A cluster analysis of the Research at the Faculty od Science and Technology 2009-2016

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A CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF

The Research at the Faculty of Science and Technology 2009-2016


Initiativ och sammanställning: Forskningskommittén vid Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå universitet: Ove Axner, Britt Andersson, Agneta Andersson, Mats G Larsson och Mats Tysklind, samt Ulf Sandqvist. Bibliometrisk analys och kartor: Christian Colliander Redaktör och layout: Anna-Lena Lindskog Dnr: FS 1.6.2-2099-18 ©Kansliet för teknik och naturvetenskap, Umeå universitet 2018


A CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF

The Research at the Faculty of Science and Technology 2009-2016


Research in science The Faculty of Science and Technology at Umeå University provides education and performs research in a number of fields, including mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, computer science, engineering, didactics, industrial design, and architecture.

A description of the Faculty – the classical picture A faculty is a complex entity. It is therefore not trivial to obtain a full and comprehensible description of such an entity. The Faculty of Science and Technology at Umeå University has over nine hundred employees, mainly distributed over researchers, teachers, PhD students, and technical and administrative personal (see ”The Faculty in numbers”). We are active at eleven departments (see “The organization of the Faculty”), provide education at a number of programs, and have a plentitude of research directions. Although there are several documents (financial and activity reports) that describe the faculty in detail and from different perspectives that are updated yearly, they only provide a formal description of the organization of the faculty, its conditions for education and research, and highlight notable events (awards, nominations, etc.); there is no general description of what kind of research that is being pursued at the faculty. Although one can get some insight of this from the activity reports of the various departments, these reports are however often written from the departments’ own perspective; they do therefore not provide a coherent description of the research pursued at the faculty. In fact, such a description cannot be found anywhere.

THE FACULTY IN NUMBERS 2017: • Employees: 906 • Booked revenues for direct government research funding: 361 MSEK • Externally funded research: 299 MSEK • Research assignments: 33 MSEK • Booked revenues for undergraduate education 311 MSEK • Full-year undergraduate or graduate students: 3 190 and PhD students: 239. Largest external public research financers 20122017: • The Swedish research council (Vetenskapsrådet, VR): 60–70 MSEK/year • FORMAS with approximately 25–30 MSEK per year • EU contributions have varied between 15 and 30 MEK/year. According to DiVA, the researchers of the Faculty produce (as principal authors or co-author) more than 650 publications per year.

What research is pursued at the Faculty? A description seen from a research field perspective To acquire an adequate description of the Faculty from a research perspective, so as to get to know ourselves better and be able to answer questions like “What research do we really pursue at our Faculty?”, the Research Committee of the Faculty (swe. forskningskommittén) was of the opinion that it would be beneficial if its research could be presented in a coherent and consistent way. However, it was considered that such a description should not be based on the activities of the various departments, as this would not provide a sufficiently coherent description. Therefore, an activity aimed at obtaining a congruent description of the research conducted at the Faculty with respect to its various research fields was initiated. By utilizing a clustering method based on bibliome-

tric data conducted by one of the bibliometrics of the university, the publications published by the Faculty researchers over a period of 8 years (2009–2016) were grouped into research clusters (see “How the clustering was made”). To be included in the analysis, each publication had to meet a number of basic requirements (as described in “The conditions for a publication to be included in the clustering”). It was found that there were a total of 5 785 publications that met the requirements. These were therefore chosen as the basis for the analysis. The clustering was then based on the number of unique terms in the material according to the information given in the Appendix and resulted in the publications


and technology

THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FACULTY The Faculty is organized in the following departments: •D epartment of Computing Science (Institutionen för datavetenskap, Datavet) • Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences (Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap, EMG) • Department of Plant Physiology (Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik, Fysbot) • Department of Physics (Institutionen för fysik, Fysik) • Department of Chemistry (Kemiska institutionen) • Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics ( Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik, MaMS) • Department of Molecular Biology (Institutionen för molekylärbiologi, Molbiol) • Department of Science and Mathematics Education (Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik, NMD) • Department of Applied Physics and Electronics (Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, TFE) • Umeå Institute of Design (Designhögskolan, Design) • Umeå School of Architecture (Arkitekthögskolan, Arkitekt)


gathering in 42 so called ”clusters”. By this, the clustering could be made independent of the departmental origin of the individual works. The clusters encompass between a few hundred to a few tens of publications. A rough analysis of the size distribution of the various clusters is given in the information box “The size distribution of the various clusters”. Since 100 publications roughly correspond to one per month over the specified time, the information given in the information box reveals that 23 clusters have a scientific output that exceeds one publication per month and that a clear majority (35) produce at least one publication every second month. The result of the clustering of the Faculty’s research is first presented in the form of a cluster map where all 5 785 publications are presented (each with a point). Each cluster is identified with a unique color. This shows how different clusters are related to each other. Thereafter, the 42 clusters are presented one by one, in size order. Each cluster has been given a title that provides a general description of the research performed within the cluster. Its scientific orientation is then summarized in a short description. For each cluster a pie chart is included that shows which departments contribute to the cluster. The distribution of cluster on the various departments is shortly illustrated in a separate section (Departmental profiles) The researchers that have contributed significantly to the research field of each cluster have been identified

HOW THE CLUSTERING WAS MADE A couple of attempts were made to group the publications published by the Faculty into so called clusters. A first grouping was made on the basis of the publications found in the (Clarivate Analytics) Web of Science. However, it was found that certain research fields are not sufficiently well represented in this database. Such a clustering would therefore not have given a true and fair view of all the research at the Faculty. Therefore, the choice was made to instead cluster the Faculty’s research based on the scientific publications found in DiVA. (referred to as ”Principal Investigators”, see next page). They have, for simplicity, been grouped as follows: • those that are currently active at the Faculty; • those that currently are employed at other faculties at Umeå University; and • those that are no longer active at Umeå University. To make the description manageable, no reference to any scientific work has been given. Finally, the Appendix provides a description of how the clustering technically was made. The Research Committee of the Faculty of Science and Technology, October 2018


THE CONDITIONS FOR A PUBLICATION TO BE INCLUDED IN THE ANALYSIS

INFORMATION ABOUT WHICH PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS THAT HAVE BEEN INCLUDED

To be included in the clustering analysis, it was decided that each publication must meet the following requirements:

Principal Investigators are here defined as persons who have or have previously been employed on a “läraranställning”, including Professors, Associate Professors (Lektor), Assistant Professors (Biträdande lektor eller Forskarassistent ),” adjunct” (adjunkt) and Researcher (Forskare) with permanent employment at the faculty. In some cases, when a 1st research engineer is so strongly linked to a given cluster that they actively pursue research in the field, they have been considered an active PI and thereby included. In addition, since there may be a large number of PIs that have contributed to a particular cluster (and although other people may have contributed significantly to the field, such as undergraduate, graduate, and PhD students, postdocs, research assistants, research engineers, or other 1st research engineers), it was found impossible to list all, because the lists of authors for some clusters would be extensive. Therefore, it was decided to list only those that have contributed to the research in the cluster with, on the average, at least 1 publication per year over the time considered (i.e. at least 8 publications). Note that this means that a particular researcher can be mentioned in connection with one cluster, in more than one cluster, or not in any.

• i t should have at least one author attached to our faculty; • it should be classified as a peer reviewed paper or as an ”other scientific” paper; • It should be the document type article, conference contribution, anthology contribution, book, report or dissertation; • It should be written in English; • It should contain complete bibliographic records.

THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE CLUSTERS The four largest clusters have produced more than 300 publications, another 4 clusters between 200 and 300 papers, 15 clusters have written 100 - 200 publications, 12 between 50 and 100, 5 between 25 and 50, while a couple of clusters are created by 15 or fewer publications.


#17 #13 #26 #22 #33

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#35

Organic Electronics

Molecular Geochemistry

Natural & Artificial Photosynthesis

Thermochemical Energy Conversion

Lignocellulosic Biopolymers

Amyloid Formation

#12

Integrated Structural Biology

#38

Optical Tweezers

#21

Anti-Infective Drug Therapies

#39

Environmental Microbiology

#3

Heterogenous Materials

Plant Cell & Molecular Biology

#20

Genomic Function

#14

Environmental Organic Chemistry

#19

Environmental Chemistry

#7

Environmental Biogeochemistry

#15

Aquatic Ecosystem Science

#5

Plant Ecology

#28

Restoration of Riverine Systems

#1

Evolutionary Biology


#30 Laser Spectroscopy #6

Carbon Nanostructures

#41

Flame Front Dynamics

#2

Theoretical Plasma Physics & Space Plasma Physics

#27

Numerical Methods

#37

Tactile Sensors

#10

Computational & Applied Mathematics

#29

Parallel & Scientific Computing

#32

Discrete Mathematics

#23

Industrial Robotics & Control Systems

#24 Automata, Grammars & Language #16

Distributed Systems

#40 Robotics #4

Mathematics Education

#18 #8

Human-centered computing

#31 #34 #25 #42

Oceanography, Hydrology & Water Rescources

#9

Metabolomics

#36

Chemometrics

Design & Architecture

Energy Efficiency Mathematical Statistics

Network Science


PHOTO: XIAO-RU WANG

Investigating the interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes Evolutionary biology aims to understand the dynamics that regulate the origin, maintenance and distribution of biological diversity in time and space. We utilize ecological and genetic approaches to investigate the mechanisms and processes of speciation and environmental adaptation. EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY The research of this cluster strives to understand the diversity of life from an ecological genetics perspective. Both empirical and theoretical approaches are developed to characterize and quantify the interplay between ecological and genetic forces that generate diversity at genome, population and community levels. We study the processes and mechanisms that initiate a speciation process. Of particular interest are the role of non-genetic mechanisms, such as plastic responses to divergent selection and alternative inheritance mechanisms, such as parental effects, niche construction, and heritable epigenetic modifications. We further investigate the consequences of gene flow

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on population diversity and environmental adaptation, and explore evolutionary trajectories in genomic divergence across stages of diversification and speciation. We develop mathematical and computational methods to explore how phenotypic plasticity and other factors affect the speciation process. We also study conditions that may cause the processes to be reversed, resulting in speciation collapse and the loss of biodiversity. Our research promotes multidisciplinary interactions and sheds lights on complex evolutionary dynamics of speciation, diversification and adaptation to novel habitats.


PHOTO: GÖRAN ENGLUND

Umeå Marine Sciences Centre 0,6 %

Plant Physiology 6,2 %

Physics 0,4 %

ILLUSTRATION: ÅKE BRÄNNSTRÖM

Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 9,6%

Molecular Biology 1,6 % Chemistry 0,5 %

Ecology and Environmental Science 81,1 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • •

Folmer Bokma Åke Brännström Göran Englund Lars Ericson Roland Jansson Xavier Thibert-Plante Xiao-Ru Wang

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Pär Ingvarsson • Frank Johansson • Lennart Persson

365 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: NASA

Theoretical and observational studies of laboratory and space plasmas Thanks to e.g. fast computers, new numerical techniques and advanced space missions, the understanding of plasmas has increased considerably. As a result new applications concerning e.g. particle acceleration and breakthroughs in magnetospheric physics are possible. THEORETICAL & SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS During the last decade there has been an increased interest in dense plasmas, where the most used (classical) plasma models are lacking in precision. Thus there has been a need for improving well-established and much used models to also cover the regime of high plasma densities, by accounting for various quantum mechanical effects. Many of the interesting applications concerns interactions with powerful lasers, where the non-relativistic applications breaks down. As a consequence a considerable effort has been made in Umeå to cover also the relativistic regime. Moreover, much of the work in Umeå has been directed

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towards the study of plasmas in space. A specific focus has been towards the analysis of plasma processes in the Earth’s magnetosphere and the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Magnetospheric regions high above the surface of the Earth are directly connected (through the magnetic fields) to the auroral ionosphere, and we investigate for example how energy transfer processes in the magnetosphere affect the auroral ionosphere, for example by causing auroral emissions (northern lights). In our work we use data from both spacecraft and ground-based observatories as well as from computer simulations.


Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 0,3 % Plant Physiology 0,3 % Chemistry 1,5 %

Computing Science 0,2 % Ecology and Environmental Science 0,3 % Applied Physics and Electronics 0,8 %

Physics 96,6 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • •

Gert Brodin Maria Hamrin Jens Zamanian Herbert Gunnel Asta Pellinen-Wannberg

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: • Timo Pitkänen No longer active at Umeå University: • Mattias Marklund • Lennart Stenflo

324 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MIKAEL LUNDGREN

Photosynthesis, metabolism and other aspects of plant cell and molecular biology Our goal is to better understand plant responses to a changing environment, with focus on light effects on plant metabolism and development. All major organs/developmental stages are studied, using a range of techniques: from biochemistry, through cell biology, to genetics. PLANT CELL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY We study various aspects of plant cell and molecu­ lar biology, including photosynt­ hesis and metabolism, develop­ mental biology, acclimation and adaptation to the changing environment, with the major goal to understand the mechanisms of plant responses in relation to the environment they live in. All major organs and stages of plant development are considered, including leaves, roots and flowers. Examples of current work include light-dependent processes (photosynthetic electron transport and carbon metabolism, circadian clock, chloroplast biogenesis), development of flowering and vascular tissues, genetically controlled natural variation, hormone and metabolite

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signaling, regulation of primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism, plant pathogen resistance. Aspects of both abiotic and biotic stresses are investigated, with focus on plant stress responses and reprogramming of metabolism. The orga­nisms studied span from unicel­lular algae/cyanobacteria to trees (aspen and conifers), but Arabidopsis thaliana is the main model system. The methods used are inter-disciplinary: from biochemistry, through biophysics, whole plant physiology, molecular biology, and cell biology, using transgenic plants and mutants, with the help of forward and reverse genetics and other related techniques.


PHOTO: ELIN BERGE

Applied Physics and Electronics 0,2 % Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 0,3 %

Physics 0,2 % Molecular Biology 0,8 %

PHOTO: MIKAEL LUNDGREN

Chemistry 28,5 %

Plant Physiology 69,8 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • • • •

Laszlo Bako Catherine Bellini Maria Eriksson Christiane Funk Leszek Klecskowski Olivier Keech Wolfgang Schröder Markus Schmid Åsa Strand

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Per Gardeström • Göran Samuelsson • Johannes Messinger

315 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

• Markus Grebe • Edoard Pesquet


PHOTO: MATTIAS PETTERSSON

How teaching design can support student learning in mathematics Mathematics education is a scientific field that tries to identify, characterize and understand the phenomena and processes involved in actual and potential teaching and learning of mathematics. The general purpose is to support the development of effective teaching, textbooks, tests and other aspects. MATHEMATICS EDUCATION One major area of research in mathematics education concerns students’ development of content knowledge in terms of number sense, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, probability etc. Another area is student’s development of mathematical competencies such as problem solving, reasoning and communication abilities. It is well known that students often have difficulties in developing both the content knowledge and these competencies, and also that the development these two aspects needs to be interconnected. Still, mathematics students are often not provided with suitable learning opportunities connecting content and competencies. One of the reasons is that too little is known about the

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specific relations between teaching designs and learning outcomes, and a large part of the research is therefore devoted to studies of how various teaching approaches can support student learning, including teaching and textbook designs and formative assessment. Another central area concerns students with special needs, in particular students in severe learning difficulties.


