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The Red Hook Notebook New York Situation Red Hook Option


The Red Hook Notebook Andreas Krauth, Urs Kumberger Munich 2010 Diplomarbeit am Lehrstuhl f체r St채dtebau und Regionalplanung Diploma thesis at the chair of urban and regional planning Prof. Sophie Wolfrum TU M체nchen, Germany

Revised English version, Berlin 2013 Translation into English by Jana Sotzko


Bronx

Manhattan Queens

Red Hook Brooklyn Staten Island


Situation The Red Hook Notebook

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New York History Perception Use Structure Segregation Gentrification Scenario

23 27 31 37 43 47 53

Red Hook History Perception Use Potential

63 77 81 83

Option Strategy Process Draft

113 138 187


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The Red Hook Notebook Many people consider New York City the incomparable metropolis. Not only is the city an important center of the Western world, but is also known as a place of extremes. Brooklyn is located at the western end of Long Island. With more than 2 million inhabitants, it is New York City’s most populous borough. Due to it‘s long independence, the district is characterized by a remarkable individuality. With water banks on three sides, the Red Hook area lies on a peninsula in the midwest edge of Brooklyn. It is located adjacently to the Statue of Liberty and the Financial District, which is across from where the confluence of the Hudson and East River meet. The Battery Tunnel, which connects Long Island and Manhattan, cuts Red Hook off from the rest of Brooklyn. As a result, the neighborhood has developed differently than the nearby areas. This, in turn, manifests a noticeable difference in population structure, and construction (it’s use, and level of development). Here, there are port facilities, numerous vacant industrial sites, and large warehouses. All of these are affected by small-scale sub-cultures, a new IKEA store, and a housing project with a high crime rate. The area lacks the internal cohesion and sustainable development of surrounding neighborhoods and is characterized by contrasts and contradictions. Following a detailed analysis of the Red Hook neighborhood, the project will outline a procedural development. Part of this is a master plan, will ultimately lead to a specific urban design. In New York City, many neighborhoods appear to be almost exclusively inhabitated by a particular social group. This is not just by ethnic origin or religion, but also by youth culture, income, and public image; these are factors that result in segregation. These areas, such as Chinatown or Chelsea, are often perceived in an affirming manner and understood as a dense combination of vastly different atmospheres. However, they can also evolve to extremes, such as gated communities or parallel societies, making cultural bleeding an impossiblity. In the latter case, the development of conflicting fractions is imminent. In Red Hook, it is only due to the clear spatial separation, from which segregation becomes an issue. Concerning its target groups and societies, the area will be studied and expanded.

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Vibrant cities, like New York City, are subject to an ongoing process of transformation; they are constantly reinventing themselves. Through this continuing progress, these faciltites can be reconstituted, outside of their original types of use. Port facilities, airports and manufacturing plants are used in new ways, and within a new context. New parks and neighborhoods, temporarily usable areas, and the conversion of vacant buildings may render a wide range for possible changes. Urban transformation is an issue of high topicality; Red Hook is at the beginning of a possible transformation. Thanks to it‘s prominent position on the waterfront, the neighborhood is endowed with a strong potential for high visual perceptibility. Adding to this is the increasing need for innovation (as expressed by potential investors). At the same time, some port facilities and industrial plants, are still in operation. All of this makes Red Hook an interesting site for examining various transformation options. The social restructuring of individual neighborhoods is an important issue in New York City, as the city is in constant change. Within a few years, the atmosphere and population of entire neighborhoods can change. Specific enhancements and the restoring of former industrial areas such as SoHo, the Meatpacking District and Chelsea, alter the population of the neighborhood. Sometimes, gentrification occurs in more subtle ways, as seen in Williamsburg. Here, gentrification means not so much as a targeted establishment of galleries, fashion boutiques, etc., but is the result of a less clearly visible intervention of artists and hipsters. They, in turn, attract a variety of trendy bars, cafes and second hand stores to create their own center. Often enough, gentrification is a radical large-scale intervention by real estate companies, which can lead to a public rejection of entire new neighborhoods. In this case, the original character of the neighborhood becomes lost or threatened. Within the Red Hook area, different phenomena of gentrification are imaginable. The first signs are already visible: an IKEA store was opened. Artists, whom are attracted by low rents(and a lot of available space), start to move in. Based on the understanding of these processes, the Red Hook project suggests concepts to control them.

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The urban development in New York cannot only be seen as a structured accumulation of building materials. Rather, it is the successive compression of activities, programs and networks (at different planning levels) that gradually manifest themselves, structurally. It is an integral part, of a sustainable urban development strategy, to develop an image based on the current identity of Red Hook; to reinforce positive developments and to implement emerging trends. Existing spaces can be sought out, and used in new ways. At the same time, existing uses can be reinforced. Which public spaces are created, and which target groups are addressed, very much depends on the inital design and orientation. What places are being occupied? What temporary uses are possible? What types of construction forms may result from it? There are no two people that are the same. Everyone has individual ideas about what living means to them. Still, a residential building lives much longer than its inhabitants, whom, in the course of their lives, might move several times. The difference between the long-term existence of the building and the mobility of its users, as well as the overall change of the local resident population (through processes of gentrification and transformation), may impede a specific design of the apartments. The long life of the apartments, on the one hand, and the diversity, variability and inconsistency of their residents’ requirements (and behaviors), on the other hand, limit the adaptation of an environment built to specific needs. The study of living conditions, site-specific typologies in New York City, and especially Brooklyn, is the subject of our detailed analysis. From there, the project adresses the question on whether the classical style of the neighboring districts can meet the requirements of today’s population. And, how can this style be reinterpreted, developed or transformed to fit new life and living forms? Is there an objectively necessary distance between one’s social life and the environment within which this life is happening? Do living quarters need to retain a certain distance, an air of neutrality towards the everyday lives of their inhabitants? The attractiveness of converted industrial facilities and dwellings from the 19th century is, perhaps, rooted in the fact that the converted buildings themselves

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express this kind of distance. The impressive monumental factory buildings in Red Hook - situated spectacularly on the waterfront allow for fascinating possibilities in this direction. The area’s access to the sea (with the possibility of attractive waterfront living) becomes the project’s main focus. Despite New York City’s many water banks, this is still a rare situation to be in. One does not necessarily have to completely identify with this area; to relate to it in an ironic way, may open up room for inventiveness and fantasy. Altogether, intelligent and imaginative residential typologies are being offered. Rich in variety, they incorporate and radicalize what is there already. At the same time, they experiment with existing building‘s geographical exposure to the water and their interaction between the old industrial culture and commercial use (with new edifices and housing types).

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Situation

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New York

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History New York First explorations in what is now New York were already undertaken in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazano and by Henry Hudson in 1609. The colonization of the island of Manhattan began in 1624, when the first Dutch families settled there. The newly established colony was called Nieuw Amsterdam. After decades of several naval wars between England and the Netherlands, the Dutch finally lost the colony to the English in 1674. Nieuw Amsterdam was renamed New York. From 1788 to 1790 New York was the capital of the United States. In 1792, the New York Stock Exchange was established. In the beginning of the 19th Century New York grew faster than ever before. During this time, it was decided to coat the entire island of Manhattan with a grid-like street network, Broadway being the exception. The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 marked a turning point in the history of New York. It connected the city with the Great Lakes, making it the greatest trading center on the American East Coast. During this time the urban appearance also changed. Before, the city had mainly been dominated by brownstone houses. Both expansion and a shortage of living space led to he introduction of large multi-storey apartment buildings. In 1898, the five boroughs Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Richmond (now Staten Island) and the Bronx were combined to to form Greater New York. In the first half of the 20th Century New York grew into a center of industry and commerce. The city’s trading frenzy came to a sudden stop on October 24th, 1929, the Black Thursday. In the beginning of the twentieth century the first skyscrapers appeared. After the Second World War a brief optimistic phase followed, before things quickly went downhill again. The middle class moved to the suburbs and the industry turned away from the city. Like many other American cities New York was suffering from race riots in the 1960s. In addition, criminality was becoming rampant. In 1975, the city had to declare insolvent. During the economic boom of the 1980s, Wall Street then took a leading role in the financial world again. In the 1990s the population grew from 7.3 million to 8 million residents.

