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POLITICAL SCIENCE / Public Policy / Environmental Policy

America is addicted to Energy. Move From an Energy User to an Energy Thinker. Williamson shows his dedication to move Americans from Energy Users to Energy Thinkers and advert the crisis looming on the horizon. Until I read, Winning the Energy Wars I believed I was conservative and resourceful concerning my energy use. I never gave much thought to the consumption and the waste of energy on a daily basis. Dr. Williamson’s book is the starting point for solving America’s energy crisis. No longer can we deny that consuming our finite resources without a sustainable energy plan (SEP) is feasible. In the SEP, Dr. Williamson has clearly explained the cause and the struggles of the energy crisis. He has identified the resources, at hand, to help solve the energy crisis and create a sustainable future.

Angel Tuccy, Radio Host and Best Selling Author of Lists That Saved My Life. An innovative approach to our energy woes from a man who always seems to be a step ahead of his time.

—Brian P. Kerns, University of Montana, Alternative Energy Technologies ...Dr. Williamson presents a frank and honest status of the energy crisis we are battling today. He clearly articulates the serious issue that the United States has no coherent viable long term sustainable energy plan, and how the government agencies chartered and funded to provide this guidance have failed. This book presents a bold, thought provoking USA Sustainable Energy Plan with operable solutions, some of which will no doubt be controversial. Every American should read this book and realize that action must be taken now and that there are practicable options to create a sustainable energy future.

Bobby A. Clay, CEO, SameSky Systems, Inc. Energy Solutions is the root of Paul’s book. Solving energy problems demand action. Actions require energy and Paul Williamson’s book provides solutions. Winning The Energy Wars is a must read book for the leaders of tomorrow who will be making decisions for our long-term growth.

Robert A. “Bobby” Likis President & CEO Car Clinic Productions, Inc. ...Dr. Williamson tackles many of the big beaurocracies with armor piercing information and enraging common sense ideas. A rallying cry for those of us who know that something has to change and soon, and it ought to start in America.

—John Cornish, President, EPC


WINNING THE ENERGY WARS A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PLAN FOR AMERICA’S FUTURE

R. Paul Williamson

Denver, Colorado


WINNING THE ENERGY WARS A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PLAN FOR AMERICA’S FUTURE R. Paul Williamson Š 2012 by R. Paul Williamson

www.USA-SEP.com Published by Tendril Press™ www.TendrilPress.com PO Box 441110 Aurora, CO 80044 303.696.9227

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Tendril Press, LLC. except for brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law. For permission requests, write to the publisher, addressed “Attention: Permissions Coordinator,� at the address below. The material in this book is furnished for informational use only and is subject to change without notice. Neither the author nor publisher assume any liability or responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any direct or indirect loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, by the information contained herein, or for errors, omissions, inaccuracies, or any other inconsistency within these pages, or for unintentional slights against people or organizations. All images, logos, quotes and trademarks included in this book are subject to use according to trademark and copyright laws of the United States of America.

ISBN 978-0-9831587-6-9 Paper Library of Congress Control Number: 2011942606

Individual Sales. This book is available through online and traditional bookstores or can be ordered directly from the publisher or at www.USA-SEP. com Quantity Sales discounts are available through the publisher by corporations, associations, and others. For details, contact the “Special Sales Department� at the publisher’s address above.

Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Cover Design: Karin Homan Cover Photos: Shutterstock Art Direction, Book Design and Cover Design Š 2012. All Rights Reserved by A J Images Inc.,  XXX"+*NBHFT*ODDPN‰tt

Info@AJImagesInc.com


To my children, Jason and Joleta, their spouses Ronit and Jason and to the future we want to create for Arielle, Talia, Noah and Lucy. to Pam, Tom, Ron, Ma and Dad and to The DeSmet Class ‘65

Remember: “Never stop, always finish.”

iii


Contents List of Illustrations ............................................................................................. vii Preface................................................................................................................... xi Acknowledgements............................................................................................ xix List of Abbreviations ......................................................................................... xxi Chapter One—How Did We Get Here and Why? ......................................... 1 Introduction ...........................................................................................2 Energy Evolution ...........................................................................4 Energy Impacts ..............................................................................6 Obstacle ‘isms’.........................................................................................7 Starting Point ..................................................................................... 21 Need for a Plan ........................................................................... 22 Sustainable Energy Plan............................................................ 23 Benefits of a Sustainable Energy Future................................. 23 Chapter Two—US Energy Resource Inventory and Appraisal ....................  Overview.............................................................................................. 27 Finite Energy Resources ................................................................... 30 Transitional Energy Resources ........................................................ 53 Infinite Energy Resources ................................................................ 77 Exploratory Energy Resource Development ...............................105 Chapter Three—Energy Infrastructure ........................................................ Energy Generation Infrastructure .................................................120 Energy Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure..............130 Energy Storage Infrastructure........................................................138 Energy Support Infrastructure ......................................................145

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Winning the Energy Wars

vi A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

Chapter Four—Energy Consumption and Demand....................................153 Energy Consumption ......................................................................154 Energy Demand Sectors .................................................................157 Chapter Five—USA Sustainable Energy Plan ............................................ Facing the Energy Crisis with a Plan ............................................173 Plan Concept.............................................................................175 Change Management.......................................................................177 Energy Leadership............................................................................194 Resource Allocation .........................................................................197 Finite Energy Resources..................................................................203 Transitional Energy Resources ......................................................210 Infinite Energy Resources ...............................................................224 Exploration Energy Resource Development................................237 Funding ..............................................................................................237 Chapter Six—Implementation ....................................................................... Phase 1: The Power of One, Your Involvement ..........................248 Phase 2: Congressional Expectations............................................251 Phase 3: GNSEC Action................................................................252 Phase 4: USA-SEP Monitoring ....................................................253 Continued Work and Evaluation...................................................254 Glossary ............................................................................................................. Bibliography ...................................................................................................... Index ................................................................................................................. About the Author .............................................................................................


Illustrations Figures: 0.1

USA-SEP Progression................................................................................xvi

0.2

Table of Large Numbers.......................................................................... xviii

1.1

Sustainable Energy Obstacle ‘isms’...............................................................8

2.1

SWOT Evaluation ...................................................................................... 30

2.2

Energy Resource Overview ........................................................................ 31

2.3

Electricity Generation by Fuel ................................................................... 34

2.4

Typical Composition of Natural Gas ....................................................... 35

2.5

US Shale Gas Locations ............................................................................. 37

2.6

Arctic Natural Gas Locations.................................................................... 41

2.7

Consumption, Production, and Import Trends...................................... 43

2.8

Western Oil Shale Deposits....................................................................... 46

2.9

Arctic Oil Reserves ...................................................................................... 47

2.10 Aerobic and Anerobic Landfill Gas Production ..................................... 68 2.11 Office Building Energy Use........................................................................ 78 2.12 Office Building Natural Gas Use .............................................................. 79 2.13 Office Building Electrical Use .................................................................... 82 2.14 Geothermal Resources, Heat Flow Map.................................................. 89 2.15 Photovoltaic Solar Resources Map ........................................................... 92 2.16 US Wind Resources..................................................................................103

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Winning the Energy Wars

viii A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

3.1

US Electrical Generation by Source.......................................................120

3.2

Top Sources of US Crude Oil Imports..................................................121

3.3

US Field Production of Crude Oil .........................................................122

3.4

Natural Gas Use.........................................................................................127

3.5

US Energy Distribution ...........................................................................130

3.6

US Grid Transmissions ............................................................................133

3.7

US Pipelines ...............................................................................................135