PHOTO: MARKUS SPISKE PHOTO: MALIN GRÖNBORG

Computing Science 4 % Plant Physiology 0,3 % Applied Physics and Mathematics and Electronics 7,5 % Mathematical Statistics 6,4 % Chemistry 2,7 % Ecology and Environmental Science 0,8 % Umeå Institute of Design 0,5 % Umeå School of Architecture 0,6 % Physics 8,2 %

Science and Mathematics Education 68,4 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Magnus Österholm Johan Lithner Christina Ottander Ewa Bergqvist Oleg Popov Tomas Bergqvist Anette Bagger Björn Palmberg Catarina Andersson Gunnar Sjöberg Manya Sundström Mathias Norqvist Torulf Palm

301 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: • Mikaela Nyroos • Carina Granberg No longer active at Umeå University: • Sharada Gade


PHOTO: JOHAN OLOFSSON

How plants and plant communities respond to environmental changes The research in Plant Ecology is linked to how climate change as well as other environmental and land use changes, influence the structure and function of ecosystems, as well as the services these ecosystems provide to society.

PLANT ECOLOGY The research of this cluster focuses on processes influencing the function and composition of terrestrial plant communities using both physiological and ecological approaches. Main research questions include how plants and plant communities respond to environmental changes, mechanisms of plant nutrient acquisition, plant-soil feedbacks in northern ecosystems, and importance of plant herbivore interactions on spatial scales from chemical profiling of individual plants to species composition of whole ecosystems and biomes. We approach these questions by field studies, experiments at different spatial scales and analyses of long ecological time series.

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We use a diverse set of species and systems in these studies, but there is a strong focus on boreal and tundra biomes. Picea, Populus and Arabidopsis are important model species in the physiological studies addressing mechanisms regulating plant phenology, nutrient uptake and susceptibility to herbivores and pathogens. In the ecological studies, there has been a strong focus on how plants mediate carbon losses from thawing permafrost mires, how voles and lemmings influence northern plant communities, and how reindeer and climate interactively shape boreal and tundra landscapes.


PHOTO: JOHAN OLOFSSON

Physics 0,9 % Applied Physics and Electronics 0,2 % Plant Physiology 8,9 % Chemistry 1,5 %

PHOTO: TIM HORSTKOTTE

Computing Science 0,4 %

Ecology and Environmental Science 88,1 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • •

Johan Olofsson Jon Moen Benedicte R Albrectsen Kristin Palmqvist Reiner Giesler Ellen Dorrepaal Maja Sundqvist

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Ann Milbau • Vaughan Hurry

275 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: JOHANNES JANSSON

Theoretical and experimental studies of carbon-based nanomaterials Carbon nanostructures is an interdisciplinary field which involves condensed matter physics, nanophysics, and materials science. In the last three decades, the field has been awarded two Noble prize (fullerenes and graphene) due to its massive impact in both fundamental science and technological applications. CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES Carbon nanostructures, such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide represent a fascinating class of nanomaterials with unique properties making them interesting for both fundamental studies as well as for implementation in various applications with relation to energy, photonics, organic electronics, and mechanical engineering. In this cluster the focus lies in material synthesis of hybrid structures of nanomaterials with physical and chemical methods (thin-film evaporation, high-pressure techniques, wet-chemistry, vapor deposition, crystal growth), characterization and understanding of material properties with experimental techniques such as powder x-ray diffraction, synchrotron x-ray diffraction, x-ray

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photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, electrochemistry, electrical conductivity and charge carrier mobility measurements, and thermal conductivity measurements, as well as theoretical studies by density functional theory techniques (by programs such as SIESTA, Open MX, Quantum Espresso) and Molecular dynamics simulations (using LAMMPS). Hybrid materials are applied for fuel cells, electrolyzers, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, Li-ion batteries, superhard materials, polymer composites, solar cells and transitors.


Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 0,3 % Umeå Marine Sciences Centre 0,3 % Chemistry 10,9 %

Ecology and Environmental Science 2,1 % Applied Physics and Electronics 1,9 %

Physics 84,5 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • •

Thomas Wågberg Alexandr Talyzin Eduardo Gracia-Espin Andrey Shchukarev

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Bertil Sundqvist

259 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MARKUS NORDIN

Understanding environmental change Aquatic and terrestrial environments are undergoing change in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing. Our society is dependent on many important ecosystem functions coming out of these changing environments. Researchers active within this theme aim at providing detailed processes understanding about how climatic drivers, pollutants and human land-use alter states within current ecosystems and predict future states. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOGEOCHEMISTRY Our research is focused on understanding drivers of environmental change in aquatic and terrestrial environments. We work over time-scales ranging from short-term laboratory assays to historical reconstructions capturing long-term (millennia time-scale) changes. Here, analyses of natural environmental archives such as soils, peat bogs, lake sediments are used for historical reconstruction. An important part of our research are experimental where we conduct research ranging from small controlled laboratory assays up to large-scale aquatic ecosystem manipulations (mesocosms to whole lake experiments). Research issues that we work with includes drivers of

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greenhouse gases emissions (carbon dioxide and methane), fate and effects of various contaminants (heavy metals, persistant organic pollutants and pharmaceutical residues)and important cycles of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous etc).


PHOTO: BENT CHRISTENSEN

Computing Science 0,2 % Physics 1 % Applied Physics and Plant Physiology 0,3 % Electronics 3,5 %

PHOTO: MARKUS NORDIN

Chemistry 18,4 % Umeå Marine Sciences Centre 0,7 % Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 1 %

Ecology and Environmental Science 74,9 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • • •

Richard Bindler Jonatan Klaminder Reiner Giesler Johan Rydberg Jan Karlsson Erik Björn Christian Bigler Ingemar Renberg

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: –

256 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: ELIN BERGE

Methods and technologies relating to human interaction with intelligent systems Humans interact to increasing extent with intelligent systems and environments that may enhance cognitive ability and ability to perform work and leisure activities. Research on such systems includes artificial intelligence, human-computer interaction and interaction technologies. HUMAN-CENTERED COMPUTING Human-centered computing includes theories, methods and technologies relating to humans interacting with increasingly intelligent and distributed systems. The research topics include signal processing, sensor networks, computer vision, data analytics, knowledge representation, automated, interactive reasoning and decision making mediated by purposefully designed user interfaces, and interaction design of such systems. Theories and technologies from the domain of artificial intelligence include ontologies, formal argumentation frameworks, non-monotonic logics, action logics, category theory, answer-set programming, multi-agent systems and machine learning.

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Theories and technologies from the human-computer interaction domain include activity theory, distributed cognition, telepresence, mixed reality, immersive, dialogue and gesture-based interaction technologies. Methodologies include participatory action research, co-design and end-user development. The application domains include Internet of Things, education systems, socially intelligent systems and environments, digital companions, social robotics, ambient assisted living, behavior change systems, persuasive and agreement technology, self-management and decision-support systems relating to medicine and health.


Needs

KB

Arg-engine

Argument-based Decision-making Framework

Companion Agent

agreement-rules

Motives

agreement-rules

KB

-IN: needs, goals, preferences -OUT: decision-making framework

Arg-engine

Activity Agent KB

Arg-engine

IN/OUT: expert knowledge

Domain Agent KB

Motivational Service Store Messages

- IN: activity framework -OUT: quant/quality activity evaluation

- IN: body signals - OUT: life support

Arg-engine

Bio Agent

Physics 1,7% Mathematics and Umeå Institute of Design 5,4 % Mathematical Statistics 0,3 %

Applied Physics and Electronics 46,6 % Computing Science 45,4%

Ecology and Environmental Science 0,6 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • •

Helena Lindgren Shafiq Ur Réhman Juan Carlos Nieves Patrik Eklund Thomas Mejtoft Johannes Karlsson Ulrik Söderström

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Haibo Li

233 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: ELIN BERGE

Measuring metabolite profiles to understand disease mechanisms Metabolomics provides comprehensive understanding of underlying disease mechanisms since metabolites participate in almost all aspects of cellular function. By using a combination of sensitive analytical techniques and advanced multivariate data analysis and bioinformatics the “metabolome� can be mapped in detail. METABOLOMICS By measuring and modelling metabolite profiles, molecular information proximal to the disease phenotype is captured to gain mechanistic understanding of mediators and pathways involved in the expression of the phenotype. A key concept of metabolomics is to detect patterns of co-varying metabolites as novel more informative and predictive biomarkers. This is done using sensitive analytical methods such as mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis and bioinformatics, and then further translated into the clinic via e.g. medical imaging methods. Research within the area of metabolomics include: i) global metabolomics, in which deregulated pathways

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are identified with MS or NMR ii) targeted metabolomics; candidate metabolic pathways or biomarkers are mapped or quantified using MS methods, iii) computational metabolomics; computational tools are developed and applied for metabolite identification, biomarker discovery, data integration, predictions and mapping of pathways and iv) clinical applications in e.g. auto-immune disease, infection, metabolic diseases, neurology and oncology.


PHOTO: MATTIAS PETTERSSON

Plant Physiology 2,1 % Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 6,7 % Molecular Biology 2,3 % Umeå Institute of Design 5,9 % Ecology and Environmental Science 3,8 % Physics 0,7 %

PHOTO: JOAKIM BYGDELL

Applied Physics and Electronics 9,4 % Computing Science 2,6 % European CBRNE Centre 0,5 %

Chemistry 66 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • •

Johan Trygg Henrik Antti Malin L. Nording Anders Nordström

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: • Anders Eklund • Khalid Ambarki • Jan Malm • Anders Wåhlin • Beatrice Melin • Tommy Bergenheim • Mikael Johansson • Maria Sandström • Tufve Nyholm

198 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

• • • • • • • • •

Anders Garpebring Pernilla Wikström Peter Andersen Lars Forsgren Stefan Marklund Lars Nyberg Thomas Moritz Anders Öhman Miles Trupp

•S ol-Britt Rantapää Dahlqvist • Johan Normark • Anders Johansson No longer active at Umeå University: • Sandra Gouveia-Figueira


PHOTO: MALIN GRĂ–NBORG

Partial differential equations to model phenomena in science and engineering Numerical solution of partial differential equations provides powerful tools to study many important problems in engineering and science including properties of materials, motion of fluids, and chemical reactions. The research area is interdisciplinary and combines methods from mathematics, computer science, and applications. COMPUTATIONAL & APPLIED MATHEMATICS Partial differential equations (PDE) are used to model many phenomena in science and engineering for instance the motion of fluids, deformation of elastic materials, and chemical reactions. PDEs is also one of the main areas in mathematics where properties such as existence, uniqueness, and other properties such as smoothness of the solutions are studied. We can in general not solve PDEs using analytical techniques instead computer based methods such as the finite element method are used in practice. In the finite element method the solution is approximated using piecewise polynomial functions and to compute the solution we need to solve a large linear or nonli-

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near system of equations, which can be done efficiently using modern parallel computers. It is important to understand how large the error is in the finite element solution and therefore we derive estimates of the error and develop adaptive techniques that may be used to efficiently control the error. Current research includes so called cut finite element (CutFEM) methods which uses more general finite elements and allow simultaneous discretization of both the geometric domain and the solution to the PDE. CutFEM is particularly suited for problems on evolving domains, for instance a soap bubble that changes shape in time. Another important research topic is shape and topology optimization, where we seek to find an optimal geometric design given a certain design objective.


PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

Molecular Biology 0,1 %

Applied Physics and Electronics 0,5 %

Computing Science 24,9 %

PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

Ecology and Environmental Science 0,9 % Physics 2,7 %

Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 70,5 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • •

Mats G. Larson Martin Berggren Eddie Wadbro Per Åhag Niklas L.P. Lundström Urban Cegrell David Cohen

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: • Christian Engström • Andre Massing • Karl Larsson

198 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

No longer active at Umeå University: • Kaj Nyström


PHOTO: MATTIAS PETTERSSON

New ways to treat and understand infectious disease and amyloid formation The research interests focus on method developments in organic synthesis and computational methods to design and synthesise molecules that interact with macromolecules, in particular inhibition of protein-protein interactions.

AMYLOID FORMATION Examples of the latter involve development of inhibitors of bacterial secretion systems, selective inhibitors of acetyl cholin esterase, macromolecular assembly and amyloid formation. Besides the ultimate goal to find proof of concept for new treatments in various fields these projects also aim to get a deeper mechanistic understanding and to our help we use a blend of organic synthesis, molecular biology, chemical biology, structural biology, biochemistry and computational chemistry. In focus are new ways to combat infectious disease both by new approaches to disarm pathogenic bacteria but also by targeting the carrier of the pathogen such as mosquitos that are spreading numerous serious infections.

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Among the bacteria studied within the cluster the intracellular parasite, Chlamydia trachomatis, is an important pathogen where new approaches have been developed which affect the infectious cycle resulting in non-infectious progeny. The research also includes activities to develop molecules that efficiently block different steps of the infectious cycle of various viruses including adenoviresuses, Rift valley fever virus and Zika virus. One of the bacterial targets studied is a hairlike structure, Curli, produced by E. coli (and other bacteria). Curli is by definition an amyloid and link several projects together within this cluster where also human amyloids are being studied (e.g. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s). We are developing new tools striving for a greater understanding of the mechanisms behind amyloid assembly in general but also to find new selective diagnostic molecules.