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“New York is more than just a place or an agglomeration of people. It is also an Idea.� Paul Auster

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Queens W

ill

ia

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sb

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JFK

rid

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Brooklyn Ellis Island Coney Island

Staten Island

Collective perception New York 26


Perception New York Even children already have a visual idea of New York. It is the city which corresponds to the image of the ultimate metropolis like no other. Various central elements of New York feed this idea in the minds of people. The skyline of Manhattan, Times Square, Central Park and the amusement park at Coney Island form, along with specific architectural superlatives such as the Empire State Building, the Statue of Liberty or the bridges between Manhattan and Brooklyn, a comprehensive visual presence. More abstract global concepts are often reduced to architecture: the international financial center is represented by Wall Street while the capital of the world is embodied in the form of the UN building. In addition, the collective perception links solid concepts to the idea of New York. Broadway, as a diagonal running through Manhattan, remains abstract in the mind and is usually associated only with the theaters around Times Square. The districts outside Manhattan are known primarily through their terminology. Architecture is hardly ever the basis of general public perception: The Bronx is known as the birthplace of hip-hop, Brooklyn as the home of creative writers and musicians, while Queens and Staten Island remain almost devoid of content. Within global media and commercialization contexts no other place in the world possesses the symbolic power of New York. Countless movies and TV shows are set here and benefit from its status as the epitome of the western hemisphere. The headquarters of every major US-American television station are located here. And be it a personal success story that takes place in New York or the destruction of the city itself - in the media everything is reflected as either the rise or the fall of an entire attitude to life. This symbolic power is further enhanced by dramatic historical events such as the Black Friday (actually a Thursday) or 9/11. Overall, it is almost exclusively Manhattan which determines the visual perception and photography of New York in the media. The other quarters form a loose network of ideas about risk, multicultural diversity, mega-metropolis or creative youth movements. To many New York is still the place of opportunity, self-fulfillment and the chance for social advancement.

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New York as a brand (Tokyo, Las Vegas) 28


New York as a brand (Munich) 29


Brooklyn Banks

Public garden East Village 30


Use New York In daily use, the picturesque architecture of New York quickly vanishes from the personal range of motion. It formulates itself to an atmospheric component that calls to mind the idea of the city of New York – an idea, the city dweller has no immediate need for. The Skyline degenerates into a mountain panorama, the background painting of Brooklyn and Queens. Small-scale structures come to the fore. A random walk in areas off the beaten track will reveil an entire new world, making New York a performative experience. The direct relationship between the city and its inhabitants, the fulfillment of daily needs and specific wishes, lead to a vast range of situations which in turn disclose the new spatial aspects of architecture. Public space becomes a stage for cultural events and meetings, movement and congestion. New York’s distinct grid in combination with small-scale shops and building units in Brooklyn offers a homogeneous, individually usable urban space. Along the Bedford Avenue and other parallel streets in the district of Williamsburg, adolescents are purposelessly wandering through the cafes, boutiques and bookstores they use as rooms to eat, work or live in, depending on their atmospheric preference. Thus, the city turns into a collective living room, which appropriates each individual according to his needs. Merchants and artists temporarily siege the streets with informal stalls and activities. Entrance stairs transform into are stands to be the meeting places. Sidewalk and street are catwalk. New ways of working with laptop and mobile phone fill numerous cafes during the day. New York is not considered a finished object but a performative process of public appropriation and transformation of urban elements. In a homogenous urban space, different social conditions produce different situations and a respective piece of habitat.The relationship between space and actor gains new quality.

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“New York is an accidental machine.� Paul Auster

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Individual Use New York 32


S S

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B BS B

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Urban Alps Panorama

Urban Sitting Stages

Urban Racing Cyclist

PUBLIC GREEN

Urban Christmas Tree Sale Forest

Urban Book Store

Urban People

$

ATM

$

ATM

$

ATM

$

ATM

$$ $ K TA

Ritz

K TA TAK

K TA

Urban Poet

K TA TAK

Urban Flower Meadow

$$ $ Urban ATM

$$ $

K TA

K TA TAK

$$ $

K TA

K TA TAK

Urban Robots

K TA

K TA TAK

$

Urban Garden

$ ATM Factory Urban Temporary Concrete

Urban Motorcycle Gang

$$

Urban Hangers

$$ $

GUCCI

Urban Party Boat

DELI 24/7

New York Scenes 34

DELI 24/7


Urban Ground Floor

PUBLIC GREEN

Urban Socket

PUBLIC GREEN

DELI 24/7 DELI 24/7

Urban Car Freak PUBLIC GREEN

DELI 24/7

Urban Social Carpet

Urban Hot Dog Stand

Ritz Ritz Ritz Ritz

Urban Mine

Ritz

MTA

MTA

MTA MTA

Urban Car Repair

Urban Clothing Store

Urban Turban

MTA

K TA

K TA TAK

GUCCI

Urban Luxury Woman with two Dogs $ $$

Urban Lumberjack

$

$$

$

$$ $ $$

Urban Ice Cream Truck

GUCCI GUCCI GUCCI

GUCCI

$

$$ PUBLIC GREEN

PUBLIC GREEN

Urban Rest Area

Urban BMX Crew

Urban Crossing

PUBLIC GREEN PUBLIC GREEN

PUBLIC GREEN

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Structure New York Five boroughs constiture the area of New York: Manhattan, Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island. Still, many people understand Manhattan as synonymous with New York City. With its high-rise centers and its distinct grid-like network of streets, it presents New York City’s formative elements in the most obvious way. New York City embodies the idea of the Vertical City like no other metropolis. The major high-rise centers are Midtown and the Financial District in Manhattan. In addition, downtown Brooklyn and Jersey City on the opposite side of Hudson River have shaped the city’s image. The city’s grid plan shapes its urban life even more. A system of streets and avenues covers its entire area. The distances between avenues is greater than those between streets, which gives the avenues greater significance within the urban context. This results in a higher frequency of intersections along avenues and thus a higher density of events. Public use is generally assigned to the Avenues. These are usually restricted to the ground level and therefore determine the public space alongside these roads. Offside this highly concentrated public life, the streets appear to be rather calm and serve as residential areas. The combination of streets and avenues creates another level of urban structure: the block. Jane Jacobs described the block a a microcosm which contributes to a vibrant urban space through its mixture of residents, activities and rental rates. She frequently mentioned her “own“ block in Greenwich Village as an example of a well-mixed, lively living space. Despite providing its residents with an address, a block may also constitute their place of identification. In New York, blocks also function as a means of orientation. In many parts of the New York City’s urban structure is homogeneous. Nevertheless, a varaiety of places, spaces, and situations emerge. These are often defined by small scale, publicly used ground level zones.