3.8

National Highway System .......................................................................136

3.9

Tonnage Shipments...................................................................................137

3.10 Battery Types and Output........................................................................138 3.11 Water Reservoirs........................................................................................144 4.1

Energy Overview .......................................................................................154

4.2

Total Energy Use........................................................................................155

4.3

Energy Supply and Demand ....................................................................157

4.4

Residential Site Energy Consumption ...................................................161

4.5

How Energy is Used in Homes...............................................................161

4.6

Vehicle Energy Use....................................................................................161

4.7

Motor Fuels Consumption.......................................................................164

4.8

US Motor Fuels Consumption Gallons per year 2000-2010.............163

4.9

US Department of Defense Energy Outlook .......................................167

5.1

Rogers Bell-Shaped Adoption Curve .....................................................177

5.2

Sustainable Energy Centers......................................................................190

5.3

GNSEC Regions Representation ...........................................................194

5.4

GNSEC Organization Chart ..................................................................196

5.5

USA-SEP Energy Allocations Percentage Breakdown.......................202


Preface

ix

Finite Energy: 5.6 Summary Chart: Finite, Transitional & Infinite Energy Resources..203 5.7 Domestic Coal, Domestic Natural Gas, & Nuclear.............................206 5.8 Domestic Coalbed, Shale NG & Foreign Arctic NG. ........................207 5.9 Domestic Coal Mine & Flare NG, Domestic Oil Sands NG &.............. Domestic Stranded NG............................................................................209 5.10 Domestic Crude Oil, Deep Water Crude & ................................................ Domestic Oil Shale/Tar Sands ...............................................................210 5.11 Foreign Arctic Oil & Foreign Crude Oil ...............................................213

Transitional Energy: 5.12 Algae, Corn Ethanol, Oil Seed, & Peat. .................................................213 5.13 Manure Biosolids, & Manure Methane. ................................................214 5.14 Straw Grain, Switchgrass, Corn Stover & Industrial Hemp..............216 5.15 H2 Reforming & Methanol Production................................................217 5.16 Hydrogen Off-gasses, Animal Fat, Cooking Oil, & Motor Oil .........219 5.17 Landfill Gas, Landfill Solids, Sewage Biogas, Sludge Waste &................. Cheese Whey..............................................................................................221 5.18 Forest Management, Fuel Wood, Logging Residue, Pulp Residue,.... Urban Residue & Wood Pellets ..............................................................223 Infinite Energy: 5.19 Efficiency Conservation, Performance Contracting, Energy Monitoring & Food Consumption..............................................................................226 5.20 Commercial & Residential Solar Hot Water ............................................227 5.21aGeothermal High Temperature....................................................................228 5.21b Geothermal Low High Temperature .........................................................228 5.22 Hydrogen Electrolysis ...............................................................................229 5.23 Solar Brownfield, Commercial Rooftop & Residential Rooftop .......231


Winning the Energy Wars

x A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

5.24 Space Solar Satellites, Utility Scale Solar Farms & Concentrators ...232 5.25 Community Solar, Parking Lot Canopy Solar & Utility Pole Solar.233 5.26 Hydroelectric Dams ..................................................................................234 5.27 Micro-hydro & Pumped Storage ............................................................235 5.28 Distributed & Community Wind, O-shore Wind, Utility Large Wind & Residential Wind ........................................................................................236 5.29 National Alternative Energy Bond Fund Revenue Generation ........241 5.30 National Alternative Energy Bond Fund Business Regeneration............. Model ...........................................................................................................242 6.1 USA-SEP Implementation Plan.............................................................248


Preface The United States energy “strategy” is not working.

We have heard more about war in our lifetimes than we care to remember. The use of the term war is to denote an all-out effort and EWTIGM½GWXVEXIK]XSKEMRXLILMKLIVKVSYRH -XMWMQTIVEXMZIXSVIKEMRXLIYTTIVLERHSRIRIVK] XSVIIWXEFPMWLXLIHMVIGXMSRERHJYXYVISJSYVGSYRXV] -X´WFI[MPHIVMRKXSXLMROIRIVK]LEWFIIRSYVJVMIRHJSVWSPSRKERH RS[MWERIRIQ]XLEX[IQYWXGSRGYVMJ[IEVIXSXLVMZI -J[IMKRSVIXLMWKPSFEPIRIVK][EVWEVIMRIZMXEFPI

O

ver the last several years, I’ve been critical of a number of areas and sectors regarding the lack of recognition, due diligence, and action in addressing the challenges of the energy crisis. While I was on a road trip from Montana through Canada up to Alaska and back, various ideas and concepts swirled in my head. I’ve discovered road trips an excellent way to reassess and think through things that normal day-to-day schedules seem to prevent. During this ‘think time’, it occurred to me that perhaps I could do more. I recycle, have reduced my carbon footprint substantially, commute with my bike, drive hybrid and electric vehicles, air dry my laundry, and have cut back considerably on my conspicuous consumption. At the same time, however, I have observed many Americans around me are still very dependent on energy. When I drive my gasoline/electric hybrid on a regular basis, I presume gasoline will be readily available whenever I need it. I shop the grocery store expecting every food of my desire. I maintain a household expecting my lights, appliances, tools, and electronic devices to constantly

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Winning the Energy Wars

xii A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

have a source of power, as well as, all the water I need and want. I go to work assuming that my office will be comfortably heated or cooled and fitted with workplace accoutrements. I enjoy myself by driving to various locations to hike, fish, camp, bike, ski, hunt, and see others using four-wheelers, boats, and jet skis. Stores are filled with goods we consume daily—all having a long energy stream to get from producer to store shelves. Although I presumed I was doing my part to conserve energy, I had to ask if it was enough. Whose problem is the energy crisis? I had to answer—it is mine. What am I doing to solve the energy crisis? Not as much as I could. I’ve never believed I was an expert on anything, but I prided myself on being a generalist in the biggest sense of the word. As I heard and read supposed experts pontificating on energy issues, it seemed to me they were completely missing the point, which is not unusual. In an Aug. 15, 2011 National Public Radio (NPR) Freakconomics program, studies were presented, which uncovered experts are only three percentage points better in their opinions and predictions than the average person may accomplish by chance. This confirms that you and I have just about as much chance of being accurate as anyone who calls themself an expert. To date, I’ve not seen any source come up with a long-term, national, viable, workable, domestically oriented, and sustainable solution. I determined my unique background would bring something to the table that could serve as a starting point to solve the energy crisis for our nation. -I\TIGXXSTEWWXLVSYKLXLMW[SVPH FYXSRGI%R]KSSHXLIVIJSVIXLEX- GERHSSVER]OMRHRIWWSV EFMPMXMIWXLEX-GERWLS[XSER] JIPPS[GVIEXYVIPIXQIHSMXRS[ 0IXQIRSXHIJIVMXSVRIKPIGXMX JSV-WLEPPRSXTEWWXLMW[E]EKEMR

Energy and its related issues cover a wide breadth of areas difficult to correlate. Although my knowledge covers nowhere near the breadth that the energy topic demands, I believe my broad experience has helped support my visioning process. Over the years, I have been fortunate to have the ability to anticipate the fu— William Penn ture and develop programs that address future needs. From an experience standpoint, I have studied, worked, and accumulated experiences in: education, scientific research, business, financial planning, corporate planning, wilderness recovery, fund raising, lobbying, music, agriculture, transportation, architecture, recycling, food service, net-zero planning, military, government contracting, environmentalism, principle investigator management


