Te Korowai o Tangaroa | Hōtoke 2021

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Hōtoke 2021 Pānuitanga 1

The evolution of our customary rights Why we must look to the past to decide on our future

What are kūmara


Deepwater Pātaka Providing kaimoana for when we can't fish

Ētahi atu kei roto i tēnei pānuitanga... Repurposing kai for our community, how to use live bait, and more!

Did you know? You can now read all issues of Te Korowai o Tangaroa for free online at


22 Kei roto... 3 Kōrero o te Tiamana 4 Editorial

Meet Te Ohu Kaimoana, Mātārae, Lisa te Heuheu and her plans for the future

6 Te Ohu Kaimoana


We break down the concept of 'te hā o Tangaroa kia ora ai tāua'.

8 Whakarongo ki te reo o te tuna

Find out how degrading water quality is affecting our taonga species.

10 Kūmara economics and a theory of change

We chat to Te Pūoho Katene, Kaihautū of Te Pūtea Whakatupu Trust, on his new strategic direction based on ancient wisdom.

12 The evolution of our customary rights

Te Taiawatea and Te Aomihia talk us through the evolution of customary fishing in Aotearoa and the future of these indigenous rights.

16 The Kai Ika Project

We explore this awesome project that's feeding whānau in Tāmaki Makaurau.

17 Getting down and dirty


Read how Moana NZ have been busy cleaning up Manawatū waterways.

18 Deepwater Pātaka: Providing kaimoana for when we can't fish

We explore how iwi and fishing companies worked together to provide for whānau during COVID-19 lockdowns.

20 What are 28N rights?

What exactly are 28N rights, and why do they matter?

22 Sealord's recruitment drive in full swing

Are you trawling the internet for mahi? You may just catch your next role at Sealord!

23 Find your next career at Sealord

16 Te Korowai o Tangaroa is a publication of Te Ohu Kaimoana Group Postal address: PO Box 3277, Wellington 6140, New Zealand Phone: +64 (04) 931-9500 Website: www.teohu.maori.nz Editorial/advertising enquiries: ika@teohu.maori.nz ISSN 2744-645X (Print) ISSN 2744-6468 (Online)

We speak to former fishing trawler Factory Manager, Tasha Burton, on what life is like at sea.

24 How to...

Nothing beats the classic worm on a line, but how do we hook this wriggly live bait effectively?

26 Hiakai

This issue we feature two yummy pāua recipes from our friends at Chatham Island Food Co.

28 5 minutes with...

Get to know Te Aomihia Walker, a Tai Pari (Policy Analyst) from Te Ohu Kaimoana.

30 Ngā taonga o Tangaroa



Kōrero o te Tiamana Rangimarie Hunia | Chair, Te Ohu Kaimoana | Ngāti Whātua


ēnā koutou katoa, ngā mihi o te tau hou. Nau mai ki te pānuitanga tuatahi o Te Korowai o Tangaroa, the official magazine of Te Kāhui o Te Ohu Kai Moana. The name Te Korowai o Tangaroa (the feathered cloak of Tangaroa) was gifted by Selwyn Parata (Ngāti Porou) and is representative of the entities of Te Ohu Kai Moana Group serving as protectors of Tangaroa and his realm, a responsibility entrusted to our entities through whakapapa, Te Tiriti o Waitangi, the Māori Fisheries Settlement (Deed of Settlement), and the Māori Fisheries Act 2004.

memories the struggles and the work of those who fought to get us where we are today. Māori have settled with the Crown in many instances on many kaupapa – and in all of which, we have had to more than compromise in order to move forward. We must protect the sustainable use of Tangaroa’s domain, as entrusted to us by our tūpuna. We must find balance, but we will not compromise on a compromise. We must protect what was hard fought for, our tūpuna rights from those who may try to take from us (again) – be it advertently or inadvertently.

From the arrival of our people in Aotearoa, we’ve been intrinsically connected to our moana thorough our whakapapa and Ātua; we’ve had a reciprocal bond with Tangaroa. As uri (descendants) of Tangaroa, we are bound to both tiaki (to care) and to hauhake (cultivate) his bounty. Te hā o Tangaroa kia ora ai tāua – the breath of Tangaroa sustains us. This whakataukī leads Te Ohu Kai Moana in its work and serves as a guiding principle for managing our relationship with Tangaroa across customary, commercial, and recreational fishing.

In each edition you will read stories from iwi, hapū, marae, and whānau on their connection to fisheries and the moana and hear about the work they are doing in their rohe for the betterment of Tangaroa’s domain. Te Ohu Kaimoana (the Māori Fisheries Trust), the successor to the Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Commission, will showcase its work, value, and people, as well as ngā whānau o Te Ohu Kaimoana, Te Wai Māori Trust (the freshwater Māori fisheries trust), Te Pūtea Whakatupu Trust (Māori education and training trust), Moana New Zealand, Aotearoa’s largest Māori owned seafood company, and Sealord Group Ltd who are 50% owned by Māori. You will also read thought provoking and challenging whakaaro from Māori leaders, fishers, experts in mātauranga Māori, and business leaders on a range of varying kaupapa in issues to come.

As a coastal nation, we have the luxury of having access to the best kaimoana in the world. Kaimoana that we can catch ourselves, supply to whānau in times of need, sustain our subsistence living communities, and also to sustainably trade for commercial returns. It does not matter which hat we are wearing when we hauhake Tangaroa’s domain, what matters is that the first fish goes back to Tangaroa, and that we all treat this domain with the same respect. What we do must be sustainable so that our mokopuna can enjoy the same relationship with Tangaroa that we do today, and that our tūpuna did before us. It is a challenging but exciting time to be Māori. We are watching the fruits of the labour of our forebearers be realised. Whether it be the revitalisation of te reo Māori, the adoption and acceptance of tikanga and cultural practices into organisations, or Māori thriving as world leaders in business, film, policy, governance, and providers of kai to the world. But we must also be vigilant and remember to keep at the forefront of our

Our vision for Te Korowai o Tangaroa is to document the history, whakaaro and stories of our people – the hard stories and the good. It is to serve as a permanent record and reminder of those who have paved the way for us so far, and to shine a light on those who will lead us in the marine space now and into the future. We hope you enjoy reading. Noho ora mai rā,

Rangimarie Hunia

te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021



Hurihia tō aroaro ki te rā tukuna tō ātārangi kia taka ki muri ki a koe Nā Lisa te Heuheu | Te Mātārae, Te Ohu Kaimoana


ēnā koutou e ngā rangatira o te motu. Ki te taha o tōku pāpā ko Ngāti Maniapoto me Ngāpuhi ōku iwi . Ki te taha o tōku māmā ko Ngāpuhi me Ngāti Raukawa ōku iwi . Ko Lisa te Heuheu tōku ingoa. He mihi mahana ki a koutou. Ngā mihi atu ki a koutou mō tō koutou mahi o ngā hī ika, me te taiao hoki. It is a privilege to have been appointed as the new Mātārae of Te Ohu Kaimoana, and to be able to provide you with an insight to what I see, hear and feel as I navigate my new role. I do want to take a moment to acknowledge the work of all the whānau in the past that have contributed to the organisation that Te Ohu Kaimoana has become, and I can only hope to add more value to that legacy in the future. I have been reminded recently of our past. Described to me as a ‘legacy’, in other words ‘heritage’, and in more simpler words ‘mahi a te tūpuna’. There is a deep strength and understanding in the past that has shaped the world of Te Ohu Kaimoana, it is so much more than an agreement and a legislative contract, it is the essence of which our tūpuna saw a vision for the future. Whether they knew it at the time, the path that they laid has shaped and defined fisheries. The way that Māori interact with fisheries both as a practice and holding positions that are

at the forefront of shaping the future of the mahi of Tangaroa, holds unimaginable opportunity. I look to our past constantly to ensure that every step forward creates meaningful and thoughtful opportunity for the future. The risk of every organisation that work to serve iwi is that we lose our way, and that we can, at times, be out of touch with what really matters. But I want to assure you that iwi, hapū, whānau, and kaitiaki are at the forefront of my mind as we navigate a new journey together. I come from a background of environmental management. In those roles I supported iwi, hapū and whānau to try to tackle really difficult and complex questions in managing their natural resources. At the same time, I'm also trying to hold on to their ability to hold-fast to their tino rangatiratanga, which is constantly under pressure. It’s not easy, and there is no silver bullet. One of the critical factors I have learnt is that relationships are everything. Relationships are not dipping your toes in when you want something and pulling them out when it feels uncomfortable; relationships are enduring, it’s about spending time because it’s the right thing to do, it’s about accepting that we come from different viewpoints and respecting the roles that we all play. I believe that I bring a relationship focus and a relational approach to the work we do here at Te Ohu Kaimoana, and this is a muscle that we will continue to strengthen in the work ahead. Ultimately


with all we know, we want to do the best we can to create opportunity for the future. In my new role I think about those learnings and bring them with a fresh perspective to Te Ohu Kaimoana. Here is what I see in front of us. •

I see that our tino rangatiratanga as iwi, hapū, whānau is constantly being questioned and misunderstood.

