Constructing+Environments+Log+Book+ + Week1+Logbook+ ++

In+week+1,+I+learned+that+in+construction+transferring+load+from+top+to+bottom+ is+an+important+factor.+This+is+achieved+by+a+series+of+compression+and+tension+ on+the+materials+holding+the+load.+Therefore+to+study+this,+we+are+required+to+ build+a+tower+using+small+MDF+(Medium+Density+Fibre)+blocks.++ + Our+group+wanted+to+build+a+tower+tall+enough+to+reach+the+ceiling.+Therefore+ we+realize+that+it+is+important+for+the+blocks+to+be+arranged+carefully.+This+is+ because+according+to+Ching,+vector+sum+of+all+forces+acting+on+it+must+be+zero,+ ensuring+that+it+would+be+in+equilibrium.+Every+blocks+center+of+gravity+ should+be+distributed+evenly+and+stably+on+each+other+block.+The+diagram+ below+should+show+u+how+we+wanted+to+do+it.+ + The+drawing+on+the+side+shows+how+ the+weight+is+transferred+to+the+ ground.+Which+is+then+countered+and+ neutralized+by+the+reaction+force.+ Since+the+materials+are+also+fairly+ strong+and+light,+it+should+be+able+to+ reach+great+heights.+ + + + + +

+ +

A+circular+shape+should+also+be+made,+as+it+ is+the+fastest+and+also+the+most+stable+ structure.++This+is+because+its+weight+ would+be+dispersed+evenly+to+all+ directions.+ + However+due+to+insufficient+time,+we+were+ unable+to+complete+what+we+intended+to+ + do.+ +

+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

As+time+was+against+us,+we+werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t+able+to+do+as+ planned.+So+we+made+improvisations.+The+picture+on+ the+left+shows+how+we+used+different+methods+in+ building+the+structure.+ + + This+part+was+intended+to+build+a+doorway+for+the+ elephant+to+enter.+Due+to+the+downward+force,+from+the+ top+makes+it+easier+for+the+blocks+to+be+removed+when+ the+structure+is+finished.+

At+the+center+we+also+decided+to+build+a+section+ where+there+would+have+a+flat+and+compact+ structure.+This+is+because+by+placing+it+flat+like+ in+the+picture+on+the+left,+allows+friction+to+act+ among+the+blocks+making+it+less+likely+to+move+ to+the+side.+This+also+allows+us+to+increase+its+ weight+making+the+center+of+gravity+stronger+ and+thus+making+the+overall+structure+more+ stable.+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +

As+u+can+see+our+end+product+was+able+to+fit+ the+elephant+in+the+center.+However+we+ werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t+able+to+finish+our+door+as+well+as+the+ full+structure.+If+given+more+time,+I+am+ confident+we+could+have+made+it+much+taller.++

+

Week+2OFrame+ In+this+week,+we+learned+about+structural+systems+and+how+it+is+designed+to+ support+and+transfer+loads+and+applied+gravity+safely+to+the+ground+without+ breaking+its+member.+Therefore+in+this+weekâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s+tutorial,+we+are+asked+to+build+ a+tower+using+40+thin+cut+pieces+of+balsa+wood.+ + Through+the+lectures+I+have+understood+better+about+how+joints+work+and+our+ group+decided+to+form+our+own+fixed+joints+in+this+activity.+The+joints+look+like+ this.++There+are+two+holes+in+the+small+piece+of+wood+and+this+joints+provide+ surface+for+the+pieces+of+wood+to+stick+making+our+structure+much+more+ stronger+at+the+joints.+ + + As+u+can+see+in+both+the+pictures+on+ + the+side,+the+joints+are+located+at+ + every+corner.+This+enables+the+sticks+ + to+join+together+more+firmly+as+there+ + is+more+contact+surface+between+the+ + stick+and+the+joints.+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Without'Joints'

With'Joints'

In+the+pictures+on+my+left+is+the+finished+product.+As+u+ can+see+in+the+picture+above,+the+cube+did+not+look+ stable.+Therefore+we+created+supporting+structures+at+ the+bottom.+This+has+made+the+structure+a+lot+ stronger.+It+was+very+shaky+before+and+would+be+ easily+broken.+However+after+putting+in+the+supports+ the+structure+became+stable.+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ As+u+can+see+we+simply+glue+the+tip+of+the+sticks+to+the+ side+of+it.+Longer+strips+of+sticks+were+used+on+side+ where+more+weight+was+acting+on+that+part.+The+way+ the+supports+work+is+because+of+the+additional+stick+ stuck+on+it.+The+weight+can+now+travel+in+two+different+ paths+rather+than+just+one.+There+is+less+compression+ and+pressure+on+the+main+structure.+This+is+shown+in+ the+picture+below.+

