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THE ECLECTIC M A G ... AZINE ISSUE 1 | DECEMBER 2019


Credits. Editor in Chief Carlos Muñoz Deputy Editors Cesar Fonseca & Jessica Alfonso Senior Editor Carolina Cruz & José Luis Huertas Executive Art Director Carlos Muñoz Marketing group Juan Garzon & Dayana González Activity group Evelyn Merchán & Camilo Varela Contributors Evelyn Merchán, José Luis Huertas, Juan Garzon, Carolina Cruz, Camilo Varela, Carlos Muñoz, Cesar Fonseca Designers Cesar Fonseca & Jessica Alfonso

EDITORIAL OFFICES BOGOTA, D.C. Centro Colombo Americano Cl. 19 2A - 49, Room Skills 3 SUBSCRIPTIONS (031) 766-2149 P.O. Box 62060, Bogota, Col 33362-0608, The Eclectic Magazine is published by Issuu. tem.colombo@gmail.com

The Eclectic Magazine ...


...

TEM

CONTENTS 4   BEIJING 6   TATACOA DESERT 8   BEAUTY CENTERS TODAY

10    THE VEGETABLE MILKS, AN OPTION FOR LIFE

12    DRUGS AND THE PHYSICAL AND PERSONAL CHANGES

14    DISADVANTAGES OF TECHNOLOGY 16 ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

18   THE GROWTH OF THE MINING INDUSTRY IN COLOMBIA AND  ITS NEGATIVE EFFECTS.

20   THE COLOMBIAN PEACE PROCESS: A BIG PROMISE AND BIG CHALLENGES

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December 2019


TOURISM & TRAVEL

BEIJING

BY JUAN GARZÓN

Do you want to live an unforgettable experience when visiting a city? The cities many years ago did not care about tourism, there was no investment in this sector, the cities had nothing attractive to visit and all the cities were common. In recent years, cities have been concerned with tourism, have looked for ways to show themselves to the world and a good example is Beijing, which took advantage of its history, its unusual climate and created something new, such as tourist sites, its food for show to the tourist world and has managed to attract the attention of tourists. Cities in China have gone from war to tourist sites and an example of this is Beijing, this city was built in the 5th century. The Chinese wall was built to protect the northern part of the Chinese Empire from attacks by nomads, this construction went from be(ing) (suggestion without ING) a construction to protect the city to become an emblematic place and be considered the 4 wonder of the world, another good example is the history of Beijing that was marked by its empires, this model of government has been very Unusual in other cities, This has favored Beijing to create tourism throughout its history because some tourists are interested in knowing this unusual model of government. It can be concluded that Beijing is taking advantage of its history of the construction of the Chinese wall and its museums that show the models of governance that were previously used to show the world and generate tourism. It is managing to attract the attention of tourists every day and

important

factors

such

as

food

and

tourist

attractions are also taken into account to generate interesting tourism.

Tourism in Beijing is growing and tourists are motivated to visit Beijing. Beijing is the second largest city in China, has 21 million inhabitants and as in all cities there are typical dishes, the two most famous typical dishes of Beijing are the Peking duck and sautéed liver, the Peking duck has ingredients such as the duck, onion, cucumber and pepper is an exquisite dish that if you come to Beijing it is mandatory to try it, the other good option is the sautéed liver that this dish has as ingredients liver, carrot, onion, vinegar and oils, this is a healthy dish . If you want to try a delicious and healthy dish you should try this dish. Things are changing but the typical dishes do not change because these dishes represent history and traditions that cannot be changed.

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December 2019


TOURISM & TRAVEL

This city Beijing has changed throughout its history in tourist matters, in previous decades this sector was not important for any country or city there were other ways to generate money and maintain the economy of a city either in the commercial sector among others, but At the moment the tourist sector is important and has had a good growth and has had investment an example of this is the restoration of the Chinese wall, the creation of museums and the forbidden city. This shows the development that this city has had in its sector its history of empires and also the delicious typical dishes that delight its visitors and this is also confirmed by the statistics of the Chinese tourism office that says that on October 1, 2014 Beijing was visited by 8 million people who mostly visited the Chinese wall, this is a large figure that demonstrates the growth of the city in tourism.