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Grid 38


AVENUE

STREET

Contrast Avenue / Street 39


Carroll Gardens

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Gebä ude

Höhe

Nut z ung

E t a gen J a hr

One Wor l d T r a de Cent er

541 m

Bür o

108

2011- 2013

200 Gr eenwi c h S t r eet

411 m

Bür o

78

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Huds on Pl a c e T ower One

396 m

Bür o

110

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175 Gr eenwi c h S t r eet

378 m

Bür o

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2014

One Ma nha t t a n Wes t

370 m

Bür o

66

2013

15 Penn Pl a z a

365 m

Bür o

62

2014

Huds on Pl a c e T ower T wo

329 m

Bür o

68

2015

T ower Ver r e

320 m

Bür o / Wohnungen

82

Wor l d Pr oduc t Cent er

308 m

Bür o

60

2013

Gi r a S ol e

305 m

Bür o

60

2013

150 Gr eenwi c h S t r eet

297 m

Bür o

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2012

155 Wes t 57t h S t r eet

290 m

Wohnungen / Hot el

73

2012

One Ma di s on Av enue

285 m

Wohnungen

74

2010- 2011

T wo Ma nha t t a n Wes t

285 m

Bür o

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99 Chur c h S t r eet

278 m

Hot el / Wohnungen

68

2011

T he Beek ma n

267 m

Wohnungen

75

2010

56 L eona r d S t r eet

250 m

Wohnungen

58

360 T ent h Av enue

236 m

Bür o / Wohnungen

61

130 L i ber t y S t r eet

228 m

Bür o

57

2013

50 Wes t S t r eet

221 m

Hot el / Wohnungen

63

2012

610 L ex i ngt on Av enue

217 m

Hot el / Wohnungen

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New high-rise buildings (planned) 41


Expressways New York 42


Segregation New York New York can be described as a collection of several different islands, given that the term island is not understood in a typological sense, i.e. spatially clearly distinguishable areas. Rather, New York’s islands are defined by their inhabitants or users. In New York, people are grouped for different reasons. Frequently, an island is defined by its inhabitants’ country of origin (or that of their ancestors). Other segregating factors are religion, interests, profession, income, among others. For example, Green Point in Brooklyn is strongly influenced by Polish culture. Chinatown in Manhattan is probably the best known example of an island that is defined by the origin of its inhabitants.South Williamsburg in Brooklyn is known for its Jewish population, while the remaining parts of Williamsburg is especially noted for young, hip people who form a group based on shared interests. The financial district can be conceived as an island as well. Here, bankers characterize the area’s appearance. These target-group-specific islands are pronounced in different ways. In extreme cases, they can lead to the formation of ghettos and parallel societies. As a result, social conflicts may occur. Still, these islands are part of New York and it is not always necessary to depreciate the formation of such communities as an unwillingness to participate in the urban blend of people. The urban mix is more likely to happen in a dense co-existence of different quarters. Diverse, explicitely different atmospheres and moods are a positive consequence of this mixture. Personal identity, atmosphere and distinct boundaries of individual neighborhoods are often sought. Not least, the existence of a specific, clearly defined brand is of great importance for the marketing of a neighborhood, as evident in the names of some neighborhoods. E.g., SoHo stands for South of Houston Street, NoHo for North of Houston Street, TriBeCa for Triangle Below Canal Street. These names clearly define the districts’ geographical limitations. Many important developments in the 20th Century contributed strongly to the effect of segregation in New York. The person who is most famously associated with it is Robert Moses. His plans to further develop the city were solely based on functional aspects. He is best known for his major infrastructure planning, such as the Cross-Bronx Expressway. In this case, a highway was build right through the Bronx, with no regard to established structures. In the process, entire residential areas were cut through and disengaged from the urban structure. The construction led to a strong spatial exclusion of entire neighborhoods with mostly an African-American population. Social problems and unrest were the results. In his master thesis, the architect Bruno Ebersbach described this course of events as a basis for the emergence of hip 43


Exemplary Communities 44


hop. Another example is Robert Moses’ plan for the Lower Manhattan Expressway which remained unrealized. The plan envisaged a city highway that would cut across Lower Manhattan. Much of Little Italy and SoHo would have disappeared. His most famous opponent was Jane Jacobs. It was not least due to Moses’ famous opponent Jane Jacobs that the Lower Manhattan Expressway was not built. Segregation was and is a major topic in New York, and its various manifestations determine many atmospheres, images, qualities, extemes, absurdities and problems of the city.

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Communities that define themselves through shared interests: Tourists in Midtown around Times Square and Empire State Building. Hipsters almost exclusively in the trendy Williamsburg. Upper class and snobs in the exclusivity of SoHo.

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Communities that define themselves on the same occupation: Bankers and speculators in the streets of the Financial District. Grease Monkeys and tuning enthusiasts in Willets Point.

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Communities that define themselves on the same nationality: Chinatown in Flushing, Greece in Astoria, Puerto Rico in Spanish Harlem, Poland in Greenpoint, Russia in Brighton Beach.

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Communities that define themselves on the same religion: The Jewish community in South Williamsburg.

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Gentrification New York New York is constantly reinventing itself. New technologies, global logistics structures or changing lifestyles are permanently altering the city’s appearance. After a population decline and crime problems in the 70s and 80s, today’s New York is playing an international leadership role again. A new sense of security as well as the renovation of urban areas and public facilities, coupled with a strong new creative scene, have lead to a rapid growth of population since the 1990s. Under this pressure, former industrial areas are increasingly converted into residential or office areas. The attractive waterfront locations along Hudson River and East Rivers had been occupied by industrial branches since the heyday of the New York harbor. They are attractive objects of speculation since the invention of the large container port has made the small-scale structures of New York increasingly unattractive for an industrial use. Simultaneously, young creative musicians and artists are attracted by relatively affordable apartments in Brooklyn, where they find great work and living spaces in old warehouse buildings and production halls. This restructuring often takes place along existing underground lines or bridge connections to ensure a good connection to Manhattan. Enhanced by new cafes and small-scale infrastructure, such quarters will quickly attract other target groups that feel connected to the local lifestyle. In New York these shifts within the urban structure happen very quickly. Neighborhoods that were trendy just yesterday are suddenly being replaced by others. Everyone wants to live in the moment’s hottest neighborhood – and the sooner the better. This kind of displacement process is holding the city in motion and requires of its population both a constant adaptability and the will to change. However, a stagnant or stalled gentrification process can turn entire neighborhoods into shopping malls or tourist strips when one occurring level of development is compulsively preserved. In Manhattan, luxury shopping districts such as SoHo or the abundance of jazz clubs and fine restaurants in Greenwich Village already reveal a state of unilateral lifestyle supersaturation. Any further development and response to social change is thus impeded. Some people feel excluded and react with hostility or open protest.