+

We+intended+to+continue+with+our+cube+structure+ and+increase+the+height,+as+it+was+quite+stable.+ However+time+did+not+allow+us+to+do+so.+This+is+ because+the+time+taken+for+the+glue+to+stick+was+too+ long.+So+we+decided+to+just+build+a+pyramid+shaped+ top+to+increase+the+height+as+fast+as+possible.+ + We+joined+two+sticks+to+make+a+long+stick+as+u+can+ see+clearly+in+the+picture.+ + However+the+tough+part+in+this+process+is+to+pin+ point+the+center+of+the+square.+So+we+used+a+very+ long+stick+to+act+as+a+guidance+to+where+the+center+is+ as+shown+in+the+picture.+The+man+on+the+left+is+ holding+the+stick+directed+to+the+center.+It+is+ important+that+the+center+is+where+all+four+sticks+ meet.+This+is+because+at+this+point,+the+weight+will+ distribute+evenly+to+the+4+corners.+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Other'groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s'work' ' My+neighboring+group+on+the+other+hand+did+a+very+ good+job+on+the+task.+They+have+managed+to+build+a+ tower+taller+than+the+tutor+as+shown+in+the+picture+on+ the+left.++ + They+could+achieve+this+because+of+the+way+they+have+ managed+their+time+efficiently.+They+have+divided+the+ structure+in+to+three+different+segments+instead+of+one+ (unlike+mine).+This+allowed+them+to+have+time+to+work+ on+other+parts+while+waiting+for+the+glue+to+dry.+In+ which+our+group+had+to+do+and+in+the+end+did+not+ achieve+the+height+that+we+wanted.+ + In+conclusion,+a+structure+and+a+building+have+other+ considerations+other+than+just+height.+In+this+case+there+ was+an+issue+of+time+and+also+materials.+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Logbook'week'3' +

TYPES'OF'STRUCTURAL'ELEMENTS'

Physical+ structures+ are+ bodies+ or+ assemblies+ of+ bodies+ of+ matter+ composed+ of+ structural+ elements+ which+ should+ be+ strong+ enough+ materials+assembled+ in+ a+ coherent+ enough+ form+ to+ support+ the+ total+ weight+ of+ the+ structure+ and+ forces+ to+ which+ the+ structure+ will+ be+ subjected+ for+ it+ does+ not+ change+ its+ shape+ or+ size.+ The+ structural+ elements+ are+ classified+ according+ to+ their+ size,+ geometry,+ and+ state+ of+ tension+or+functionality.+

UNDERSGROUND'CARPARK'(STRUTS)'

+

They+can+be+vertical+and+straight+as+columns,+pillars+or+piles+(Struts).+According+to+ the+ ones+ we+ saw+ in+ the+ car+ park,+ those+ are+ columns+ that+ are+ particularly+ thick+ columns+as+they+are+short+and+fat.+There+are+many+columns+located+here+because+it+ needs+to+carry+heavy+loads,+which+is+the+park+itself+on+the+higher+grounds.+And+the+ shape+ of+ the+ upper+ part+ of+ the+ columns+ is+ used+ to+ house+ the+ roots+ of+ the+ trees+ growing+on+top.+They+have+specially+designed+to+allow+it+to+hold+the+weight+as+well+ as+ providing+ enough+ space+ for+ cars+ to+ park+ as+ well+ as+ for+ the+ trees,+ which+ is+ very+ impressive.+ The+car+park+also+mainly+uses+ concrete,+which+is+very+durable+and+ strong+in+holding+compressive+ strength.+

++

+

+ The+ above+ two+ pictures+ compares+ how+ the+ load+ is+ distributed+ when+ there+ is+ less+ columns+compared+to+when+there+were+more.+The+one+with+more+columns+describes+ how+the+load+of+the+park+is+distributed+in+the+carpark.+

ARTS'WEST'STUDENT'CENTER'' Vertical,+ compressed+ and+ flat+ as+ bearing+ walls,+ walls+ or+ partitions.+ A+ loadbearing+ wall+ acts+ as+ a+ long,+ thin+ column+ in+ transmitting+ compressive+ forces+ to+ the+ ground.+ However+it+is+clear+that+the+wall+in+the+picture+below+is+NOT+a+loadbearing+wall.+The+ wall+ is+ too+ weak+ to+ hold+ a+ 10+ stories+ high+ building.+ It+ would+ not+ be+ stable+ and+ it+ would+fail.+Especially+when+there+are+opening+like+the+windows+seen+in+the+picture.+ It+would+fail+due+to+the+crushing+of+the+bricks+as+it+exceeds+its+compressive+strength+ which+it+can+withstand.+The+weight+of+the+structure+is+supported+and+transferred+to+ the+ground+by+the+pillars+seen+in+the+picture.+

+ However+the+wall+shows+a+very+interesting+way+of+ laying+the+bricks.+They+used+a+mixture+of+stretcher+ and+header+to+lay+the+bricks+on+the+walls,+which+ give+it+such+a+unique+design+on+the+wall.+Bricks+have+ medium+high+hardness+and+medium+fragility+that+is+ why+it+cannot+withstand+the+load.+It+is+also+has+ baked+mortar+joints.+

+ + + + +

+

+

LOT'6'CAFE' + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Lot+6+Café+is+a+very+interesting+structure+as+it+is+the+only+modern+building+in+the+ area.+It+is+surrounded+by+old+buildings+built+in+the+1890s.+It+used+precast+concrete+ to+form+its+columns+and+has+a+structural+system+that+has+a+frame.+The+load+of+the+ structure+is+transferred+to+the+ground+via+the+concrete+pillars.+In+the+2nd+picture+u+ can+see+surrounding+the+green+area+there+is+a+concrete+based+floor.+This+is+to+ ensure+that+the+construction+of+the+lot6+café+would+not+affect+the+buildings+ around+it.+This+is+because+lot+6+Café+requires+a+deeper+foundation,+which+would+ cause+earth+to+move+around+in+the+area.+The+concrete+acts+as+a+brace+to+prevent+ earth+from+moving.+