Preface

xiii

(DOD, DOE, NREL, DOT, USDA), communications, alternative energy, residential construction, social programming, and other areas. Additionally, I have worked in alternative energy transportation that has included electric, hydrogen, maglev monorail, motorcycle, and gasoline vehicles; wind site and wind turbine development; hydrogen research, development, and safety training; sustainable system design; active and passive solar applications; organic permaculture; hydrogen production and fuel cell development; energy innovation; national energy presentations and training; and urban sustainable demonstration projects. I submit that a vast majority of the problems on our radar screen are not causes of our energy situation but the effects—the effects of our energy use and the results of our policies that have ‘come home to roost’. Until the majority of us are ready to face the real cause of our national energy conundrum, we, and subsequent generations, will suffer the consequences of our inaction. Every day we waken, turn on the lights, brew our coffee, check the news on the television, start the car, and enter the congested, high speed, high energy world. We do this without a second thought as to where the energy that drives it originates. The day has come, however, that we need to contemplate where we are and where we’re going. It’s clear our energy path is not sustainable. The cause of the pain in our energy crisis is not global warming, or climate change, or water pollution, or air contaminates, or carbon footprints, or wealth transfer, or gasoline prices, or national security, or the myriad of other ‘causes’ being championed by this or that group, although they are problems to consider and address. The CAUSE of the pain is our reliance on finite, carbon-based energy supplies and the dwindling supply of finite energy resources. Unfortunately, for many reasons, excuses, and obstacles, we have not and do not adequately address the root cause of our situation. The cause of our energy crisis is ENERGY RESOURCE SUPPLY. It’s that simple and yet complex. Our market-driven country requires care and feeding. Capitalism is based on consumerism, that is based on product availability, that is based on ENERGY. Without energy, the

8LIWMXYEXMSR[IEVIMRMWQYGLPMOI XLITIVWSR[LS½RHWLMQLIVWIPJMR the middle of a desert with just a ½RMXIEQSYRXSJ[EXIVXSKIXLMQ herself to the other side. This perWSREPWSVIEPM^IWXLEXLIWLIQYWX LEZIIRSYKL[EXIVXSTVMQIXLI TYQT[LIRLIWLIKIXWXSXLIIRH or no one else will have water.


Winning the Energy Wars

xiv A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

wheels stop. With present methods of so-called painless energy extraction, usage, growth, and economic expansion, it’s important to realize changes need to be made, leadership awakened, and the United States (US), as a whole, asked to rise to the challenge before it is in ashes. The great news for the US is that ending the painful cause and eect energy spiral lies in our ability to tap our unmatched business and workforce innovation, creativity, and productivity for a solution. These assets, supporting a meaningful sustainable energy plan, promise to raise us to a level higher than we have ever been before. How do we replace cheap petroleum-based energy with sustainable energy resources? We can’t, at least not now. Our dependence on ďŹ nite fossil fuels has created a very deep hole. At the same time, we know we are not getting anywhere with the present-day piecemeal, unplanned energy direction. Our best opportunities lie in the design and implementation of a dynamic, operational, and sustainable national energy plan. The eort will be worth the price and the pain we invest when we experience the great dividends %WYWXEMREFPIIRIVK]TPERMWSRI on the other side. that can move the entire nation WIUYIRXMEPP]JVSQGEVFSRFEWIH ½RMXIJYIPWXSEHMZIVWITSVXJSPMSSJ IRIVK]EPXIVREXMZIWXLEXWYWXEMRWYW MRHI½RMXIP]MRXSXLIJYXYVI

The challenge can be met. Within US borders, there are more than enough resources and ideas to establish a sustainable energy future. We have technologies which advance every day to make our energy resources more eective, eďŹƒcient, and aordable. Few generations have been privy to such exciting times. What we do in the next decade will shape the destiny of the United States, the globe, and our children and grandchildren more than any other time in this planet’s human history. We already have a foundation of knowledge: t8FLOPXIPXNVDIFOFSHZPVSUSBOTQPSUBUJPO CVTJOFTTBOEJOEVTUSZ SFTJdential, commercial, and electric power sectors demand each year. t8FDBOFTUJNBUFIPXNVDIFOFSHZXFXJMMOFFEJOUIFGVUVSF t8FLOPXXIBUUIFTVQQMZPGFOFSHZSFTPVSDFTBSFJOUIF64 t8FLOPXUIBUJGBSFTPVSDFJTmOJUF JUXJMMSVOPVUBUTPNFUJNF t8FLOPXUIBUCVSOJOHSFTPVSDFTUPFYUSBDUUIFJSFOFSHZJTJOFÄ‹DJFOUBOE impacts our environment and health.


Preface

xv

t8FLOPXUIBUPVSQSFTFOUTZTUFNPGFOFSHZTVQQMZJTCSPLFOBOEDBOOPUCF sustained. t8FLOPXUIBUPVSFOUJSFRVBMJUZPGMJGF TFDVSJUZ BOEFDPOPNJDGPVOEBUJPOT are determined by energy. t8FLOPXUIBUPVSEFQFOEFODFPOFOFSHZIBTQMBDFEPVSGVUVSFJOUIFIBOET of foreign entities and ideologies. A new day is dawning. Energy change has found a home in the hearts of innovators and early adopters. It is in the bright eyes of a grade-schooler learning about our planet. It is being tested and implemented in the heartland and backyard garages of Americans from coast to coast. It is in the dendrite connections of quirky entrepreneurs and scientists. It is with home owners who seek ways to save money and lessen their carbon footprint. And it is in the hearts and minds of a newborn’s parents concerned about the future. Opportunities for change are boundless. Let’s magnify them, compile them into a plan, and take the quantum leap into a sustainable future. You can start now by calculating your carbon footprint and exploring how you can reduce it. You ca start now by scanning this code to calculate your carbon footprint then explore how you can reduce it.

Question: Why haven’t we correlated all of this, charted out the supply, demand and energy curves and developed a plan that can guide us to sustainability?

Answers: (a). I don’t know. (b). There are other problems thought to be more important. (c). We have no money. (d). Technology is not available. (e). Our leadership is not capable. (f ). It will cost too much. (g). There is too much greed. (h). It is not in the best interest of business and industry. (i). People, as a whole, do not understand the magnitude of the energy crisis. (j). Other _______________________________. (k). All of the above. Is this a classic case when reasons become excuses?


Winning the Energy Wars

xvi A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

Approach Let’s begin with the agreement that we need to start now. In the following pages, I will provide some of the information and education that will be helpful to move us toward a sustainable energy path. To define where we are; where we want to be; and what resources we need to achieve our goal, we need to ask the following questions: 1. What is causing the energy problem? 2. What energy resources do we have to solve the problem? 3. What energy infrastructure do we need to support our energy future? 4. What is the nation’s energy use and demand picture? 5. How may we organize a plan to solve the problem? 6. Who may implement and how? 7. How can the reader use this information to become part of a sustainable energy plan? Problem Solving

D

D  D D 

Resource Inventory Assessment

Your Role

 D

Infrastructure Analysis

U.S.A. Sustainable Energy Plan

Energy Demand and Use

  D D

Figure 0.1—USA-SEP Progression



Plan Implementation


Preface

xvii

The first task is to force significant change in the energy consciousness of America. We can do this by identifying the root cause of our energy crisis, then proceed forward to implement a sustainable energy plan.