Peking Duck At present, Beijing has shown that it has had great

SautĂŠed liver To go deep

changes and also that it has had an exponential development, and these changes have made Beijing one of the 10 most tourist and interesting cities in the world. This is possible thanks to the contribution of the government in this sector and the people of

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nFtgFb1XCF8 https://www.eluniversal.com.mx/destinos/gran-murallachina-lo-que-debes-saber-sobre-actividades-rarezas-ytragediasvegetales-opcion-ideal-por-sus-propiedades-ynutrientes

the city that through them has shown that Beijing can be a great tourist place and can also make the people who visit this city have an unforgettable experience.

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December 2019


TATACOA DESERT BY JESSICA ALFONSO

Colombia is a beautiful country with a great diversity of

Inside the Tatacoa Desert you can do a lot of

flora and fauna like fantastic landscapes, amazing beaches

activities like: Firs to visit The Astronomical observatory

and deserts but it only has four deserts, each one is located

of Tatacoa, this plan is the most important and you can’t

in a different place and they have different features. One

miss it because in the observatory

them is The Tatacoa Desert or called The Valley of Sadness

constellations and also, you will learn about astronomy

too, the second biggest one and it is located a few hours

and Greek mythology. Second in the day you have to

from Neiva, its weather is pleasant and you can be able to

walk around Kuzco and the Pitches, the desert is divided

do different activities also you will find a lot of hotels with

in two areas and this is its feature; Kuzco is renowned for

reasonable prices.Do you like to travel? Know new places? If

it striking red color and Pitches has a gray color also you

you answer is “Yes” you have to know this place because it is

can visit the Valley of wishes, this place is special

incredible also very recommended for different tourists.

because people do a pyramid with rocks and each one is

you can see 88

a wish. Other activities for to do are: to go to Before starting this trip is necessary that you know about the location and weather of this place. First you must arrive

Paleontological Museum of Villavieja,

Casa Totumo

Handcrafted Museum and to try typical food.

to Neiva and then you will take a bus to Villavieja in the station bus, this trip lasts for about 2 hours then, you will take a minivan or motorcycle for 15 minutes and tickets have a cost around 8.000 – 15.000 Colombian pesos. The climate is warm. At noon it can reach up to 43 degrees but during the night the temperature falls to 18 degrees. An important datum is: The Tatacoa desert is not a desert but it is a tropycal dry forest. It doesn’t have a lot of animals or plants; however, many years ago it was a garden and it had a lot of plants and Tatacoa Desert was named by the conquistador Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada.

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TheAstronomical observatory of Tatacoa

December 2019


TOURISM & TRAVEL

Choosing a good hotel is very important and the

In conclusion Tatacoa Desert is a magic place, a different

Tatacoa desert has different options, it depends on your

tourist destination that you will love. For me, every trip that

budget and the experience you would like to live. There is

I have done has been fascinating because in every place

a beautiful hotel and its name is Bethel Bioluxury Hotel

there is something new to learn, explore or try so each trip

and one nigth costs around

350.000 – 660.000

is an adventure, a one more important story for my life. I will

Colombian pesos, it is very expensive but it has a lot

always want more trips. When I was there I enjoyed walking

services, if you can pay it, don't think it and do it! But if you

in each ones its areas, watching its different colors and

have a limited budget: don't worry there are a lot of

forms and last but no least, do not forget to take your

cheaper options as reasonable prices like 50.0000 or

sunscreen.

150.000 Colombian pesos.

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December 2019


BEAUTY CENTERS TODAY BY EVELYN MERCHAN

Taking the time to disconnect from the routine is

The most common services include hair removal,

a plan that, more than a privilege, it has become a

manicure, pedicure, facials and couple’s spa. On

necessity. Fortunately, thanks to the increasingly

certain occasions, minor modifications are made to

accessible rates, more people can undergo these

the

relaxation treatments and beyond the aesthetic

tightening, even small surgeries that do not require

level, these spaces are an excellent ally to combat

hospitalization but , if you look for something

stress and physicals problems.