+ + + + + + + +

+ + + + + + + + + + +

+

Frank'Tate'Pavilion'(West'Of'Sidney'Myer'Asia'Centre)'' + + + + + + + + + + + + + + The+following+building+has+a+very+unique+architecture+style+where+they+use+ skeletal+system+to+build+the+structure.+It+consists+of+steel+frame+with+wood+ interior+as+the+main+materials+of+the+building.+It+has+many+rigid+joints+to+hold+the+ structure+together.+Rigid+joints+maintain+the+angular+relationship+between+the+ joined+elements,+restrain+rotation+and+translation+in+any+direction.+The+drawing+ below+shows+how+a+rigid+joint+works.+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+

NORTHCOURT'UNION'HOUSE' ' This+roofing+system+is+interesting+ because+it+has+a+membrane+structural+ system.+It+uses+cables+(ties)+to+hold+the+ structure+together.+The+cables+are+made+ out+of+steel+and+its+formed+such+that+the+ rainwater+would+not+form+a+pond+on+it.+ Instead+it+is+drained+to+the+center+as+ shown+in+the+diagram.+

' + + +

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

' ' '

' ' ' ' '

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

WEEK4:'SCALE,'ANNOTATION'AND'WORKING'DRAWING' CONVENTIONS'

Objectives:'Understand'the'concept'of'scale'and'how'it'applies'to'construction' documentation.' ' CASE'STUDY'BUILDING'NAMEY'OVAL'PAVILION'

' 1.TITLE'BLOCK' + LIST'THE'TYPE'OF'INFORMATION'ON'THE'FLOOR'PLAN'PAGE:' OScale+ OProject+details+ OGeneral+Legend+ OGeneral+notes+ OEngineers+and+designers+ OInternal+finishes+ OPartition+legend+ + WHY'MIGHT'THIS'INFORMATION'BE'IMPORTANT?' Theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re+a+general+guideline+to+all+the+drawings.+

' 2.DRAWING'CONTENTYPLANS' + WHAT'TYPE'OF'INFORMATION'IS'SHOWN'IN'THIS'FLOOR'PLAN?' OLocations+of+doors,+windows,+section+legend+etc.+ OSection+and+elevation+details+cut+section+ + + Provide'an'example'of'the'dimensions'as'they'appear'on'the'floor'plan.'What' units'are'used'for'the'dimension.' ODrawings+are+given+in+millimeters.+No+tolerance+are+given.+ + + IS'THERE'A'GRID?'WHAT'SYSTEM'IS'USED'FOR'IDENTIFYING'THE'GRID'LINES?' There+is+a+grid.+The+grid+is+denoted+by+a+letter+or+a+number+on+each+line+and+are+used+ for+aligning+the+working+drawings+during+contruction.+ + + WHY'IS'SOME'INFORMATION'FOUND'IN'GENERAL'NOTES?' OBecause+they+apply+to+a+large+majority+of+the+drawings+ + + WHAT'IS'THE'PURPOSE'OF'THE'LEGEND?' OTo+provide+clarification+of+the+symbols+on+the+working+drawings.+

+ ' ' WHY'ARE'SOME'PARTS'OF'THE'DRAWING'ANNOTATED?'ILLUSTRATE'HOW' THE'ANNOTATIONS'ARE'ASSOCIATED'WITH'THE'RELEVANT'PART'OF'THE' DRAWING.' The+annotations+are+to+provide+ remarks+that+cannot+be+indicated+ by+standard+notions+or+symbols.+

+ + ILLUSTRATE'HOW'REFERENCES'TO'OTHER'DRAWINGS'ARE'SHOWN'ON'THE' PLAN.'WHAT'DO'THESE'SYMBOLS'MEAN?' The+bottom+numbers+are+allocating+the+ number+of+the+drawing+detail,+which+helps+ us+to+find+the+location+of+the+drawing+ detail.+While+the+number+at+the+top+shows+ the+specific+drawing+detail.+ '

' '

HOW'ARE'THE'WINDOWS'AND'DOORS'IDENTIFIED?'PROVIDE'AN'EXAMPLE'OF' EACH.'IS'THERE'A'RATIONALE'TO'THEIR'NUMBERING?'WHAT'DO'THESE' NUMBERS'MEAN?'CAN'U'FIND'THE'ANSWER'SOMEWHERE'IN'THE'DRAWING?' ' A+door+is+marked+by+an+arc+which+is+ the+extent+of+the+doorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s+swing+and+ the+direction+in+which+it+swings.+ The+radius+of+the+arc+is+the+width+of+ the+door.+ '

' ' ' '

The+doors+are+also+marked+by+a+ circular+symbol+which+indicates+ what+door+it+is+and+which+ building+reference+to+look+for.+

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

Windows+are+similar+to+doors.+The+ Gl8+indicates+the+thickness+of+the+ glazing.++

' ' ' ' ILLUSTRATE'HOW'FLOOR'LEVELS'ARE'NOTED'ON'THE'PLAN?' The+top+of+the+circle+indicates+the+floor+ plan+number+with+the+bottom+being+the+ back/+forward+reference+as+necessary.+ The+title+indicates+the+level+and+then+ under+that+is+the+scale.+

'

'

ARE'SOME'AREAS'OF'THE'DRAWING'CLOUDED?'WHY?' To+indicate+areas+that+have+been+revised+at+a+later+date.+ +

3.'DRAWING'CONTENTY'ELEVATIONS'

+ WHAT'TYPE'OF'INDORMATION'IS'SHOWN'IN'THIS'ELEVATION?'HOW'DOES'IT' DIFFER'FFROM'THE'INFORMATION'SHOWN'ON'THIS'PLAN?' OVertical+dimension+ OFinishes+in+more+detail+(render+detail)+ + + + +

ARE'DIMENSION'SHOWN?'IF'SO,'HOW'DO'THEY'DIFFER'FROM'THE' DIMENSIONS'ON'THE'PLAN?'PROVIDE'AN'EXAMPLE'OF'THE'DIMENSIONS'AS' THEY'RELATE'TO'THE'ELEVATION.' Dimensions+aren’t+shown+to+the+same+extent+as+in+the+plans.+Dimensions+we+were+ able+to+find+showed+that+certain+measurements+were+equidistant+and+the+height+of+ each+subsequent+floor.+ + + WHAT'TYPE'OF'LEVELS'ARE'SHOWN'ON'THE'ELVATION?'ILLUSTRATE'HOW' LEVELS'ARE'SHOWN'IN'RELATION'TO'THE'ELEVATION.'