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Williamsburg

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Gentrification Opponents 49


Transformation Lower East Side

Transformation Williamsburg 50


SoHo 51


One million people in Red Hook Houses 52

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

9.500.000

9.100.000

8.700.000

8.400.000

8.000.000

7.900.000 1970

7.300.000

7.800.000 1960

7.000.000

7.900.000 1950

Population Development New York

2040


Scenario New York The city of New York is assuming a population growth of 8 million inhabitants in 2000 to 9.1 million inhabitants in 2030. This growth affects all of the five boroughs. After decades of decline, the population New York has been growing since the 1990s. New York has the highest population density of American cities and is one of the most important urban centers in the United States. For many people it has only been recently that New York City has become of interest as a place to live. The massive reduction of crime rates and the improvement of living conditions play an important role. Life in the city was again becoming an actual option. No longer are the lack of space and the apparent individual scope at the forefront of interest, but the density of opportunities, people, culture, information, short distances, etc. Environmental and financial aspects will allocate urban centers in the U.S. a more significant role. Industry and all its consequences are no longer dominating the image of the city, and to live in the center - away from the house settlements - does not implicate a waiver of a healthy living environment. In fact, the former industrial and port areas offer huge spaces of transformation in New York. Therein lies a great potential to create new urban spaces and to provide housing space. New York was and is a global center of culture and creativity. New York as a creative center acts as a global magnet and attracts people from all over the world. New York also continues to be a city of immigrants. 40% of its inhabitants were born outside the United States. The predicted growth of 1 million more residents in 30 years will not change that. The city is still in constant transformation.

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Red Hook

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Red Hook, 1879 62


History Red Hook New York’s borough Red Hook is located south of Brooklyn. The former port district is surrounded by water on three sides. The Gowanus Expressway and the entrance to the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel seperate Red Hook from the rest of Brooklyn. Its port facilities are located prominently on the Upper New York Bay, with views to the skyline of Lower Manhattan, the Statue of Liberty and the container terminals of Newark. Today about 11,000 people inhabit Red Hook. 7900 of them live in Red Hook Houses, the largest social housing project in Brooklyn. A direct metro link does not exist. Two bus lines offer connections to Downtown Brooklyn and Park Slope. A ferry connects the IKEA store in Red Hook to Lower Manhattan and the Financial District. Prior to its amalgamation with Brooklyn, Red Hook was an independent village. The peninsula is named after the red clay soil and its exposed waterfront position. The town was founded in 1636 and called Roode Hoek (Hoek = point, corner) by Dutch settlers from what was then New Amsterdam. Due to its location, Red Hook was one of the most important merchandising hubs of New York from the mid-19th century until the mid20th century. The emerging industrial area attracted primarily Italian and Irish dock workers. Also one of the first Puerto Rican communities of New York has its origins here. Both the White Hand Gang and Al Capone started their careers in Red Hook. The White Hand Gang was a union of several gangs of irish descent in New York, which controlled the waterfront of Red Hook from 1900 to 1925. Basically, the band raised protection money on goods that passed through and collected it from transport operators and dockworkers. The merger was a response to the Italian dominance of the “Blackhanders” (e.g. the Black Hand Gang or the Five Points Gang) which arose from the five families of the US-American Cosa Nostra. The heterogeneous Irish association led to violent internal conflict and the so-called “dock boss” as the head of the concentration was often replaced via murder. For example, Dinny Meehan was shot while asleep in bed next to his wife and then replaced by “Wild” Bill Lovett. Since 1917, Frankie Yale, leader of the Italian “Five Pointers” had been planning a further enlargement of his territory, starting from Coney Island and extending to the piers of Irish-controlled Red Hook. At the same time, the ascent of young Al Capone began in Yale’s troops. In the summer of 1917 he received his nickname Scarface, following a flirt with a fellow gangster’s sister in a Red Hook bar. The flirted ended with the other gangster slashing Capone’s face with a knife. In 1919 and following an incident, Al Capone almost beat Arthur Finnegan of the “White Hands” to death. Yale then sent him to Chicago because Capone was now threatened 63


by “dock boss” Bill Lovett. After Capone’s escape, “Wild”Bill continued to aggressively proceed against the competition of the “Black Hand”. As he left a bar on 1 November 1923, he was shot and then killed with a knife. Richard „Peg Leg“ Lonergan, Lovett’s brother-in-law, then began to take even more aggressive action against the Italians. Following a dispute, him and his companion were killed in a bar in Brooklyn on 26 January 1925. The advance of the Italians could not be stopped anymore, so the White Hand Gang broke up, and control of the Red Hook area fell to La Cosa Nostra. In 1950, Red Hook already had 21,000 inhabitants. The majority was already living in the Red Hook Houses. This public housing estate had originally been built in 1938 to meet the housing need of the growing number of dockers. After the construction of the Gowanus Expressway in the late 1950s (designed by city planning mogul Robert Moses as part of the BrooklynQueens Expressway BQE) Red Hook was burdend with a new physical barrier that isolated the quartier from the neighboring Carroll Gardens. In subsequent years, the introduction of the container replaced the traditional ways of cargo handling, and many companies moved from the port of Red Hook to the new major container terminal in New Jersey. Unemployment soared and the local economy underwent a rapid decline. This development was particularly dramatic for residents of the Red Hook projects. Red Hook Houses is Brooklyn’s largest council estate. Built in 1938, it was one of the first social housing projects in New York. It consists of 2545 apartments in 27 buildings. In 1955, Red Hook Houses West with 346 apartments in three buildings was added. In total, about 7900 people currently live in the settlement. They represent roughly 73 percent of Red Hook’s total population and are mostly African Americans and Latinos. A large proportion of the population lives below the poverty line. The area’s high crime rate is still a serious problem. In 1988, Life magazine called Red Hook “one of the Ten Worst Neighborhood in the U.S.” and “the crack capital of America”. During the early 1990s, more than 11,000 people were living in the projects. More than a third of them were under 18 years old. As high unemployment and poverty coupled with abandoned and dilapidated buildings, the neglect of all of Red Hook and serious social problems emerged. Patrick Daly, director of the local school, was killed in 1992 when he was caught in a crossfire between warring drug dealers while searching for a runaway student in the projects. Increased public interest and the introduction of a vigilante group significantly improved the situation during the following years. The crime rate dropped 64


dramatically decreased between 1993 and 2003. Murders decreased by 100 percent, robberies by 55, serious injury by 68 percent. This development has been continuing ever since. Like most districts of New York, Red Hook is now subject to intense pressure from real estate companies searching for new and attractive properties. Due to its isolated location and poor transport connections this process has been slower than in comparable quartiers. The first “immigrants� were artists looking for cheap rents and large work areas in the late 1990s. The cobbled streets and historic warehouse buildings attracted some creative companies that moved away from more expensive areas in search of affordable office and studio space. A few small cafes and restaurants opened along the main road Van Brunt St. Parts of the shoreline were made public, and the introduction of a ferry to Manhattan improved accessibility for residents employed in the city center. A large supermarket opened in one of the old warehouses on the waterfront. In 2006, the new Brooklyn Cruise Terminal - a landing place for international passenger ships - was created. Today, international passender ships like the Queen Mary 2 make for this port, and regular transportation services between Europe and New York go through the Terminal. Still, nothing visualizes the current transformation of Red Hook better than the opening of New York’s first IKEA store in a prominent waterfront position in 2008. The construction of the IKEA warehouse was very controversial because a number of historic warehouse buildings were demolished beforehand. A dry dock that had still been used was was filled in and now houses a large part of the IKEA parking lot. In addition, residents fear increased traffic and the influx of other big corporations. At the same time, the IKEA store reminds New Yorkers of he crisis-ridden Red Hook in a positive way and ensures a stronger frequenting of the area. New jobs are created for local residents, the promenade is now open to the public and an additional ferry line improves the connection to Manhattan.

