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What Is Salmonella?

Salmonella is a type of bacteria. There are many types of salmonella bacteria, but the type that commonly causes food poisoning is known medically as non-typhoidial salmonallae, which lives in the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals. It typically causes illnesses in humans when it is transmitted through foods contaminated with animal or human feces. How

Do

You

Get

Salmonella? How is Salmonella Treated? Usually, no treatment is necessary for salmonella other than staying hydrated. Drinking plenty of water or an electrolyte solution (such as Pedialyte for children and infants or Gatorade for adults) is important when you have diarrhea to be sure you do not become dehydrated. Fruit juices and sodas should be avoided because they can possibly make the diarrhea worse. Some people may need antibiotic treatment.

Most people associate salmonella infection (salmonellosis) with raw or undercooked poultry or meat, but it can be found on fruits and vegetables that are not cooked or washed properly as well. A food handler may also spread salmonella to foods if they do not properly wash their hands after using the bathroom. Salmonella may be found in the feces of some pets, especially those with diarrhea. Reptiles such as turtles, lizards and snakes are the most likely pets to be carrying salmonella. Occasionally -- especially in infants, the elderly or those with compromised immune systems -- a more serious illness may result from salmonella infection. Diarrhea may become so severe that the person needs to be hospitalized. The bacteria can also get into the bloodstream and cause death unless the person is treated quickly with antibiotics.

If you suspect that you have a salmonella infection after eating food that may have been contaminated, it is important to see your healthcare provider. They can do tests to determine if salmonella is the cause of your symptoms and can report the infection to your local health department or the CDC if necessary. Occasionally, diarrhea may become so severe that it causes dehydration and IV fluids may be necessary. Antibiotics are typically not necessary unless the bacteria enter the bloodstream.


Are There Complications?

Any

Normally, there are no serious complications from a salmonella infection. Rarely, people who have had salmonellosis can develop Reiter’s syndrome which may also turn into chronic arthritis. Symptoms of Reiter’s syndrome include pain in the joints, painful urination and irritation of the eyes. Treatment with antibiotics does not appear to affect whether or not a person develops these complications. Approximately 400 people in the U.S. die each year from salmonella infections.

How Can Salmonella Infection Be Prevented? Because salmonella is in the environment and even in our own bodies, it is important to follow some basic steps to prevent infection with the bacteria. Some things you can do include:

Do not eat raw or undercooked eggs, meat or poultry. Egg yolks should be cooked until firm and meat (especially ground meats) and poultry should not be pink in the middle. Do not consume raw or unpasteurized milk or dairy products. Thoroughly wash all produce. Keep uncooked meats separated from produce and other foods so cross contamination does not occur. Thoroughly wash all cutting boards and food preparation materials after preparing uncooked foods. Wash your hands before you handle food and between handling different food items. Always wash your hands after using the bathroom and touching pets, especially reptiles. Never keep reptiles (including turtles) as pets in the same house with infants and young children. Read more about pet turtles and salmonella. Wash your hands immediately after touching or holding chicks, ducklings or other birds and do not let children handle them at all. Salmonella Sources

Salmonella is named after Daniel Elmer Salmon, the first veterinary student to graduate with a DVM degree in the US, from Cornell University in 1876. From the Cornell history archives: "...Salmon earned the first DVM degree in the country. Dr. Salmon went on to serve as the founding chief of the US Bureau of Animal Industry and is best known today for identifying the infectious pathogen Salmonella and pioneering the fight against contagious diseases." Salmonella bacteria live in the intestines of animals and birds. Contamination of foods, eating surfaces and hands with fecal matter is how Salmonella is spread and has the potential to cause illness. There are many strains of Salmonella bacteria. According to the USDA, the Salmonella family includes over 2,300 serotypes of bacteria, but only a few of those strains cause illness. Some strains cause illness in people and not in animals and vice versa.


syptoms of salmonella

diarrhea

fever

stomach cramps

vomiting (occasionally)

For more information: http://coldflu.about.com/od/othercommonillnesses/a/salmonella.htm http://vetmedicine.about.com/od/diseasesandconditions/a/Salmonella.htm http://pediatrics.about.com/od/childhoodinfections/a/109_salmonella.htm What is Ebola? Ebola is a deadly virus originating in parts of Africa. It is classified as a hemorrhagic fever, putting it in the same category as Marburg fever, Lassa fever, and Dengue fever. There are four varieties, named after their country of origin. Ebola Zaire, Ebola Cote d'Ivoire, and Ebola Sudan are all known to cause serious illness in human beings. Ebola Reston does not appear to cause illness in people. The virus may be transmitted through bodily fluids such as blood and secretions. Wellestablished vectors for infection include handling other primates infected with Ebola, contact with infected corpses during funeral services, and touching infected patients without exercising proper caution. It is thought that the disease may be transferred through airborne particles, but so far there are no proven cases of this method of infection. Hospital staff are particularly susceptible to infection during an outbreak, particularly in the nations in which Ebola has so far occurred. Difficult economic conditions and a lack of access to proper sterilization and protective garments make nurses and doctors an easy target when they deal with patients who have been infected with this virus. Contrary to popular misconception, Ebola does not kill within a matter of hours, and the virus will incubate for up to two weeks before symptoms begin to occur. These symptoms include a rapidly intensifying fever, horrible muscle pain, and debilitating weakness. Further symptoms may include diarrhea and vomiting, as well as both internal and external bleeding.