' ' Levels+are+indicated+by+codes+and+are+divided+into+different+categories.+FFl+being+ finish+floor+level,+RL+means+relative+level.+ + ' IS'THERE'A'GRID?'IF'SO,'HOW/WHERE'IS'IT'SHOWN?' Grids+are+used+on+the+elevation+drawings.+

' ' ' ' '

+

WHAT'TYPES'OF'INFORMATION'ON'THE'ELEVATION'ARE'EXPRESSED'USING' WORDS?'ILLUSTRATE'HOW'THIS'IS'DONE.' ' YThe+text+is+used+to+indicate+ finishing+or+utility+details+that+ cannot+be+expressed+through+ standard+notation+in+drawings.+ ' ' ' ' '

' 4.'DRAWING'CONTENTY'SECTIONS' '

WHAT'TYPE'OF'INFORMATION'IS'SHOWN'IN'THIS'SECTION?'HOE'DOES'IT' DIFFER'FROM'THE'INFORMATION'SHOWN'ON'THE'PLAN'AND'ELEVATION?' ' Shows+a+cutout+of+the+building+as+an+elevation+and+shows+detail+in+a+vertical+facing+ orientation.+ ' ' ' ' ILLUSTRATE'HOW'THE'DOORS'AND'WINDOWS'ARE'IDENTIFIED'ON'THE' ELVATION.' ' ' ' + + + + + + + + As+shown+above+doors+and+windows+are+indicated+the+same+way+as+they+are+in+ plans.+ +

FIND'WHERE'THIS'ELEVATION'IS'LOCATED'ON'THE'PLANS. On+the+floorplan,+the+elevation+is+ indicated+as+the+picture,+the+top+being+ the+elevation+number+and+the+bottom+ being+the+forward+reference.+ ' + + + + ILLUSTRATE'HOW'THE'SECTION'DRAWING'DIFFERENTIATES'BETWEEN' BUILDING'ELEMENTS'THAT'ARE'CUT'THROUGH'AND'THOSE'THAT'ARE' SHOWN'IN'ELEVATION'(BEYOND).' ' OIn+an+elevation,+wood+is+shown+as+ horizontal+lines+ +

' ' ' ' '

In+a+sectional,+it+is+given+a+cross+ in+between+a+shape.+

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

' ' ' PROVIDE'EXAMPLES'OF'HOW'DIFFERENT'MATERIALS'ARE'SHOWN'ON'THE' SECTIONS.' ' ' YInsulation+ + + + + + + + + ' ' YConcrete'

+

' YGlass+ ' ' ' '

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

' FIND'WHERE'THIS'SECTION'IS'LOCATED'ON'THE'PLAN' + Oon+plan+

' ' ' ' ' ' '

OOn+section'

' ' 5.'DRAWING'CONTENTY'DETAILS'

' WHAT'SORTS'OF'THINGS'ARE'DETAILED?' In+these+detail+drawings,+things+such+as+finishes,+utilities+and+fixtures+are+depicted.+ + ARE'THE'DETAILS'COMPRESSED'USING'BREAK'LINES?'WHY?' It+shows+a+section+of+a+whole+part.+It+could+also+indicated+unfinished+detailing'

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

PROVIDE'EXAMPLES'OF'HOW'DIFFERENT'MATERIALS'ARE'SHOWN'ON' DRAWINGS'AT'THIS'SCALE.'

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

' HOW'DOES'THE'INFORMATION'IN'YOUR'DRAWING'SET'COMPARE'TO'WHAT' YOU'OBSERVED'AT'SITE'LAST'WEEK?'HOW'DOES'THE'SCALE'OF'THE' BUILDING'COMPARE'TO'THE'SCALE'OF'THE'DRAWING?'HOW'DO'THE' ARCHIITECTURAL'AND'STRUCTURAL'DRAWINGS'DIFFER?' The+scales+are+very+different+in+the+drawings+and+the+buildings+itself.+In+the+drawings+ it+might+seem+like+its+too+small+but+when+converted+in+to+a+real+building+it+might+be+ too+big.+The+drawings+also+give+us+a+clear+picture+on+the+different+materials+used+and+ the+detailing+on+utilities+and+furnishes+that+might+not+be+seen+in+architectural+ drawings.+

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

WEEK'5' Learning'objectives:'To'develop'a'working'understanding'of'the'structural' systems'of'a'building'through'analysis'of'architectural'and'structural' documentation'and'detailed'model'making.' +