I see our values and our reo being used against us and reinterpreted to suit the masses to make others feel more comfortable, but worse yet, used to foster an agenda that is not our own.

I see our iwi, hapū, whānau needing resources and help, and they are overloaded, tired, and frustrated.

I see the opportunity to move beyond holding the line on rights to build a new future of opportunity and prosperity for our iwi, hapū, whānau.

I see that setting a new platform on our relationships as Te Ohu Kaimoana with iwi, hapū and whānau will transform the way that we do our work.

I also see that setting a new direction of travel with the Crown, industry, and other interested parties could create opportunities we never thought were possible.

The pātai we ask ourselves now is, with all that we have in front of us, where do we start and how do we be the change we want to see? All I can say in these early days is small steps. I won’t promise what I know we can’t deliver, and what I think we can deliver we will do to the best of our ability to make that happen.

I do want to remind all our iwi, hapū, and whānau that we are an expression of your aspirations. As a pan-iwi Māori organisation made up of 58 shareholders you have a right to hold us to account, to question what we do, and be part of solutions that we develop on your behalf. To all the kaitiaki and rangatira that made the effort to come to one of our haerenga - we hear you. We value your whakaaro and we thank you for your honesty and for making the time to help us steer this next stage of our journey. You have all given me the confidence to start to build a strategy that I hope will reflect the organisation you want us to be, and I am excited by the prospect of a new future. I am encouraged that there are bright, star streaking times ahead if we choose to do things differently. However, with change there is always uncertainty, and with uncertainty we can often feel challenged and fearful about venturing into the new. I ask that you help us build the new, it won’t be a straight line and at times we will make mistakes, but know, that we will do our utmost to be of service to iwi, hapū and whānau in every way we can. The vision I have is beautifully articulated in this whakataukī. Hurihia tō aroaro ki te rā tukuna tō ātārangi kia taka ki muri ki a koe - turn your face to the sun and the shadows fall behind you.

Help us to turn to the sun and be the epitome of your moemoea for the future. ○



Te Ohu Kaimoana

te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021



Te hā o Tangaroa kia ora ai tāua T

he concept of “Te hā o Tangaroa kia ora ai tāua” underpins the identity of Te Ohu Kaimoana and our view on the essence of Māori fisheries. The statement means “the breath of Tangaroa sustains us” and refers to the ongoing Māori relationship with Tangaroa – including his breath, rhythm and bounty. Recognising our ongoing interdependent relationship acknowledges the Māori worldview that humanity is descended from Tangaroa and all children of Ranginui and Papatūānuku. We are part of the ongoing cycle of life. The concept of ‘te hā o Tangaroa kia ora ai tāua’ is underpinned by four pou, whakapapa, hauhake, tiaki, and kai. • Whakapapa Māori descend from Ranginui and Papatūānuku and their tamariki, including Tangaroa, and have a reciprocal relationship with our tūpuna. • Hauhake Māori have a right and obligation to cultivate Tangaroa for the betterment of Tangaroa, and support Tangaroa’s circle of life. • Tiaki Māori have an obligation to care for Tangaroa, for the betterment of humanity as his descendants. • Kai Māori have a right to enjoy their whakapapa relationship with Tangaroa through the wise and sustainable use of the benefits Tangaroa provides to us.

Te Hā o Tangaroa underpins our purpose, policy principles and leads our kōrero every time we respond to the Government on policy matters. It is important to us that the Government understands the continuing importance of Tangaroa and recognises the tuhonotanga that Maori hold as his uri. All decisions and advice offered by Te Ohu Kaimoana on fisheries is underpinned by this kōrero to ensure the sustainability of Tangaroa’s kete for today and our mokopuna yet to come. ○

te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021


Te Wai Māori

Whakarongo ki te reo O

n a sunny November morning, the team from Te Wai Māori and Lamp Studios are set up by the beach in Tūranganui-a-Kiwa (Poverty Bay), filming the first interview with Matua Ray Farmer for a series of short documentary series about the challenges facing tuna (eels), 'He Reo Whakamana'. "Over the last 200 or so years, our waterways have become contaminated and so the eel population has slowed down. We tried to tell the authorities... [but] from my perspective we need to do more,"says Ray. It's a sad, but true assessment of the state of tuna and their habitats.Nearby is Te Pā o Kahu, the site for the first documentary. Te Pā o Kahu and Awapuni Moana, were once home to a thriving community.But in the 1950's the community was moved off the land, the lagoon was drained, and a dump was placed on the site.

"Kahu was a great chief, and as we say, he would be very sad to see his land today," says environmental educator and Alternate Director of Te Wai Māori Trust, Ian Ruru. Now covered over, the dump is leaking toxins into the nearby Awapuni stream. As a result, the tuna are sick and their populations dwindling.

"In the last 20 years, we’ve seen a terrible decline," says Ian. On the West Coast of the North Island, under Taranaki maunga is another stream whose tuna are suffering. The Waitekaure stream flows through Te Ikaroa, the coastal kāinga associated with Parihaka.

"The Waitekaure is a critically threatened stream," says local kaitiaki, Tihikura Hohaia. The stream is surrounded by farmland and is affected by effluent, nitrogen, run-off, water extraction and unfenced paddocks. "Instead of being called streams, they've become drains." In the summer of 2017/18 the mouth of the Waitekaure was the site of a mass death of tuna. The water levels dropped and the toxins concentrated leading to the deaths of dozens of our mature taonga species. The loss of wetlands further upstream, as a result of piping and draining, is a major contributing factor. Wetlands are like a sponge, and in times of drought they provide much needed support for smaller waterways.

Raising awareness for our tuna “This docu-series illustrates that we have to be able to tell our story using multiple mediums to reach our


o te tuna audience,” says Chair of Te Wai Māori Trust, Pahia Turia. “It gave us the opportunity to give life to a story through the eyes of our taonga species, a species that has been significant to all of our iwi.” Accompanying the videos are a set of resources developed for whānau and kura which encourage tamariki to learn about the health of their local awa and the freshwater species who live there. These resources include an info pack and worksheet to assess the health of their waterways, which enables tamariki to connect with their kāinga and effect change by contacting local officials with their findings.