Physics 0,7 % Applied Physics and Molecular Biology 0,2 % Electronics 0,2 %

Chemistry 98,9 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • •

Mikael Elofsson Fredrik Almqvist Erik Chorell Anna Linusson Jonsson David C Andersson Christian Hedberg

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: • • • • • •

Åsa Gylfe Anders Olofsson Jörgen Johansson Niklas Arnberg Magnus Evander Sven Bergström

188 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

No longer active at Umeå University: • Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede


Understanding life at the level of atoms One of the most challenging tasks in science is to understand how cells function at every level, from atoms to molecules and from larger macromolecular complexes to the entire cellular environment. Our research gives atomic-level insights into the interactions as well as structural and dynamic organization of these molecular machineries. INTEGRATED STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY Our research aims to understand the functioning of the cell’s molecular machinery in life, and the changes that occur due to infection, cancer and neurological diseases. By providing an integrated structural biology infrastructure researchers can connect biophysics and biochemistry with molecular- and cell biology. This way key questions in fundamental and applied biological sciences can be tackled. Structural biologists at Umeå University are addressing challenging research questions within: protein-protein and nucleic acid-protein interactions, protein misfolding coupled with amyloid formation and disease, dynamic transitions between structural states of enzymes, biological membranes and their interacting proteins,

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host-pathogen interactions and photosystem assembly and repair. At UmU researchers have access to state-of-the-art structural biology infrastructure. By combining methods and approaches, they can characterize molecular processes at different resolution and time scales. This integrated approach enables scientists to provide a “systems biology” description of the function of biomolecules within larger assemblies and the coordination at a cellular level. We have access to world-class in-house facilities in X-ray crystallography, computation (HP2CN), cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) where the latter two are Swedish National Facilities. For information see www.biostruct.umu.se. We are users of MAX IV and ESS (Harwell, UK), and we have block allocation group (BAG) long-term access to the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France.


Molecular Biology 1,3 % Computing Science 0,3%

Physics 0,9 % Plant Physiology 1,6 %

Chemistry 95,9 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • • • •

Magnus Andersson Gerhard Gröbner Lennart B-Å Johansson Karina Persson Elisabeth Sauer-Eriksson Uwe H. Sauer Magnus Wolf-Watz Johannes Messinger Kwangho Nam

No longer active at Umeå University: • Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede

182 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

Fundamental processes driving earth and space chemistry Molecular Geochemistry is a science dedicated to understanding the natural world around us at the scale of atoms and molecules. The processes it resolves can even inspire new technological solutions to our world’s evergrowing demands of natural resources and energy. MOLECULAR GEOCHEMISTRY If Chemistry is the central science, then Geochemistry is the central science as applied to understanding Earth and Space Chemistry. As our research activities at Umeå University are largely focused on metals and minerals, we are also active members of the Inorganic Chemistry community of Sweden. Our work aims at connecting the very big — mountains — with the very small — atoms and molecules, and the very fast — fundamental processes — with the often very slow — weathering over geological times. It allows us to help answer questions as far reaching as pollutant migration in the environment, freshwater and ocean chemistry, atmospheric processes, climate change, the evolution of life on Earth, or how radioac-

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tive wastes can be securely stored for millennia. It also provides clues to the forms and occurrences of water and gases on the Moon as well as on planet Mars, which is knowledge of crucial importance if humanity is to be resuming space travel in the not so distant future! Our work is multidisciplinary in nature, and employs various types of spectroscopies, electrochemistry, molecular simulations and other forms of modelling. These approaches allow us to identify natural processes from which new technological applications, such as water purification or energy production, can be derived.


Ecology and Environmental Applied Physics and Science 5,9 % Electronics 0,5 % Physics 2,1 % Mathematics and Mathematical Plant Physiology 0,6 % Statistics 0,3 %

Chemistry 90,6 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • •

Jean-François Boily C. André Ohlin Michael Holmboe Andrey Shchukarev Staffan Sjöberg (emeritus)

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Per Persson • Torbjörn Karlsson • John Loring

176 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: PER MELANDER

Formation, fate and biological effects of organic compounds in the environment The research in Environmental Organic Chemistry aims to provide insights in critical molecular level interactions and pollutants of the future and to guide development of more benign chemicals. Critical properties under study are spatial and temporal distribution, persistence, and effects of pollutants researched combining empirical and modelling approaches. ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY The research is focused on the environmental behavior of semi-volatile anthropogenic legacy and emerging semi-persistent and persistent organic pollutants. These are studied in different environmental compartments by combining experimental field and laboratory studies with development of advanced tools for environmental analytical chemistry and exploratory in silico tools. The research includes studies on processes of emission, formation, transformation and degradation of organic pollutants in various environments. Non-target and suspect screening analytical protocols are being developed tailored for emerging pollutants using advanced analytical techniques and computational procedures.

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Furthermore, models are developed for understanding pollutants interactions with critical biological targets as well as fate parameters related to biotic and abiotic transformation pathways in marine and terrestrial systems. The research tools are used for early detection and identification of new pollutants and to study their environmental sources, transport, fate and biological effects. Studies also cover approaches for guiding selection and development of more benign industrial chemicals in the development of more sustainable materials and products.


PHOTO: MATTIAS PETTERSSON

Ecology and Environmental Science 1,8 % Umeå Marine Sciences European CBRNE Centre 0,5 % Centre 0,2 % Applied Physics and

PHOTO: MATTIAS PETTERSSON

Electronics 0,2 %

Chemistry 97,2 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • • •

Patrik Andersson Mats Tysklind Peter Haglund Stina Jansson Terry F Bidleman Lisa Lundin Darya Kupryianchyk Christine Gallampois

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Staffan Lundstedt • Stellan Marklund • Karin Wiberg

155 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: KRISTINA VIKLUND

Drivers and effects of environmental change in marine and freshwater ecosystems Aquatic ecosystems are important for many dynamic processes on Earth. The research in Aquatic Ecosystem Science focuses on understanding ecological drivers and effects of environmental change in marine and freshwater systems.

AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM SCIENCE Aquatic ecosystems consist of many different environments, e.g. wetlands, rivers, lakes, estuaries, coastal systems and oceans. They provide vital ecosystem services such as tourism, recreation and food production but are also exposed to multiple stressors, including climate change, eutrophication, pollution and over-fishing. Using a holistic approach, we study the effects of environmental change on the whole ecosystem, including both pelagic and benthic habitats, and focusing on different climate regimes and different seasons. The study organisms range from microorganisms to fish. The main research questions include impact of environmental change on biodiversity, productivity,

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food web structure, species interactions, greenhouse gas production, and transfer of energy, nutrients and pollutants up the food chain. We approach these questions by performing field studies and experiments at different scales, analyzing long ecological time series, and modeling. Systems of different complexity are used, spanning from single-species to complex communities. The long-term aim is to increase our understanding of ecosystem processes and support society with scientific knowledge to protect the environment, ensure a sustainable use of resources and mitigate effects of environmental change.


PHOTO: pÄR BYSTRÖM

Umeå Marine Sciences Centre 8,9 % Chemistry 1,5 %

PHOTO: MICAEL JONSSON

Molecular Biology 0,4 % Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 2,2 %

Ecology and Environmental Science 87 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • • • • •

Agneta Andersson Jenny Ask Ann-Kristin Bergström Tomas Brodin Pär Byström Ulf Båmstedt Sebastian Diehl Micael Jonsson Jan Karlsson Johan Wikner

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: –

153 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

No longer active at Umeå University: • Mats Jansson • Antonia Liess


PHOTO: MIKAEL HANSSON

Autonomous systems for resource management in distributed computing systems Autonomous management systems are used to dynamically optimize resource use and application performance with minimal human effort. Target infrastructures span from individual servers and clusters to complete cloud datacenters and highly distributed mobile edge clouds. DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS The scale, complexity, and volatility of internet applications and their underlying computing infrastructure comes with great management challenges. The ambition is to provide expected application performance and robustness at a minimum of cost and energy consumption, despite enormous scale and often drastic variations in load and user locality. The scale, complexity, and volatility calls for autonomous or semi-autonomous systems, automating the basics tasks of system administration and providing system administrators with higher levels of abstractions, e.g., to specify what the system should achieve rather than telling how to achieve it. Specific research tasks, such as workload modeling and

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prediction, anomaly detection and root cause identification, capacity scaling and allocation control, service differentiation, scheduling and orchestration, etc, are often of multidisciplinary nature, combining distributed systems domain knowledge with theory from, e.g., queuing theory, time series analysis, feedback control, machine learning, and discrete optimization. The tasks frequently also require contributions to operating systems or middleware technology to support the management optimization, e.g., enhanced methods for live migration of running applications from one server to another.


Applied Physics and Electronics 1,8 % Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 2,2 %

PHOTO: ERIK VESTERBERG

Plant Physiology 0,6 %

Physics 1,1 % Ecology and Environmental Science 0,6 %

Computing Science 93,7 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • •

Erik Elmroth Johan Tordsson Per-Olov Östberg Ewnetu Bayuh Lakew Petter Svärd

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Francisco Hernández-Rodriguez • Luis Tomas

150 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

Development of catalytic and ionic materials for process and pulping industries We make novel functional materials that can be either solids or liquids. These materials can be applied for various processes to yield new exciting chemicals and fuels that replace the fossil alternatives.

HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS The research is focused on the development of heterogeneous catalytic materials and ionic liquid/ deep eutectic neoteric solvents for sustainable chemical processes of today and future. The research includes nano-scale materials development, design of process concepts and studies of reaction kinetics and reactor behavior. The models help in rational design and scale-up of industrial chemical processes. The research aims at creating solutions for the emerging need of sustainable and climate-neutral transportation fuels, pulping technologies, production of chemical intermediates and more. Also, the research in neoteric solvents enable dissolution, processing, fractionation and derivatization of natures’ own molecules and

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beyond to render molecular structures that can be used to replace the fossil equivalents of today. Further, advanced separation techniques are one of the application areas of our materials – from sorbents as well as CO2 capture and valorization to extractions and harvesting of solar energy We make novel materials typically derived from biomass or even biowaste – as an example we recently developed an entirely family of biowaste –derived acidic solid acid catalysts replacing toxic sulphuric acid and the use of which was demonstrated in various applications including e.g. synthesis of cellulose derivatives, carbon dioxide capture and storage, acetalization of glycerol as well as C-C coupling of biobased furanics and carbonyl compounds to synthetic liquid hydrocarbon precursors.


PHOTO: MALIN GRÖNBORG

Physics 0,9 %

PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

Applied Physics and Electronics 1,1 %

Plant Physiology 0,3 %

Chemistry 97,7 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • •

Jyri-Pekka Mikkola William Siljebo Ajaikumar Samikannu Lakhya Jyoti Konwa

149 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • • • • •

Dilip Govind Raut Anjana Sarkar Natalia Bukhanko Rakesh Samikannu Ikenna Anugwom

• Valerie Eta • Olatunde Jogunola


PHOTO: NICOLE WANIOWSKA

Envisioning and materializing future forms in architecture and design Research in architecture and design spans the entire spectrum of issues related to the design and consequences of man-made things and environments, and at Umeå University we focus on practice-based research oriented towards envisioning and materializing alternative futures. DESIGN & ARCHITECTURE Research in architecture and design ranges from historical studies of the artificial already made – be it an entire city, a building, a system, service or a tool – to experimentally envisioning and materializing alternative future forms. It results in conceptual frameworks and theory, methodology and new ways of working,
as well as concrete interventions, events, systems and objects. Research within these disciplines is not separate from practice, nor is professional practice absent in research. Rather, this research incorporates perspectives and expertise across educational, professional, societal and other domains, in an overall ambition to advance the ways we think and do – educate and practice – archi-

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tecture and design. While research conducted within these disciplines at times align with the methodological perspectives of humanities, the social sciences or engineering, it is characterised by an inherent artistic and practice-based orientation towards making. The research conducted in architecture and design at Umeå University around themes such as aesthetics and engagement is diverse, but it shares a foundational commitment to understanding and caring for the social, for people and the world we are making together. Ranging from the poetics of local interactions, to the politics of the systems we design for and within, this research aims to understand and articulate how the foundations of practice can, and will have to, change as a response to contemporary challenges in ethics and aesthetics pertaining to issues such as inclusion and participation, sustainability, digital and emerging technologies, and the future of education.


PHOTO: SHIGEO KATSAWA-GORDON

Chemistry 0,3 % Applied Physics and Ecology and Environmental Science 4,8 % Electronics 4,3 %

PHOTO: DELPHINE CARLSON

Computing Science 1,8 %

Umeå School of Architecture 47 %

Umeå Institute of Design 41,3 %

Plant Physiology 0,5 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • Johan Redström • Ambra Trotto • Roemer van Toorn

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Alberto Arlando Altés • Guido Hermans • Janek Ozmin

147 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MAGDALENA MUNTHER

Emerging pollutants in effluent, fate, effects and mitigation measures In our everyday life we use a large number of chemicals in our households, ranging from detergents in our soaps to active pharmaceutical ingredients in our headache pills. These chemical enter the environment via our sewage and can have profound effects on exposed organisms. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY The research is focused on the environmental fate and effects of “emerging� pollutants present in effluent. Emerging pollutants are chemicals that are being used in households, such as biocides and pharmaceuticals, are most often polar and can be detected at elevated levels in sewage water. Studies include screening, method development with focus on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and experimental field and laboratory studies. The research includes studies on presence, transformation and degradation of polar organic pollutants in various environments. The research also focus on the effect of these pollutants on exposed aquatic organism,

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such as fish and invertebrates,these studies are also done in a wide range of set-ups, from lab-scale up to whole lake. The research aims to determine critical levels of pollution loads as well as increasing the knowledge of mode-of-action and ecological consequences. In addition, research is conducted on development of new environmental technologies for soil and water remediation and mitigation. These studies range from lab based experiments to increase the understanding of the fundamental processes to large-scale field experiment.


Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 0,7 % Umeå Marine Applied Physics and Sciences Centre 1,7 % Electronics 2,5 % Ecology and Environmental Science 13,5 %

Plant Physiology 0,6 %

Chemistry 81 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • • •

Jerker Fick Richard H Lindberg Peter Haglund Mats Tysklind Micael Jonsson Jonatan Klaminder, Tomas Brodin Christine Gallampois

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Hanna Söderström • Roman Grabic

145 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: ELIN BERGE

The genome: Regulation, variation and responses Many differences among individuals and species result from changes in how, where and when genes are activated. These changes can be detected using large-scale sequencing technologies and a major challenge to biology is to link these genomic differences to biological function. GENOMIC FUNCTION We use genomics approaches to understand how genomes function to enable organisms to perceive, respond, adapt and survive in response to fluctuating external environmental conditions. Many of the differences among individuals within a species result from numerous differences in the genome sequence and we are interested in linking these genomic changes to intra-individual and cross-species variation. Many of these genomic variants influence how genes are regulated, causing changes in the timing, spatial pattern and scale of gene expression. We use a number of approaches to identify and model the causes and effects of these regulatory differences and to understand how variation in the genome leads to

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the differences in expression and how this relates to evolutionary changes at the population level. This work includes projects assembling genomes, profiling the genomes and epigenetics of individuals and developing open-access web resources for interacting with the data. Much of this work is computationally demanding and we make use of high-performance computing resources and develop and apply bioinformatic methods. A major aim of our work is to link genomic variation to biological function, including the ability to predict the effect of targeted changes induced using genome editing.