different you can also find unique and innovative

body,

for

example,

Botox

injection,

skin

services, for example; Beer baths, massages with The concern for well-being and appearance is

non-venomous snakes that move to relieve the stress

not new; it has been present since the oldest

of daily routine, or you can find a treatment with live

civilizations. If we remember Egypt, there, men and

snails that walk freely on your face to exfoliate and

women especially painted their eyes, and they care a

soften the skin.

lot about their personal appearance. Many years later, in ancient Greece, people began offering

There is always an appropriate treatment for each

different services in personal appearance in a place

person, it all depends on the money you must invest

for it, and beauty salons took an important role in

and the time available to perform. It is important

society.

that before trying it, remember to have safety precautions that allow you to get the best relaxation

Today, business beauty continues to evolve at a

and health experiences. If necessary, consult your

time when looking after appearance seems to be one

doctor and look only for places certified by the

of society's top priorities. It has expanded its niche

authorities.

markets;

some

years

ago,

they

were

made

for

women, but now a large part of the clients are men and even pets. In addition, they are innovative and have expanded their offer to meet the needs of the client of this new generation, which in response to the

technological

expansion

that

frequently

compares prices and searches for offers on the Internet.

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December 2019


TAKING THE TIME TO DISCONNECT FROM THE ROUTINE IS A PLAN THAT, MORE THAN A PRIVILEGE, IT HAS BECOME A NECESSITY.

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December 2019


LIFE STYLE

THE VEGETABLE MILKS, AN OPTION FOR LIFE BY JOSE HUERTAS

animal milk, and it has healthy fats (mono and polyunsaturated), which favor cardiovascular function and it is also ideal for people with irritable bowel, constipation, slow digestions. The preparation of milks at home dates back to very old cultures it that use the extraction of juice from grains, seeds and fruits by pressing the seed. It was an easy and accessible way to take advantage Such as in ancient China, they used the first mill found to make soy milk. People can also be making the milk with different ingredients creating their own combinations taking into account the density or thickness to cook or as a drink,

The vegetable milk can become a healthy and

sweeten them naturally. You can also choose a lot of

balanced drink replacing traditional animal milk. It is

cereals and seeds with which to make them, and even

made from certain varieties of nuts or dried seeds,

combine them with each other to get new flavors.

extracting the base product in ionized and alkaline water, with natural ingredients added as salt  to allow preservation and flavor to get the final drink. In Colombia The vegetable milk is produced by Alpina, Seda, Alqueria that have become for people to buy the option in supermarkets, o another option is prepare in your home. The milks has been considered a great option for people who are lactose intolerant or alterations with cholesterol, although most of the time it is consumed by vegetarian people.  The milk has a lot of benefits and properties for the human body is nutritious, can be homemade and is always fresh.

Vegetable milk is very nutritious and an excellent

The preparation of milks at home dates back to very

option to replace sugary drinks. Some of its properties?

old cultures it that use the extraction of juice from grains,

The vegetable milk do not contain cholesterol or

seeds and fruits by pressing the seed. It was an easy and

lactose and easily digestible. Almond milk has a low

accessible way to take advantage Such as in ancient

caloric, vitamins D, A, B2 and Vitamin E. Contains

China, they used the first mill found to make soy milk.

minerals zinc, magnesium and potassium, astringent

People can also be making the milk with different

and gluten free and; Cashew milk has large amounts of

ingredients creating their own combinations taking into

vitamin C, It is rich in fiber, protein and various fatty

account the density or thickness to cook or as a drink,

acids ideal for lowering cholesterol. Among some of the

sweeten them naturally. You can also choose a lot of

properties we can find vitamins B1 and B2, vitamin E,

cereals and seeds with which to make them, and even

calcium and magnesium Low in calories because it has

combine them with each other to get new flavors.