' + + To+do+this+task+we+used+pine+wood+sticks+to+form+the+skeletal+system+of+the+ structure.+We+used+pine+wood+sticks,+as+it+was+rigid+and+strong+enough+to+hold+the+ structure+up.+Also+it+was+easy+to+maneuver+with+it+as+it+is+fairly+easy+to+cut.+It+also+ provides+us+with+enough+surface+area+to+glue+them+with+one+another.+To+imitate+the+ enclosure+system+that+is+the+roofs,+we+used+6mm+foam+boards.+They+were+chosen+ because+they+are+light+and+were+easy+to+cut.++ + 1)We+first+analyzed+the+drawings+given+to+us+by+ using+the+scale+given+we+measured+and+cut+the+ wooden+sticks+in+to+the+right+size.+ + 2)Then+we+used+a+hot+glue+gun+to+glue+the+sticks+ together+as+shown+in+the+top+left+picture,+to+form+ the+skeletal+structure+of+the+building.+ + 3)+The+foam+board+was+also+cut+in+to+shape+at+the+ right+size+to+fit+on+to+the+wooden+skeleton.+ + 4)+Lastly+we+used+foam+board+as+the+base+as+well+ and+glued+it+together+to+form+a+solid+standing+ structure.+

+

+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + This+is+the+finished+work+of+our+model.+Through+this+we+can+see+that+there+are+4+ columns+connected+to+the+ground+and+supporting+the+structure.+As+u+can+see+ columns+are+rigid,+slender+structural+members+designed+to+support+compressive+ loads+applied+to+them.+They+need+to+hold+the+roof+up+as+well+as+any+live+loads+and+ forces+like+wind,+and+rain.+The+below+diagram+shows+how+columns+carry+transfer+the+ loads+to+the+ground+and+how+the+loads+might+cause+internal+stresses+within+the+ column.+ + + It+should+also+be+note+that+ this+is+a+long+column+as+the+ + + ratio+of+effective+column+ + length+to+the+smallest+ cross+section+dimension+is+ + + greater+than12:1.+Long+ columns+subject+to+bulking+ + when+the+load+is+too+much+ + + for+the+material+to+handle.+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ The+model+also+shows+us+how+good+a+triangle+can+be+used+to+transfer+loads+equally+ from+the+top+of+the+roof+to+the+ground.+This+inherent+rigidity+of+triangles+is+a+ geometric+property.+The+triangle+is+the+only+polygon+whose+internal+anglesâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;and,+ therefore,+shapeâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;are+uniquely+defined+by+the+lengths+of+its+sides.+This+will+prevent+ excessive+load+on+the+column+itself+and+transfer+part+of+the+load+directly+to+the+ center+of+the+column.+This+will+make+the+whole+structure+stronger+and+more+stable.+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Lastly+my+model+also+clearly+shows+the+action+of+a+beam+in+supporting+the+roof.+In+ this+model+we+used+foam+boards+to+cut+our+long+thin+beams.+This+is+because+ although+foam+boards+are+soft+it+is+the+only+material+we+have+that+was+long+enough.+ The+foam+beam+wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t+that+strong+however+it+was+sufficient+to+hold+the+roof+ together.+ +

+ Beams+are+rigid+structural+members+designed+to+carry+and+transfer+transverse+loads+ across+space+to+supporting+elements.+We+can+also+increase+the+strength+of+the+beam+ by+changing+its+cross+section+to+provide+a+larger+moment+of+inertia.+Increasing+its+ width+reduces+bending+stress.+ +

Comparison'with'other'groups'work'

+ + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ + Our+groups+work+was+suppose+to+connect+to+this+groups+work.+Their+group+ produced+a+structure+with+a+combination+of+truss,+beams+and+also+columns.+ Although+similar+to+ours,+their+truss+system+is+more+significant.+ + A+truss+is+a+structural+frame+based+on+the+geometric+rigidity+of+the+triangle+and+ composed+of+linear+members+subject+only+to+axial+tension+or+compression.+ +

+ + + + + +

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

WEEK'6' Develop'and'effective'way'of'reporting'and'communicating'information'about' the'construction'of'the'built'environment.'Comprehend'and'process' information'contained'in'reports'about'the'built'environment.'

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' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

Week'7' No'studio'session.' '

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Week'8' Learning'Objectives:'To'develop'an'understanding'of'the'actual'size'of' construction'elements'and'the'detailed'relationship'of'individual'parts.'To' experiment'with'the'implications'and'difficulty'of'translating'a'scale'drawing' to'a'full'size'drawing.'

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

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WEEK'9' + +

Construction'site'

+ THIS'WEEK’S'TUTORAL'ENTAILED'A'SITE'VISIT'TO'THE'PORTRAIT'BUILDING' ON'551,'SWANSTON'STREETY'SWANSTON'SQUARE.'AS'I'WAS'NOT'PRESENT' THIS'WEEK,'I'WILL'BE'RELYING'ON'THE'PHOTOS'THAT'OTHER'STUDENTS' HAVE'TAKEN'AND'USED'IT'TO'ANALYZE'THE'CONSTRUCTION'SITE.' ' The+Portrait+construction+site+is+an+apartment+building+built+on+the+construction+site+ as+shown+above.+The+construction+of+the+portrait+building+is+a+very+unique+and+ interesting+building+as+it+shows+the+image+of+indigenous+leader+William++Barak+ across+its+100+meter+high,+sculpted+façade.+It+will+be+seen+even+nearly+3km+away.+It+is+ a+32O+storey+building+with+536+apartments+and+it+is+estimated+to+be+completed+this+ coming+Christmas.+Each+floor+takes+up+to+1400m2+and+300+workers+are+working+on+ this+project+daily.+ + From+the+photos+collected+this+site+is+still+in+the+process+of+building+the+floors+up.+ The+main+foundation+and+footings+are+already+in+place.+However+the+main+structure+ of+the+building+is+still+being+built+and+not+all+the+floor+slabs+have+been+poured+and+ cured+yet.+ + + + + + + + +