Ebola Ebola is a potentially fatal contagious illness caused by infection with a virus. This eMedTV article offers an overview of this illness, including information about its cause, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment. The Ebola Virus Ebola is caused by the Ebola virus, which can be transmitted from person to person. This part of the emedTV library covers the transmission, symptoms, and treatment of the virus, as well as the possibility of it being used for bioterrorism.

Causes of Ebola As this eMedTV segment explains, the causes of Ebola in humans involve infection with the EbolaZaire, Ebola-Sudan, or Ebola-Ivory Coast subtypes of the Ebola virus. This article explains how Ebola is transmitted from one human to another. Ebola History Outbreaks of Ebola have appeared sporadically since it was first recognized in 1976. This page of the eMedTV Web site outlines Ebola history since 1976, including information

about specific outbreaks and links to additional information. Ebola Virus Symptoms Ebola virus symptoms can include diarrhea, fever, severe headaches, and internal and external bleeding. This eMedTV segment lists symptoms that are associated with the Ebola virus, which also may include vomiting, stomach pain, and a rash. Signs and Symptoms of Ebola Signs and symptoms of Ebola may include fever, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain, and a hacking cough. This eMedTV page describes these and other signs and symptoms of Ebola. Symptoms of Ebola often begin abruptly four to six days after infection. What Is the Ebola Virus? The Ebola virus is a type of RNA virus that causes the disease known as Ebola. This segment of the eMedTV library provides a detailed overview of this virus, including the different subtypes, transmission, and possible locations of Ebola. As this eMedTV resource explains, transmission of Ebola among humans occurs through direct contact with an infected person or his or her body fluids. This article also

discusses why outbreaks of Ebola tend to spread quickly in African hospitals. What Causes Ebola? What causes Ebola? As explained in this section of the eMedTV library, Ebola is caused by an infection with the Ebola virus. This article briefly discusses what causes Ebola and offers a link to additional information. Cure for Ebola

There is no cure for Ebola. Once symptoms of the disease begin, doctors can only offer supportive care. This eMedTV Web segment discusses current treatments for Ebola and explains that a vaccine is being tested that could prevent infections. Ebola Vaccine An experimental Ebola vaccine has been shown to be effective in monkeys. However, as explained on this eMedTV Web page, more research needs to be done before such a vaccine is licensed for use in humans, which could have implications for other diseases.


Ebola research scientists are currently studying additional diagnostic tools to assist in early diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Ebola research scientists are also conducting ecological investigations of Ebola virus, and its possible reservoir. More extensive knowledge of the natural reservoir (habitat) of Ebola virus, and how the virus is spread, must be acquired to prevent future outbreaks effectively. Other Ebola research scientists are monitoring suspected areas to determine how common Ebola outbreaks are. Finally, Ebola research scientists are actively studying an experimental Ebola vaccine that has shown promise in previous monkey studies. In 2003, an Ebola research study began that is evaluating the safety of this experimental Ebola vaccine in humans. The trial Ebola vaccine, a type called a DNA vaccine, is similar to other investigational vaccines that hold promise for controlling such

diseases as AIDS, influenza, malaria, and hepatitis. There has never been a reported case of Ebola fever in humans in the United States. EbolaReston virus caused severe illness and death in monkeys imported to research facilities in the United States and Italy, from the Philippines; during these outbreaks, several research workers became infected with the virus, but did not become ill. Transmission of Ebola in hospitals is very common during Ebola outbreaks. In African healthcare facilities, patients with Ebola are often cared for without the use of a mask, gown, or gloves. Exposure to the Ebola virus has occurred when healthcare workers treated individuals with Ebola hemorrhagic fever without wearing these types of protective clothing. In addition, when needles or syringes are used, they may not be of the disposable type, or may not have been sterilized, but are only

rinsed before reinsertion into multi-use vials of medicine. If needles or syringes become contaminated with virus and are then reused, numerous people can become infected. One way that transmission of Ebola can occur is through direct contact with an infected person. This most often occurs at a burial ceremony where mourners touch recently deceased Ebola victims. Another way that transmission of Ebola occurs involves direct contact with the blood or secretions of an infected person. In this situation, the Ebola virus often spreads to the patient's family and friends because they come in close contact with such secretions when caring for the infected person. People can also be exposed to Ebola virus through contact with objects, such as needles, that have been contaminated with infected secretions.


For more info: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-ebola.htm http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-symptoms-of-ebola.htm http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Ebola.aspx


salmonella and ebola