less fat than TEM

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December 2019


The milks become a fresh drink when it is kept refrigerated (not frozen) while retaining its natural characteristics such as smell, taste and texture. The vegetable milk is made to prepare different dishes and accompanying breakfasts, such as bowls with fruits, juices, main meals in soups or obtaining different and healthy dishes for the family. The life time is about 3 to 4 days when they are prepared at home. Vegetable milk has become a healthier alternative to animal milk. There are many nutritious benefits and cad replace sugary drinks. Furthermore, vegetable milk can also be made conveniently at home to keep its freshness if desired. I expect an increase to the popularity of vegetable milk in the years to come. One of the best examples in Colombia that leads the manufacture of vegetable milks is Thea Gaea a project that was formed in BogotĂĄ 4 years ago using cashew seeds brought by Vichada They also use Almonds that are imported by Chile. To go deep https://www.theagaea.com/productos https://www.losandes.com.ar/article/view?slug=lechesvegetales-opcion-ideal-por-sus-propiedades-y-nutrientes https://www.conasi.eu/blog/productos/vegan-star-maquinabebidas-leches-vegetales-soja-cereales-de-frutossecos/leches-vegetales-caseras-frescas-y-vivas/

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NOMADIC

|

24 December 2019


PUBLIC HEALTH

DRUGS AND THE PHYSICAL AND PERSONAL CHANGES BY DAYANA GONZÁLEZ

The harmful consequences of drug consumption and addiction affect people of all ages. Hallucinogens are a diverse group of drugs that alter a person's awareness of their environment and also their own thoughts and feelings. Children and young people begin soon in the consumption of psychoactive substances because they have facility to buy them. We can also observe that the majority of people who arrive at use drugs are due to family or social problems. Many babies are born with drug problems because their mothers used the hallucinogens during the time of pregnancy. With the consumption of drugs people can observe not only physical but also personal changes.

"With the consumption of drugs people can observe not only physical but also personal changes" Among the problems that a person who uses drugs has we can observe the physical changes. They may have mouth sores, gum disease and tooth decay from smoking drugs. Risk of respiratory diseases such as pneumonia. Side effects of some drugs include chest and lung pain or respiratory depression. In addition, the use of drugs such as tobacco or cocaine can cause serious health problems. For example, chronic bronchitis, lung cancer among many other. In many cases

the

abuse

of

psychoactive

substances

can

lead

to

hospitalization of the patient, coma and the death. Also alterations in the skin such as red pimples can also be observed in the body which are increased day by day by the consumption of these hallucinogens. As a result of signs the consumption of drugs we can observe in this persons spots on the skin, large pupils, red eyes, spots on the skin. Therefore, over time their physical appearance is getting worse every day.

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December 2019


PUBLIC HEALTH

Was

Is

Maybe be Personal changes are the most remarkable in

nowadays. It is observed in all ages and in all social

people who use drugs because of the different

groups but the abuse of drugs greatly damages the

behaviors they have day by day. They lie frequently,

economy and health of addicts, inducing them to

cover one lie with another. They use some kind of

commit crime for the need to obtain the substance

physical or verbal violence. On the other hand, they

to which they are addicted, whether stealing or

behave with secrets; for example, they leave home

selling the drug or inciting others who have not tried

without being seen, or make excuses about where

it. Drug abuse can only provide a "temporary escape"

they’re going or where they has been. Also they lock

from the world. The risks are great and the results

themselves in their rooms for long periods of time,

can be fatal. It is up to us to continue the fight

something. They didn't usually do before. At the

against drugs to avoid unfortunate events. From all

same time, manipulate the parents, making them

of the above, it remains clear the importance of

face each other. In general they will modify behavior.

family

They will discuss with the relatives about the rules of

communication, and in this way prevent external

coexistence established in the family. they will be

people

increasingly reserved with own things. That is to say

relatives inappropriately. Good advice, a word well

they will be less related to the family, losing

spoken, and support can make a difference in this

communication channels. They will have sudden

problem.

mood swings, pleasant and aggressive.

physical and personal changes that have a person

union from

Whit

at

all

times

influencing

the

article

and

we

and

of

constant

controlling

can

observe

their

the

who consumed drugs. There’s not particular place where drugs were born, many countries have different information from were it

was

made

but

drug

addiction

is

an

old

phenomenon that has manifested itself intensely

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December 2019


TECHNOLOGY

Disadvantages of Technology BY CAROLINA CRUZ

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December 2019


TECHNOLOGY

With the emergence of technology, important personal,

social

been

evident that in countries like the United States,

improved, thanks to different and new forms of

information from social networks is manipulated to

communication.

the

change people's beliefs. With the use of special

country says that "Technology has negative effects

programs and devices they manage to get secret

on an individual, social and political level. 27% of

information from almost any site, to use it against

adults

society

are

or

political

However,

considered

aspects the

have

Likewise, from the political-social sphere, it is

newspaper

addicted;

48%

need

to

itself.