Looking to the future Since being launched in September last year, the videos have been viewed over 59,000 times. They have been popular resources for engagement across Te Wai Māori’s social media and website, with the Trust looking at further opportunities to address some of the issues identified in the docu-series. ○

Want to learn more? You can watch the full series of 'He Reo Whakamana' or download any of the free educational resources on the Wai Māori website at waimaori.maori.nz/he-reo-whakamana


Meet Te Wai Māori's Chair Pahia Turia (Ngā Wairiki, Ngāti Apa, Whanganui, Ngā Rauru, Ngāti Tūwharetoa) is the Chair of Te Wai Māori Trust and has been a director of Te Wai Māori since 2020. Born and bred in Whanganui and having spent much of his life around waterways, Turia links his involvement in the freshwater space to his connection with his iwi. “As an iwi, we’re really conscious of our footprint and our ability to be able to clearly demonstrate that we’re committed to the environment and be the personification of what kaitiaki looks like.” He’s also passionate about the rights and interests of freshwater fisheries within a Tiriti context and the role the Trust has in local and central government. “We have to think about the role that we can play in influencing policy, both at a regional and district council level around different activities that are affecting the wellbeing of our freshwater and our species.” “I’m really committed to knowing that we can stand at an AGM in front of our people and know that we’re doing right by them."


te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021

Te Pūtea Whakatupu

Te Pūoho Katene, Kaihautū (director) of Te Pūtea Whakatupu Trust, speaking at the recent Future Food Aotearoa 'Taste Tomorrow' event

Kūmara Economics and a theory of change Te Pūtea Whakatupu Trust is a charitable trust established under the Māori Fisheries Act, and sits within the Te Ohu Kai Moana kāhui as a subsidiary entity. The Trust manages the funds on behalf of iwi, which were delivered as a result of the Deed of Settlement agreement, and utilises a proportion of the annual investment portfolio income to promote targeted social impact to urban Māori. Traditionally the Trust has delivered its activity via grants, scholarships, and other philanthropic activity, however, they have recently embarked on an impact investment approach to how their current and future activity is mobilised, with the goal of attracting capital into impactful projects in Māori communities. We sat down with Te Pūtea Whakatupu Trust Kaihautū, Te Pūoho Katene, to talk through "kūmara economics" and explore the Trust's commitment to social impact investing.


rua e rua te kūmara me te pūtea, kāore he hua ōna ki tua atu i te whāngai tangata: Money is like a kūmara; it has no value outside of its ability to sustain people.

This whakataukī sits at the heart of Te Pūtea Whakatupu’s journey to impact, and defines what Te Pūoho refers to as 'kūmara economics'.

"Kūmara economics contextualises Māori business and investment success within the holistic prosperity of the collective. Through this approach we see the accumulation of profit, wealth, and assets as one half of the equation; the other half is how we mobilise these assets to create transformative change for our people" says Te Pūoho. "We as Maori can economically emancipate ourselves. And therein lies our self determination - or tino rangatiratanga." Framing Te Pūtea Whakatupu's activity within an impact investing lens is how the trust aims to contribute to this economic expression of tino rangatiratanga. But what does impact investment involve? “Impact investments are those made with the intention to generate positive and measurable social and environmental impact alongside a financial return," says Te Pūoho.


Both locally and globally, more and more investors are turning to activities and interventions designed to bring about meaningful change, however, Te Pūoho believes that this concept is not new to te ao Māori, and we have, in fact, been practising the concept of impact investment for over 1000 years. "Now we are starting to see the world catch up to our tūpuna and recognise how holistic prosperity has underpinned all of their economic activity. It is this wisdom that is now providing us with new tools, structures, and frameworks to aid our ongoing efforts. It also gives us a shared language with other impact-motivated agents," says Te Pūoho. One truth in Te Pūtea Whakatupu's journey is understanding that, whether we mean to or not, all of our assets, whether in a term deposit, a managed fund, or operational expenditure, has an impact on the world around us - both positive and negative. Te Pūoho explains how it is this holistic point of view which brought change to the strategic direction of the Trust as it moves forward, with a focus on intentional impact of the entire portfolio, as opposed to solely focussing on annual grants and investments. To achieve this, Te Pūtea Whakatupu’s first step has been to create a 'theory of change'- an outcomes framework that charts the pathway to impact.

"Starting at an aspirational horizon, we asked ourselves this, if the Trust were to become successful beyond our wildest dreams, what outcomes and benefits would we see materialising for our people?" From this 'theory of change' thought process, an impact statement was formed, describing the future state of the world that Te Pūtea Whakatupu desires for iwi Māori. These aspirations included, an active and reciprocal relationship with Hinemoana and Tangaroa, thriving mātauranga Māori knowledge systems, future leaders armed with ancient wisdom, Māori succeeding as Māori, and economic emancipation. "These impact statements are written in pen for us. They provide the fixed point on the horizon. Navigating there will of course reflect the conditions and priorities of the day; the pencil, if you will." From establishing this baseline, Te Pūtea Whakatupu is now able to work backwards to present day, understanding what signposts and milestones they need to achieve in order to transform these aspirations to reality. The Trust now plans to explore what influences each impact statement, identify what its interdependencies are, what should be weighted and prioritised, and what activities and outputs will best position the Trust to achieve these goals.


However, Te Pūoho believes that the trickiest part of instilling an impact approach is how to connect these high-level, aspirational impact outcomes to day-to-day decision making. "Designing, and evaluating, how projects contribute to our impact performance is crucial and complex. Measures such as the SDGs and the Impact Management Project are useful starting points, but don’t capture tikanga Māori.

"We need metrics specific to us as Māori, metrics that measure our contribution to our own definitions of value such as whānau wellbeing, or the expression of our culture; these are the values that drive our ways of being. We need to dive deeper so that our measurement reflects what matters most to us." To demonstrate this, Te Pūtea Whakatupu plans to soon launch their first social return on investment report which measures the social impact of the Trust's numeracy and literacy funding, through the 'Te Kete Aronui' kaupapa, delivered by Whānau Ora Commissioning Agency. "This report will quantify the social value of this funded kaupapa so we can better understand how projects such as this create meaningful impact for whānau." Despite the journey to impact being a continuous one, Te Pūtea Whakatupu is committed to ensuring that their day to day activities and investments make meaningful contributions and are focussed on continually delivering on their theory of change. "For us, we aim to change the way capital is mobilised towards these Māori-led initiatives. Whether that be as direct funding, research to support evidence based decision-making, or as advocates amplifying the impact of our strategic partners in Māori communities. "By doing so, we can put our assets to work creating meaningful impact, and be able to communicate this impact clearly to those who we represent, and to those who are similarly motivated to invest in creating a better future for our descendants." ○

Want to know more? To check out some of Te Pūtea Whakatupu's recent projects including their literacy and numeracy kaupapa, visit their Facebook page at: fb.com/teputeawhakatupu


te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021


The evolutio I

t has been nearly 30 years since the Fisheries Deed of Settlement was signed between the Crown and Māori, and over a decade since the New Zealand Government supported the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People (UNDRIP). It has also been nearly ten years since the Waitangi Tribunal released its landmark report 'Ko Aotearoa Tēnei', which outlines the Government's responsibility to work with Māori to protect taonga species, taonga works, and mātauranga Māori. Some would say that progress on these matters has been slow, and that many Crown policies continue to control and manage customary fishing, ultimately suppressing Māori success. We draw on insights from Tā Tipene O'Regan, Deputy Chief Judge Caren Fox, Professor Margaret Mutu, and the late Dame Ngāneko Minhinnick as we kōrero to Te Taiawatea Moko-Mead1 and Te Aomihia Walker on the evolution of customary fishing in Aotearoa, and the future direction of these indigenous rights. To explore the concept of customary fishing, there needs to be an understanding of the relationship between Māori and the natural world. This relationship is underpinned by whakapapa. It is a relationship which is based on reciprocity, and practised through mātauranga and tikanga.

"Although there is a lot of variation between iwi on the values or concepts that shape our worldview, there is commonality. These concepts include whakapapa, whanaungatanga, mana, rangatiratanga, tapu, rāhui and kaitiakitanga," says Te Aomihia. For Māori, the connection with Tangaroa and other atua transcends the spiritual, environmental and human spheres. These foregoing concepts are intertwined with iwi identity, and the capacity to protect and manage resources sustainably is passed down from one generation to the next. intergenerational basis. However, without the fundamental presence of kaitiakitanga as a central pou of customary practice, there is no basis to prevent or limit resources from being exploited.

Moko-Mead, Te Taiawatea. “Policy Analysis of Māori Customary Fishing in Aotearoa.” Unpublished manuscript, University of Melbourne, 2021. 1

"The sustainable harvesting, storing, and sharing of kaimoana for customary purposes is a practice handed



on of our customary rights down by our tīpuna over many generations. It is a practice which forms a key element of Māori identity, and is a large contributor to the livelihoods of our communities," says Te Taiawatea.