65


Passagier 1

Container

Manhattan Cruise Terminal Kais Kailänge Passagiere (2009)

2

5 316 m 625.000

1 268 m 247.258

Fläche 58 ha Kailänge 918 m Container-Kräne 9 5

American Stevedoring Terminal Fracht: Container, RoRo (Roll on Roll off), Stückgut

The Cape Liberty Port Passagiere

New York Container Terminal Fracht: Container, General Cargo, Stückgut

Brooklyn Cruise Terminal Kais Kailänge Passagiere (2009)

3

4

320.000

Fläche 32 ha Kailänge 634 m Container-Kräne 4 6

APM Terminal Fracht: Container

1

Fläche 142 ha Kailänge 1829 m Container-Kräne 15 7 Maher Terminal: Fracht: Container

8 7 6

9 3

5

Fläche 180 ha Kailänge 3087 m Container-Kräne 16

2 8

Port Newark Container Terminal Fracht: Container

4

Fläche 71 ha Kailänge 1165 m Container-Kräne 9 9 Global Marine Terminal Fracht: Container, RoRo (Roll on Roll off), Schwergut Fläche 40 ha Kailänge 549 m Container-Kräne 6

Harbours 66


Queen Mary 2, Queen Elizabeth 2

Container Terminal, Port Elizabeth, New Jersey

White Hand Gang / Al Capone / Frankie Yale 67


Gowanus Expressway, 1954 68


Gowanus Expressway, today 69


Red Hook Houses, 1938

Aerial View Red Hook Houses, 2008 70


Red Hook East Houses, 1939

0

50

100

200m

Red Hook West Houses, 1955

0

50

100

200m

71


Cover Life Magazine, Juli 1988 72


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Two people, three-room apartment, 40m ² Two people, three-room apartment, 41m ² Two people, three-room apartment, 42m ² Two people, three-room apartment, 42m ² Two people, three-room apartment, 45m ² Three - Four people, four-room apartment, 50m ² Three - Four people, four-room apartment, 50m ² Three - Four people, four-room apartment, 51m ² Five persons, five-room apartment, 62m ² Five persons, five-room apartment, 62m ²

3

1

7

4

9 6

5

10 2

8

8 5

6

4 3

Standard floor Red Hook Houses

1

0

5

10

73

20m


74


75


Br kly oo ry te at

nB n Tu l ne Added Value

Baked

Ikea Sunny`s

Collective perception Red Hook 76

l

Cana anus

Erie Basin

Red Hook Community Farming

Red Hook Ball Fields

Gow

Governors Island

Key Lime Pie


Perception Red Hook Red Hook is a very isolated part of Brooklyn and - in the mind of most New Yorkers - not a very present one. Despite its central location on the Upper New York Bay, Red Hook is not part of the psycho-geography of the city’s inhabitants. Red Hook is bordered by water on three sides. The Brooklyn-Queens Expressway cuts it off the rest of Brooklyn. Interestingly, Red Hook’s perceived image has often and throughout history been determined by individual major stakeholders. From the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century, it was known as a port area. These roots are still echoed in the quartier’s appearance. Warehouses from a time before the introduction of the container shape its structure. Industrial use is still of importance, and a certain level of fame was achieved through the public housing project Red Hook Houses. Already built in the 1930s, the projects’ high crime rates were notorious in the 1980s. In the 1950s, the construction of the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway severely affected Red Hook. While it was not not the only affected part of the city, the consequences were particularly severe on account of Red Hook’s extreme isolation. Today, Red Hook is widely noted as the site of New York’s only Ikea. The opening of the store gained Red Hook a new prominence, even resulting in a common equalization of the whole area with the company. Bus number 61, which runs from north Brooklyn to Red Hook, is known as the Ikea bus. The area became a destination for many people again. The ferry between Lower Manhattan and the Ikea store in Red Hook is also popular. In recent years the arrival of large cruise ships continously causes a stir in Red Hook. Since 2006, the Queen Mary 2 has been calling at the local Brooklyn Cruise Terminal and attracting more people to the area. The large specialty supermarket Fairway - located in an old port building – also works a major attraction. On weekends, various sporting events take place on the large fields near the Ikea. In the summertime, countless people visit the Red Hook Ball Fields on a regular basis and are catered for by temporary food stands of all kinds. It is not least because of the excellent Caribbean food that weekends at the Red Hook Ball Fields are now known everywhere in New York. For a few years now, more people are interested in Red Hook again, and the search for new homes in New York makes the district attractive for many. Red Hook’s isolation creates a unique atmosphere and is often perceived as a quality. Cafe Baked on Van Brunt Street is a first indication of Red Hook’s future potential. Despite its present location it is famous for its fine cakes and cookies thoughout the city.

77


Baked

Red Hook Ball Fields 78


Red Hook Houses

Red Hook Houses Gowanus Expressway IKEA

IKEA Hafen

Queen Mary 2

Perceived by its protagonists 79


S

S

Individual Use Red Hook 80


Use Red Hook Red Hook is a very isolated part of Brooklyn and - in the mind of most New Yorkers - not a very present one. Despite its central location on the Upper New York Bay, Red Hook is not part of the psycho-geography of the city’s inhabitants. Red Hook is bordered by water on three sides. The Brooklyn-Queens Expressway cuts it off the rest of Brooklyn. Interestingly, Red Hook’s perceived image has often and throughout history been determined by individual major stakeholders. From the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century, it was known as a port area. These roots are still echoed in the quartier’s appearance. Warehouses from a time before the introduction of the container shape its structure. Industrial use is still of importance, and a certain level of fame was achieved through the public housing project Red Hook Houses. Already built in the 1930s, the projects’ high crime rates were notorious in the 1980s. In the 1950s, the construction of the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway severely affected Red Hook. While it was not not the only affected part of the city, the consequences were particularly severe on account of Red Hook’s extreme isolation. Today, Red Hook is widely noted as the site of New York’s only Ikea. The opening of the store gained Red Hook a new prominence, even resulting in a common equalization of the whole area with the company. Bus number 61, which runs from north Brooklyn to Red Hook, is known as the Ikea bus. The area became a destination for many people again. The ferry between Lower Manhattan and the Ikea store in Red Hook is also popular. In recent years the arrival of large cruise ships continously causes a stir in Red Hook. Since 2006, the Queen Mary 2 has been calling at the local Brooklyn Cruise Terminal and attracting more people to the area. The large specialty supermarket Fairway - located in an old port building – also works a major attraction. On weekends, various sporting events take place on the large fields near the Ikea. In the summertime, countless people visit the Red Hook Ball Fields on a regular basis and are catered for by temporary food stands of all kinds. It is not least because of the excellent Caribbean food that weekends at the Red Hook Ball Fields are now known everywhere in New York. For a few years now, more people are interested in Red Hook again, and the search for new homes in New York makes the district attractive for many. Red Hook’s isolation creates a unique atmosphere and is often perceived as a quality. Cafe Baked on Van Brunt Street is a first indication of Red Hook’s future potential. Despite its present location it is famous for its fine cakes and cookies thoughout the city.