The

rulers

and

great

political

respond immediately to messages or alerts from

personalities cannot get away from social networks

their social networks. The figures among teenagers

like Twitter, because they always have the need to

are 50% and 72%, respectively. In addition, about

publicize

75% of parents say they argue with their children

generating violence and division.

their

nonconformity

with

society

about the use of mobile phones" In According to the above, it is noteworthy how each

conclusion,

technological

advances

in

communications have helped in different aspects,

person shows signs of addiction from the first

but

contact with technology. In the personal field, from

problems that result in insecurity, manipulation and

the smallest of the house to the largest, you need to

loss of privacy. If people want to use this technology,

have a team to play, chat, listen to music or watch

they must be responsible and aware. People must

videos. With the use of social networks, people are

learn to separate technology from their personal life

not careful with the handling they give to their

and interact more. Separate work technology and

personal

produce

data.

This

oversight

creates

insecurity

addiction

more.

and

And

against the person himself, since criminals are given

political-social

the means to steal, kidnap or kill.

manipulative thinking.

attachment

separate

aspects

and

have

generated

technology allow

free

from and

From the workplace, social networks allow the search for employment, but it does not provide the security and certainty that the contractors are not criminals.

Likewise,

many

companies

use

social

networks to find out about the personality, and religious and political ideologies of people, to define whether, they hire the applicant. Another negative aspect is the excessive use of cell phones, this causes low production, error in what has been produced and possible economic losses for companies.

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December 2019


EDUCATION

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE BY CESAR FONSECA Human and technological development requires knowledge of other languages. The mastery of a foreign language such as English allows people to acquire skills, and competencies to be the ideal candidates to reach a better quality of life. There are many factors that have made English the essential language for this century's communication. With this knowledge, it will be easier to carry out cultural exchanges, get scholarships or subsidies for higher education, and obtain a better job. This could improve your life in all aspects. Knowing English offers advantages to meet new cultures, and people. Currently, 400 million people speak English, which has made it over time the official language in 70 countries, and the third native language of the world. Learning a new language not only requires knowing grammatical

structures

or

memorizing

an

extensive

vocabulary, but also learning related topics about the countries where they speak it. When people are interested in knowing other places where English is their official or native language, they should investigate their customs, traditions, socio-economic environment, lifestyle, and culture. If you want to know new countries, set up relationships in a personal or virtual way, you should have a good command of the language.

Knowing English will open your mind to an unimaginable academic world. The technological boom of the moment demands and makes it necessary to have knowledge of English as a second language.

Many

countries

have

integrated

the

teaching of English into their educational programs as a

tool

to

strengthen

their

cognitive,

and

communicative skills. Being bilingual or having a good command of English can give your career a boost, you can get scholarships and do higher studies in the career of your choice anywhere in the world. Definitely mastering English will give you access to countless information that is available both in physical documents and online.

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December 2019


EDUCATION

Being better qualified will increase the options for getting a better job. Due to the economic openness, important multinational companies in the world have been allowed to enter the country, which has forced professionals in all areas to develop new skills, including proficiency in English. This has become the predominant language in business and has allowed people who master it to stand out from others in this competitive working world. If you have this kind of ability, new paths will open up to great challenges and job opportunities and, therefore, to a better quality of life.

Your life may change if you take advantage of mastering English as a second language. Personally, you

will

have

the

opportunity

to

have

fun,

understand music and movies more clearly, travel and

meet

people

and

cultures.

You

can

communicate with them naturally and exponentially and you will feel sure of yourself. In the academic field, you will have the possibility to start higher education studies in other countries, and have access to countless information found in this writing or spoken in this language. In the labor field, it will have an advantage over others because English is now an indispensable

need

in

both

national

and

international companies. If you want to succeed in your life, you will start your language study very soon.