"However, these practices are governed by tikanga, and as a result, are subject to the responsibilities of kaitiakitanga an inherit responsibility based on whakapapa. Therefore, the ability to exercise kaitiakitanga and tino rangatiratanga are central to the concept of Māori customary fishing." So how did the practice of customary fishing evolve from a reciprocal and sustainable relationship with Tangaroa, to the constrained systems that we face today? To understand this better, we need to explore the history and political consequences which have heavily impacted this traditional practice.

The one-sided partnership Theoretically, Te Tiriti gave effect to the partnership of Māori and the Crown, and it was agreed upon in the Māori text of Te Tiriti that the Crown would guarantee iwi tino rangatiratanga over their taonga - while the Crown reserved the right to govern. However, in practice, this agreement saw the beginning of settler colonialism, where European interpretations of Te Tiriti were used by the Crown to systematically break down Māori rangatiratanga and identity and replace the Maori world with colonial government, policies and systems.

"The early focus of state-enacted policies was to see the complete assimilation of Māori into Western society, and as a result, the exploitation of natural resources. This was exemplified as Māori identity and knowledge eroded, and systems were put in place that inhibited Māori from expressing their relationship with the natural world," says Te Taiawatea. Over time, the customary rights that inherently belonged to Māori were reinterpreted, as the practice of customary fishing became subject to the introduced common law and legislation. "During this period, we saw a series of statutes developed to break Māori control of the resources of land and sea, and break our relationship with Tangaroa and other atua," says Te Aomihia One of the first legislative interventions in the fisheries context was the Oyster Fisheries Act 1866, which was passed without any consultation with Māori. It was then followed by Freshwater Fisheries Law in 1867, and the Fish Protection Act in 1877, and a number of other Fisheries Acts. Sone of these statutes recognised the existence of Māori

fishing rights, but provided no agency to have those claims recognised as rights - despite strong lobbying by iwi. Come the turn of the century, Māori fishing rights came to be regarded as little more than a subsistence right to gather kaimoana for domestic consumption or ceremonial occasions. This weakness in the legislation was made evident with the case of Te Atiawa woman, Waipapakura v Hempton (1914). Waipapakura's fishing nets were seized after being accused of fishing unlawfully for whitebait. At the time, Waipapakura claimed she was asserting her customary right to fish, and sued the fisheries officer responsible for seizing the nets, seeking compensation for damage. However, the court did not rule in her favour, and instead found that Māori rights to fish were no different than Pākeha. Additionally, the ruling stated that under the Fisheries Act 1908, Māori "have no such communal or individual rights of fishery." "Sadly, this case is one of many, where the Crown clearly operated outside of the framework laid out in Te Tiriti, and disregarded their promise of undisturbed possession of lands, forests, and fisheries clearly promised in Article two," says Te Taiawatea. Over the half-century that followed, Māori began collectivising their approach in a bid to address political marginalisation brought on by colonial systems. Various tribal committees were established, as well as the Māori Council in 1962. This political push-back ultimately led to a dedicated Waitangi Tribunal to be formed in 1975 in a bid to address the many Crown breeches of Te Tiriti over the past 135 years.

The change of tide In 1983, Te Atiawa brought a claim to the Waitangi Tribunal against a local petro-chemical plant which had been given permission to discharge untreated waste and sewage into the Motunui awa. Te Atiawa claimed this was an infringement of their Tiriti rights and sought compensation. What was poignant about this case in comparison to earlier proceedings, was that the Tribunal upheld Te Atiawa's claim and believed that Māori were to be protected not only in their fishing grounds, but in the mana to control them.

"This case signified a period time where we were starting to get into that space where our customary rights and mana to protect our taonga were finally being recognised," says Te Taiawatea. This decision was shortly followed by the landmark high court decision of Te Weehi v Regional Fisheries (1984), where Motunau Beach local, Tom Te Weehi, was charged with taking undersized pāua. However, the High Court found that Te Weehi was in fact exercising his customary fishing rights, and in turn, was exempt from conviction under section 88(2) of


te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021

Far left: Tā Tipene O'Regan and other rangatira signing the Fisheries Deed of Settlement in 1992; Left: growing radical movements throughout the 60s and 70s led to the Waitangi Tribunal being established in 1975.

the Fisheries Act 1983, where it provided that "Nothing in this act shall affect any Māori fishing rights." Furthermore, the court ruled that these rights remain enforceable unless specifically extinguished. "This was a pivotal point in history that tested the extent of Māori customary non-commercial fishing rights, and we have continued to see these decisions underpin future rulings over the years that follow," says Te Aomihia.

The QMS and the Muriwhenua claim Unrestricted, commercially driven fishing and an overall lack of sustainable practice ultimately resulted in a serious decline in fish stock between 1950 and 1980 which led to a proposal for a quota management system put forward to Government in 1984. This proposal aimed to regulate and sustainably manage seven deep-water fisheries, but did not recognise Māori rights to exercise tino rangatiratanga over our taonga, and in its execution, would have resulted in the abrogation and permanent transfer of the Māori fishing rights affirmed under Te Tiriti. This then brought about the Muriwhenua fishing claim 1986, led by five rangatira, where a submission was lodged against the Ministry of Fisheries to the Waitangi Tribunal claiming that "it had failed to meet its obligations in the terms of the Treaty of Waitangi by presuming that customary fishing rights had been extinguished." "The Muriwhenua claim was really recognising that Māori had more than just customary non-commercial rights - because essentially customary rights are all rights, both commercial and non-commercial," says Te Taiawatea.

"As Māori we have always had systems in place where we traded and bartered. Fishing is a part of our identity, a part of our economy, it represents our well-being and sustenance and that is what the Muriwhenua claim aimed to address" says Te Taiawatea. The Tribunal agreed with the Muriwhenua claimants in that the proposed QMS framework may be contrary to Te Tiriti, "but only as its presently arranged." It went on to state that there were many positive aspects of the QMS, and if agreement could be sought, then Māori interests could be accommodated.

"The Muriwhenua Report found that our Treaty right had an economic element. Māori, after all, used several methods to catch fish, many of which have evolved over time and are still used today in a modern form" says Te Aomihia.

"As Tā Tipene once said, our fishing rights were never just about subsistence fishing; they represent protection of a system of utilising and managing the environment in accordance with our tikanga, for the benefit of future generations. This is what tino rangatiratanga means," says Te Aomihia. Māori filed proceedings in the courts in a number of decisions between 1987 and 1989, "if a new species was added to the QMS - Māori were quick to file a injunction," says Te Aomihia. The success of these combined actions allowed space to negotiate a settlement of Māori fishing claims that was consistent with the Treaty of Waitangi. In 1989, the Crown and Māori negotiators agreed on an interim settlement, which was given effect by the Māori Fisheries Act 1989. This interim settlement saw the creation of a Māori Fisheries Commission, the provision of 10 percent of the QMS shares, and approximately $10 million as compensation. "Though the settlement was with iwi, its intent was to benefit both whānau and hapū. At the time, Tā Tipene openly acknowledged that the interim settlement was a chance to make a start and get structures in place. The recognition of Māori rights was one thing, developing the skill to maintain and hold them for our mokopuna became the next great challenge," says Te Aomihia. Aside from commercial content of the Act, it also provided for the establishment of taiāpure, local fishing reserves, in order to make better provisions for the recognition of rangatiratanga. These taiāpure were the first of their kind in customary regulations in Aotearoa and aim to give Māori greater participation in fisheries management within their rohe. However, these were met with some criticism due to the required public hearing process involved in establishing


a taiāpure, and if contested, the proposed taiāpure would be subject to proceedings in the Maori Land Court. "This taiāpure process limits Māori ability to exert our customary rights, and many Māori believe that the recognition of these customary fishing rights should not be subjected to public consultation - a process which diminishes power and tino rangatiratanga of tangata whenua," says Te Aomihia.