+ +

Structural'Systems' ' Columns' +

This+is+the+picture+of+the+site.+As+u+ can+see+the+bottom+floors+have+ concrete+columns+on+each+floor+ supporting+the+weight+of+the.+The+ building+uses+a+columnOslab+system+ as+its+primary+structure.+The+load+is+ distributed+by+focusing+its+load+ onto+the+set+of+columns+and+ drawing+it+in+to+the+ground.+

+ + + + + + + + +

+ + + + In+this+picture+we+can+see+a+steel+ reinforcement+that+have+not+been+ poured+with+concrete+to+form+a+ precast+column.+ + To+increase+tensile+strength+we+ use+mild+steel+bars+in+cement+ concrete.+Steel+bars+used+in+ cement+concrete+provide+good+ strength+to+the+structure.+Usually+ steel+bars+are+roughened+or+ corrugated+as+shown+in+the+ picture+adjacent+to+further+ improve+the+bond+or+cohesion+ between+the+concrete+and+steel.+ +

+ +

+

+ +

Floor'slabs' +

+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

This'picture'above'shows'how'the' tension'cables'work.'

The+building+is+using+ prestresed+concrete+as+its+ flooring+system.+Prestressed+ concrete+is+reinforced+by+ pretennsioning+or+ posttensioning+high+strength+ steel+tendons+within+their+ elastic+limit+to+actively+resist+a+ service+load+(Ching,+2008).+As+ u+can+see+the+shiny+aluminum+ poles+are+hollow+in+the+inside+ and+house+the+cables+which+ will+be+the+tension+cables.+ + This+will+allow+the+concrete+ floor+to+carry+more+load+and+ require+less+columns+to+ support+the+structure.+++

+

Construction'Detailing' ' ' This+is+located+at+the+center+of+the+ building.+It+is+a+precast+elevator+ shaft.+It+uses+reinforced+concrete+ around+it+and+is+layered+with+fire+ proofing+materials+to+prevent+it+ from+collapsing+when+the+fire+hits.+ This+is+also+the+fire+exit+stairs+are+ located.+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Here+on+the+left+we+have+a+ceiling+ where+all+the+pipe+works+and+ electrical+lines+are+located.+It+is+ tucked+in+with+clips+so+that+it+is+easily+ managed+and+does+not+look+messy.+ This+section+will+be+covered+with+ plasterboard+in+the+future.+ + According+to+the+site+manager,+the+ plasterboards+that+were+going+to+be+ used+will+differ+for+different+parts+of+ the+building.+Some+will+be+fire+ resistant,++and+some+will+be+water+ resistant.+

+ This+section+shows+how+pipework+ are+done+in+a+tall+building.+The+red+ cones+cover+the+pipes+so+that+ nothing+will+enter+the+pipes+to+ damage+it.+And+when+it+is+needed+to+ fix+the+toilets+or+sinks+in.+The+top+of+ the+cone+is+punctured+and+water+ can+now+run+through+it.+

+

+ + It+is+also+important+to+know+that+ the+materials+are+mostly+ transferred+through+cranes.+To+ maximize+efficiency+when+a+ floor+is+done,+which+take+up+to+ 5O6+days+to+complete+a+floor,+the+ workers+will+use+a+crane+to+ carry+all+the+materials+like+ plasterboard,+toilet+sits+and+ other+materials+on+to+the+floor+ before+starting+to+build+the+ other+floor.+ +

+ + + + + + + + + + + + +

+

Main'Materials' ' ' ' + + + + + + + + +

Concrete+

Materials+used+

NonO Structural+

Structural++

Steel+Bars+

Precast+ concrete+ panels+

Plasterboards++

Exterior+ cladding+and+ enclosure+ system+

To+hide+ utilities+piping+ and+conceal+ the+ceiling.+

Aluminum+ frames+

+ Columns,+ Floor+slabs+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Reinforcing+ concrete+

To+act+as+ window+ frames.+

+ + + + + + + + +

' ' ' ' '

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' ' ' '

Week'10'

'

Week10' Learning+objectives:+To+develop+an+understanding+of+the+actual+size+of+construction+ elements+and+the+detailed+relationship+of+individual+parts.+To+experiment+with+the+ implications+and+difficulty+of+translating+a+scale+drawing+to+a+full+size+drawing.+ + + Water'proofing'elements' + 1) In+the+glazing+that+I+was+drawn+u+can+clearly+see+at+the+bottom+of+the+drawing+ there+are+silicon+tapped+between+the+glazing+and+the+steel+angle.+This+is+to+ provide+protection+so+that+the+water+will+not+enter+the+building+through+these+ openings.+ 2) At+the+bottom+we+can+also+see+a+vapour+barrier.+Vapour+barriers+provide+ protection+against+steam+to+enter+the+house.+ 3) Other+than+my+part+of+the+drawings+other+sections+have+flashings+and+gutters+ to+remove+water+from+the+building+and+directing+them+away+from+the+ building.+ + Where'and'why'things'go'wrong.' ' 1) There+are+sections+where+the+holes+are+too+big+so+that+dust+and+dirt+can+easily+ enter+the+areas,+however+the+area+is+also+too+small+for+cleaning.+This+will+ cause+a+lot+of+dust+accumulation+and+is+bad+for+the+image+of+the+building.+ Maintenance+cost+would+increase.+ 2) There+is+also+weep+holes+at+the+top+of+the+roof+this+will+allow+pests+to+enter+ the+building.+ 3) The+flashings+on+the+roof+are+not+long+enough,+therefore+when+the+wind+and+ rain+is+significantly+strong+might+cause+water+to+enter+the+roof.+ + + + 3D'drawing'of'my'section'