81


27.475 EW/km² 13.978 EW/km²

10.482 EW/km² 4.583 EW/km²

Red Hook New York Brooklyn Manhattan

Population density 82


Potential Red Hook Red Hook enjoys a central location in the city of New York. Despite its exquisite location on the Upper New York Bay and near Governors Island, Red Hook is very isolated and detached from the urban sphere. Nevertheless, spectacular views in the direction of the Lower Manhattan skyline and the Statue of Liberty clearly mark the area as an integral part of New York. While New York has a population density of 10,482 inhabitants/km², there are currently only 4,583 inhabitants/km² in Red Hook. In the 1950s, about 21,000 people lived in Red Hook, today there are only about 11,000 residents. Considering the population density of Manhattan (27,475 inhabitants/km²) and Brooklyn (13,978 inhabitants/km²), the potential to create living space in Red Hook is conveyed. With its numerous brownfields and former port and industrial areas, it could offer attractive residential areas for different target groups. The water’s edge with its many branches provides plenty of access to the water, and different types of banks offer various types of usage and perception. Living on the waterfront can be realized in different ways. So far, the existing zoning advertised the waterfront areals for industrial use, and living space was limited to the inner parts of Red Hook. The spatial separation from the rest of Brooklyn, the poor accessibility and the lack of a subway station have prevented a positive transformation to date. The new international passenger terminal with the Queen Mary 2 and the new IKEA store do not exploit their potential as local engines for Red Hook but rather in respect of New York as a whole. As a historic part area, Red Hook is endowed with a distinctive design and a unique atmosphere. Ranging somewhere between a sleepy seaside town and an epitome of the great American city dream, countless situations are played out here.

83


Red Hook Terminal

Potential Ferry Service 84


5 1 2

4

1 Lower Manhattan 2 Downtown Brooklyn 3 Verrazano-Narrows-Br端cke 4 Global Marine Terminal 5 Jersey City Visually dominant elements on the Upper New York Bay

3

4

1

3

2

1 Red Hook 2 Brooklyn Army Terminal 3 Staten Island 4 Liberty State Park Potential for further high points on the Upper New York Bay 85


86


87


88


89


90


91


0

92

250

500

1000m


1&2 Families Multi Family Mixed Commercial/Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation/Utility Public Facilities/Institutions Parking Vacant Land Open Space/Recreation

New York Zoning

0

250

1000m

500

93


Stock Demolition Transformation

Examination of the existing buildings 94

0

250

500

1000m


Blocks

0

250

1000m

500

95


0 – 5m 6 – 10m 11 – 15m 16 – 20m 21 – 25m > 25m

Heights

0

96

250

500

1000m


Inaccessible open space

0

250

1000m

500

97


Dominant typologies 98

0

250

500

1000m


Governors Island

Buttermilk Channel

Atlantic Basin Cruise Terminal New York Dock Buildings Snapple

R

School Buses Gowanus Expressway

Baked

Red Hook Houses

Fairway

School Buses Community Farm IKEA The Yard Erie Basin

Red Hook Ballfields

Grain Terminal

NYPD parking

Gowanus Canal

Donors of Identity

0

250

1000m

500

99


Water

0

100

250

500

1000m


Neighbourhoods

0

250

1000m

500

101


Black plan

0

102

250

500

1000m


Score 103


104


105


106


107


108


109


110


Option

111


1 Atlantic City

3 Paracity

2 Brooklyn Blocks 5 Red Hook Houses

4 Reservoir Docks 6 Red Hook Green

8 PenBeCa

7 The Arm

Strategic Patches, Poles, Accessibility 112


Strategy Red Hook Both Red Hook’s distinct spatial separation and its prominent location are considered to be positive starting points. As opposed to other neighborhoods (SoHo, TriBeCa), the clear spatial definition is provided by the surrounding water and the Expressway. Red Hook shall be considered as a whole. Its potential as a borough of Brooklyn will be expanded. Unlike many other parts of Brookly, Red Hook is characterized by extremely diverse typologies. By way of their extreme juxtaposition of various construction forms they compose typological patches. Contrasting each other, they are strengthened and expanded, clarified and intensified. The zones of confrontation between the various patches sharpen the character of Red Hook through a radical collision of typologies. Gradients and buffer zones do not exist. Patches are purely formulated in a typological sense; they do not define themselves by focus groups or userspecific segregation. Segregation and ghettos are denied. A powerful social, cultural and demographic mix is the goal of development. Different user priorities stem from the urban context and relate to the various patches. Existing punctual attractors will be sought out, emphasized and elevated. Identity-establishing buildings will be re-conceptualized, and contextually necessary destinations will be added. The existing grid as a democratic, unifying access system will be preserved and completed. Isolated urban islands will be interconnected. Complementing the loop, two main avenues will be the center of public life. They are the basis for a large-scale integration of Red Hook in New York. Complete water networking is made possible by a completely accessible shoreline which alternates between promenade, boardwalk and informal crossing. The preservation of existing buildings – as much as possible guarantees the preservation of Red Hook’s atmosphere and identity. Common displacement processes are worked against. Major structural interventions are solely designated for previously inaccessible sites with little development. Coupled with the opening of previously defined areas, they expand the neighborhood’s area without cutting through ancestral territories. Investors who take a geographically one-sided interest in attractive locations will be responded to with an immediate, targeted counterimpulse. Social gradient is prevented, and an equilibrated, parallel development of Red Hook is guaranteed.

113


Maximum Preservation of existing buildings

Continuation of uses in Red Hook

Sprinkle the attractors

Strengthen qualities, identities

Create spatial clarity

114


Typological identity through spatial diversity

Strengthening the social, cultural and demographic mix 115


116


SNAPPLE

EITSS

FREIH

NY

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PE R

UP

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PE

UP

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BA Y

NY

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max 30 % NY

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NY

NY

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BA Y

PE

BA Y

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max 50 % NY

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Typological rules / spatial articulation TIC

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Base

2 3

1

public housing office

Distribution of the use

IKEA

FAIR WAY

IKEA

IN

BA S

FAIR WAY


118


Brooklyn Blocks

Blocks

Backyard Passage

Small scaled typology

Public uses to Ave

Gardens

Typological rules / spatial articulation 119


120


Paracity

Blocks

Warehouse typology

Parasitic development

production housing office Storewindows to Ave

Distribution of the use

Rooftop use

Typological rules / spatial articulation 121


122


Reservoir Docks

Warehouses

Maximization water access

Continuous riverside walk

public housing production office Definition edge mainland

Cubature of port development

Distribution of uses

Typological rules / spatial articulation 123


124


Red Hook Houses

Blocks

City carpet

Solitaire development

housing public office Point-like forests

Dense forest to highway

Distribution of uses

Typological rules / spatial articulation 125


126


Red Hook Green

Grid

Figure-Ground

Park and sport fields

Solitaire active landmark

Typological rules / spatial articulation 127


128


The Arm

Define water access

Define Ave

Place public attractors

Urban interweaving

Public attractors embeded in housing structure

Different public uses

Typological rules / spatial articulation 129


130


PenBeCa

Grid

Warehouse typology

Informal space between

Typological rules / spatial articulation 131


132


133


134


135


136


137


Process Red Hook The transformation of Red Hook is not controlled by a masterplan. It is not realistic to expect a profiting from Red Hook’s potential by means of a holistic planning and via the distribution of usage as a structured accumulation of building material. Rather, rules and incentives contribute to a diverse, flexible and sustainable development that involves many participants. Instead of aiming for a fictional goal, permanent change is to be made possible. Vitality rather than preservation, flexibility rather than rigidity, openness rather than exclusion. A city is not designed, but understood, interpreted, directed and influenced in its own development. Small-scale structures and temporary uses are considered to be just as good as large-scale new plans. At all times, informal and incidental qualities have are given sufficient space in the urban development. Based on a scenario of massive demand for residential space, five-yearly snapshots of specific architectural and scenic proposals suggest options for implementing the spatial strategy. Formulated over a period of 30 years, this fictional story will tell about the continuous situational development on different scales. A major focus is the anchoring of all construction work in the local context. A successive compression of programs and networks manifests itself in a redistribution of activities, and the spatial variation of the defined patches. A strong structural momentum at the beginning of the transformation process marks the start of this procedural approach. It depends on the design and focus of the initial phase, which urban spaces are created and which target groups are addressed.

