WAY TO MONTELLE, ow. MRS G THOMAS ••Jack Russell Terrier AM CH D B F SANTA BARBARA SURFER GIRL WW18, ow. K L & DR C THOMAS & LUNDIN ••Kerry Blue Terrier CH BALBOA NEMBO KID, ow. MR R TASSELLI
••Sealyham Terrier FORLEGD XLRATE LIGHTNING MCQUEEN AT THORNBERRYHALL, ow. MR A & MR K DALY & CROCKETT ••Skye Terrier VERUMAMICUS AURORA OF BRAKEMILL, ow. MRS J A CURTIS ••Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier INT CH/GER/VDH/LUX CH WHEATEN REBEL`S U`RE MY UNIVERSE, ow. MRS M & MR G MOELLER-SIEBER & MOELLER ••Staffordshire Bull Terrier SECH/NOCH JODDRICKS POKER FACE SE V/18, ow. MRS L STROM ••Welsh Terrier CH ESKWYRE WYART EARP, ow. MR M & J VICKERS ••West Highland White Terrier MECHTA NATALY EGOIST, ow. V KURBATOVA
GROUP PLACEMENTS 1. Scottish Terrier FILISITE BRASH BEAUTY NEVER LIES 2. Jack Russell Terrier D B F SANTA BARBARA SURFER GIRL 3. West Highland White Terrier MECHTA NATALY EGOIST 4. Bedlington Terrier L'END SHOW METTI SURPRISE AT GLARE
••Lakeland Terrier SAREDON THIS IS ENGLAND, ow. J & A AVERIS & BARKER Summer 2019
A Look at Books The Book of Wild Pets: Being a discussion on the Care and Feeding of Our Native Wildlife in Captivity, Together with Notes on Their Identification and Life Habits, by Clifford Moore, published by G. P. Putnamn’s Sons, 1937, 1954 and 1958.
The World Guide to Mammals by Nicole Duplaix and Noel Simon with 275 full-color illustrations by Peter Barrett.Crown Publishers, New York, 1976. Here are two books that have nothing to do with the canine world, but they have been in my library and kept on the shelf for many years for the following reason: If you are active in dogs you probably have a garden and along with a garden comes all kinds of strange things like wild animals and bugs, and it is sometimes good to have a handy reference so you can look up information, for not only yourself, but for your friends who will call you with questions as they know that if you have dogs, you know everything about animal life. The mammal book is great, covering 182 species giving short descriptions and a half-page color photo of the animal. Nineteen chapters cover any topic you may wish, but the important ones for us are: Shrews and Their Kin, Rabbits, Hares and Pikas, and Rodents, as these are the animals that are apt to inhabit your garden and become pests. Clear pictures will show you what you have – a shrew or a mole. In
concise words you are told about their life span, what they eat and how long they will live. From there you can figure out what you have, and what you need to do to get rid of the animal problem. The Book of Wild Pets is a hoot. With just five chapters (550 pages) you can go from aquarium life, to frogs, toads, etc., to insects, mammals and birds. Want to know about keeping bats? Two full pages and another of pictures will answer your questions. You will receive calls from friends about keeping cute little chipmunks, and if interested there is even a picture of how to give a chipmunk a bath, how they can be tamed and what they like to eat. “Bread crusts may be fed to the animals, but never mushy foods or peanuts.” Some years ago, when spring came to our garden and the snow left our empty pond, we found an animal running around in it and wondering what it was, we found out through the mammal book that it was a short-tailed shrew. “So that’s what causing the damage in our garden, eating the sedum to the ground and digging holes.” The mammal book identified the animal. The Wild Pets gave us a page and a half on how to keep shrews as pets. Good grief – these are ugly things! We threw the shrew out of the pond and the next morning we found two shrews. We then read that shrews are formidable eaters, thus the damage to a garden. The book advises if having shrews as pets, never leave two shrews together as one will kill the other and eat it. Of course, several hours later we found one and one-half shrews in the empty pond. Since this month we are in the garden I would like to mention another great book that every gardener would like to have on
his or her shelf: Garden Insects of North America; The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs by Whitney Cranshaw, Princeton University Press, 2004, includes 650 pages of clear photos of every bug in North America, including the part of the country where it can be found. It will list the following: Hosts, Damage, Distribution, Appearance and Life History and Habits, in addition to thousands of color photos of these insects. Price: $29.95 and well worth the money. I’ve strayed from dog books with this issue but over the years I’ve found that our dog friends are also interested in gardening, in addition my husband has been a Master Gardner for a number of years. Perhaps I’ll do a column on cookbooks someday as I’ve also found that the dog friends are not only gardeners, but they are great cooks and on top of it all there is no better summer evening then spending it with the dog folks with their dogs running around, sitting in the garden with cocktails and finishing off the evening with a fabulous meal. How can life get any better?
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TerrierGroup Publication Volume 4 Number 3 Summer 2019
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