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December 2019


POLITICS

THE GROWTH OF THE MINING INDUSTRY IN COLOMBIA AND ITS  NEGATIVE  EFFECTS. BY CAMILO VARELA

Colombia is a rich country that has great ecological biodiversity and plenty natural resources. The country is located on the corner of two great oceans: Pacific and Atlantic. It is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet with a lot of plants and animals. Also, Colombia has a lot of  minerals as the coal, gold, silver, emeralds, iron, and nickel.   Nowadays, Colombia is becoming one of the biggest   mineral producers around the world. The export of minerals is being increased in the country. Colombia has had an important participation in the continental production of nickel and ferronickel along  the history. But this source of wealth is changing the lives of many Colombian people. The growth of the mining industry in Colombia has brought impacts such as the increase of the poverty, the damage to nature and  the violation of human rights.

The poverty has increased in the regions where these non-renewable resources are extracted. People who live in those places does not have the minimum conditions to lead a decent life. They are not having access to basic services such as potable water, sewer system, street lighting ,hospital network, education system. The royalties generated from the extraction of these natural resources have not been inverted in science and technology. The  corrupt politicians have stolen thousands of millions of general budget of the Nation. This is one of the cause poverty and backwardness in Colombia. TEM

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December 2019


POLITICS

The growth of the mining industry is deteriorating

In conclusion if the National Government invest

the environment. For the development of these

money of royalties in supply the basics needs of the

activities products highly pollutant are used, which

population, they will have access to the public

are damage the earth and water at these places.

services such as potable water, sewer system and

Cyanide

toxic

they will have a free medical attention in a hospital,

gold-

their children will go to

and

chemicals

mercury

which

are

are

highly

used

by

the

a school. Equally, The

mining industry, which have polluted rivers. In large-

environmental impact generated by the mining is

scale

already

mining

operations

generally

are

used

irreparable.

International

companies

are

explosives with dynamite that make people and

polluting the earth and water sources and prevent

animal

Additionally,

that the communities can not inhabit these places.

Billiton

The

change

International

their

companies

AngloGold

Ashanti

plants

the

for

deforestation,

inhabit.

are

like

BHP

building

minerals, landscapes

these

and

government

must

comply

with

the

new

treatment

constitutional and protect the property and honour

have

generated

of Colombians. Especially, it must protect to people

beauty

have

been

who inhabit these areas where ilegal groups are

destroyed by the hands of man. Then, the hands of

killing and making these communities disappearing.

man are eradicating the flora and wildlife of these

Equally, If the government protects our children and

places.

If it guarantees that the children go to school, the children will be the future of the country and If the

Mining in Colombia is generating multiple violations

government does not permit that the children work

to the human rights. Where these resources are

and if it does not approve that their  close relatives

being extracted by the illegal groups, the illegal

force them, the children will enjoy their childhood

groups are stealing the land and they are causing

and they will grow in a better country where their

displacement of many farmers from the countryside

dreams will come reality.

to the cities. Furthermore, here the indigenous population are disappearing of their communities, the ilegal groups are killing them. In the same way, the

families

have

dedicated

to

the

mining

exploitation force the children to work in this activity

To go deep ·https://www.cetim.ch/miner%C3%ADa-y-violaci%C3%B3nde-los-derechos-humanos-en-colombia-el-caso-de-anglogold-ashanti-contra-la-comunidad-afrodescendiente-de-la-

against their dignity. Children have not had the

toma-cauca/

opportunity to go to  school and they can not have a

·El Economista. September 14th, 2016.

normal life.

TEM

·Fierro, Julio. Politicas Mineras en Colombia. February, 2012, pp 24.