PHOTO: ANDREAS NILSSON

Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 1,9 % Chemistry 2,2 %

Ecology and Environmental Science 5,6 % Physics 1,9 %

PHOTO: ANDREAS NILSSON

Plant Physiology 22,2 %

Molecular Biology 66,2 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • •

Per Stenberg Stefan Jansson Vicky Shingler Torgeir R Hvidsten Jan Larsson Nathaniel R Street

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: • Yuri Schwartz • Dan Hultmark No longer active at Umeå University: • Pär K Ingvarsson

142 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

Targeting bacteria-host cell interactions to develop new anti-infective drug therapies Infections caused by bacteria resistant to antibiotics is one of the world’s most pressing public health issues. There exists an urgent need to discover novel anti-bacterial therapies that block virulence and avoid selection of antibiotic resistance that has plagued conventional antibiotic usage. ANTI-INFECTIVE DRUG THERAPIES Infections caused by bacteria resistant to antibiotics is a pressing public health issue. One unique approach to combat selection of antibiotic resistance that has plagued conventional antibiotic usage is through the development of novel families of antibiotics that block bacterial virulence. In striving for this, two overarching research themes are constant. The first involves expanding our knowledge of host immune defence activation and activity with a view to identify processes that can be augmented to better fight against invading bacteria. The second involves expanding our knowledge of bacterial virulence mechanisms employed to counteract the host immune defence with a view to identify processes

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that can be inactivated to limit the capacity of bacteria to invade. By integrating molecular and cellular studies of the bacteria and the host, these critical mechanisms of bacteria-host cell interplay can be defined. Focusing first to define these fundamental mechanisms of bacterial-host interplay increases our chances of defining novel drug targets for the rational development of virulence blockers to fight bacterial infections. Driving our major discoveries are methodological and technological developments, and this is facilitated by resourceful cross-disciplinary collaboration.


PHOTO: DAVID CISNEROS

Ecology and Environmental Science 2 % Plant Physiology 0,8 % European CBRNE Centre 0,6 %

PHOTO: SALAH FARAG

Chemistry 15,6 %

Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 4,3 %

Molecular Biology 76,7 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • •

Matthew Francis Hans Wolf-Watz (emeritus) Teresa Frisan Debra Milton

141 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: • • • • • • • • •

Anders Sjöstedt Felipe Cava Sun Nyunt Wai Emmanuelle Charpentier Bernt Eric Uhlin Sven Bergström Vasili Haurylluk Ronnie Berntsson Jörgen Johansson

• • • • • • • • •

Maria Fällman Ulrich von Pawel-Rammingen Åsa Gylfes Thomas Borén Anna Fahlgren Åke Forsberg Nelson Gekara Andrea Puhar Jan Oscarsson


Fuel conversion and ash transformation in combustion and gasification processes The research explores physical and chemical phenomena in combustion and gasification of biomass and waste resources. Technical and environmental aspects are addressed to support the development of efficient and sustainable energy production and new biorefinery concepts. THERMOCHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERSION Combustion and gasification processes will continue to play an important role globally and can contribute to reach a sustainable society through utilization of biomass and waste resources. We conduct fundamental research dedicated to gain a deeper understanding of thermochemical fuel conversion, as well as ash and trace metal transformations at high temperatures. A wide range of lab- and pilot-scale facilities are employed in combination with advanced modelling to explore physical and chemical phenomena in combustion and gasification processes. High-quality research is enabled by the application of sophisticated analytical tools, including for example

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electron microscopy and X-ray based techniques for solid sample imaging and characterization, and laser spectroscopy for in situ gas-phase diagnostics. Furthermore, we engage in applied industrial research and multidisciplinary collaborations at the interface between engineering, chemistry, physics, environmental science and medicine. Through this approach, we provide new knowledge that will help the society, to develop efficient and sustainable energy- and biorefinery processes, as well as to address some of the global challenges such as mitigation of climate change, environmental pollution, and impacts on biogeochemical flows.


Chemistry 5,6 %

Applied Physics and Electronics 94,4 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • •

Dan Boström Christoffer Boman Rainer Backman Markus Broström Nils Skoglund Anders Nordin

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: • Thomas Sandström • Anders Blomberg No longer active at Umeå University: • Marcus Öhman

123 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: LEONID FREIDOVICH

Development and use of mathematical models for real-world systems Control systems engineering is a research field that focuses on mathematics-based modeling of various real-world systems and design of controllers that can make these systems to behave as desired. Electrically or hydraulically powered industrial robots are of special interest. INDUSTRIAL ROBOTICS AND CONTROL SYSTEMS We focus on development of mathematical models for real-world systems and on their constructive use aimed at controlling their behaviors and the key variables, features, or properties. The systems of interest include various industrial autonomous systems, heavy-lifting mobile hydraulic cranes, industrial manipulators, as well as educational, mobile and walking robots. Every such system requires a functioning controller to shape automatic responses to changes in the commanded goal or in the environment. We are especially interested in: • planning and stabilization of periodic motions, motion primitives, and complex behaviors of mechanical,

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electro-mechanical, and fluid power systems. • systematic feedback control and interface design for automation of industrial mobile hydraulic manipulators used in forestry and agriculture. • sensor-based and model-based motion control and control of contact interaction between electro-mechanical manipulators and either the environment or objects of manipulations. • systematic friction identification aimed at compensation and adaptation for automatic high precision control of industrial robots. • model-based and sensor-based path planning for mobile robots and assistive power wheelchairs.


PHOTO: LEONID FREIDOVICH

Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 0,6 % Plant Physiology 1,3 %

PHOTO: LEONID FREIDOVICH

Chemistry 3,1 %

Umeå Institute of Design 0,7 % Computing Science 13,1 %

Physics 11,1 %

Applied Physics and Electronics 70,1 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • Leonid Freidovich • Martin Servin • Sven Rönnbäck Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Anton Shiriaev

118 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MALIN GRĂ–NBORG

Automatic language processing and advanced aspects of language Research in this area develops formal models and algorithms that analyse and process language in a broad sense, ranging from data description and programming languages to human languages like English. A focus is to make these methods formally sound and efficient at the same time. AUTOMATA, GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE In Computer Science, the word language refers to natural languages such as English and Swedish as well as formal languages: programming languages, data description languages, etc. To process languages automatically, mathematically well-defined formalisms for their description and analysis are required. These are traditionally called grammars (which describe languages) and automata (which process languages). The most basic ones view a language as a collection of sentences, each sentence being a string of words. The study of advanced aspects of language requires working not only on strings but on, e.g., trees and graphs, and to incorporate quantitative aspects to dis-

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tinguish between more and less likely analyses. In recent years, the extension to graphs has become particularly valuable because the area’s attention has shifted from syntax to semantics. While the syntax of a sentence is a relatively simple hierarchical structure, semantic representations are graphs, which are algorithmically demanding. The algorithmic methods developed in this area are very general and can thus be used to accomplish such diverse tasks as, e.g., text classification, semantic analysis, dialogue processing, query answering, automatic program analysis, construction of diagram editors, and many more.


PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

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Applied Physics and Electronics 0,6 %

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Chemistry 0,7 %

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Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 0,4 %

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Ecology and Environmental Science 1,6 % Physics 1,4 %

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Computing Science 95,3 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • •

Frank Drewes Henrik Björklund Johanna Björklund Suna Bensch

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University • Martin Berglund • Stephen Hegner

99 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MATTIAS PETTERSSON

Taking advantage of today’s data explosion for revealing organization and function Network science seeks to understand how complex systems work by studying their patterns of interactions and how they change over time. From gene interaction motifs to social group dynamics, the language of nodes and links show how the whole can be more than the sum of its parts. NETWORK SCIENCE Complex systems, such as telecommunication networks, computer networks, biological networks, cognitive networks, and social networks, obtain their distinct functions from how their components interact. Network science studies the pattern of these interactions by representing the components as nodes and the interactions between them as links. The interdisciplinary research field integrates methods from multiple traditional disciplines: graph theory from mathematics, social structure from sociology, statistical mechanics from physics, machine learning from computer science, and inferential modeling from statistics and information theory. At Umeå University, we have pioneered mapping flow

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pathways by developing novel algorithms and tools that take advantage of today’s data explosion for revealing important organization in social and biological networks. As a result, we can better understand the inner-workings of such systems and how they change over time. In collaboration with researchers in finance, biogeography, system genetics, and public health, we address pressing research questions by seeking reliable predictions and effective interventions. In cumulative cycles, applied research questions require novel methods that in turn allow us to address new research questions.


PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

Applied Physics and Electronics 4,4 %

Fluid Mechanics

Chemistry 1,1 %

Material Engineering

Circuits

Computer Science

Computing Science 3,4 %

Ecology and Environmental Science 0,8 % Geosciences

Tribology

Operations Research

Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 2,7 %

Astronomy & Astrophysics Computer Imaging

Mathematics

Power Systems

Physics

Telecommunication

Electromagnetic Engineering

Control Theory

Chemical Engineering

Probability & Statistics

Chemistry Applied Acoustics

Business & Marketing

onomics

Environmental Chemistry & Microbiology

Physics 86,9 %

Analytic Chemistry

Geography

Principal investigators: Psychology

Sociology

Education

Crop Science

Agriculture Principal investigators that have substantially Neuroscience contributed to this field of research:

Political Science

Pharmacology

95

Ecology & Evolution

Psychiatry

Presently activeEnvironmental at theHealth Faculty of Medical Imaging Science and Technology: Orthopedics

Veterinary

Anthropology

Molecular & Cell Biology

• Martin Rosvall

Parasitology

Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

Dentistry

Medicine Presently active at other faculties at Ophthalmology Otolaryngology Umeå University: Gastroenterology Urology

Pathology Dermatology

Rheumatology

No longer active at Umeå University: • • • • •

Petter Holme Zhi-Xi Wu Luis E C Rocha Sang Hoon Lee Atieh Mirshahvalad

Citation flow within field Citation flow from B to A

A Citation flow from A to B

B Citation flow out of field


PHOTO: JOHANNES MESSINGER

Development of artificial water oxidation and reduction catalysts based on metals Global climate change is fueled by burning fossil resources created billions of years ago by photosynthesis. Replacing the utilization of this fossil solar energy by directly produced solar fuels will be critical for human survival on this planet.

NATURAL & ARTIFICIAL PHOTOSYNTHESIS The main energy input into life on Earth comes from oxygenic photosynthesis. This process, which harvests solar energy and stores it in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates, splits the abundant water to obtain electrons and protons needed for CO2 reduction. In the process, molecular oxygen is released and forms the basis for higher life. In this cluster, we study the structure of nature’s water-splitting catalyst and the molecular mechanism that leads to O2 formation from water. We employ this knowledge to the development of artificial water-oxidation and reduction catalysts that are made of Earth-abundant metals. These catalysts are candidates for the renewable, solar driven production of molecular H2, which is

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a promising technology for replacing the unsustainable use of fossil fuels. These catalysts and catalyst-decorated electrodes are studied in detail for structure, mechanism, efficiency and stability. Thereafter, we combine selected (photo)electrodes with solar cells to build artificial leaf devices. Such devices convert sunlight and water directly into solar H2-fuel and O2. Burning solar-H2 then gives back water and energy, thus forming a renewable energy cycle. We focus on earth-abundant materials and simple and cheap production processes to allow future fast upscaling and world-wide distribution of our technology. In this highly interdisciplinary research cluster that embraces chemists, physicists, biologists and mathematicians, we employ a large variety of techniques to perform this research. These include, for example Membrane-inlet mass spectrometry, EPR, X-ray spectroscopy, serial crystallography and electrochemistry.


PHOTO: JOHAN GUNSÉUS

Molecular Biology 0,4 % Plant Physiology 4 % Ecology and Environmental Science 0,2 %

Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 3,5 % Computing Science 0,9 %

PHOTO: CHRISTIAN LARSSON

Applied Physics and Electronics 4,5 % Physics 0,2 %

Chemistry 86,3 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • •

Johannes Messinger Dmitriy Shevela Thomas Wågberg Ludvig Edman Andrey Shchukarev Bertil Eliasson Jyri-Pekka Mikkola

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University • Sergey Koroidov

93 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: FREEIMAGES.COM

Study of critical phenomena with large scale simulations At a phase transition a material undergoes a change from one state to another, e.g. from a liquid to a solid (e.g. ice) or to a gas. The behaviour at a phase transition is often difficult to analyze exactly, but numerical simulations can then be used to determine their properties. NUMERICAL METHODS The work focuses on the use of numerical methods for studying simple model systems with phase transitions – usually between ordered and disordered phases – with non-trivial collective behaviors. At the transition, where the system balances between order and disorder, such systems are ”critical’’ which means that even minute perturbations of the system give huge responses. The critical behavior is specified by a set of critical exponents that characterize how certain quantities diverge or vanish at the transition. Models with the same critical behavior are said to belong to the same universality class. Important questions include the characterization of the universality classes – which models belong to the same universality

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class? – and the determination of their critical exponents. Work in the last years have focused on phase transitions in dimensions higher than three, with application to quantum systems, spin glasses – system with random interactions, and simulation of extremely large three dimensional systems. Other work focuses at the jamming transition where the dynamics of a set of particles becomes increasingly slow as the density increases. This has first been done with disks in two dimensions and, more recently, with spheres and ellipsoids in three dimensions.


Chemistry 0,4 %

Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 15 % Plant Physiology 0,4 %

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Physics 84,2 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • Klas Markström • Peter Olsson Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Ki Seung Baek • Petter Minnhagen

80 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: ROLAND JANSSON

Predicting and evaluating responses of riverine ecosystems to restoration Ecosystems associated with streams and rivers have been modified by human activities and are sensitive to climate change. Research at UmeĂĽ university investigates how species and ecosystem functions are structured by flow, to develop and evaluate methods to restore riverine ecosystems. RIVERINE ECOSYSTEMS The research is focused on predicting and evaluating the responses of riverine ecosystems to ecological restoration. Rivers and streams belong to the ecosystems most degraded by human activities, calling for efforts to conserve their biodiversity and enhance ecosystem functions. The research includes studies of the effects of activities such as timber floating and hydropower production on riverine organisms, and work to understand the processes structuring pristine riverine ecosystems. This understanding is used in work to develop new restoration methods, prioritize where and how to restore ecosystems, and to evaluate responses to restoration. This is done in comparative studies of pristine, degra-

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ded and restored systems, as well as field experiments, e.g. by transplanting plants in various life stages to different ecosystems and record their responses. Modelling is used to predict the ability of different restoration actions to create habitat conditions suitable to riverine organisms. The focus is primarily on boreal and sub-arctic streams and rivers, characterized by large seasonal changes, including long periods with ice, and spring floods associated with snow melt. The response of ecosystems to ongoing and future climate change is another important research theme.