New Way of Thinking It has been observed that information on energy seems to be everywhere, but “big picture” comparison, analysis, understanding, and vision seem to be rare. It is hoped this book will be a starting point in the planning process and help those who are desirous of solving the energy crisis understand energy resource supply allocation. The use of the terms green and renewable are often limited because of their vagueness, nonspecific nature, and general overuse. Instead, we would like to move national thinking into considering energy resources in terms of their supply and availability. We have categorized each energy resource into one of three categories: finite energy resources, transitional energy resources, or infinite energy resources. When we derive our energy from infinite energy resources, we will have solved the energy crisis and with it eliminated pollution, green house gases, price fluctuations, wealth transfer, security threats, energy related problems and increasing government debt. Scan this code to view the debt clock.

Book Parameters 1. Every effort was made to be as inclusive of all domestic energy sources commonly known in the US. Any omissions are not intentional and their purveyors or major breakthrough representatives are invited to submit their energy sources for future inclusion. 2. This work is designed around the premise that a sustainable energy future will be based upon the use of electricity rather than combusting fuels for energy extraction. 3. To provide a basis for the reader to easily compare and plan, the book creates a commonality amongst all energy sources by using the measurement for heat: British thermal units (Btu); and for electricity: watts. Energy projection numbers will appear as megawatts hours (MWh).


Winning the Energy Wars

xviii A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

4. Most readers do not deal with the magnitude of numbers associated with energy resources, however it is beneficial for the readers to gain some understanding of these numbers. Therefore, whole numbers and not abbreviations are used to report energy resources. When dealing with Btu quantities, these number include: British thermal unit: 10,500,000 Btu=

Btu 1-Megawatt hour (MWh)

Electricity Measurements: Watts

Thousands (Th) Millions (M) Billions (B) Trillions (T) Quadrillions (Q)

= 1,000 = 1,000,000 = 1,000,000,000 = 1,000,000,000,000 = 1,000,000,000,000,000.

One Watt (W) One Kilowatt (kW) One Megawatt (MW) One Gigawatt (GW) One Terawatt (TW)

=1 = 1,000 = 1,000,000 = 1,000,000,000 = 1,000,000,000,000

Figure 0.2—Table of Large Numbers

We have a foot in both camps: one foot in the outdated methods associated with burning plant materials that are measured in British thermal units; and one foot in the future which measures power by the output of electricity measured in watts, kilowatts, megawatts, gigawatts and terawatts. Confusing to say the least, but it is part of our present reality. To confuse the situation more, there are other measurements that have emerged. However, here we will use the Btu and make conversions from Btu to MW from a myriad of conversions available from governmental, engineering, scientific, and special interest groups. When we look into a sustainable future, we will convert these Btu into watts so that we can more “easily” compare one energy source to another. 5. Most research in the energy area sets a base point from other research, regardless of the inconsistencies that exist among various resources. Although references are listed, the reader should be aware when it comes to any energy conversion, energy data, or energy comparisons the validity of information from any source needs be considered as influenced by varying perspectives infused with potential self-serving fallacies. In this work, best efforts were made to represent each piece of data as accurately as possible, with the knowledge that data consistency just does not seem to exist. 6. Although there are many important impacts that surround the use of energy, this book focuses on the availability of domestic energy resources and the initiation of a planning process to move the US from dependence on finite energy sources, through transitional energy processes, and arriving at a sustainable, infinite energy resource solution.


Acknowledgements This work would not have been possible had it not been for the encouragement and support from many. This includes colleagues, those working in the energy sector, and everyone aected by energy every day of their lives— a Big Thank You!

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Winning the Energy Wars

xx A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future


Abbreviations AC ASTM BBC Btu CBM CHP CO2 CRP DC DEA DNA DOD DOE DOT EGF EIA EPA EROEI FAO F-T GHG GIS GNP GNSEC GWh HVAC

Alternating Current American Society for Testing and Materials British Broadcasting Network British thermal unit Coal Bed Methane Combined Heat and Power Carbon Dioxide Crop Rotation Program Direct Current Drug Enforcement Administration Deoxyribonucleic acid Department of Defense Department of Energy Department of Transportation Education for a Great Future Energy Information Administration Environmental Protection Agency Energy Returned on Energy Invested Food and Agriculture Organization Fischer-Tropsch Green House Gas Geographic Information System Gross National Product Governors National Sustainable Energy Council Gigawatt hour Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

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Winning the Energy Wars

xxii A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

ICE IIA LED LLNL LWR MWh NAEBF NASA NG NIMBY NPR NREL O&M OEM OPEC PV R&D REIT REPC ROI SEC SPR SRC SWOT TARP TFR TWh US USA-SEP USDA USGS WWII

Internal Combustion Engine Investment In America Light Emitting Diode Lawrence Livermore National Labs Light Water Reactors Megawatt hour National Alternative Energy Bond Fund National Aeronautical Space Administration Natural Gas Not In My Back Yard National Public Radio National Renewable Energy Labs Operation and maintenance Original Equipment Manufactures (vehicles) Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Photovoltaic Research and Development Real Estate Investment Trust Rural Energy Production Center Return on Investment Sustainable Energy Center Strategic Petroleum Reserve Short rotation coppice Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Troubled Asset Relief Program Thorium Fluoride Reactors Terawatt hour United States United States of America Sustainable Energy Plan US Department of Agriculture U.S. Geological Survey World War II


Chapter 1

How Did We Get Here and Why?

If Only In December, 2009, I was taking my first trip to South America visiting Ecuador. After my flight from its largest city, Guayaquil, to its capitol, Quito, I was struck by the beauty of the countryside and richness of its culture. In Quito, I was met by my assigned husband and wife guide team, ready to answer my every question, provide me with their wealth of knowledge about their country, and eager to learn more about my interest in the country’s development of alternative energy resources. The country is economically expanding, the cities are attracting more business, and more people are desirous of a life style so many have seen on American television. My guides, like many other people throughout the world, marvel at American affluence and seek to copy urban America in pursuit of the American Dream. Ecuador is no exception and has gone so far as to use the dollar as its currency. I was amazed at my guides’ knowledge of, and admiration for, the US. They lamented “if only” they would have had the leadership of a John Adams, George Washington, or Thomas Jefferson (by name) what a better place Ecuador would be today. Unmistakably, their knowledge of US history was commendable. The successful history of the US is replete with visionary leadership, innovation, dedication, and unmatched pivotal events that have shaped the greatest nation

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Winning the Energy Wars

2 A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

on earth. Sometimes, you need someone to tell you about your own back yard in order to appreciate it yourself. US leadership, combined with the country’s vast natural resources, has become the global example for democracy and economic success. In no small measure, our forefathers, and the generations to follow, relied on intellect, hard work, and capitalism to harness seemingly endless supplies of resources to power independent and visionary thinking, innovation, productivity, ideological foundations, and military might. My Ecuadorian conversations made me take stock of my American roots and acknowledge how fortunate I was to have been born in the United States of America. At the same time, one can only imagine what our, self-sacrificing and courageous founding fathers would say today if they could see the very sovereignty of the US slipping away. We see the fabric of America deteriorating because of our inability and unwillingness to address the most critical domestic crisis that we have ever faced; the present and future supply, demand, and impact of energy. As my guides and I traveled through the very congested Ecuadorian city traffic with smog-filled air that burned my eyes, it was apparent they were literally choking on their efforts to be like us. The environmental impacts that modern vehicle transportation and the industrial energy era brings to their beautiful city is, indeed, transforming Quito into another US urban “nirvana”.