Customary rights are all rights, right? The fallout from both the QMS and the interim Māori Fisheries Act ultimately concluded with the first Treaty Settlement between Māori and the Crown, the Fisheries Deed of Settlement 1992, where the Crown recognised the full extent of Māori customary (commercial and non-commercial) rights to fishing and fisheries. "Here, the Crown finally recognised that traditional fisheries are of importance to Māori and that the Crown's Treaty duty is to develop policies to help recognise use and management practices," Te Aomihia says. However, the separation of Māori customary interests into customary commercial and customary non-commercial fishing remained an area of contention for Māori and considered to be 'culturally offensive' to many.

"Prior to the Deed of Settlement, customary and commercial fishing were indistinguishable, yet what we see after is an artificial separation of customary rights" says Te Aomihia. "As Judge Fox once said2, "It is the continuation of the relationship with the fisheries that is important, a relationship that recognises the spiritual source of our taonga passed on from generation to generation. Consequently, interference with that relationship, even if only symbolic, was abhorrent," says Te Aomihia. Furthermore, the Deed observed that Te Tiriti interests in commercial fisheries would now be extinguished, while Te Tiriti interests in non-commercial fisheries would be made legally unenforceable and instead replaced by policies and regulations with the ability to return to the Waitangi Tribunal. "Because of these restrictions, there was now limited Māori ability to go to court when contesting customary rights, but the parties agreed this was essential to prevent the regulations being susceptible to political pressure, and as noted by the Waitangi Tribunal, the restrictions were to prevent political and administrative inference," says Te Taiawatea.

The evolution of kaitiakitanga Due to the Deed's focus on commercial rights and interests, and conflicting provisions on customary rights, a number of iwi raised concerns. In 1994, iwi and hapū leaders convened to agree on an approach for Māori and


the Crown to develop customary kaimoana regulations. These regulations aimed to give expression to the tino rangatiratanga over their customary fisheries. However, negotiations within the Crown-Māori working group broke down. The Crown proceeded to enact the Kaimoana Customary Fishing Regulations in 1998, and the South Island Customary Fishing Regulations in 1999. These regulations enabled the use of customary tools and controls including mātaitai reserves, improved taiāpure provisions and temporary closures, such as rāhui. There were both concessions and compromises found in the forming of the regulations, but one critical feature is that the appointment of kaitiaki, and the level of authority to regulate customary harvest. There is still concern, however, that both may be limited by the Crown. In this context, one could assume that the term 'kaitiaki' has been heavily diluted from an 'inherit responsibility based on whakapapa.'

"Some iwi and hapū have chosen to continue to operate outside of the regulations because the power still remains centralised to the Crown. This is exemplified by the command-and-control model whereby the Minister has the discretion to appoint our kaitiaki, determine our areas of interest, and determine whether our customary tools can be implemented," says Te Taiawatea. The unfinished business of customary rights The state of our fisheries is vastly different to what existed in 1840, and that progress over the past 30 years is a result of Māori perseverance and activism. Following the 1992 Settlement, it took a further 12 years to gain iwi agreement on an allocation model for fisheries settlement assets with the passing of the Māori Fisheries Act 2004. It will probably take longer to get a proper model for our customary fishing rights to be appropriately enabled. However a Tiriti compliant partnership approach to our customary rights which recognises and truly upholds tino rangatiratanga is still to be negotiated.

Perhaps there is no one size fits all approach to customary regulations? Perhaps we are simply trying to apply a westernised concept of nation-wide governance to a practice which is embedded with cultural significance and nuanced from iwi to iwi? But somewhat more importantly, perhaps we need to recognise the complexities in what we are trying to manage. Fish are fish – they do not swim with the labels customary, commercial, or recreational attached. Therefore, no one sector can manage fisheries separately, all fishing activity needs to be managed together - and Māori have interests across all three.○

Meyers, Gary D., and Wickliffe, Caren. “The Co-Management of Maori Living Resources and Maori Customary Fishing Rights.” Chapter. In The Way Forward: Collaboration and Cooperation 'in Country': Proceedings of the Indigenous Land Use Agreements Conference (26-29 September 1995, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia), 2nd ed., 68–91. Perth: National Native Title Tribunal, 1996. 2

te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021


Moana New Zealand

The Kai Ika Project based in Tāmaki Makaurau is helping to address food insecurity through redistributing unused fish product to the local community. Image used with permission from Auckland Council.

The Kai Ika Project: Reducing food insecurity in the community


ew Zealand Health Survey data indicates that although most children live in foodsecure households, a share of New Zealand children do not. In 2015/16 alone, almost one in five children (19%) lived in households with severe-to-moderate food insecurity.1 Reducing food insecurity is a shared aim of organisations and individuals involved in the Kai Ika Project, which works to maximise every part of fish caught. Moana New Zealand became involved at the beginning of last year, and now routinely supplies fish heads, frames and guts to Papatūānuku Kōkiri Marae. The redistributed fish parts are eaten and put to other uses, such as making fertiliser to grow kūmara and other vegetables organically on the marae’s two-and-a-half hectares. The programme came into its own during Aotearoa’s first Covid-19 lockdown which restricted recreational fishing, impacting Kai Ika’s supply. Since the initial lockdown period ended, the Kai Ika team has continued with routine pickups of kaimoana from Moana New Zealand’s Mount Wellington site. Last month, the Rt Hon. Jacinda Ardern, experienced the Kai Ika Project first-hand as Jacinda, LegaSea and 1

Household Food Insecurity Among Children: New Zealand Health Survey (2019), page 9

Moana New Zealand were warmly welcomed onto Papatūānuku Kōkiri Marae in Māngere East to share kōrero and kai in celebration of a collectivised effort to reduce poverty across Auckland communities. Chief Executive Officer for Moana New Zealand, Steve Tarrant, says the pilot project has been set up with a view to rollout across Aotearoa’s communities. “Snapper heads and frames have long been considered a delicacy in Māoridom. We look forward to our ongoing partnership. With all Māori as our shareholders, we always aim to provide greater value over and above the obvious financial return.

“Creating that shared sense of social and cultural unity – or kotahitanga – is a partnership-led activity involving committed effort from a great bunch of people who want to make a difference,” says Steve. “We also brought one of the Kai Ika filleters inhouse for three weeks for training, to help with the filleting staff who will be stationed at The Kai Ika fish filleting trailer at Westhaven Marina ongoing, to clean and fillet recreational fishers’ catch for a small donation." ○


Getting down and dirty

with the Kawau River clean up


nce filled with life, waterways in and around the area of what is now known as Palmerston North sustained thousands of Rangitāne o Manawatū hapū members for more than five centuries. Famous for its tuna (eels), iwi members would travel from coastal Manawatū and Wairarapa just to fish in the productive streams and swamps of the Palmerston North rohe. However, 1986 marked the beginning of a century of dramatic change in drainage patterns and destruction of wildlife around Palmerston North. Some of these actions forming part of the grievances addressed in the Rangitāne o Manawatū Claims Settlement Act 2016. With historic grievances now settled, iwi are seeking to support the community to recover the mauri (ecosystem health) affected in these waterways, with plastic pollution being one of the most significant barriers to recovery. Palmy’s Plastic Pollution Challenge was set up in 2019 to understand the scale of plastic pollution going into the Manawatū River via our urban streams, and to then use this knowledge to improve the health of our local waterways. Recently, a team of 18 Moana New Zealand Palmerston North staff got stuck in and collected more than 166kg of rubbish. That weight doesn’t include the wheelbarrow, two road cones, picture frame, bricks, lumps of concrete and other assorted things which were too big or awkwardly shaped to be weighed. Feedback from staff on the ground was, while the work was physically challenging and quite dirty, it had also been eye opening. They hope that new conversations, ideas, behaviours, and strategies for improving the situation in our streams, rivers and oceans will continue to emerge from this work.