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December 2019


POLITICS

THE COLOMBIAN PEACE PROCESS: A BIG PROMISE AND BIG CHALLENGES BY CARLOS MUĂ‘OZ

The Colombian peace process was signed to finish a long conflict between the Colombian government and the FARC guerrilla. To finish the conflict, the

First, Colombia is one of the countries with the highest

process had the purpose of solving the causes of it

income inequality. Colombia is the thirteenth most

(Presidencia de la Republica, 2016). A big promise.

unequal country on the planet and the third in Latin

However, the process was designed to solve specific

America after Haiti and Guatemala (Central Intelligence

problems like the demobilization of guerrilla, the

Agency, 2019). While in Colombia the average income of a

development of rural areas, the elimination of illicit

low-income family is less than 150 USD per month, in an

drug production, the creation of a new justice system,

egalitarian society such as the Swedish or Belgian the

and the reparation for the victims. Those items are not

average income of a low-income family is 3000 USD per

an exhaustive list of the conflict causes but are a good

month. The richest people of Colombia earn 87.000 more

start. Now, after the initial implementation, we would

times than the poorest. It means that in Colombia there is

recognize that the causes of the Colombian conflict

an impressive concentration of the income in a few

are more complex, and any attempt must try to

hands. Whereas millions of workers, formal and informal,

improve the economy and social model of the country.

struggle with earning more than a minimum salary or

Three principal current socio-economic problems can

getting out of poverty, a small portion of the population is

be mentioned: unequal income distribution, static

getting plenty of economic resources. Those elevated

economic mobility, and increasing job insecurity.

levels of income inequality have carried to a big portion of Colombian inhabitants to live in a context of poor public health services, bad education, high proportion of criminality, and a rising political instability. Second in Colombia, there is a low proportion of socio-economic mobility, and it has been at the same level for years or has been worst. Data provides evidence that socio-economic condition of the fathers is a strong predictor of the socio-economic condition of the children in the future. According to the OCDE (2018), the persistence of income inequality in Colombia between parents and children is 76%. To illustrate this, think in the next case: there are three fathers, the first one earns 40 minimum salaries as a senator, the second one 4 minimum salaries as an engineer and the third one earns

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December 2019


POLITICS

2 minimum salaries as a technician. If in the future

The growing income inequality, lowing rates of

each one of them has a family, the children of the first

economic mobility, and expanding work instability lead

father will earn in average 76% more than the children

to many people to struggle desperately for paying for

of the second, andthe children of the second 76%

food, housing, education, and transportation. Surviving in

more than the first. Now, think of a father that earns

this environment carries a big challenge for any society

less than the minimum salary or is under the poverty

that pretends to fix itself from a long conflict. The

line, their children will be under the earnings of the

Colombian peace process was a good start, but if the

first, second, and third for a long time,inclusive during

mentioned and other problems are not solved, in

several generations. Therefore, in Colombia, the

Colombia, there will subsist a fertile area for social

moving up is hard and for some parts of the

discomfort, unhappiness and probably new illegal armed

population, nearly impossible, and it is certainly a

groups will emerge. There are many issues to tackle. So,

difficult environment to reduce poverty.

we need to work hard to create a truly peaceful, egalitarian, fair, wealthy, and modern Colombia. To go deep Central Intelligence Agency. (2019). The World Factbook 2019. Washington, DC: CIA. López, E. (2014). Precariedad laboral en Colombia 1990-2013. Enfoques

teóricos

y

consecuencias

socioeconómicas.

In

Vestigium Ire. 1 (7):40-54.

The socio-economic Mobility. Taken and edited from The economist. Mobility Measured. Feb 1st 2014. Washington D.C

Third, in Colombia, job quality is deteriorating. Since the first years of the 1990s decade a flexible job market

has

been

implemented

(Lopez,

OECD. (2018). The only way is up? Social mobility and equal opportunities. Paris: OECD publishing. Presidencia de la República. (2016) Preámbulo, Acuerdo final para la terminación del conflicto y la construcción de una paz estable y duradera. November 24th, 2016.

2013).

Nowadays in the job market, for most of us is usual to be employed at a fixed-term like 3, 6 or less than 12 months. Alongside there is an extensive framework of labor-hour and service provision contracts. However, there was a time where the indefinite term contract was the rule, allowing to the workers get a pension, a house, a car and provide high education to children. The Colombian labor market flexibilization has led to a drop in the salaries, a worker with indefinite-term contract earns on average 43% more than a worker with definite contract. Furthermore, in this context, the Colombian employees and their families have gotten a lack of stability, degraded their lifestyle, and been injured their physical and mental integrity.

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| 21

December 2019


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