Introduction Despite our many formidable challenges, the US is a superpower in every aspect of the term, some good, some not so good. Achievement of this status has come with a price. The US consumes more energy than any other society. All of us are part of the onerous US energy appetite. It could be said that the demand for energy in the United States is truly gluttonous. It could also be said that the appetite of the world for the American way of life is equally voracious. With our high level of consumption, we have created a standard of living vis-à-vis the American Dream that is the envy of much of the world. Unfortunately, the American Dream has reached a breaking point and is not sustainable. Today, the same energy resources that catapulted us to greatness have become forces that are controlling the destiny of our great nation. When one analyzes the problems we have as a nation, almost all of th American Dream em, have


Chapter 1 How Did We Get Here and Why?

their root cause in energy. Energy is critical to power the nation, vital to national security, underwrites all infrastructures, provides the lifeblood to innovation, fuels business and industry, underwrites societal programs, and, next to human resources, is the most critical resource in achieving the American Dream. Without exception, every move we make, every breath we take, every dollar we earn, and every cent we spend has its roots in the availability and supply of energy. It is energy that has given us a quality of life that is the envy of the world.

Energy is vital to civilization. In fact, all of human history can be viewed through the lens of energy. —Michio Kaku

We have bet our future on the availability of finite energy supplies. At some point, we are destined to run out of these energy resources. Whether you think it will be tomorrow or in 50 years, or a hundred years, we will run out of natural resource based energy. We have a choice before us: we can either wither and die or find infinite energy resources to sustain us now and underwrite future generations. Energy is one of the key natural resources that have enabled us to achieve unbelievable heights. Energy resources, from wood, to coal, to oil, have been so plentiful, that we have fallen victim to the hypnotic, endless energy supply sirens. This trance has spanned over 400 years of American history, but the realities of energy supply and demand are finally catching up with us. What was once a simple matter of harvesting or drilling bountiful energy resources in our back yards has turned into a speeding locomotive pushing economic expansion down the track at ludicrous speeds. Many are just hanging on, others are trying to catch it, some are encouraging full speed ahead, while others want to stop it completely. Whatever group you fall into, the fact remains, continuation of the status quo will not work. The opportunity for immediate, simple solutions has passed. The demand for energy continues to increase; energy security challenges become more amplified, and environmental impacts of burning energy resources continues to escalate. Over the last several decades, leaders, advocates, extremists, and dooms-dayers have sounded the alarm with little effect. Various facts and figures have been presented regarding global warming, pollution, national security, escalating negative balance of trade, the ozone layer, high costs, greenhouse gases, peak oil, climate change, and respiratory ailments. All are directly or indirectly linked to the burning of carbon-based fuels, but rhetoric has been more prolific than action.

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Winning the Energy Wars

4 A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

All major economic sectors (transportation, industrial, commercial, residential and power generation) have recorded tremendous growth in their use of energy despite efforts to conserve. Over the next 25 years, the worldwide peak oil production and exploration will be a downward slope. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) continues to provide most of the energy data consumed in the US.1 With the pressures dictating energy demand and supply, it can be predicted with mathematical assurance that supplies will decrease and costs will increase. Without, efficiency improvements, building retrofits, vehicle computerized operations, and other conservation measures, our energy usage would be more astronomical than it is.2 Even with the improvements in our efficiency and conservation, energy use, per person, in the US has moved from 214 million British thermal units (Btu) in 1949 to 308 million Btu in 2009, a 44 percent increase.3 To support our escalating energy habit, most energy consumed in the United States comes from subsidized fossil fuels followed by some nuclear with a very small amount coming from renewable resources.4

We have moved from a culture of ‘waste-not want-not’ to a society that ‘wastes today and wants tomorrow’.

Energy Evolution We have come to a critical point in the evolution of energy. With the energy demands we face today and the imminent energy crisis, the evolution of energy is giving way to revolution. We have mastered the use of energy, but in this energy revolution, we will need to “un-master” what we have been doing and revolutionize every aspect of energy consumption. For over two centuries, energy mastery has made us beneficiaries of immense progress. We have coupled energy with hard work, dedication, democracy, discovery, innovation, and profit making. While we have America is always at its most TS[IVJYPERHQSWXMR¾YIRXMEP[LIR continued the escalated use of energy, not nearly enough concrete work has been done to prepare it is combining innovation and inspifor a new sustainable energy future. With this ration, wealth building and dignity lack of vision, the United States has been transFYMPHMRKXLIUYIWXJSVFMKTVS½XW and the tackling of big problems. formed from the most independent and powerful nation on earth to one whose dependence on -Thomas Friedman foreign oil threatens its security and future.


Chapter 1 How Did We Get Here and Why?

Every step we take, every breathe we breath, every drop we drink, every morsel we chew, every wheel we turn, depends on energy.

With the volatility of oil prices and the impact that finite fuels have on the environment, it has become a necessity to step back and assess how we use these fuels and how we can realize a better return on the energy dollars being spent. We cannot continue to burn finite resources if we want to exist in the future. To support an outdated transportation system reliant on the inefficient internal combustion engine (ICE), we export $265,000,000,000 of our national wealth to foreign nations every year for transportation fuels and it’s growing every day.5 In our homes, EIA data reports our per capita energy efficiency is no better today than it was in 1970.6 Residential electrical production is dependent on outdated centralized coal and natural gas generation plants that are connected to out-of-date grid distribution systems and nuclear generation plants. These practices are not only a drain on our economy and lackluster industrial complex but burning of these fuels impacts the welfare of every man, woman, and child. We lose thousands of productive US lives to pollution every year.7 During the 1970’s, we began to concern ourselves with the inefficiencies of burning carbon-based fuels. Their availability and inexpensive nature have allowed us to overlook their shortcomings for far too long. We know time and technology will move us away from combustion fuels to a new tomorrow with better domestic energy technologies that are more efficient, with much less environmental impact, and much better return on investment (ROI). Our reaction to critical needs usually falls into one or more of the following categories: 1. Benign Neglect 2. Knee-Jerk Reactions 3. Emotional Outrage 4. Status Quo Apathy 5. Focused Problem-solving 6. Strategic Planning

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Winning the Energy Wars

6 A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

Unfortunately, when it comes to energy, only the first four of these reactions have been engaged. Many Americans are too busy coping with the pressures of everyday life to add to their burdens with what looks like future problems. Many people do not have the time or the inclination to ponder what the energy crisis is or how it may affect them in the future. Not enough of us realize that the use of finite resources to supply an ever-growing demand for energy cannot go on forever. Contemplating the impacts of continued and escalating energy use will fall outside the consciousness of most Americans.

We sit in our houses and slowly the world we live in is getting smaller. And we say please leave us alone in our living room. Let me have my toaster and my TV and my steel belted radials. (Mad as hell). —Peter Finch Network.

Energy Impacts Our current mode of energy consumption is for us to use whatever we want, whenever we want to, in whatever quantities we desire, and expecting to pay subsidized prices with little attention to any impacts resulting from our energy use. This ‘no-holds-barred’ approach has created a culture that is unfamiliar and unaware of what energy consumption use means. No matter what energy source we tap to underwrite the American Dream, all energy resources have impact. 1. Energy has an impact on a healthy economy that needs to grow and, in turn, demands more energy. 2. More energy, under the present energy use patterns, impacts our increasing reliance on foreign resources. 3. Foreign supply of energy resources impacts our rate of foreign wealth transfer. 4. Wealth transfer for energy resources impacts our control of our destiny. 5. Lack of control impacts our ability to be secure and finance needed energy innovation. 6. Low innovation impacts the quality of life and diminishes global leadership. 7. Degradation in global leadership impacts our ability to influence a shift from finite to infinite energy supplies. These impacts dictate it’s time to implement infinite and sustainable energy resources with the least amount of environmental impact if we are to minimize the effects energy has on our people, country, and planet.


Chapter 1 How Did We Get Here and Why?