PHOTO: ROLAND JANSSON PHOTO: ROLAND JANSSON

Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 0,3 %

Molecular Biology 0,7 %

Ecology and Environmental Science 99 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • •

Christer Nilsson Roland Jansson Lina E. Polvi Judith M. Sarneel

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Mats Dynesius • Anouschka R Hof • Dolly Jørgensen

76 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


Maximizing the utilization of today’s and future large-scale HPC-systems Parallelism is here to stay! Today, most computers, from laptops to supercomputers, are based on the so-called multicore architectures. Connecting many thousands of powerful, and possibly heterogeneous, multicore and accelerator based nodes using a high-performance interconnect leads to truly massive parallel systems with a tremendous performance potential; above is Kebnekaise at HPC2N. PARALLEL AND SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING Matrix computations are both fundamental and ubiquitous in the Computational Sciences. The focus of the research is on new theory, robust methods and tools for various structured and dense matrix computations, spanning the whole spectrum from small- to very large-scale problems. Everything from core problems in linear algebra to matrix equations and eigenvalue problems appearing in various applications are addressed. To achieve the best performance and maximize the utilization of today’s and future large-scale HPC systems, the algorithms and data structures must be scalable and match the hardware, including deep memory hierarchies, as well as the functionality of the compilers and

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runtime systems. Example of problems addressed are the development of parallel algorithms for standard and generalized dense and non-symmetric eigenvalue problems, the design of auto-tuning frameworks for an optimal selection of software parameters. Challenging numerical linear algebra problems include the study on how canonical forms of matrices, matrix pencils, and matrix polynomials behave under small perturbations and to reveal the qualitative information, so called stratification graphs, which the closure hierarchy of associated orbits and bundles provide. Applications can be found, for example, in control system design and analysis, real-time physics simulations, biochemistry, molecular dynamics, and machine learning. Results of the research also include library software and tools to be used as building blocks for various academic and industrial applications.


Applied Physics and Electronics 5,2 % Chemistry 0,4 % Mathematica and Mathematical Statistics 6,5 %

Physics 0,9 %

Computing Science 87 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • •

Bo Kågström Andrii Dmytryshyn Lars Karlsson Stefan Johansson Carl Christian Kjelgaard Mikkelsen

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: • • • •

Björn Adlerborn Robert Granat Meiyue Shao Mirko Myllykoski

No longer active at Umeå University: –

72 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

Development and applications of laser-based spectroscopic techniques Laser-based spectroscopic techniques allow non-invasive detection of atoms and molecules with high sensitivity, selectivity, and accuracy. They are used for fundamental studies and in novel applications within many fields, e.g. environmental monitoring, medicine, and metrology. LASER SPECTROSCOPY The research is focused on development and applications of novel laser-based spectroscopic techniques for sensitive and accurate detection of gaseous species. High sensitivity to absorption is obtained by employing methods that increase the interaction length with the sample (e.g. external cavities) and reduce the noise (e.g. modulation techniques). For example, detection limits of selected molecules (e.g. acetylene) down to part-per-trillion concentrations have been demonstrated with the NICE-OHMS (noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy) technique based on narrow-linewidth fiber lasers. Another group of techniques is based on optical frequ-

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ency combs, which combine the high spectral resolution with wide bandwidth and allow multispecies detection. Application areas range from fundamental studies and metrology to applied sciences, such as environmental and industrial monitoring or human breath analysis. Near- and mid-infrared comb spectroscopy is used for high-precision retrieval of molecular transition parameters. The techniques can also be used as accurate frequency standards. Novel techniques for assessment of gas refractivity, molecular density, and pressure, are developed that can potentially evolve into internal standards for these entities.


PHOTO: JOHAN GUNSÉUS

Mathematics and Computing science 0,6 % Mathematical Statistics 0,6% Applied Physics and Molecular Biology 0,8 % Electronics 13,8 %

Physics 84,7 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • Ove Axner • Aleksandra Foltynowicz • Isak Silander Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Weiguang Ma

71 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: ULRIKA BERGFORS

Energy efficiency with a focus on building Focus of the research is to reduce building energy end-use. The scope is proposing, implementing and evaluating strategies for increased energy performance, evaluating building energy efficiency and parameter identification.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY In the framework of current climate and energy use targets, investments in more and more efficient energy use are encouraged. The building sector accounts for about 40 percent of the energy use in Europe and about the same ratio also applies to Sweden. The research projects are interdisciplinary and often concern several different disciplines within energy and building technology, ranging from primary energy conversion (production) and distribution to the end use of energy. The ongoing research is currently dominated by enduse energy efficiency in buildings, in industry, and in district heating. The main focus is centered on measurements within newly built and refurbished buildings

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with the aim of developing techniques and methodology to evaluate and validate the performance of various implemented system solutions and energy-efficiency measures. Methods include analytical methods, such as for example simple regression methods and more complex data-driven approaches, as well as physical simulation. Surveys have also a user and stakeholder perspective, in order to map behavior, perception, adaptation and attitudes. The investigations are conducted on building components, ventilation and indoor climate and building energy systems as well as for district heating.


PHOTO: MATTIAS PETTERSSON

AREA, ENERGIANVÄNDNING OCH BYGGÅR

Computing Science 1,1 % Chemistry 6,5 %

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Applied Physics and Electronics 92,4 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • Thomas Olofsson • Bin Yang

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Ulf Arne Girhammar • Osama Hassan

66 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


Discrete mathematics with focus on graphs, networks and hypergraphs In discrete mathematics we study networks and other forms of relationships. Our work concerns both the theoretical understanding of their structures and algorithmic methods for working with discrete structures.

DISCRETE MATHEMATICS Discrete Mathematics is a broad field, concerned with discrete, as opposed to continuous, structures. In UmeĂĽ our emphasis is on graphs, networks, and hypergraphs. We study structural problems, e.g. ways of decomposing a graph into well behaved parts, coloring problems, connected to scheduling, and extremal problems, e.g. how the number of edges influence which subgraphs a graph must have. Techniques based on randomness, as well as large scale exact computation, are essential parts of our work. Apart from the mathematical theory we also work with applications of these results. Here the mathematical study of problem from statistical physics is a recurring theme, but we have also worked on the behavior

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of voting systems, logistics, quantum computing, and constraint satisfaction problems. A growing specialisation for UmeĂĽ is the study of extremal problems. Here we investigate how different structures are forced to appear when some parameter, such as the density, is increased from a low to a high value. These questions are in turn tightly connected to the behaviour of different random models and whether computational problem have efficient algorithms or not.


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Physics 2,3 %

Computing Science 4,5 %

Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 93,2 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • •

Victor Falgas-Ravry Klas Markström Lars-Daniel Öhman Roland Häggkvist, professor emeritus Gerold Jäger Per Håkan Lundow

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: –

65 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

New ways to convert lignocellulosic feedstocks to fuel, chemicals and materials Bio-based fuels, chemicals, and materials produced in biorefineries serve as alternatives to petroleum-based commodities from oil refineries. Biochemical conversion, which involves biocatalytic process steps, is one of the main routes that are under investigation.

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LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOPOLYMERS The research aims at exploring new and more efficient ways to convert lignocellulosic feedstocks to liquid biofuels, green chemicals, and bio-based materials, and to understand fundamental biocatalytic processes that are a part of lignocellulose

biorefining. Research in this area includes investigation of sugar platform processes in which lignocellulosic biomass is converted through wood pre-processing, pretreatment (e.g. hydrothermal pretreatment and pretreatment using ionic liquids), enzymatic saccharification of cellulose, microbial fermentation of sugars, and downstream processing. Furthermore, the research covers enzymatic and mi-

crobial biocatalysts involved in biodegradation of lignocellulose, and production and utilization of derivatives of cellulose and lignin. While most of the research is focused on woody feedstocks, biorefining of agricultural residues and microalgae is also investigated. Tool sets and methods frequently employed in the research include bioprocess engineering, molecular genetics, metabolomics, proteomics, Py-GC/MS, HPAEC, SEC, vibrational spectroscopy, and NMR. The research is connected with activities at the Domsjö Development Area in Örnsköldsvik and at the Umeå Plant Science Centre, and is a part of the strategic research environment Bio4Energy.


Plant Physiology 7,4 % Applied Physics and Electronics 0,4 %

Chemistry 92,2 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • Leif Jönsson • Jyri-Pekka Mikkola • Sandra Winestrand Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: –

64 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO:MOSTPHOTOS

Developing stochastic models and statistical methods for analysis of random phenomena Research in mathematical statistics aims at developing methods for analyzing data and is applicable in a wide range of areas in science, industry and society. The overall aim is to develop tools that allow us to extract information from data. We have research groups developing stochastic models and statistical methods for analysis of large and complex data, which include spatiotemporal data, functional data, and high-dimensional data.

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MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS The volume of data is increasing rapidly and individual data sets are getting larger and more complex, but data is not information. As a consequence there is an increasing need for algorithms that can be used to extract information and intelligence from the

data. Mathematical Statistics aims at developing principles and methods to treat data related to random phenomena by using probabilistic modeling. The current research is motivated by challenges from other academic disciplines and real-world businesses and aims at developing stochastic models for big and complex data, including analysis of spatiotemporal data, functional data, and high-dimensio­nal data.

Research collaborations and application areas include for example climate reconstruction, quality assessment in production and cancer diagnostics. There are currently four research groups (group leaders in parenthesis): • Analysis of high-dimensional data with applications in m edicine and industry (Associate Prof. Patrik Rydén) • Functional Data Analysis and Spatial Statistics (Prof. Sara Sjöstedt de Luna) • Spatio-Temporal Statistics (Prof. Jun Yu) • Stochastic Processes and Numerical Methods (Prof. Oleg Seleznjev)


PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

Chemistry 0,7 % Computing Science 4,8 % Ecology and Environmental Science 1,3 %

Applied Physics and Electronics 0,7 %

PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

Physics 19,3%

Plant Physiology 0,6 %

Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 72,6 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • •

Oleg Seleznjev Patrik Rydén Sara Sjöstedt de Luna, Jun Yu

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • • • •

Anton Grafström Petter Minnhagen (emeritus) Yuri Belyaev Lennart Bondesson

57 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO:SHI TANG

Organic electronics for paradigm-shifting and functional applications Organic electronics promise the emergence of a wide variety of important devices, including low-cost and flexible solar cells and thin and conformable illumination panels, as well as a revolution in health care through the significant evolution of home diagnostic and treatment applications. ORGANIC ELECTRONICS The research in Organic Electronics at Umeå University is centred to the Organic Electronics Group (OPEG), which is localized at the Department of Physics. The core constellation that works in the field at the university comprises ~20 hired researchers, but they collaborate vibrantly with a large number of researchers at both Umeå University and at other locations. The activity contributes with both synthesis and development of materials, design and elucidation of operational procedures of devices, fabrication and characterization of devices, as well as commercialization via spin-off companies; and is currently supported by grants from VR, Energimyndigheten, SSF and Vinnova. The researchers at Umeå University have contributed

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with the world’s first metal-free illumination device, which comprises graphene as the electrode material, developed and patented low-cost fabrication methods akin to how newspapers and magazines are processed, and recently reported thin-film light-emitting electrochemical cells and integrated solar-to-hydrogen-fuel devices (so called artificial leafs) featuring record-high efficiency.


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PHOTO: ANDREAS SANDSTRÖM

Chemistry 3,4 % Plant Physiology 1,5 %

Physics 94,9 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • • • • • • • •

Ludvig Edman Thomas Wågberg Johannes Messinger Shi Tang Christian Larsen Piotr Matyba Bertil Eliasson Knut Irgum

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University

56 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MALIN GRĂ–NBORG

Chemometrics – data driven analysis of complex systems Massive amount of complex data are being generated by modern high-throughput ‘omics and sensor technologies. Traditional statistical methods are not capable of handling these data, and are difficult to interpret. The solution is the adoption of modern Chemometrics.

CHEMOMETRICS In the last number of years, new tools, concepts and technologies, have brought new hope for fundamental understanding of biology to drive the future of systems medicine and systems biology. Chemometrics is the science of extracting information from chemical, biological and medical systems by data-driven means. The main bulk of scientific and industrial investigations today includes data that are multivariate, and, in addition, collinear by nature. Such data cannot be handled by traditional statistical methods. Deep learning and Multivariate analysis have both proven to be key data driven modelling technologies for analysis of complex data. Deep Learning has revolutionized Artificial Intelligence

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in the fields of computer vision, natural language processing and speech recognition, commonly referred as Unstructured data. Multivariate analysis continues to have strong success for structured data typically generated in life science applications by modern analytical instrumentation (e.g. spectroscopy) and phenotypic technologies (e.g. gene expression, proteomics and metabolomics). In the field of Chemometrics, the integration of these advanced data analytics solutions provides complementary values to model complex systems.


Computing Science 0,6 % Applied Physics and Plant Physiology 5,8 % Elecronics 1,1 % Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics 9,6 % Molecular Biology 3,6 %

Chemistry 79,3 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • Johan Trygg • Henrik Antti • Anna Linusson • Patrik Ryden • Per Stenberg • Tufve Nyholm • Nabil Souihi • Patrik Andersson •Jun Yu

40 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University:

• Paul Geladi, • Torbjörn Lestander

• Miles Trupp • Gunnar Wingle • Thomas Moritz

No longer active at Umeå University: • Svante Wold


Tactile resonance sensors for characterization of soft tissue Piezoelectric tactile sensors and sensor systems are developed for characterization of soft materials. Applications are analysis of soft tissue for diagnostic purposes. For example, to detect prostate cancer or measure eye pressure.

TACTILE SENSORS Tactile sensors are generally used in touch screens, navigation interfaces, in automation and intelligent robots and for biomedical products. Here we develop piezoelectric tactile sensors and sensor systems for characterization of soft materials such as soft tissue. The sensors use vibrations and resonance modes to gain information of the mechanical characteristics of the surrounding medium (the soft material), extracted through calculations and finite-element modelling (FEM) of the piezoelectric sensor-tissue systems using models of silicones and human soft tissue ex-vivo. Examples of applications for the piezoelectric tactile sensors are eye pressure measurement or characterizing of tissue components for diagnostic purposes. For

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example, we have shown that the sensors can be used to detect prostate cancer, in human prostate ex-vivo. Today, there is a lack of pathologists and at the same time; there is an increasing demand of histopathology analysis, where the pathologist study cell samples in a light microscope. This is also a time consuming procedure. With a micrometer sized sensor we can measure mechanical variations of a tissue surface on cell size level. This could be used to develop methods for digitized histopathology analysis. Studies with the micro tactile sensors have been made on human- and porcine prostate tissue.