+

+

+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ +

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+

CONSTRUCTION'WORKSHOP' + The+objective+of+this+workshop+is+to+construct+a+structure+that+will+spam+1000mm+ and+will+take+a+point+load+at+its+centre.+The+maximum+height+of+the+structure+is+ 400mm.+ + Materials'used:+1200+x+3.2+x+90mm+Ply+x1+ + + ++++1200+x+35+x+35+mm+Pine+x3+ + + +++++ Tools'used:+Sundry+nails,+hammer,+screws,+saws,+and+screwdrivers.+ + + + The+pieces+of+Pinewood+that+we+ + were+provided+with+had+many+ + knots.+In+week+3â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s+E+learning+I+ + was+thought+that+knots+would+ + generally+weaken+the+wood+and+it+ + serves+as+a+week+point+when+the+ + load+is+directed+at+the+knot.+This+ + will+be+a+significant+point+that+has+ + to+be+taken+in+to+account+when+ + building+our+structure.++ + + + + + + + + Our+group+decided+since+that+our+ + wooden+plank+has+had+many+knots+in+ + it.+We+would+avoid+using+it+to+be+ + point+loaded+so+instead+we+just+ + combined+all+the+3+pieces+of+wood+ + together+by+screwing+them+on+to+the+ + plywood.+This+way+the+load+is+ + + distributed+more+evenly+to+the+whole+ + pine+wood+instead+of+just+at+a+point.+++++++ + + + + + + + +

The+other+group+created+a+ structure+that+looks+like+that.+ It+uses+the+idea+of+struts+and+ noggins+in+to+the+design.+After+ asking+them+their+reason+to+ build+it+like+that,+they+ explained+saying+that+the+ support+underneath+would+ provide+the+structure+with+ more+strength+and+durability+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + +

When+load+is+applied+at+ the+top+compression+ occurs+at+the+top.+ Therefore+the+supports+ were+used+at+the+bottom,+ to+counter+the+tension.+

+ + +

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

+

Testing' + Group+1+

+ + + + + + + + + + + +

Group+2+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ Group+3+

+ Our+bridge+structure+failed+at+the+point+where+the+largest+knot+existed.+This+was+ expected+at+the+beginning+and+we+tried+to+solve+the+problem+by+adding+the+plywood,+ but+it+did+not+work+in+the+end.+Our+Structure+could+hold+up+to+270kg+with+30mm+ deflection.+Group+2+held+up+to+240kg+and+had+a+deflection+of+50mm.+Group+3+held+up+ to+300kg+with+deflection+of+35mm.++ + All+the+structures+weak+points+were+mainly+at+the+parts+where+most+nails+and+knots+ present.+The+nails+that+were+nailed+in+create+holes+that+weaken+the+structure.+When+ the+load+begins+to+increase+the+points+start+to+fail+first+before+other+parts.+This+is+ because+the+nails+create+an+opening+for+cracks,+making+it+easier+for+that+area+to+ break.++

GLOSSARY' ' AlloyO+Are+a+combination+of+two+or+more+metals+ Axial'LoadsO+Force+exerted+along+the+lines+of+an+axis+of+a+structure+member+(Ching,+ 2008)+ BeamO+carries+loads+across+a+span+to+the+axial+support+columns.+ BendingO+When+a+structure+element+bends+as+a+result+of+an+external+force.++ Braced+FrameO+a+timber+or+steel+frame+braced+with+diagonal+members.+ BracingO+Adds+support+to+a+structure+by+inhibiting+lateral+movement+either+by+ diagonal+bracing+or+sheet+bracing.+ BucklingO+occurs+when+a+member+that+is+in+compression+can+no+longer+support+the+ load+and+it+begins+to+snap+ CantileverO+a+beam+that+is+supported+by+only+one+end+ Carbon'footprintO+A+measure+of+the+amount+of+greenhouse+gases+generated+during+ the+fabrication,+transportation+and+use+of+a+particular+product.+ ColumnO+A+structural+piece+that+performs+well+under+compression+to+provide+axial+ supports+to+a+building+ CompressionO+Occurs+when+an+external+force+puts+pressure+on+the+object+and+ compacts+it+to+make+it+shorter+ Concrete+plankO+A+hollow+or+solid+section+of+concrete,+tat+is+generally+preOstressed+ and+precast,+that+is+used+for+roof+and+floor+decking.+ CorrosionO+When+a+material+begins+to+be+eaten+away+due+to+chemical+reaction+ DeflectionO+Perpendicular+distance+a+spanning+member+deviates+from+a+true+course+ under+transverse+loading+ Down+pipeO+collects+water+from+gutter+and+deposits+it+in+storm+water+drain+ Dynamic'loadsO+applied+suddenly+to+a+structure.+Rapid+changes+in+magnitude+and+ point.+ Earthquake'loadsO+Consists+of+a+series+of+longitudinal+and+transverse+vibrations+ induced+in+the+earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s+crust.+ Enclosure'systemO+the+envelop+of+a+building+ FasciaO+A+flat+surface+board+installed+at+the+vertical,+exterior+face+of+a+building+ FlashingO+thin+continuous+pieces+of+sheet+metal+or+other+impervious+material+ installed+to+prevent+the+passage+of+water+ ForcesO+Any+influence+that+produces+a+change+in+the+shape+and+movement+of+a+body.+ It+has+both+magnitude+and+direction.+ FrameO+Comprised+of+columns+and+beams+to+create+a+wall+or+a+section+of+a+structure+ GirderO+A+large+primary+beam+of+wood,+steel+or+concrete+used+to+support+other+ members+at+areas+along+the+length+of+the+girder+ GutterO+runs+along+the+edge+of+the+roof+and+collects+water+from+the+roof+and+transfer+ it+to+downpipes+ IEQO+Short+for+Indoor+Environmental+Quality+ InsulationO+Controls+movement+of+heat+into+and+out+of+a+building,,+reducing+the+ amount+of+energy+required+ JoistO+horizontal+members+that+run+parallel+on+top+of+the+bearers+to+support+the+load+ of+the+floor+or+ceiling+