Although the US domestic oil production is increasing, it cannot keep pace with our increasing demands. In 2010, we imported 61 percent of our oil needs from foreign countries which accounted for 4.25 billion barrels purchased.8 In the 1950’s, a leading petroleum researcher, M. King Hubbert, predicted that our global finite oil resources would peak and then decline after 1970.9 As was the case with those that said the earth was flat, or officials who thought the earth was the center of the universe, or knowledgeable elite scientists who said it was impossible to send signals through the air, Hubbert’s work was scoffed at and ridiculed. Now his work has come to fruition. Whether you call it peak oil, resource depletion, or demand outstripping supply, you do not have to be brilliant to surmise that if a resource is in limited supply (finite), it will run out. At the same time, the carbon-based fuel we extract from the earth today is not nearly as high a quality as in the past; not available in the quantities demanded; and not as cheap as it once was. No one heeded the warning that Hubbert predicted, and no one has identified a way to free us from our oil addiction. As of today, we have not found the most perfect energy source that can be used with no downside while supplying us with our unquenchable thirst. This thirst has driven us to disregard the effects of burning wood, coal, petroleum, and biomass as they continue to put unhealthy gas pollutants into the air and water. Electricity, hydrogen, batteries, wind turbines, generators, electric motors, geothermal, hydroelectric, and solar collection all need finite minerals and materials to produce in addition to their infrastructure requirements. Nuclear fusion and fission introduce unstable elements whose waste has far-reaching effects. Regardless of the dangers involved in their use, energy has made it possible for mankind to march forward at a quickening pace with greater demand from more people who clamor for more air, more water, more food, more transportation, more supplies, more stuff, and more of the one thing that makes the MORE possible—energy.

Obstacles—‘isms’ To start the planning process, it is important to identify why we find ourselves in such desperate energy straits and become knowledgeable about what has caused the predicament which faces us. Once we know what faces us, we can then unleash an avalanche of US innovation, knowledge, and entrepreneurial power to

7


Winning the Energy Wars

8 A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

solve the dilemma. The energy crisis has at its nucleus a lethargic public conscience, accustomed to hand-outs, indulgent subsidies, tax breaks, and tax-payer bailouts. Many expect government to solve all things and place too much faith in bureaucratic and hierarchal infrastructures. We cannot wait until the very last drop of oil is pumped. Energy development opportunities open a world of domestic growth for individuals, leaders, businesses, government, education, communities, and workers. The impact that a US sustainable energy plan would have on the world would be substantial. To achieve this, however, several obstacles in the form of ‘isms’ are in our path and need to be directly addressed if we are to adopt an executable, achievable, and long-lasting sustainable energy future.

D  Agructultural  D Dependism  

Anti Entrepreneurialism

 D    

D

D     D D     

Workforce Transformationalism

Policy Fractionalism

Globalism

Obstructionism & NIMBYism

 



  D

Consumerism

Denialism

D



D







Figure 1.1—Sustainable Energy Obstacle ‘isms”



Education Misdirectionalism



Federal Ineptism


Index A

B

action items 249-50

balance of trade 3

agriculture agricultural energy use 158 agriculture 9, 27, 55, 60-61, 158, 178, 180, 185, 211-12, 215 agriculture change 178

barges 48, 137, 164, 204

algae 27, 54-55, 57, 210-11 alternating current (AC) 31, 32, 93, 99, 131-32 alternative energy 1, 18, 92, 102, 124, 140, 144, 165, 167, 169, 232, 239-40, 242-43, 249-51 alternative energy bond fund 191, 237, 239, 241-44, 250-51 American dream 1-3, 6 animal fat 65, 211, 218-19 Annual Energy Outlook 17 anti-entrepreneurialism 8 antimatter 106, 237 architecture 78-80, 99 Arctic natural gas 40-41, 203, 206 Arctic oil 47, 203, 209-10 automobiles (see also vehicles) 163

batteries 7, 27, 49, 63, 98, 102, 131, 138-39, 140, 163-64, 190,193, 203 biomass 7, 27, 30, 50, 54, 57, 60, 6263, 72, 73, 76, 91, 107, 190, 221 butanol 31, 71, 107, 190, 237 gasification 71, 107, 131, 190, 237 bridges 135 brownfield solar 92, 230-31 buses 48-49, 164, 165 Business 1, 3, 8-12, 18, 22-24, 40, 65, 69, 77, 82, 85, 92-93, 95-99, 120, 124, 130, 132-43, 141, 14548, 159-60, 170, 180-81, 186, 191-99, 204, 208, 210-11, 218, 223, 225, 227, 230, 234, 238-42, 244, 248, 250 change 180 participation 250

C capacitors 111, 139 capitalism 2, 12-13, 18, 20, 186

265


Winning the Energy Wars

266 A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

cargo refrigeration 166

consumer change 181

cellulosic 60, 62-63, 107, 179-80, 190, 214-15, 240

consumerism 8, 10, 12, 156, 225

change management 177

corn ethanol 55, 210, 212-13

cheese whey 66, 211, 219, 221

corn stover 60, 179, 210, 214, 216

climate change 3, 13, 72, 162, 171, 181, 215

cost analysis 138, 169, 254

coal bed methane 36 fired electrical generation 123, 127, 204 gasification 34, 107, 190, 237 mine vent 39, 203 domestic 203-07

D

coconut 57 coffee grounds 57 collateral assessment analysis 255 communications 186, 196, 249 community buy-in 250 development 239, 248 power 193, 207 solar 94, 98, 232-33 wind 102, 235-36 compressed air 108, 139, 190, 237 computer modeling 87, 254 Congress 61, 147-49, 187-88, 191, 195, 243, 251-52 congressional action 251, 253 consciousness change 191 conservation 4, 29, 39, 51, 61-62, 77, 84, 87, 160, 165, 168, 201, 22426, 250

cooking oil waste 66, 211, 218-19

crude oil 43, 44, 48, 203, 208-210, 221-22

deep water crude oil 44, 203, 209 denialism 8, 13-14 diesel 44, 48-51, 57, 65-66, 107, 124, 127, 129, 140, 162-64, 166-67, 193, 203, 212, 217-18, 241 dim times 197-98 direct current (DC) 25-26, 31, 79, 93, 96, 113-18, 129, 131-32, 134, 149-51, 170-71, 187, 245, 258 distributed generation 38, 70, 102, 124 214, distributed wind 235 Department of Energy (DOE) 16-18, 33, 54, 143, 147, 248-49, 187-89, 191, 195, 237-38, 251 Department of Transportation (DOT) 95, 147, 187 domestic energy 5, 12, 22-24, 27-28, 38, 53, 54, 66, 69, 120, 174-77, 198,-200, 206, 208, 221-22, 239-40


Chapter 3

267

leadership 187, 194, 255 monitoring 79, 81, 225-26 resource inventory 27, 29 resource supply 176, 201 support infrastructure 145-46 storage 30, 54, 105 transitional energy resources 29, 3132, 53-54, 60, 63, 72, 121, 124, 138, 154, 168, 175, 179-80, 193, 199-205, 210-21, 223, 225, 227