'He waka eke noa - We are all in this together' event was part of Palmy’s Plastic Pollution Challenge’s 2020-21 ‘Arohatia Te Kawau’ event programme. ○




te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021

Deepwater Pātaka: Providing kaimoana for when we can't fish


n 17 April 2020, while the country was in level 4 lockdown, kaumatua, and Ātiawa ki Whakarongotai Holdings Ltd Chair, Bill Carter, authorised the distribution of the remaining 196.5kgs of kaimoana from the Deepwater Pātaka in Nelson to support the iwi response to the COVID-19 crisis. Prior to COVID-19, the pātaka system was a way to utilise commercial vessels for customary catch, transferring this to a large food store or freezer to hold the kaimoana in order to provide for hui, tangi, and other customary purposes when requested by the iwi. When the country went into lockdown and people were confined to their homes, the pātaka quickly became an important resource for iwi and hāpu collectives around the motu, as they mobilised to support whānau in their communities. It was an unprecedented situation with some of the strictest regulations we're likely to see in our lifetime and yet, it's almost as if pātaka moana were designed for this unusual environment. That's not a coincidence either. In some areas, pātaka were originally established in response to tightened fishing regulations. In Fisheries Management Area 8 (FMA8 – between Mokau River and Te Tau Ihu), the set net bans as part of the Hector’s and Māui Threat Management Plan restricted inshore fishing, affecting the way customary fishers would make their catch. The FMA8 committee, made up of representatives from the area, responded by looking to commercial partners who could make this customary catch on behalf of iwi.

"To me, the Deepwater Pātaka is about restating our customary right in the deep sea," says Bill Carter who was part of the FMA8 committee that established the Deepwater Pātaka.


The COVID crisis essentially had the same impact; no fishing allowed. Only this time it was nationwide. All around the country we saw iwi partner with seafood companies to supply kaimoana to whānau in need; and because commercial food providers were classed as an essential service, the pātaka system was also able to operate. The Deepwater Pātaka is a relatively new pātaka, with its first authorisations granted in 2019. It's based in Nelson and utilises Sealord; "a company that we (Māori) half own", as Bill says, to catch the customary allowance. In April 2020, it was decided to distribute the kaimoana from the Deepwater Pātaka. "The pātaka was shared equally between the North and South, a collective in Nelson, and Ati Awa in the Hutt Valley. These iwi had set up operations in delivering kai to whānau," says Bill. "I'm very pleased that we were able to play a positive part in the iwi response to the pandemic."

The logistics of distributing kaimoana during lockdown Toa Pomare (Chair of Raukawa ki te Tonga’s Asset Holding Company) was involved in facilitating the distribution of kaimoana to Te Ati Awa. He spent lockdown coordinating kaimoana from Moana New Zealand, Sealord, Port Nicholson Fisheries, and the Deepwater Pātaka to support marae in the rohe who were supplying food parcels to whānau in need. "It was quite a logistics exercise, even in level 3. We did [the distribution] by way of three marae, and they organised their own distribution and their teams achieved that. All I had to do was to get it to them," says Toa.

Over the course of the lockdown, Waiwhetu, Tātau-te-po, and Pipitea marae distributed 600 food parcels to whānau. These included kaimoana, prepared meals from Moana New Zealand, and grocery vouchers. "The teams [at the marae] were working under level 3 restrictions with masks, gloves," says Toa. Te Ati Awa made several distributions, and after the first they were able to quickly identify where the real need was. The five cases of kingfish and snapper from the Deepwater Pātaka went into the marae pātaka. "We put that into the marae's pātaka so that it's there when they need it, they can use it for tangi and that sort of thing, so that they've got something there," says Toa.

Interest in pātaka around the motu "The lockdown really highlighted the benefits of a pātaka system" says Te Ohu Kaimoana policy analyst, Te Aomihia Walker. Since lockdown has ended, iwi in different rohe moana around the motu have expressed interested in setting up a pātaka.

Bill Carter, Chair of Te Ati Awa ki Whakaronogotai Holdings Ltd

"The idea has been there for a while, but lockdown emphasised that the concept of a pātaka can be really beneficial in times when we can't go fishing." Te Aomihia has been working with Ngāti Porou Seafoods to introduce Ngā hapū o Ngāti Porou to the concept of a pātaka, encouraging the hapū committees to think about pātaka in customary fishing plans. The pātaka system must meet the customary fishing regulations of the rohe moana and have agreement from iwi and hapū. "This is just one example of the conversations that are happening around the motu. I know Iwi Collective Partnership is working with iwi in the Bay of Plenty, and there have been expressions of interest from iwi in Te Tau Ihu and Wharekauri too.

"Part of our presentations to hapū is that this doesn't replace traditional customary fishing methods, it's complementary, says Te Aomihia. "In the old days, people would take several days off to go fishing to supply the tangi, but people just don't have the time anymore," says Bill. Whether it's a change in people’s lifestyles, weather, or emergency situations like COVID-19, pātaka moana provide another means, a resilience to ensure access to kaimoana in times of need. ○


te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021


Tō Pātai


What are 28N rights and why do they matter?


he dilemma of 28N rights is a hangover from the introduction of the Quota Management System. They have cost iwi approximately $14 million over the last 30 years. It's an issue of contention for Te Ohu Kaimoana, who are working with Fisheries New Zealand on a solution that protects the value of the Māori Fisheries Settlement. Policy analyst, Tamar Wells, explains the origin of 28N rights how they impact fisheries at present and outlines a solution.


TAC vs. TACC TAC is the total allowable catch without having long term impacts. It’s determined from a stock assessment and includes allowances for customary and recreational catch. TACC is the commercial portion of the total catch.

When the Quota Management System (QMS) was first introduced in 1986, quota was measured in tonnes not shares. Participants in each fishery were allocated quota from catch histories based on their actual catch. The fisheries were then managed through buying and selling tonnage across industry parties and Government. If science suggested that more tonnage could be sustainably caught in the coming year, the Government would sell additional tonnage and gain the revenue from that sale. However, if a reduction in catch was required to achieve a sustainable fishery, the Government was then required to purchase tonnage from the quota owners so that it would not be caught. At this time, a number of fisheries needed to be reduced so that their stocks could recover (because the QMS was about improving New Zealand's sustainable fisheries management). As such, the amount of quota allocated to participants based on catch histories now exceeded what was deemed to be the sustainable limit for the fishery at the time. In response to this, the Government offered participants in the industry two options: 1.

Industry could sell (some of) the quota back to the Government through


a tendered ‘buy back’ scheme where quota owners nominated the price for an amount and Government accepted those starting from the lowest price. 2. Some of the quota from each owner at that time was ‘put in the fridge’ until the fish stock had recovered sufficiently to allow additional tonnage to be made available through an increase in the TACC. This was known as 28N rights (it's section 28N of the Fisheries Act 1983). Affected participants who chose this option also had the first right to receive a proportion of the additional tonnage equal to what they had ‘put in the fridge’ when it became available again. But by 1989, the Government was faced with what would have been huge liabilities to buy quota from industry parties for a number of fish stocks whose Total Allowable Commercial Catch (TACC) required a reduction. As a result, the Government and industry agreed to amend the legislation and change quota from tonnes to proportional shares. The introduction of proportional quota shares created better incentives for each commercial participant to promote long-term sustainability.

A contradiction in the Act The 1989 interim Māori Fisheries Settlement provided iwi 10% of quota shares for each QMS fish stock. Following the signing of the Fisheries Deed of Settlement this was increased to 20% of the shares of any new stock introduced into the QMS. However, in changing the QMS to a proportional shares system, the Government also changed the way 28N rights were delivered to rights holders. The new legislation required that whenever there is an increase to the TACC for a fishery that has 28N rights, that TACC increase is applied first to 28N rights holders until all 28N rights are satisfied - essentially transferring shares from other quota owners (both normal quota and settlement quota) to 28N rights holders. This can only occur where the Minister of Fisheries increases the TACC of a fishery. While the legislation provides for this, it also undermines the Māori Fisheries Settlement. There is an overriding obligation to be consistent with the legislation introduced to give effect to the Fisheries Deed of Settlement. Diluting Settlement quota to below the 10% is not only inconsistent with the Settlement, it undermines it. For the 32 fishstock stocks that currently have outstanding 28N rights, any increase in the TACC for these will effectively reduce the proportion of quota shares iwi received through the Fisheries Settlement. To date, iwi quota shares valued at approximately $14 million have been reallocated to 28N rights holders after a TACC increase. The existence of 28N rights creates a dilemma in that it is self-contradictory within the Act. The Act must be consistent with the legislation that gives effect to the Fisheries Settlement but must also provide for the

sustainable utilisation for all interests. Te Ohu Kaimoana supports increasing TACCs to enable utilisation benefits derived from sustainably managed fisheries. However, this cannot be delivered in a way that reduces the proportional holdings of iwi. In 2019, the Minister moved to increase the TACC for SKI7; a stock with 28N rights associated with it. In order to prevent the loss of iwi quota shares, Te Ohu Kaimoana took legal action and made an injunction on this decision. We are currently working on a proposal with the holders of those rights to resolve the issue in a way that does not undermine the Fisheries Settlement. If a TACC is decreased then it is more likely that it will be increased in the future. All quota owners face a reduction in ACE (annual catch entitlement) when a TACC is reduced. But when the fishery recovers, the legislation provides that 28N rights holders gain the first right to the increase. So, in a fishery that has 28N rights, all quota owners share the pain, but 28N rights holders enjoy the gain until their claims to the TACC are met.