Life'CycleY+The+period+of+time+from+a+building+initial+construction+to+its+functioning+ and+ends+when+the+building+is+no+longer+used+ LintelO+an+additional+horizontal+member+used+in+a+wall+system+over+a+window+or+ door+opening+to+support+the+load+of+the+wall+above+it+and+transfer+the+load+around+ the+opening.'' Live'loadsO+Comprise+of+any+moving+or+movable+loads+on+a+structure+ Load+pathO+represents+the+direction+of+the+load+as+it+travels+through+the+structure+ MasonryO+the+process+of+constructing+buildings+or+structures+with+individual+units+ held+together+by+mortar.+ Mechanical'SystemsO+Provide+essential+services+to+buildings.+For+example,+gas,+ water+supply+and+electricity+ MomentO+occurs+when+a+force+produce+a+rotational+movement+on+a+member+around+ a+central+point.+ Moment'of'inertiaO+sum+of+the+product+of+each+element+of+an+area+and+the+square+of+ its+distance+from+a+coplanar+axis+of+rotation+ Night'air'purgingO+the+process+of+allowing+cold+air+to+enter+the+house+and+shutting+ the+windows+and+doors+in+the+morning+to+prevent+hot+air+from+replacing+the+cold+air.+ NoggingO+horizontal+member+placed+between+the+studs+in+a+wall+system+to+prevent+ buckling+ Pad'footingY+also+know+as+isolated+footings,+divide+the+load+over+a+larger+area+ ParapetO+A+section+of+a+wall+that+extends+above+the+roof+level,+generally+on+the+edge+ of+the+roof+ Portal'FrameO+consists+of+two+columns+and+a+beam+that+area+joined+together+using+ rigid+joints+ PurlinO+Horizontal+member+in+roof+structures+that+transfer+roof+loads+to+the+roof+ beams+ RafterO+sloped+beam+that+extends+from+the+ridge+beam+down+to+the+external+wall+ and+supports+the+roof+covering+ Reaction'forceO+The+force+exerted+on+the+structure+that+is+equal+and+opposite+in+ direction+to+force+the+structure+exerts+on+the+ground.+ Retaining'wallO+resist+lateral+forces+such+as+soil,+accommodate+for+a+change+in+ ground+level+or+for+a+basement+of+a+building.+ Shear'WallO+A+wall+structure+intended+to+resist+lateral+forces,+such+as+earthquakes+ and+wind,+parallel+to+the+plane+of+the+wall+ Shear'ForceY'A+force+acting+on+an+object+that+slides+one+part+of+it+in+a+direction+ against+the+other+part+of+it.+ Seasoned'timberO+Timber+that+has+a+low+water+content+that+increases+it+ dimensional+stability+ SealantO+a+durable,+adhesive+and+resistant+material+that+seals+a+joint+from+water+and+ air+ Soft'storyO+A+floor+that+has+less+support+than+other+levels+and+it+is+more+likely+to+ collapse+in+an+earthquake+ SpacingO+the+distance+between+two+parallel+elements+ SpanO+the+distance+between+two+supporting+member+that+are+supporting+the+length+ of+a+beam+

StabilityO+The+ability+of+a+structure+to+maintain+a+stable+balance+when+external+ lateral+forces+and+vertical+loads+are+exerted+on+the+structure+ Static'loadsY+Loads+that+are+assured+to+be+applied+slowly+until+it+reaches+its+peak+ value+without+fluctuating+magnitude+or+position+ + Steel'deckingO+sheets+of+metal+that+is+used+as+roofing+and+sometimes+flooring+ Structural'jointO+connect+individual+pieces+of+material+together+to+help+form+a+ structure+ Structural'systemOConstructed+to+support+and+transmit+loads+to+the+ground+safely.+ E.gO+Columns,+beams+and+load+bearing+wall+supports.+ StudO+a+vertical+member+used+in+a+wall+construction+to+help+make+a+wall+stable+ SubstructureO+the+foundations+of+the+building+that+can+either+be+above+or+below+ ground+level.+The+foundations+transfer+the+load+of+the+building+into+the+ground+ TensionOOccurs+when+an+external+force+is+applied+to+a+structure+that+elongates+the+ object+ Vapour'BarrierO+A+material+that+has+low+permeability+that+is+used+to+prevent+ moisture+form+seeping+into+a+structure+when+it+can+turn+into+a+liquid+ Wind'loadsO+Forces+exerted+by+the+kinetic+energy+of+a+moving+mass+of+air.+ + + + + + .+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Reference'List' ' Ching,+F.D.K.+(2008).+Building(construction(illustrated((4th+ed.).+New+Jersey:+John+ Wiley+&+Sons,+Inc.+

Logbook final submission 2014

Assignment 1 for Envs 10003

Logbook final submission 2014

Assignment 1 for Envs 10003

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