E education 8, 14-16, 24, 64, 78, 83, 94-97, 122, 145, 148, 151, 18187, 190, 196, 239, 248, 250-52 change 181 involvement 251 passion 15, 23, 183-85 efficiency 4, 5, 9, 20, 27, 29, 48, 51, 5557, 64, 67, 76-77, 87-88, 91, 93, 97, 100, 121, 123-24, 126, 129, 137, 139, 144, 147 158, 163, 171, 190, 201, 224-26, 231-33, energy 27, 88, 93, 99-100, 102-05, 111, 206, 230, 233 appraisal 27, 112 crisis 4, 6, 8-11, 13-15, 17-19, 21, 23-24, 54, 62, 72, 77-78, 94, 106, 154, 156, 159, 173-75, 178, 181-82, 186-87, 189, 191, 215, 224, 247-50, 254-55 demand sectors 157 evolution 4 family involvement 250 finite 3, 5-13, 19, 21-24, 27-33, 3639, 45, 49, 53, 69, 107, 156, 174, 177, 200-01, 203-07, 209-11, 120-21, 129, 131, 138, 142, 146-47, 154, 156, 166, 168-69, 173-77, 193, 198-211, 215, 217, 219-20, 224, 227, 240, 242 generation 29, 30, 67, 71, 95, 99, 111, 196, 221, 234, 238 infinite 3, 6, 9, 24, 28-29, 32-33, 53, 77, 87, 89-91, 97, 108, 121, 124, 134, 138, 154, 163, 168, 173-76, 193, 199-203, 206, 210-11, 215, 217, 219-20, 224, 226-29, 231-36 infrastructure 98, 159

entrepreneur 7-10, 15, 66, 175, 186, 239 exploratory energy resources 28-29, 105, 175, 231, 237, 267 extracting 38, 108, 205

F family energy involvement 250 Federal ineptism 8, 16 fertilizer 12, 44-45, 50, 56-57, 59-60, 62, 71, 73, 90, 123, 158, 178, 180, 203, 221 fiber optics 131-32, 137 field pennycress 57 finite energy see energy, finite firming 38, 39, 59, 99, 101-02, 104, 124, 126, 129, 140-41, 207 flax 57 flywheel 109, 140, 237 food consumption 83, 84, 190, 225-26 foreign crude oil 48, 203, 209, 210 forest management 71-74, 76, 147, 211, 222


Winning the Energy Wars

268 A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

fuel cell 59, 64, 67, 79, 89-90, 99, 105, 124-25, 131, 141, 153, 158, 16768, 180, 193, 217, 240, 242 fuel oil 44, 51, 160, 203 fuel wood 74, 211, 222-23 funding 16, 24, 93, 94, 128, 139, 148, 159, 174-76, 188, 190-91, 195, 205, 237-39, 248-49, 251

G

hydrogen 7, 27, 32, 36, 40, 42, 45-46, 49-50, 54, 63-64, 66, 89-91, 97, 99, 102, 107, 115, 124-26, 129, 134, 137-42, 153, 163-68, 170, 180, 190, 193, 207, 211, 215-30, 240 electrolysis 32, 90-91, 125, 168, 21617, 229 off-gases 63, 211, 216, 218 reforming 64, 125, 216

I

garden apparatuses 165 garden equipment 84, 165, 241-42 gasoline 11-12, 18, 36, 44, 48, 50-51, 55, 56, 65, 90, 124, 127, 129, 162-63, 193, 203, 212, 217, 241 geosynchronous satellite 96 geothermal 7, 27, 32, 87- 89, 116, 170, 190, 227-28

implementation 18, 20, 50, 54, 70, 95, 100, 105-06, 123, 148, 156, 170, 175-76, 182-83, 186-90, 195-96, 199, 201, 204, 237, 247-48, 253, 255 industrial hemp 57, 61, 179, 210, 215-16 industrial sector 158

globalism 8, 10, 11

infinite energy see energy, infinite

global warming 3, 175, 171, 181

infrastructure changes 56, 178

Governors National Sustainable Energy Council—GNSEC 191, 194-97, 238, 243, 248-49, 251-53 GNSEC, location of 252

innovation 1-4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14-15, 18, 20, 21, 24, 105, 136, 138, 145, 148, 174, 177, 179, 182-83, 186, 188-89, 194, 250

green house gases—GHG 18, 36, 38-39, 55, 59, 61- 63, 67, 72, 74, 100, 123, 126, 144, 175, 193, 218-219, 222

invest in America see IIA 195, 240, 243, 249

H Hubbert’s Peak 7 hydroelectric 7, 27, 32, 100, 126, 233-34

intergalactic power & dark energy 108, 190, 237

involvement 10, 83, 94, 102, 136, 188, 191-92, 238, 243, 248, 250-51, 255


Chapter 3

269

J

mining 30, 33-34, 37-39, 42, 45-46, 49, 128, 142

jet fuel 44, 49, 55, 165, 203, 212

monorail 164

K

moon station 237 motorcycle 165

Kaku, Michio 3

motor oil 70, 211, 219

kerosene 51, 203

mustard 57

L

N

landfill gas 67-68, 211, 220-21

national change 177

landfill solid waste 39, 67-69, 71, 75, 211, 221, 223

national security 3, 22, 39, 53, 200201, 210, 236

laser transmission 97, 132, 134

natural gas 5, 27, 30-33, 35-36, 38-39, 40-41, 50, 52, 54, 64, 79, 81, 86, 98, 107, 113-14, 123-24, 127, 134, 140, 142, 145, 158, 160, 163-64, 166, 168-69, 190, 193, 203-07, 216-17, 240-41 generation of 5, 127, 204 off-shore 35

lightning 111, 237 light rail and monorail 164 logging residue 74, 211, 222-23

M malls and box stores 95, 159 manufacturing 56, 61, 66, 85, 91-92, 98, 102, 137, 141, 158, 230, 239 manure biosolids 58, 210, 213-14 manure methane 59, 213-14 markets 56, 61, 63, 73, 84, 239 methane 31-32, 35-37, 39, 50, 54, 56, 58-59, 67, 69, 70-71, 100, 126, 128, 145, 180, 205-06, 213-14, 220

NIMBY 8, 18-19, 104-5, 151, 181, 262 NIMBYism 8, 18, 105 nuclear fusion 7, 109, 237 generation 5, 98, 128

O obstacles 7, 8, 21, 119, 178, 187, 192 obstructionism 8, 18, 132

micro-turbine 108, 127

ocean currents 110, 237 tidal 110, 237 waves 237

microwave 134

oil seed 57, 179, 210, 212-13

methanol 64, 107, 163, 193, 211, 216-17


Winning the Energy Wars

270 A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

oil shale 31-32, 38, 45, 46, 143, 203, 208-09 organization 187, 192, 196-97, 250, 252-53 oversight 17, 20, 44, 194, 249

policy and planning 8, 16, 19, 20, 24, 61, 76, 93, 99, 104, 117, 146, 153, 167, 174, 181-82, 192, 260-61 lobbying change 192

palm 57

pollution 3, 5, 12, 34, 42, 45, 48, 6364, 70, 72, 74-75, 88, 89, 93, 94, 100, 102, 104, 106, 124, 126-27, 139, 142, 144, 156, 162, 164, 168-69, 181, 198-99, 207, 212, 218, 222

parameters 24, 110, 148, 174, 191

president 16, 249

partnerships 97, 129, 180, 191, 238

private rapid transit (PRT) 165, 193

passive solar 80, 81

propane 35-36, 52, 110, 124, 160, 16364, 193, 241, 262

ozone 3, 56, 239

P

peak oil 3-4, 7, 13, 153, 181, 258 peanut 57 peat 58, 210, 212-13 performance contracting 85, 92, 94, 180, 226 petroleum reservoirs 142 generation, refineries and fuel production 128 photosynthesis 30, 57 Pickens, T. Boone 36, 127 pipelines 35-36, 38-39, 45, 56, 130, 134-35, 143 plan concept 175 planes 48, 165, 167, 189 point of use generation 32, 35, 53, 60, 66, 76-7, 88, 90, 92-7. 129, 132-4, 141, 146, 193, 222-23, 232, 234

pulp residue 75, 211, 222-23 pumped storage 100, 101, 143, 145, 234-35

R rapeseed 57 recreational vehicles 19, 124, 165, 241 religious institutions 160, 226 research and implementation 7, 15, 28, 80, 90, 97, 107-8, 137, 14748, 175, 177, 183-84, 186-87, 215, 237, 250, 254 residential and commercial sector 159, 228 rooftop solar 93, 96, 230 small wind 102, 104, 236 solar hot water 81, 86, 190, 226, 250 residual energy 87, 218, 224 resource allocation 188, 191, 200, 238