Shelving - an alternative solution One way of avoiding this impact is for existing quota owners to shelve an agreed quantity of their Annual Catch Entitlement (ACE). Each fishery has 100 million quota shares associated with it and are applied to the TACC to generate ACE (ACE reflects the tonnage derived from quota shares that can be caught in a fishing year). ‘Shelving’ refers to industry choosing to set aside a portion of the available ACE from the TACC that will not be used to balance against catch in that year. This avoids the need to reduce the TAC/TACC and it is something that quota owners can do pro-actively (as they did for example in the hoki fishery for the 2018/19 fishing year). The Minister can take this sort of action into account when the TAC/TACC settings are formally reviewed but he can still choose to reduce the TAC/TACC (which is what he did for hoki for the 2019/20 fishing year). The advantage is that the catch is reduced, but the TACC is not changed - this preserves the proportion each quota owner has in the fishery and doesn’t alter the quota shares they hold. As such, it avoids the potential risks arising from the TACC being altered through reallocation to the recreational sector or triggering 28N rights (because when the fishery recovers, a strict interpretation of the legislation requires the increase to go to 28N rights holders first). Shelving also enables industry to take action and reduce catch in a timely manner. Each year industry can decide, based on their collective assessment of the state of the fishery, what level of catch can sustainably be caught while monitoring the recovery of the fishery. Shelving is a responsive and agile tool that can be fine tuned any time during the fishing year. It could also be the solution to the dilemma that is 28N rights. ○



te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021

Sealord Group

Taking a tour of Sealord flagship vessel, Tokatu, are visitors from Tūwharetoa Rangatahi as they find out about career options at Sealord. Front left: Sealord’s GM Human Resources Dawn Cooper and front right Skipper Stephan Fridell.

Sealord's recruitment drive in full swing


ealord’s recruitment efforts are in over-drive as hoki season ramps up. Due to a reduced number of overseas travellers in the country on working holidays visas as a result of COVID-19, a number of initiatives are underway targeting New Zealanders to take up around 400 roles at Sealord.

“The seafood sector is a critical economic driver for our region. With our borders remaining closed, there’s a shortage of workers for both seasonal and permanent work ... it was a natural extension to partner with the seafood sector to support their recruitment drive on behalf of the region.”

Half-owned by Māori and with Māori making up a third of its vessel crew, Sealord has been working with various iwi groups to help encourage young Māori to consider a career at sea through their networks.

GM Human Resources, Dawn Cooper, says the challenge will be in the coming weeks, in recruiting enough people to fill all the hoki season roles and beyond.

Meanwhile, Sealord has added a new ‘school hours’ shift to help more parents take up a hoki season job in its Nelson factory. The season typically runs from May until September. The human resources team at Sealord has also been working closely with Sanford and Talley’s, supported by the Nelson Regional Development Agency (NRDA), on a new 'Catch a Job' digital campaign to help fill hundreds of seafood jobs in the top of the south. “We have the largest fishing port in Australasia, and over 70 per cent of New Zealand’s aquaculture is located here in Te Tauihu,” says NRDA Regional Development and Attraction Manager, Hannah Norton.

Efforts to date have been mixed with approximately 100 workers joining Sealord in recent weeks to work in both the land-based processing facilities and deep-sea fishing vessels.

“Ongoing, we are working hard to get more people into the fishing industry generally, including new recruits and apprentices to join our vessels. “We’re really keen to get the message out that a career in the seafood industry at Sealord is a fantastic opportunity. There are numerous benefits, the chance to progress your career in whatever area suits you most, and the opportunity to work with a really great bunch of people,” she says. For more information, visit the careers section of Sealord’s new website at: www.sealord.com/working-atsealord. ○



Find your next career at Sealord


ealord is always looking for people to join their crews on fishing vessels. Find out more about the benefits of working for Sealord from their former fishing trawler Factory Manager, Tasha Burton.

- they feel more appreciated. Also when you’re more hands-on you tend to notice when something’s not quite right.

I started in fishing as a cadet from the Westport Deep Sea Fishing School in 2001. I had a number of family members, mainly cousins, already fishing, some of them with Sealord. As a teenager I saw them travelling, buying things, and always having money; so I was curious to see what it was all about.

The atmosphere and culture on our vessel is great and our skipper Jesse Crasborne is awesome. There are ten of us females in the factory processing, as well as the galley assistant Renee Tasker. Some of them have children and it’s incredible how they balance family life. Actually, as a crew we spend so much time together it feels like a second family at sea.

I was told if I could handle being on a smaller vessel in choppy conditions in the Cook Strait, that a 6-week deep sea vessel would be easy. I tested that when I went out on the Rehua as a cadet, before becoming contracted to Sealord in January 2002. What I love most about fishing is the lifestyle, getting paid on my trips off, and meeting and working with lots of people. By 2006, I’d taken on the roles of Quality Control and Health and Safety, and in 2008 become Supervisor, and two years ago I became Factory Manager. When on the vessel, I’m scheduled to work 12 hours on, 12 off, starting at 6:30am, although I often work longer. A typical morning starts with me doing my reports early and, although I’m not expected to be in the factory all the time, I prefer to be hands-on. Over the course of a week I work my way around the factory helping at the different stations. Crew appreciate having me ask if everything is okay in their work or in general

We have to make sure the volume of fish we land is to the correct specification - it’s all a challenge, but I love it and it keeps things interesting for sure. I also love helping people out in other departments.

If someone asked me how life at sea works out with relationships back home I’d say I get to spend more quality time with family and friends there because it’s not just restricted to weekends and holidays. I also have quality time to do the things I love in life, for instance I bought a dirt bike so I am trying to upskill on that. I enjoy most outdoor activities. In winter it’s snowboarding - time is no factor on a trip off. And of course, I love to travel. Having six weeks off between trips gives lots of scope for that. I’ve been to Asia, Europe three times, the UK three times, the USA, South America, Canada, Fiji, Australia, and to Rarotonga. When I’m off duty on the vessel I like planning my trips, reading and watching movies. I’ve also built a house in Kaiteriteri so I liaised with planners and builders in my spare time. It’s one of my biggest achievements. I’ve owned three houses and currently have a rental property that pays for itself – my fishing career has provided me with an amazing lifestyle and the ability to get some assets to set me up financially. ○

Tasha Burton (above and left), former fishing trawler Factory Manager for Sealord. Since the time of writing, Tasha has left Sealord to have her first baby.

te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021



Bait a hook using worms

The key to getting a bite on the line often comes down to what bait you use, and nothing beats the classic earthworm. But how do we get this wriggly live bait to work effectively? The best kind of worms to use as bait are nightcrawler worms, or the native octochaetus multiporus. These are typically large earthworms and are either reddish-brown or pale pink with a purple streak. Octochaetus multiporus were traditionally used by Māori as bait and lures for catching tuna (eels) due to the bioluminescent fluid light they emit when pierced. You can find bait worms in and around fallen leaves or under rocks in damp environments after rainfall. Once you have collected enough to use as bait, keep them in a sealed container with some damp soil and organic food waste. But make sure you handle them as little as possible or wear gloves, as the amino acid on our skin is an aversion scent for fish!