Plant Physiology 0,7 % Mathematics and Physics 4,9 % mathematical Statistics 5,6 % Chemistry 5,7 % Molecular Biology 1,3 %

Applied Physics and Electronics 81,8 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • Britt M Andersson • Ville Jalkanen • Anders Åstrand Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: • Olof A Lindahl • Anders Berg No longer active at Umeå University: –

39 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MAGNUS ANDERSSON

Optical Trapping and Manipulation in Molecular and Cellular Biology Many bacteria express micrometer-long attachment organelles (so called fimbriae or pili) whose role is to mediate adhesion to host tissue. We investigate the biomechanics of pili to shed light on the adhesion process using optical tweezers.

OPTICAL TWEEZERS Optical tweezers use a highly focused laser beam to provide an attractive or repulsive force to non-intrusively hold and move microscopic dielectric objects, including living bacteria. They can also apply and measure weak forces in biological systems, down to < 1 pN with good precision. This implies that instrumentation based on optical tweezers can measure forces significantly more accurately than other techniques, e.g. AFM, can do. They are therefore particularly useful in studying a variety of biological systems. Since they also can measure forces up to several hundreds of pN, they can be used to measure receptor-ligand bonds or those that are associated with an internal restructuring of a molecule. Due to its inherent low level of noise, optical tweezers

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can also provide accurate measurements of rapidly changing forces making it suitable for single molecule studies of interactions and characterization of individual adhesion organelles (e.g. pili) on individual bacteria. In addition to measuring forces, we have implemented a Raman spectrometer and microfluidic channel setup into the optical tweezers. This allows us to perform Raman investigation of a single trapped cell and study bacterial adhesion using the same microscope.


Molecular Biology 0,3 % Computing Science 0,7 % Chemistry 11,9 %

Applied Physics and Electronics 18,3 %

Physics 68,8 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • Magnus Andersson • Ove Axner

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Erik Fällman

37 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

Molecular mechanisms used by microorganisms in extreme environments Waste water effluents from mining and metallurgic industries in general hold high concentrations of metals and sulfate. The research in this cluster is focused on biogeochemical cycling of metals, as ground knowledge for remediation actions of polluted waste waters. ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Specific bacteria and archaea have developed skills to live in extreme environments, such as run-offs from mining and metallurgic industries. These environments are extremely acidic and contain high concentrations of metals and sulfate. The microorganisms are acidophilic, i.e. they thrive in low-pH environments, and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metals, such as zinc and copper. The research aims to elucidate what molecular mechanisms are used by microorganisms to tolerate such extreme environments. The questions are approached by performing field studies and experimental studies using bioreactors, where for example pH and metal concentrations can be ma-

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nipulated. State of the art molecular methods are used to study the genomes of the microorganisms as well as their gene transcription and protein synthesis. The research has led to insights into the sulfur metabolism and biodiversity of acidophilic microorganisms. Further, mechanisms for bioleaching and precipitation of metals have been elucidated. This knowledge is of importance for understanding biogeochemical cycles on Earth and potentially useful for biotechnological solutions and applications mitigating effects of effluents from mining and metallurgic industries.


PHOTO: MATTIAS PETTERSSON

Ecology and Environmental Science 4,2 %

PHOTO: MATTIAS PETTERSSON

Chemistry 19,6 %

Applied Physics and Electronics 2,6 %

Molecular Biology 73,6 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology:

31

– Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Mark Dopson


PHOTO: INGRID SÖDERBERGH

Robotics inspired by models of human cognition and thought processes Robotics has since its early days been inspired by biology and psychology. Industrial robots have “arms” and large efforts are currently made to create humanoid robots that totally mimic a human’s body. The minds of the robots are also influenced by humans. ROBOTICS On the one hand there is a drive to create sentient machines that at least gives the impression of thinking in a similar way as we do. On the other hand, the human mind is an existential proof of an intelligent machine, and trying to mimic human problem solving, perception, and other cognitive skills sounds is good idea if one aims at building intelligent machines. This is particularly true since other approaches, building on formal logics, have failed to deliver the intelligent robots that were promised in the beginning of the AI era in the 1950’s. Several theories on human behaviors and thought processes have inspired the development of algorithms in robotics. One example is imitation learning, which

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is the foundation for Learning From Demonstration, a method by which robots learn how to perform a task by first observing a human performing it. Another example is the way infants learn how to reach for objects in what is called “body babbling”. The same principles are used in algorithms for learning sequences of sensor and motor data in robotics. A third example is robots that are expected to communicate using natural language. Such research is, for obvious reasons, heavily influenced by linguistic theories on how humans conduct dialogues.


Computing Science 100 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology: • Thomas Hellström • Lars-Erik Janlert (emeritus)

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Erik Billing

29 Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)


PHOTO: MOSTPHOTOS

Flame front dynamics – investigating the physics of burning matter Much of modern society is depending on efficient use of fuels, which in turn is dependent on the analysis of combustion processes. Through analytical and numerical studies of flame front dynamics, a deeper understanding of burning matter can be achieved.

FLAME FRONT DYNAMICS Flame front dynamics is crucial in many different contexts; for example influencing the fuel efficiency in car engines and combustion based power plants. Moreover the understanding of burning matter is fundamental in the field of astrophysics, as it plays a major role for the physics of stars and super novas. Active research areas in this field include flame instabilities (such as e.g. the famous Darrieus-Landau instability), turbulent combustion, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and bubble motion, acoustic waves and shock waves, spontaneous acceleration of flame fronts and the physics and dynamics of detonation. The group in UmeĂĽ has been active in the theory development of all the above phenomena, with a special

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focus on flame acceleration and detonation triggering. The starting point is the basic equations of hydrodynamics, i.e. conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy, that - together with terms that accounts for the chemical reactions - form a closed system. These equations have been studied in detail, both analytically and with the aid of numerical simulations. One of the more important findings of these studies concern the transition from deflagration to detonation.


Physics 75,5 %

Applied Physics and Electronics 24,5 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology:

15

– Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Vitaly Bychkov


PHOTO: KATARINA KONRADSSON

Effects of environmental change and disturbance on aquatic organisms Aquatic organisms are important for global production and energy dynamics. Their molecular composition, size and form are shaped by the habitat they live in. Aquatic organisms build complex food webs, which can be modified by environmental change. OCEANOGRAPHY, HYDROLOGY & WATER RESOURCES The research is focused on the effects of environmental change and disturbance on aquatic organisms’ phenotypic and genetic adaptation, molecular composition, stoichiometry and growth. These factors determine their role in the food webs and their food quality. Target organisms range from microorganisms (e.g. heterotrophic bacteria and microalgae) to higher trophic levels (e.g. fish and amphibians). Experiments are designed to disentangle “bottom-up” and “top-down” effects on the organisms’ responses and adaptations. Bottom-up effects include, for example, effects of alterations in temperature and changed food quality and quantity. Top-down effects embrace effects

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of different predators on the organism or organism group in focus. State of the art statistical methods are applied to find governing factors for the organisms’ responses and adaptations in both pelagic and benthic environments. Cross-ecosystem studies are performed. Study habitats span from freshwater ponds to oceans, and land-water interactions are included. The research gives insights to the adaption potential of the organisms, which links to eco-evolutionary processes. This knowledge is important for understanding and mitigating effects of environmental change in aquatic ecosystems.


PHOTO: SIV HUSEBY

Ecology and Environmental Science 100 %

Principal investigators: Principal investigators that have substantially contributed to this field of research: Presently active at the Faculty of Science and Technology:

7

• Agneta Andersson Number of publications 2009–2016 (according to DIVA)

Presently active at other faculties at Umeå University: – No longer active at Umeå University: • Antonia Liess


Departmental profiles In addition to the information given above about each cluster, which, among other things, included pie charts showing which departments that contribute to each cluster, the figure below illustrates which clusters each department mainly have been involved in. Each department is represented by a bar. Each single-colored part of the bar represents a cluster, identified by its number. The length of each single-colored part of a bar indicates the fraction of the scientific production of the department (counted as the fraction of its number of publications) that was associated with that particular cluster in percentage units given by the scale at the bottom. To simplify the description, any cluster that a given department was involved in to a lesser extent than 5 % has been omitted. This implies that the figure shows the distribution of clusters that each department had most of its activity in.

The figure shows that while one of the departments, viz. Chemistry, was involved in a large number of clusters (eight), most of the others were predominantly engaged in several but not quite as many: the Departments of Physics and Computer Science – six clusters; EMG and TFE – five; Plant Physiology and Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics – four; and the Department of Molecular Biology and Umeå Institute of Design – three clusters. Two of the departments, viz. the Department of Science and Mathematics Education and Umeå School of Architecture had most of their research in one cluster (the clusters 4 and 18, respectively).


APPENDIX

ƌŝƐƚŝĂŶ ŽůůŝĂŶĚĞƌ hŵh

ϮϬϭϴͲϬϯͲϬϮ

K<hD Ed d/KE s^ E DE ^< Zd> ''E/E' E s d <E/^<ͲE dhZs d E^< W>/' & <h>d d E^ Wh >/< d/KE Z ^LJĨƚĞƚ ŵĞĚ ƂǀŶŝŶŐĞŶ ǀĂƌ Ăƚƚ ŵĞĚĞůƐ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌĂŶĂůLJƐ ćŵŶĞƐŐƌƵƉƉĞƌĂ ƉƵďůŝŬĂƚŝŽŶĞƌ ĨƌĊŶ ƚĞŬŶŝƐŬͲ ŶĂƚƵƌǀĞƚĞŶƐŬĂƉůŝŐĂ ĨĂŬƵůƚĞƚĞŶ͘ sŝƐƵĂůŝƐĞƌŝŶŐ Ăǀ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚĞŶ ŽĐŚ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐĞŶ ŝ Ϯ ŚĂƌ ŽĐŬƐĊ ŐũŽƌƚƐ ĨƂƌ Ăƚƚ ŬůĂƌŐƂƌĂ ŚƵƌ ŬůƵƐƚƌĞŶ ĨƂƌŚĊůůĞƌ ƐŝŐ ƚŝůů ǀĂƌĂŶĚƌĂ͘ d ĞŶ ůŽŬĂůĂ ƉƵďůŝĐĞƌŝŶŐƐĚĂƚĂďĂƐĞŶ ŝs ƵƚŐũŽƌĚĞ ĚĂƚĂŬćůůĂŶ͘ WƵďůŝŬĂƚŝŽŶĞƌ ŵĞĚ ƉƵďůŝĐĞƌŝŶŐƐĊƌ ϮϬϬϵ– ϮϬϭϲ͕ ƐĊĚĂŶĂ Ăƚƚ ŵŝŶƐƚ ĞŶ Ăǀ ĨƂƌĨĂƚƚĂƌŶĂ ƚŝůů ƉƵďůŝŬĂƚŝŽŶĞŶ ćƌ ŬŶƵƚĞŶ ƚŝůů ƚĞŬŶŝƐŬͲŶĂƚƵƌǀĞƚĞŶƐŬĂƉůŝŐĂ ĨĂŬƵůƚĞƚĞŶ ŝĚĞŶƚŝĨŝĞƌĂĚĞƐ͘ &Ƃƌ Ăƚƚ ŝŶŐĊ ŝ ƵŶĚĞƌůĂŐĞƚ ŵĊƐƚĞ ƉƵďůŝŬĂƚŝŽŶĞŶ ĚĞƐƐƵƚŽŵ ƵƉƉĨLJůůĂ ĨƂůũĂŶĚĞ ŬƌĂǀ͗ innehållsklassad som refereegranskad eller ”övrigt vetenskaplig” samt vara av dokumenttypen ĂƌƚŝŬĞů͕ ŬŽŶĨĞƌĞŶƐďŝĚƌĂŐ͕ ĂŶƚŽůŽŐŝďŝĚƌĂŐ͕ ďŽŬ͕ ƌĂƉƉŽƌƚ ĞůůĞƌ ĂǀŚĂŶĚůŝŶŐ͘ sŝĚĂƌĞ ŝŶŐĊƌ ďĂƌĂ ĞŶŐĞůƐŬƐƉƌĊŬŝŐĂ ƉƵďůŝŬĂƚŝŽŶĞƌ ŵĞĚ ĨƵůůƐƚćŶĚŝŐĂ ďŝďůŝŽŐƌĂĨŝƐŬĂ ƉŽƐƚĞƌ͘ dŽƚĂůƚ ƵƉƉĨLJůůĞƌ Eсϱϳϴϱ ƉƵďůŝŬĂƚŝŽŶĞƌ ĚĞƐƐĂ ŬƌĂǀ ŽĐŚ ƵƚŐƂƌ ƐĊůĞĚĞƐ ƵŶĚĞƌůĂŐĞƚ ĨƂƌ ćŵŶĞƐŬĂƌƚůćŐŐŶŝŶŐĞŶ͘ >/<, d^ Z <E/E' &ƂƌƐƚ ďĞŚƂǀĞƌ ǀŝ ƵƉƉƐŬĂƚƚĂ ĂůůĂ ƉĂƌǀŝƐĂ ůŝŬŚĞƚĞƌ ŵĞůůĂŶ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚĞŶ ĂǀƐĞĞŶĚĞ ĚĞƌĂƐ ćŵŶĞƐŝŶŶĞŚĊůů͘ >ŝŬŚĞƚƐďĞƌćŬŶŝŶŐĂƌŶĂ ŐƂƌƐ ŝŶŽŵ ƌĂŵĞŶ ĨƂƌ ǀĞŬƚŽƌƌLJŵĚƐŵŽĚĞůůĞŶ ;^ĂůƚŽŶ͕ tŽŶŐ͕ Θ zĂŶŐ͕ ϭϵϳϱͿ ŽĐŚ ďĂƐĞƌĂƐ ƉĊ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚĞŶƐ ƚĞdžƚƵĞůůĂ ŝŶŶĞŚĊůů͕ ĚǀƐ͘ ƚĞƌŵĞƌŝ ĨƌĊŶ ƚŝƚĞů ŽĐŚ ĂďƐƚƌĂĐƚ͘ sŝ ůĊƚĞƌ cm ĂǀƐĞ ĚĞŶ ŵ͗ƚĞ ƵŶŝŬĂ ƚĞƌŵĞŶ ŝ ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůĞƚ ŽĐŚ ŬŽƉƉůĂƌ ĞŶ Ɛ͘Ŭ͘ ŝĚĨͲǀŝŬƚ ƚŝůů ĚĞŶŶĂ ƐŽŵ ƐŬĂůů ƐƉĞŐůĂ ƚĞƌŵĞŶƐ ƐƉĞĐŝĨŝĐŝƚĞƚ