138


Participants

Tools

Timeline oil company / demolition / Bryant St

global

regional Demolition parking lot / accessible for public /

local

green space / make throughway accesfallow area / make shoreline public

private

Opening rename Van Brunt St in Ave

storage building / between use night-

Means

Z

zoning

C

competition

C Activation

dilapidated buildings / renovation /

Gowanus canal / cleaning Conversion

C New Construction

2010 139


Bo

ne

Im

la

y

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ab

rin

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on

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all

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ffe

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Bay

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Hal

leck

View Moment 2010 140

0

250

h St

Cour

mer

t St

Clin

ton

St

aine

Crea

ey St

St

500

1000m


Spacial edges 2010

Activity radius 2010

Snapshot Brooklyn Blocks 2010 141


garages / demolition / Loraine St

district Ferris St, Sullivan St, Wollcott St sible for public / district Volcott St,Conover St, Van Dyke St, Verona St, Richards St accessible for public / crossing Beard St, Richards St channel-shore / make accessible for public / Smith St

parking lot / temporary inflatable Snapple bottle / district Ferris St, Sullivan St, Vo

green spaces / temporary use: beergard club / Imlay St Red Hook Pool / conversion / Bay St storage building / temporary use club / Smith St Brooklyn Cruise Terminal / shift driveway / Imlay St entire patch

C

cultivate vacant lots / entire patch

C

2011 142

2012


garages / demolition / Creamer St

parking lot / make shoreline accessible for public / Brooklyn Cruise Terminal fallow areas / make accessible for public / border of patch fallow / make shoreline accessible for public / Columbia St

ollcott St

den, artgarden / crossing Van Brunt Ave, Coffey St fallow area / temporary container fallow areas, shore edge / temporary use concert stage, music festival area / crossing Beard St, Richards St Grain Terminal / temporary activities, veiling, projections / Columbia St

Atlantic Basin / enlarge, ferry suitability / Imlay St

storage building / redevelopment in

Red Hook Houses / complete street grid, remove fences / entire patch contaminated peninsula oil company / cleaning southern part / Bryant St

C

C

Z

free space in front of storage building / lay out / Clinton Wharf storage building / new consturction / Loraine St Z peninsula northern part oil company / construction / Bryant St G-Train / extension, new terminus /

C

2013

2014

2015 143


Bo

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Im

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Vis it

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Luqu

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no

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Nel

St

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Cent

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all

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ha

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Ric

ffe

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St

Crea

St

Smit

Bay

St

Sirg

ourn

Hal

leck

View moment 2015 144

0

250

h St

Cour

mer

t St

Clin

ton

St

aine

ey St

St

500

1000m


Spacial edges 2015

Activity radius 2015

Snapshot Reservoir Docks 2015 145


green spaces / make throughway accessible for public / district Volcott St, Conove fallow areas / make accessible for public / inner patch

gardens / temporary use: Space Buster /

city / Imlay St fallows / temporary use, parasite buildings, rucksackhaus / entire patch

Z Z

backyards / throughway / district Wolcott St, Conover St,Van Dyke St gardens / lay out / Van Brunt Ave

hotel / Imlay St

C C

Red Hook Terminal / new constructio

C

C C Z Smith St

Z

2016 146

park, sport fields / lay out / Creamer St peninsula southern part / oil company / construction / Bryant St C

2017


IKEA parking lot / demolition / Beard St Z dilapidated buildings / demolition / Gowanus Expressway

Z

shore walk way / make accessible for public / Volcott St, Coffey St er St, verona St, Richards St

/ Van Brunt Ave

IKEA-parking lot / temporary container city / Columbia St

storage building / conversion IKEA / conversion / Beard St

on / Atlantic Basin

Z

habour area north / vacant lots / cultivate / entire patch police car park / Gated-NYPD-Car-Park, schoolbus terminal / school home city /

Z

2018

2019

Park-Edge-Building / new

2020 147


Bo

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son

St

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St

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St

W 9t

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Hicks

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ry St

Br Va n

mbi

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ot

Colu

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W olc

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ve

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Nel

Dik

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Va n

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Cent

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all

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St

Dy

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St

ha

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Ric

ffe

sS

t

Co

Lorr

St

St

Smit

Bay

St

Sirg

ourn

Hal

leck

View moment 2020 148

0

250

h St

Cour

mer

t St

Clin

ton

St

aine

Crea

ey St

St

500

1000m


Spacial edges 2020

Activity radius 2020

Snapshot Atlantic City 2020 149


fallow area / make accessible for public

Red Hook Terminal / establish new ferry connections to all boroughs / Atlan

fallow area / temporary use: open air ci

Z Z

backyards / throughway / entire patch gardens / lay out / Van Brunt Ave (district Wolcott St, Conover St, Verona St, Ri industrial halls / installation showcases / Van Brunt Ave

apartment building / Imlay St

construction / Atlantic Basin

Gated-NYPD-Community, new construction / fallow Van Dyke St, Richards St, Beard St fallow Dwight St, Van Dyke St, Otsego St, Beard St

construction / Halleck St

2021 150

2022


c / Conover St, Van Dyke St. Parkplatz/Üffentlich zugänglich

ntic Basin

fallow areas / temporary use: water front park / Conover St, Van Dyke St inema (Red Hook Film Festival) / Columbia St public transport / installation public school bus line R.H.Subway-R.H.Terminal / entire Red Hook

ichards St)

Z C Z

2023

2024

industrial halls / increase parasite housing and work spaces / entire patch

IKEA parking lot / former dry dock fill with water / Beard St, Z C fallow area / demolition, new Z R.H.Green / schoolbus parking lots,

2025 151


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View moment 2025 152

0

250

h St

Cour

mer

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ton

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aine

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ey St

St

500

1000m


Spacial edges 2025

Activity radius 2025

Snapshot Paracity 2025 153


machen/Columbia St

parking lot / temporary use: Luna

C Z

fallow area Arm (dry dock) / new construction housing / Beard St C construction, lay out, housing buildings, forrest, Gowanus Expressway / entire patch sport fields, lay out park, enlarge Red Hook Farm / Bay St, Otsego St C

2026 154

2027


dilapidated storage halls /

green spaces / make throughways accessible for public / district Reed St, Conover St, Van Dyke St, Richards St

Park / Columbia St

C

Z C

2028

2029

fallow areas / new construction, gardencenter / Conover St, Van Dyke St

2030 155


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View Moment 2030 156

0

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h St

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ton

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aine

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ey St

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Spacial edges 2030

Activity radius 2030

Snapshot Red Hook Houses 2030 157


demolition / King St, Ferris St

C habour area southern part / construction / Atlantic Basin

fallow area, shore line southern part tunnel entry Brooklyn-Battery-Tunnel, BQE / new construction junction Columb