Add a little extra... Injectables Channel your inner Dracula and access some blood from your local butcher for the ultimate attractant! Once you have the blood, you can then inject this into the worm with a syringe. Just dipping your bait in blood can also help, but this generally washes off right after it enters the water. If you inject the blood instead, this then stays with the bait and you are almost guaranteed a bite. This blood injecting method can also be used with dead-bait fishing

Air 'em up Another way to make a worm more visible and enticing to fish is to inject small amounts of air, this allows the bait to float off the bottom when using bottom rig. Bait shops sell worm air injectors, which consist of a small bottle with a needle attached to inflate.

How to hook the worm... When it comes to using worms as bait, the relationship between bait and hook comes down to your targeted species.

The cross-thread

The one hook

The whole hog

For small fish, thread the worm (or portions of) along the shank of the hook around two or three times. Leave the ends dangling slightly for added action. Since these fish have small mouths, a segment between one and two inches works best.

For bigger fish, such as snapper, hook the worm once through the collar or directly through the middle. These larger fish will suction up a whole nightcrawler effortlessly. Don't be afraid of the excess worm that is away from the hook, as this adds to a realistic presentation.

If you have a steady hand, try the whole hog. This is where the worm is threaded through the shank of the hook and the then exits at the collar. This technique is best used with a baiting needle or 'worm threader' which makes the process of threading very easy.



te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021



Classic Pāua Fritters INGREDIENTS

🐟 200g pack of Chatham Island Food Co Premium







Pāua (Abalone) Mince

🐟 1/4 cup of flour 🐟 1 egg 🐟 1 bunch of mint 🐟 1 bunch of coriander 🐟 Zest of one lemon 🐟 1 large spring onion 🐟 ½ a large onion 🐟 3 garlic cloves Lime Mayo

🐟 2-3 heaped tbsp. of mayo 🐟 Juice of 2 limes 🐟 ½ a fresh chilli 🐟 1 bunch of coriander 🐟 Salt & pepper To Serve

🐟 Coriander 🐟 Fresh lemon wedges


Defrost your Pāua Mince in the fridge overnight. — Chop up all ingredients for the fritters and mix up thoroughly in a bowl. — Mix up all your ingredients for your lime mayo and set aside in the fridge. — Put a tablespoon of butter and a big dash of olive oil into a fry pan. Spoon 1 heaped tablespoon of fritter mixture into the fry pan. Make sure to not over crowd the pan. — Cook for roughly 4 minutes per side (depending how thick you have made your fritters). Repeat the process until you have finished all the mixture. Get them nice and golden/crispy! — Serve the fritters on your choice of greens and a big dollop of the lime mayo.


Salt and Pepper Sliced Pāua SERVES: 4







🐟 Pāua, whole In shell 1kg 🐟 2 teaspoons of olive oil 🐟 1 cup flour 🐟 1 x teaspoon salt 🐟 1 x teaspoon pepper 🐟 50 grams butter 🐟 1 lemon METHOD

Thinly slice pāua across the width of the pāua, slices should be about 2-3mm thick. — Mix flour, pepper and salt in a bag, add salt and pepper and chilli if wanting a little heat. Place sliced pāua in the bowl and coat. — Put olive oil on the pan and get it really hot. — Place butter into the pan with the olive oil. — Wait until butter is frothing but not burning and then place the thin slices of pāua in the pan. — Cook for around 1 minute. — Take out and squeeze half a lemon over the pāua and serve.

About Chatham Island Food Co. This issue's recipes were contributed by Chatham Island Food Co. To see more delicious kaimoana recipes or to order fresh kai delivered to your doorstep check out their website at chathamislandfood.com.


te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021


5 Te Aomihia Walker MINUTES WITH…



Te Aomihia Walker

Tēnei au e tū ki runga i te toka ahuru, te toka whakairo o Hikurangi maunga. Mōtoi ana ōku kamo mai Pōhautea ki te Ahikouka, ka whakawhiti i te awa o Waiapū, mai i Paoaruku ki te huka o te tai ki Kōpuakanae, ko ia nei a Ngāti Porou Tūturu. Tīhei mauriora!


Tai Pari/ Policy Analyst

My favourite kaimoana… Pāua me te tio (blackfoot abalone and oysters).

My first memory of fishing… Picking kanohi pūpū’s off the rocks, in Reporua on the East Coast, with my cousins while the kaumatua and pākeke have wānanga at the marae.

When I was little I wanted to be a...

specialising in fisheries policy and management - as not only the first Māori fellow, but first Aotearoa fellow. The core activity of the programme is an annual six-month training programme in Iceland which aims to strengthen the professional capacity of GRÓ-FTP Fellows to actively contribute to work done in their organisations and to recognise development potential in their home countries.

One thing I would like to learn or improve on is...

Marine Biologist – little did I know I was going to do that and more!

Better communicating or translating technical fisheries matters to our iwi, hapū, and whānau in a way that they can absorb and understand.

A typical day for me looks like...

My happy place is…

Hui with colleagues,government, industry, iwi, or kaitiaki representatives to discuss and take action on kaupapa that protect and enhance Māori customary fishing rights, as well as keeping abreast of the state of play in New Zealand’s natural resource management sector. I also analyse proposed plans, strategies, policies, and legislation that could potentially impact on Māori customary fishing rights.

The coolest thing I am working on right now is... Research and analysis on the current customary (non-commercial) fisheries framework as I am able to connect and kōrero with kaitiaki on the ground, who are helping to sustain the functions of our marae.

Something I'm really proud of is... I am currently preparing to attend this year’s intake of UNESCO GRÓ-FTP - Fisheries Training Programme,

Either by, in or on the moana as it connects me back home to all my marae on the east coast of Te Ika a Māui as well as our tuakana in the Pacific.

Who I look up to… I admire several individuals who have attributes that I try to emulate personally and professionally. Common themes amongst them all is that they work hard to whakamana the rights of their people, keep their cultures alive and positively change lives for both individuals and collectives. I admire individuals who are inclusive, kind, humble, compassionate, considerate, dedicated, honest, genuine, reliable, selfless, cunning, optimistic and diligent.

My favourite thing about my job is… Getting the opportunity to meet ā-kanohi and work with individuals and collectives to protect, maintain and enhance Māori identity and hononga to Tangaroa for now and future generations. ○



te korowai o tangaroa | hōtoke 2021


Ngā taonga o Tangaroa

Matt Pilkington of Shannon (Ngāti Raukawa ki te Tonga, Ngāti Tūwharetoa, Rangitāne) showing us some massive Tāmure caught off the coast of Kāpiti

Te Ohu Kaimoana Kūrae Moana, Kim Drummond snapped up some big ika in Whakatū recently.

Richard Kererū of Heretaunga (Rongomaiwahine) getting up close and personal with wild tuna at lake Rotoiti - kia tūpato e hoa!

Send us your catch! Caught a massive marlin, or collected your best catch of tuatua? Take a snap and send it through to us be featured in the next issue of Te Korowai o Tangaroa. Email your image along with your details, and where it was caught to ika@teohu.maori.nz

Te Ohu Kaimoana Tai Moana, Te Taiawatea Moko-Mead (Ngāti Awa, Ngāti Porou, Waikato, Tūhourangi), catching blue cod on the coast of the Chatham Islands with the traditional handline method. Tau kē e hoa!


Whaia te tika kawea te takoha Ma te mahi tahi Ma te mahi auaha Hei ora tonu ai Te anikiwa o Tangaroa Sealord is half owned by Maori, and Maori make up a third of our vessel crew. We provide apprenticeships, training support and career progression in a safe and innovative work environment. We also offer competitive salary packages, a variety of working options and great staff benefits.

Email: careers@sealord.co.nz | www.sealord.com

mo ngā uri whakatipu true for generations We have a deep sense of responsibility and respect for our kaimoana, honouring the taonga we have been entrusted with. Taking a long term view in everything we do, we work in harmony with nature to ensure the sustainability of our fisheries for future generations.



S I G N U P T O D AY IkaNet is an online platform that supports kaitiaki, hapū and iwi to manage customary fishing in their rohe. Authorised kaitiaki and tiaki can sign up at:






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