N idf (cm )  log    nm 

;ϭͿ

Ěćƌ E ćƌ ĂŶƚĂůĞƚ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ŽĐŚ nm ćƌ ĂŶƚĂůĞƚ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ŝ ǀŝůŬĂ cm ĨƂƌĞŬŽŵŵĞƌ͘ sŝŬƚĞŶ ĨƂƌ cm ŝ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ d i ; wmi Ϳ ŐĞƐ Ăǀ

wmi tmi  idf (cm )

;ϮͿ

Ěćƌ tmi ĂǀƐĞƌ ĂŶƚĂůĞƚ ŐĊŶŐĞƌ cm ĨƂƌĞŬŽŵŵĞƌ ŝ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ d i ͘ >ŝŬŚĞƚ ŵĞůůĂŶ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ d i ŽĐŚ d j ; sij Ϳ ŐĞƐ ŶƵ Ăǀ͗

sim(di , d j ) s ij

k m 1

 w  k

wmi  wmj

2

 w  k

mi m 1 m 1 

2

;ϯͿ

mj

Ěćƌ Ŭ ćƌ ĚĞƚ ƚŽƚĂůĂ ĂŶƚĂůĞƚ ƵŶŝŬĂ ƚĞƌŵĞƌ ŝ ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůĞƚ͘ EćŵŶĂƌĞŶ ŝ ;ϯͿ ŚĂƌ ĞŶ ŶŽƌŵĂůŝƐĞƌĂŶĚĞ ĞĨĨĞŬƚ ĂǀƐĞĞŶĚĞ ĂŶƚĂů ƚĞƌŵĞƌ Ğƚƚ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ŝŶŶĞŚĊůůĞƌ ŽĐŚ ĚĞ ůŝŬŚĞƚƐǀćƌĚĞŶ ŵĞůůĂŶ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ƐŽŵ ŐĞƐ Ăǀ ;ϯͿ ǀĂƌŝĞƌĂƌ ŵĞůůĂŶ Ϭ ;ŝŶŐĂ ŐĞŵĞŶƐĂŵŵĂ ƚĞƌŵĞƌͿ ŽĐŚ ϭ ;ŝĚĞŶƚŝƐŬĂ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚͿ͘


<>h^dZ/E' K , s/^h >/^ Z/E'ŝŝ <ůƵƐƚƌŝŶŐƐŵĞƚŽĚĞŶ ƐŽŵ ĂŶǀćŶƚƐ är en variant av s.k. ”modularity clustering” ;EĞǁŵĂŶ͕ ϮϬϬϰͿ͘ &Ƃƌ ǀĂƌũĞ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ d i ƐƂŬĞƌ ǀŝ Ğƚƚ ƉŽƐŝƚŝǀƚ ŚĞůƚĂů xi ƐŽŵ ŝŶĚŝŬĞƌĂƌ ǀŝůŬĞƚ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ƚŝůůŚƂƌ͘ ĞŶ ĂŶǀćŶĚĂ ŬůƵƐƚƌŝŶŐƐŵĞƚŽĚĞŶ ŝĚĞŶƚŝĨŝĞƌĂƌ ĚĞƐƐĂ ŚĞůƚĂů ŐĞŶŽŵ Ăƚƚ ŵĂdžŝŵĞƌĂ

 V ( x1 ,...xn )

ki k j   1   s     xi , x j  ij 2m i  j  2m 

;ϰͿ

ŵĞĚ ĂǀƐĞĞŶĚĞ ƉĊ x1 ,...xn ŽĐŚ Ěćƌ  xi , x j ĂŶƚĂƌ ǀćƌĚĞƚ ϭ Žŵ xi  x j ĂŶŶĂƌƐ Ϭ͘ sŝĚĂƌĞ͕ ki   j i sij

1  ki ƐĂŵƚ  ćƌ ĞŶ ƵƉƉůƂƐŶŝŶŐƐƉĂƌĂŵĞƚĞƌ͘ Kŵ ǀŝ ĨƂƌ ƚŝůůĨćůůĞƚ ŝŐŶŽƌĞƌĂƌ 2 i ƵƉƉůƂƐŶŝŶŐƐƉĂƌĂŵĞƚĞƌŶ ;ĞůůĞƌ ĞŬǀŝǀĂůĞŶƚ ƐćƚƚĞƌ   1 Ϳ ƐĊ ĨƂƌƐƚĊƐ ;ϰͿ ŐĞŶŽŵ Ăƚƚ ŶŽƚĞƌĂ Ăƚƚ ƵƉƉŵćƚƚ ŽĐŚ m 

ůŝŬŚĞƚ ŵĞůůĂŶ ƚǀĊ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ; sij Ϳ ũćŵĨƂƌƐ ŵĞĚ ĨƂƌǀćŶƚĂĚ ůŝŬŚĞƚ ;

ki k j 2m

Ϳ ƵŶĚĞƌ ĞŶ ƌĂŶĚŽŵŝƐĞƌŝŶŐŝŝŝ Ăǀ

ƵŶĚĞƌůŝŐŐĂŶĚĞ ůŝŬŚĞƚƐĚĂƚĂ͘ džĞŵƉĞůǀŝƐ ƐŬƵůůĞ ĞŶ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐ ŵĞĚ Ğƚƚ ǀćƌĚĞ ƉĊ ;ϰͿ ƌƵŶƚ Ϭ ƐĊůĞĚĞƐ ŝŶĚŝŬĞƌĂ Ăƚƚ ůŝŬŚĞƚĞŶ ŵĞůůĂŶ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚĞŶ ŝ ŬůƵƐƚƌĞŶ ŝ ŐĞŶŽŵƐŶŝƚƚ ŝŶƚĞ ćƌ ŚƂŐƌĞ ćŶ ǀĂĚ ƐŽŵ ƐŬƵůůĞ ŬƵŶŶĂ ĨƂƌǀćŶƚĂƐ ǀŝĚ ĞŶ ƐůƵŵƉŵćƐƐŝŐ ƉĂƌƚŝƚŝŽŶĞƌŝŶŐ Ăǀ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚĞŶ͘ EŽƚĞƌĂ ŽĐŬƐĊ Ăƚƚ ĂŶƚĂůĞƚ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ ŐĞƐ ĂƵƚŽŵĂƚŝƐŬƚ ŐĞŶŽŵ Ăƚƚ ŵĂdžŝŵĞƌĂ ;ϰͿ͘ DĂŶ ŬĂŶ ĚŽĐŬ ǀŝƐĂ Ăƚƚ ŵĂdžŝŵĞƌŝŶŐ Ăǀ ;ϰͿ ƵƚĂŶ ƵƉƉůƂƐŶŝŶŐƐƉĂƌĂŵĞƚĞƌŶ ŬĂŶ ůĞĚĂ ƚŝůů Ăƚƚ ƐŵĊ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞ ŬĂŶ ŝĚĞŶƚŝĨŝĞƌĂƐ ;&ŽƌƚƵŶĂƚŽ Θ ĂƌƚŚĠůĞŵLJ͕ ϮϬϬϳͿ͘ ćƌĨƂƌ ŚĂƌ  ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞƌĂƚƐ ǀŝůŬĞŶ ŚĂƌ ĞŶ ĞĨĨĞŬƚ ƉĊ ĂŶƚĂůĞƚ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ ƐŽŵ ŝĚĞŶƚŝĨŝĞƌĂƐ͘ Kŵ   1 ƚĞŶĚĞƌĂƌ ĞŶ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐ ŵĞŶ ŚƂŐƌĞ ƵƉƉůƂƐŶŝŶŐ ŐĞƐ ;ƐƚƂƌƌĞ ĂŶƚĂů ŬůƵƐƚĞƌͿ ŽĐŚ Žŵ   1 ƚĞŶĚĞƌĂƌ ĞŶ ŐƌƂǀƌĞ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐ ŐĞƐ ;ĨćƌƌĞ ĂŶƚĂů ŬůƵƐƚĞƌͿ ćŶ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚǀĂƌŝĂŶƚĞŶ Ăǀ ŬůƵƐƚƌŝŶŐƐŵĞƚŽĚĞŶ ƵƚĂŶ ƵƉƉůƂƐŶŝŶŐƐƉĂƌĂŵĞƚĞƌŶ͘ WƌŽďůĞŵĞƚ ŶƵ ćƌ Ăƚƚ ŝĚĞŶƚŝĨŝĞƌĂ Ğƚƚ ĞůůĞƌ ĨůĞƌĂ ƌŝŵůŝŐĂ ǀćƌĚĞŶ ƉĊ  ͘ ,ćƌ ŚĂƌ ǀŝ ĨƂůũƚ Ğƚƚ ƚŝůůǀćŐĂŐĊŶŐƐƐćƚƚ ƐŽŵ ƐŬĂƉĂƌ ĞŶ ŵćŶŐĚ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐĂƌ ŐĞŶŽŵ Ăƚƚ ƐLJƐƚĞŵĂƚŝƐŬƚ ǀĂƌŝĞƌĂ ǀćƌĚĞƚ ƉĊ  ŽĐŚ identifiera regioner där klusterlösningarna är ”stabila” dvs. små eller inga skillnader mellan ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐĂƌŶĂ ĨƂƌĞůŝŐŐĞƌ ;>ĂŵďŝŽƚƚĞ͕ ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ ^ƚĂďŝůŝƚĞƚĞŶ ƚĂƐ ƐŽŵ ĞŶ ƐŝŐŶĂů Žŵ Ăƚƚ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐĞŶ ćƌ ”ƌŽďƵƐƚ” ŽĐŚ ĚćƌĨƂƌ ƚƌŽůŝŐĞŶ ŝŶƚƌĞƐƐĂŶƚĂƌĞ Ăƚƚ ĨŽŬƵƐĞƌĂ ƉĊ ćŶ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐĂƌ ƐŽŵ ćƌ ŬćŶƐůŝŐĂ ĨƂƌ ƐŵĊ ĨƂƌćŶĚƌŝŶŐĂƌ ŝ  ͘ Ećƌ ĚĞƚƚĂ ƚŝůůǀćŐĂŐĊŶŐƐƐćƚƚ ĂƉƉůŝĐĞƌĂĚĞƐ ǀĂůĚĞƐ ĞŶ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐ ďĞƐƚĊĞŶĚĞ Ăǀ ϰϮ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ ; 

2 Ϳ͘ EŽƚĞƌĂ Ăƚƚ ĚĞƚ ĨŝŶŶƐ ĂŶĚƌĂ ůƂƐŶŝŶŐĂƌ ƐŽŵ ďĂƐĞƌĂƚ ƉĊ ƐƚĂďŝůŝƚĞƚ ƐŬƵůůĞ ŬƵŶŶĂ ǀćůũĂ Ƶƚ͘ d͘Ğdž͘ ŝĚĞŶƚŝĨŝĞƌĂĚĞƐ ǀŝƐƐĂ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐĂƌ Ŷćƌ   1 ƐŽŵ ƐƚĂďŝůĂ͕ Ăƚƚ ĚĞƐƐĂ ŝŶƚĞ ǀĂůĚĞƐ ŚĂƌ Ăƚƚ ŐƂƌĂ ŵĞĚ ćŵŶĞƐŬĂƌƚůćŐŐŶŝŶŐĞŶƐ ƐLJĨƚĞ͕ ĚĞƐƐĂ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐĂƌ ŚĂĚĞ ĞŶ ĨƂƌ ůĊŐ ƵƉƉůƂƐŶŝŶŐ ĨƂƌ Ăƚƚ ǀĂƌĂ ƐƉĞĐŝĞůůƚ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƚŝǀĂ ;ƚ͘Ğdž͘ Ğƚƚ ƐƚŽƌƚ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ ĨƂƌ ĨLJƐŝŬ ŽĐŚ Ğƚƚ ƐƚŽƌƚ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ ĨƂƌ ĚĂƚĂǀĞƚĞŶƐŬĂƉ ĞƚĐ͘Ϳ͘ ƚƚ ĚĞŶ ǀĂůĚĂ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐĞŶ ŝŶƚĞ ćƌ ĚĞŶ ĞŶĚĂ ƚćŶŬďĂƌĂ ůŝŐŐĞƌ ŝ ƐĂŬĞŶƐ ŶĂƚƵƌ͘ <ůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐĞŶ ŐĞƌ ŝŶŐĞŶ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƚŝŽŶ Žŵ ŬůƵƐƚƌĞŶƐ ŝŶďƂƌĚĞƐ ĨƂƌŚĊůůĂŶĚĞ͘ sŝ ŬĂŶ ĚŽĐŬ ďĞůLJƐĂ ĚĞƚƚĂ ŐĞŶŽŵ Ăƚƚ ǀŝƐƵĂůŝƐĞƌĂ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚĞŶ ŝ ĞŶ ƚǀĊĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶĞůů ƌLJŵĚ ŽĐŚ ƐĂŵƚŝĚŝŐƚ ŝŶĚŝŬĞƌĂ ǀŝůŬĞƚ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ Ğƚƚ ŐŝǀĞƚ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ƚŝůůŚƂƌ͘ sŝ ŬĂŶ ďĞƚƌĂŬƚĂ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚĞŶ ƐŽŵ ŶŽĚĞƌ ŽĐŚ ĚĞ ƉĂƌǀŝƐĂ ůŝŬŚĞƚƐǀćƌĚĞŶĂ ƐŽŵ ůćŶŬĂƌ ŝ ĞŶ ŐƌĂĨ ŽĐŚ ĚĊ ĂŶǀćŶĚĂ ĞŶ ŐƌĂĨƌŝƚŶŝŶŐƐŵĞƚŽĚ ;ǀĂŶ ĐŬ Θ tĂůƚŵĂŶ͕ ϮϬϬϳͿ Ăǀ Ɛ͘Ŭ͘ ŬƌĂĨƚďĂƐĞƌĂĚ ƚLJƉ ;ĞŶŐ͘ ĨŽƌĐĞ ĚŝƌĞĐƚĞĚ ůĂLJŽƵƚͿ͘ &Ƃƌ ǀĂƌũĞ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ d i ƐƂŬĞƌ ǀŝ ŶƵ ĞŶ ǀĞŬƚŽƌ xi 