C

Erie Basin / new construction bridge, Loop Van Brunt Ave-Columbia Ave / Van Bru

2031 158

2032


Supermarkt 99c/Abriss/Loraine St Lagerhallen/Abriss/Columbia Ave

Z

fallow areas / shore line northern part, temporary use campsite / Beard St

Columbia Ave / renaming

C

Z

fabrikhalle / increase,

Z

small scaled housing / new fallow area, shoreline / division in

t / new construction housing / Beard St bia Ave / Gowanus Expressway

parking lot / first construction phase northern part, new construction Mini-Mega-Structures, housing / The Arm Z unt Ave, Columbia Ave

2033

2034

2035 159


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View moment 2035 160

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ey St

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Spacial edges 2035

Activity radius 2035

Snapshot The Arm 2035 161


construction: Big Snapple / Wolcott St

construction roof house / district Van Brunt Ave, Van Dyke St two parts, fill gap with water / Beard St

C

2036 162

Z

2037

fallow area / sports fields, lay out


Red Hook Houses, Columbia Ave / conversion ground floors / Columbia Ave

park / Loraine St, Otsego St parking lot second construction phase southern part / new construction Mini-Mega-Structures, housing / The Arm Z

2038

2039

2040 163


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View moment 2040 164

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Spacial edges 2040

Activity radius 2040

Snapshot Reservoir Docks 2040 165


166


167


168


169


170


171


Mini-Mega-Structures 172


Special Attractors Red Hook

173


The Yard Gallery 174


IKEA Worst Case Study Houses IKEA American Motel IKEA Tower

Park ing Park ing Park ing

IKEA Parkdeck

Din

ing

Bed

IKEA Parcours

roo

m

Livin

Kitc

hen

Stora

ge

g Ro

om

Work Bath

roo

m

Chil

dren ’s

Self Din

ing

Bed

roo Park m ing Park Kitc ing hen Self serv Paicrk e in fugrn iture

Stora

ge

Stora

ge Bath

roo

m

Park in

Livin

Work

Exit

ge

cko

s

IKEA Tiefgarage

Exit

Ligh

ting

Rug

s/T extile

n

Che

s/T extile

Coo Eati king / ng

IKEA Resta ura nt furn iture

Hom Dec e ora tio uts

Rug n

Chil

ice

Stora

g Ro om Ligh ting

Hom Dec e ora tio

g Che dren ckouts ’s IKEA Resta u

IKEA Foyer

serv

Coo Eati king / ng

Park in

g

Entr

anc

e

ran

Entr

t

anc

e

IKEA 2.0 175

s


NYPD Community Living 176


Schulstadtheim New York City

Schulbusparkhaus

Choreographie der Schulbusse

School Home City / School bus parking garage 177


Temporary Container City 178


m 0m

6.00

15.0

Brooklyn Blocks Standard Box 179


180


181


182


183


184


185


Improve Landmark

RAIN G

IN G T

G TRA

P.S.1

TRAIN IN G T

G TRA RAIN G TRAIN IN G T

G TRA RAIN red hook = no subway

P.S.2 New Subway G-train Terminus 186


Draft Red Hook / PenBeCa As a prelude to the procedural approach, a massive architectural intervention is intended for a currently unattractive, inaccessible area between Gowanus Canal and Red Hook Grain Terminal. Intended as an counterweight to the passenger terminal at the Atlantic Basin, the new district requires an immediate move of the local oil company and the decontamination of the soil. The transformation of the currently unused, but impressive Grain Terminal from a pure public landmark to an attractive living space, as well as the possibility of rapid access to the New York subway system in the form of a new last stop of the G-Train, open up development potential. These poles frame the design area. The new district will emerge on both New York’s perceptive maps and metro system. In order to function within the high-contrast context of Red Hook, the typological patches need to physically articulate themselves strongly. The impressive, powerful style of the existing building is typical port memory adapted and rethought. Influences of water environment and affect the adjoining park, with its sports facilities in terms of spatial and programmatic impact on the neighborhood education in the district. The issue of a classic gentrification is the apparent unthinkable a time and place parallel coexistence of different target audiences. The usual displacement process is met with a variety of housing models for different target groups. A major focus is the combination of work and living, production and consumption. Not regulated, affordable work space, often starting point of a neighborhood transformation is equally as luxurious living space offered, usually at the end of one. Atmospheric value is supported, specialized models of life possible, prevent stagnation and final preservation. A multifaceted public space available, the informal adoption and temporary action as possible as merely linger, stroll, or consumption. The living quarters are produced depends on its actors, the most diverse and unpredictable situations. The structural element of large-scale hall offers a wide range of Recordable typological focus of interest. Unregulated appropriation of working space is possible. Street spaces are taken. Interfaces to the road promote tense interactions. In combination with various residential typologies resulting differentiated life worlds that fuse architecture. The typology of the patch is re-interpreted, interactions between up and down, home and work, both privately and publicly produced. Combination is not necessarily, but the user can also enjoy one-sided perspective of observing the atmospheric value. More typical of the area elements are in the form of walls and openings, spaces and backyards design element in the urban field. Visual references, temporary transmission, interior and exterior, before and behind intensify the spirit of Red Hook. 187


Attractor Grain Terminal and new subway terminus

188

Influences on new neighborhood


Definition of plots, new square vis Ă  vis Grain Terminal

Spacial concept Penbeca neighborhood

189


190


0

25

50

100m

191


Performing Arts Terminal 192

Canal Quarter


Park-Edge-Building

Sports Center 193


The Village 194

At the Waterfront


P.S.2 Video Museum

Informeltingpot 195


196


197


Parkdeck

Tennis

Skatepa

B端ro

Werkstatt Club

Cafe

Tonstudio

Spielsalon

Eckkneipe

Reiseb端ro

Konferenzraum

Info

Vortragsraum

Bandraum

Lager

B端ro

Laundromat

Cafe

B端ro

Parkplatz


Mobile Fast Food

Sportfest

ark

Konzert

Trib端ne Studio

B端ro

Dorf Fotostudio

Cafe

Street Markt

Bluebox Schreinerei

PS2 Videomuseum

Lesung

Kindergarten

Deli

Bar

Cafe

Museumsvideoshop

Supermarkt

Proberaum Grocery

YouTube Kino

B端ro

Kulisse

U-Bahn Station

Lager

Greenpeace

0

25

50

100m


? ? ? ?

$

$

Cafe

GENTRIFIZIERUNG

+

Figure and reason 200


Street

Avenue

201


Section East - West

Section North - South 202


0

25

50

100m

203


Club

Cafe

Info

Vortragsraum

Laundromat

Cafe

B端ro


Trib端ne

Werkstatt

Tonstudio

Fotostudio

Spielsalon

Eckkneipe

Cafe

Street Markt

Reiseb端ro Bluebox Schreinerei

Konferenzraum

Lesung

Deli

Bar Bandraum

Lager Proberaum Grocery

B端ro

B端ro

Parkplatz

Kulisse

Lager

0

25

50m


16 m2

16 m2

41 m2

41 m2

77 m2

50m2

25 m2

50 m2

16 m2

67 m2

93 m2

105 m2

3 x 25 m2

Housing unit 206


Combinatorics 207


Floor +1

Floor +2 208


Floor +3

0

25

50

100m

209


210


211


The Red Hook Notebook Andreas Krauth, Urs Kumberger Munich 2010 Diplomarbeit am Lehrstuhl f체r St채dtebau und Regionalplanung Diploma thesis at the chair of urban and regional planning Prof. Sophie Wolfrum TU M체nchen, Germany Revised English version, Berlin 2013 Translation into English by Jana Sotzko


Red Hook Notebook (english)