Chapter 3

271

responsibility 17, 85, 125, 147, 175, 186-87, 189-90 Return On Investment(ROI) ) 5, 49, 85, 108, 148, 188, 191, 195, 254 roads 18, 111, 130, 135, 137, 162 Rural Energy Production Centers 59, 211, 239

power 55, 80, 86, 91, 94-95, 190, 230, 232 roadways 111, 237 space solar satellites 96, 231-32 utility solar poles 98, 233 soybean 57 Specter, Michael 13, 15 sterling engines 99, 237

S seaweed 55, 57 sewage biogas 70, 211, 220 shale natural gas 36 Shenk, David 14 ships 16, 124, 166, 189 sludge waste biosolids 71 smart grid 83, 132, 136, 139 solar 7, 27, 32, 38, 55, 79-81, 84, 8687, 91-99, 104, 108, 110-11, 124, 126, 129, 131, 133-34, 138, 140-41, 158, 160, 168, 170, 190, 193, 207, 226-27, 229-35, 237, 240, 242, 250 commercial rooftop 93, 230 commercial solar hot water 81, 226-27 offshore 237 parking lot canopy 95, 233 passive 80, 81 residential rooftop 93, 96, 230 residential solar hot water 81, 86, 190, 226, 250, 277 concentrators 237 photovoltaic and concentrating generation 32, 80, 91-92, 96, 98, 129

stranded natural gas 38, 127, 203, 207 strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) 143 straw, grain 62, 215-16 sunflower 57 super conductivity 111, 237 superconductors 137 sustainable energy plan see USA-SEP switchgrass 62, 179, 215-16 SWOT xxii, 29, 122

T tar sands 38, 45, 142, 203, 208-09 Thorium 109, 118, 190, 237 time line 188 tornados 112, 237 trains 48, 137, 164, 166 transitional energy resources see energy, transitional energy resources transportation change 193 transportation sector 70, 97, 107, 162, 164, 166, 193, 208, 212, 217, 229 trucks 48-49, 137, 166-67, 241


Winning the Energy Wars

272 A Sustainable Energy Plan for America’s Future

U

W

urban residue 75, 223

waste products 65, 73, 142, 218

USA-Sustainable Energy Plan, (USA-SEP) 173, 175, 189, 238 centers creation 252 monitoring 253 plan input 253 rollout of 253

water power 100, 158, 190, 233 resources 100, 143, 168

US Department of Agriculture

(USDA) 273-74

wind electrical generation farms 129 off-shore 103, 190, 236 power 102, 190, 235 wood pellets 76, 211, 223

US Military 49, 167

woody biomass 72-73, 190, 221

US Savings Bonds (Series AE—Alternative Energy) 237, 243

workforce 8, 10, 14, 16, 20, 22, 24, 33, 83, 122-23, 132, 138, 148, 160, 170, 179, 182-83, 185, 194, 212, 238-39 change 194 development 132, 148 involvement 248

Utility Large Wind Farms 104, 236-37 Utility Scale Solar Farms and Concentrators 98, 231-32

V vegetable oil 57, 66, 212 vehicles 19, 49, 51, 56-57, 64-65, 72, 89-90, 95, 97, 105, 124, 136, 139, 163-67, 193, 216, 218, 240-42


About the Author

R. Paul Williamson R. Paul Williamson is a passionate advocate for alternative energy. He is the real deal. His broad-reaching insights come through on every page of his book. Williamson has taken commonsense energy principles and has made them accessible, practical, and if implemented, they embrace the strong probability of leading a nation to a sustainable future. His experience, advice, and sustainable energy plan is straightforward. His plain-talk approach is inviting to the reader while presenting material that is solid and implementable for today and the future generations of our nation. Williamson earned his bachelors and masters’ degrees from the University of South Dakota and his doctorate degree from West Virginia University in Technology Education. He brings to his work a broad diversity and a lifetime of educational services. After growing up in rural America working in his entrepreneurial father’s business, Williamson joined the US Army. After his honorable discharge, he pursued and achieved his educational goals. His career in higher education enabled him to experience, develop, and pursue a wide spectrum of institution-building programs while keeping abreast of game-changing technologies. Williamson has worked, studied, and accumulated experiences in the following areas: education, scientific research, business, financial planning, corporate planning, wilderness recovery, fundraising, lobbying, music, agriculture, transportation, architecture, recycling organizing, food service, net-zero planning, military, government contracting, environmentalism, principle investigator management (DOD, DOE, NREL, DOT, USDA), communications, alternative energy, residential constructions, and social programming. His most recent work has focused on alternative energy with an emphasis in hydrogen development and deployment. Recent research projects include wind and solar development, hydrogen refueling infrastructure, planning design for a hydrogen futures park, electric and hydrogen vehicles creations, development of a hydrogenpowered, magnetic levitation monorail private rapid transit system, and the design of a sustainable smart home and permaculture residence.

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POLITICAL SCIENCE / Public Policy / Environmental Policy

America is addicted to Energy. Move From an Energy User to an Energy Thinker. Williamson shows his dedication to move Americans from Energy Users to Energy Thinkers and advert the crisis looming on the horizon. Until I read, Winning the Energy Wars I believed I was conservative and resourceful concerning my energy use. I never gave much thought to the consumption and the waste of energy on a daily basis. Dr. Williamson’s book is the starting point for solving America’s energy crisis. No longer can we deny that consuming our finite resources without a sustainable energy plan (SEP) is feasible. In the SEP, Dr. Williamson has clearly explained the cause and the struggles of the energy crisis. He has identified the resources, at hand, to help solve the energy crisis and create a sustainable future.

Angel Tuccy, Radio Host and Best Selling Author of Lists That Saved My Life. An innovative approach to our energy woes from a man who always seems to be a step ahead of his time.

—Brian P. Kerns, University of Montana, Alternative Energy Technologies ...Dr. Williamson presents a frank and honest status of the energy crisis we are battling today. He clearly articulates the serious issue that the United States has no coherent viable long term sustainable energy plan, and how the government agencies chartered and funded to provide this guidance have failed. This book presents a bold, thought provoking USA Sustainable Energy Plan with operable solutions, some of which will no doubt be controversial. Every American should read this book and realize that action must be taken now and that there are practicable options to create a sustainable energy future.

Bobby A. Clay, CEO, SameSky Systems, Inc. Energy Solutions is the root of Paul’s book. Solving energy problems demand action. Actions require energy and Paul Williamson’s book provides solutions. Winning The Energy Wars is a must read book for the leaders of tomorrow who will be making decisions for our long-term growth.

Robert A. “Bobby” Likis President & CEO Car Clinic Productions, Inc. ...Dr. Williamson tackles many of the big beaurocracies with armor piercing information and enraging common sense ideas. A rallying cry for those of us who know that something has to change and soon, and it ought to start in America.

—John Cornish, President, EPC

Winning the Energy Wars  

Winning the Energy Wars: A Sustainable Energy Plan for America's Future takes the reader through a thought provoking process that identifies...

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