2

ƐŽŵ ŝŶĚŝŬĞƌĂƌ

ŬŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƚĞƌŶĂ ŝ ĚĞŶ ƚǀĊĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶĞůůĂ ƌLJŵĚĞŶ͘ <ŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƚĞƌŶĂ ŐĞƐ ŐĞŶŽŵ Ăƚƚ ŵŝŶŝŵĞƌĂ

V ( x1,.., xn ) 

s i j

ij

 disij2   disij

i j

ŵĞĚ ĂǀƐĞĞŶĚĞ ƉĊ x1 ,...xn ŽĐŚ Ěćƌ disij ĂǀƐĞƌ ĂǀƐƚĊŶĚĞƚ ŵĞůůĂŶ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ŝ ŽĐŚ ũ ǀŝůŬĞƚ ŐĞƐ Ăǀ

;ϱͿ


disij  xi  x j 

 x 2

k 1

ik

 x jk  2

;ϲͿ

ƚƚ Ɛćƚƚ Ăƚƚ ĨƂƌƐƚĊ ;ϱͿ ćƌ ŝ ƚĞƌŵĞƌ Ăǀ ĂƚƚƌĂŬƚŝŽŶƐͲ ŽĐŚ ƌĞƉƵůƐŝŽŶƐŬƌĂĨƚĞƌ͘ &ƂƌƐƚĂ ƚĞƌŵĞŶ ŝ ;ϱͿ ƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞƌĂƌ ĞŶ ĂƚƚƌĂŬƚŝŽŶƐŬƌĂĨƚ ŽĐŚ ĚĞŶ ĂŶĚƌĂ ƚĞƌŵĞŶ ƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞƌĂƌ ĞŶ ƌĞƉƵůƐŝŽŶƐŬƌĂĨƚ͘ :Ƶ ŚƂŐƌĞ ůŝŬŚĞƚ ŵĞůůĂŶ ƚǀĊ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ; sij Ϳ͕ ĚĞƐƚŽ ƐƚĂƌŬĂƌĞ ĂƚƚƌĂŬƚŝŽŶƐŬƌĂĨƚ͘ ^ƚLJƌŬĂŶ ƉĊ ƌĞƉƵůƐŝŽŶƐŬƌĂĨƚĞŶ ŵĞůůĂŶ ƚǀĊ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ćƌ ŝŶƚĞ ďĞƌŽĞŶĚĞ Ăǀ ůŝŬŚĞƚĞŶ ŵĞůůĂŶ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚĞŶ ŽĐŚ ĚĞŶ ƚŽƚĂůĂ ĞĨĨĞŬƚĞŶ Ăǀ ĚĞ ƚǀĊ ŬƌĂĨƚĞƌŶĂ ďůŝƌ ĚćƌĨƂƌ Ăƚƚ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ŵĞĚ ŚƂŐ ůŝŬŚĞƚ ĚƌĂƐ ƚŝůů ǀĂƌĂŶĚƌĂ ŵĞĚĂŶ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ŵĞĚ ůĊŐ ĞůůĞƌ ŝŶŐĞŶ ůŝŬŚĞƚ ƐŬũƵƚƐ ďŽƌƚ ĨƌĊŶ ǀĂƌĂŶĚƌĂ

džĞŵƉĞů͗ ǀĂƌũĞ ŶŽĚ ĂǀƐĞƌ Ğƚƚ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ŽĐŚ ĚĞƚ ĞƵŬůŝĚŝƐŬĂ ĂǀƐƚĊŶĚĞƚ ŵĞůůĂŶ ĚĞŵ ćƌ ƌĞůĂƚĞƌĂƚ ƚŝůů ĚĞƌĂƐ ĞƐƚŝŵĞƌĂĚĞ ůŝŬŚĞƚ͕ ƉůĂĐĞƌŝŶŐĞŶ ŚĂƌ ŐŝǀŝƚƐ ŐĞŶŽŵ Ăƚƚ ŵŝŶŝŵĞƌĂ ;ϱͿ͘ / ĚĞ ƚǀĊ ĨƂƌƐƚĂ ďŝůĚĞƌŶĂ ĨƌĊŶ ǀćŶƐƚĞƌ ŚĂƌ ĚĞ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ƐŽŵ ƚŝůůŚƂƌ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ ϭ ƌĞƐƉĞŬƚŝǀĞ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ Ϯ ƌƂĚŵĂƌŬĞƌĂƚƐ ŽĐŚ ŝ ďŝůĚ ϯ ŚĂƌ ƌĞƐƉĞŬƚŝǀĞ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ ŝŶĚŝŬĞƌĂƚƐ ŵĞĚ ĞŶ ĞŐĞŶ ĨćƌŐ͘ <ůƵƐƚƌĞŶ ŚĂƌ ŐŝǀŝƚƐ ŐĞŶŽŵ Ăƚƚ ŵĂdžŝŵĞƌĂ ;ϰͿ ŵĞĚ Ğƚƚ ǀćƌĚĞ ƉĊ ƵƉƉůćƐŶŝŶŐƐƉĂƌĂŵĞƚĞƌŶ ƉĊ ĂƉƉƌŽdžŝŵĂƚŝǀƚ Ϯ͘ Ŷ ŝŶƚĞƌĂŬƚŝǀ ŬĂƌƚĂ ĨŝŶŶƐ ƉĊ ĨƂůũĂŶĚĞ ĂĚƌĞƐƐ͗ ŚƚƚƉ͗ͬ​ͬŬůĂƐƐŝĨŝĐĞƌĂ͘Ƶď͘ƵŵƵ͘ƐĞͬŵĂƉƉŝŶŐdĞŬEĂƚ

E 'Z <KDD Ed Z Z •

ǀŐƌćŶƐŶŝŶŐĞŶ ƐŽŵ ŐũŽƌĚĞƐ ŝ ĚĂƚĂŝŶƐĂŵůŝŶŐƐĨĂƐĞŶ͕ ĚǀƐ͘ ĞŶĚĂƐƚ ĞŶŐĞůƐŬƐƉƌĊŬŝŐĂ ƉƵďůŝŬĂƚŝŽŶĞƌ ŵĞĚ ĨƵůůƐƚćŶĚŝŐĂ ďŝďůŝŽŐƌĂĨŝƐŬĂ ƉŽƐƚĞƌ ŵŽƚŝǀĞƌĂƐ Ăǀ Ăƚƚ ĚĞƚ ćƌ ƚĞdžƚ ƐŽŵ ůŝŐŐĞƌ ƚŝůů ŐƌƵŶĚ ĨƂƌ ůŝŬŚĞƚƐďĞƌćŬŶŝŶŐĂƌŶĂ͘ ƚƚ ďůĂŶĚĂ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ƐŬƌŝǀŶĂ ƉĊ ŽůŝŬĂ ƐƉƌĊŬ ćƌ ŝĐŬĞͲƚƌŝǀŝĂůƚ ŝ ĚĞƚƚĂ ƐĂŵŵĂŶŚĂŶŐ ŽĐŚ ƉŽƐƚĞƌ ŝ ŝs ƐŽŵ ŝŶƚĞ ćƌ ĨƵůůƐƚćŶĚŝŐĂ ;ƐĂŬŶĂƌ ĂďƐƚƌĂĐƚ ƚ͘Ğdž͘Ϳ ćƌ ƐǀĊƌĂ Ăƚƚ ŝŶĨŽŐĂ ŝ ĚĞŶŶĂ ƚLJƉ Ăǀ ĂŶĂůLJƐ͘ DĂũŽƌŝƚĞƚĞŶ Ăǀ ĚĞ ďŝďůŝŽŐƌĂĨŝƐŬĂ ƉŽƐƚĞƌŶĂ ŝ ŝs ĨƌĊŶ ƚĞŬŶŝƐŬͲ ŶĂƚƵƌǀĞƚĞŶƐŬĂƉůŝŐĂ ĨĂŬƵůƚĞƚĞŶ ćƌ ĚŽĐŬ ƉĊ ĞŶŐĞůƐŬĂ ŽĐŚ ĨƵůůƐƚćŶĚŝŐĂ͘ Ğƚ ĨŝŶŶƐ ŵĊŶŐĂ ĂŶĚƌĂ Ɛćƚƚ Ăƚƚ ĞƐƚŝŵĞƌĂ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚůŝŬŚĞƚ ćŶ ǀĂĚ ƐŽŵ ĂŶǀćŶƚƐ Śćƌ͘ sĂů Ăǀ ĚĂƚĂŬćůůĂ ƐćƚƚĞƌ ĚŽĐŬ ĂůůƚŝĚ ďĞŐƌćŶƐŶŝŶŐĂƌ ŝ ŶĊŐŽƚ ĂǀƐĞĞŶĚĞ͘ dŝůů ĞdžĞŵƉĞů ƐŬƵůůĞ ƌĞĨĞƌĞŶƐͲ ŽĐŚ ĐŝƚĞƌŝŶŐƐĚĂƚĂ ŬƵŶŶĂ ŬŽŵƉůĞƚƚĞƌĂ ĚĞŶ ƚĞdžƚƵĞůůĂ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƚŝŽŶƐŬćůůĂŶ Žŵ ĞŶ ĚĂƚĂďĂƐ Ěćƌ ƐĊĚĂŶ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƚŝŽŶ ćƌ ƚŝůůŐćŶŐůŝŐ ŚĂĚĞ ĂŶǀćŶƚƐ͘ Ŷ ĨƂƌƐƚƵĚŝĞ ǀŝƐĂĚĞ ĚŽĐŬ Ăƚƚ ƚćĐŬŶŝŶŐƐŐƌĂĚĞŶ ĨƂƌ ǀŝƐƐĂ ŝŶƐƚŝƚƵƚŝŽŶĞƌƐ ƉƵďůŝŬĂƚŝŽŶĞƌ ǀĂƌ ĨƂƌ ůĊŐ ŝ ƚ͘Ğdž͘ tĞď ŽĨ ^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ͕ ĚćƌĨƂƌ ǀĂůĚĞƐ ŝs ƐŽŵ ĚĂƚĂŬćůůĂ ;ƐŽŵ ƐĂŬŶĂƌ ĐŝƚĞƌŝŶŐƐͲ ŽĐŚ ƌĞĨĞƌĞŶƐĚĂƚĂͿ͘ Ğƚ ĨŝŶŶƐ ĂŶĚƌĂ ŬůƵƐƚƌŝŶŐƐůƂƐŶŝŶŐĂƌ ƐŽŵ ŽĐŬƐĊ ƐŬƵůůĞ ŬƵŶŶĂ ǀĂƌĂ Ăǀ ŝŶƚƌĞƐƐĞ͘ / ƐũćůǀĂ ǀĞƌŬĞƚ ćƌ ĚĞƚ ƌćƚƚ ůćƚƚ Ăƚƚ ŝŶƐĞ Ăƚƚ ĚĞƚ ƌŝŵůŝŐĞŶ ďŽƌĚĞ ĞdžŝƐƚĞƌĂ ĞŶ ŚŝĞƌĂƌŬŝ Ăǀ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐĂƌ ĨƌĊŶ ćŵŶĞƐŵćƐƐŝŐƚ ŐƌŽǀŬŽƌŶŝŐ ƚŝůů ŵLJĐŬĞƚ ƐƉĞĐŝĨŝŬ͘ ĞŶ ǀĂůĚĂ ůƂƐŶŝŶŐĞŶ ŵĞĚ ϰϮ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ ćƌ ĚćƌĨƂƌ ĞŶ Ăǀ ĨůĞƌĂ ŵƂũůŝŐĂ͘ ĞŶ ćƌ ĚŽĐŬ ŝŶƚĞ ƐůƵŵƉŵćƐƐŝŐƚ ǀĂůĚ ƵƚĂŶ ƵƉƉĨLJůůĞƌ Ğƚƚ ƐƚĂďŝůŝƚĞƚƐͲ ĞůůĞƌ ƌŽďƵƐƚŚĞƚƐŬƌŝƚĞƌŝƵŵ ƐĂŵƚ Ğƚƚ ŵĞƌ ƐƵďũĞŬƚŝǀƚ ŬƌŝƚĞƌŝƵŵ ƐŽŵ ƐƚŝƉƵůĞƌĂƌ Ăƚƚ ůƂƐŶŝŶŐĞŶ ƐŬĂůů ǀĂƌĂ ”användbar” för det syftet den tagits fram för (här i princip ”inte för lågupplöst (få kluster) men ŝŶƚĞ ŚĞůůĞƌ ƐĊ ŚƂŐƵƉƉůƂƐƚ Ăƚƚ ǀŝŶƐƚĞŶ ŵĞĚ Ăƚƚ ĂƵƚŽŵĂƚŝƐŬƚ ƐĂŵŵĂŶĨĂƚƚĂ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚŵćŶŐĚĞŶ ĨƂƌƐǀŝŶŶĞƌͿ͘


Z & Z E^ Z ŽƌŐ͕ /͕͘ Θ 'ƌŽĞŶĞŶ͕ W͘ ;ϭϵϵϳͿ͘ DĂũŽƌŝnjĂƚŝŽŶ ůŐŽƌŝƚŚŵ ĨŽƌ ^ŽůǀŝŶŐ D ^ DŽĚĞƌŶ DƵůƚŝĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶĂů ^ĐĂůŝŶŐ͗ dŚĞŽƌLJ ĂŶĚ ƉƉůŝĐĂƚŝŽŶƐ ;ƉƉ͘ ϭϯϱͲϭϱϳͿ͘ EĞǁ zŽƌŬ͕ Ez͗ ^ƉƌŝŶŐĞƌ EĞǁ zŽƌŬ͘ &ŽƌƚƵŶĂƚŽ͕ ^͕͘ Θ ĂƌƚŚĠůĞŵLJ͕ D͘ ;ϮϬϬϳͿ͘ ZĞƐŽůƵƚŝŽŶ ůŝŵŝƚ ŝŶ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ ĚĞƚĞĐƚŝŽŶ͘ WƌŽĐĞĞĚŝŶŐƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ EĂƚŝŽŶĂů ĐĂĚĞŵLJ ŽĨ ^ĐŝĞŶĐĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ͕ ϭϬϰ;ϭͿ͕ ϯϲͲϰϭ͘ ĚŽŝ͗ϭϬ͘ϭϬϳϯͬƉŶĂƐ͘ϬϲϬϱϵϲϱϭϬϰ :ĞŶŬŝŶƐ͕ D͘Ͳ ͕͘ Θ ^ŵŝƚŚ͕ ͘ ;ϮϬϬϱͿ͘ ŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƚŝǀĞ ƐƚĞŵŵŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ ƐĞĂƌĐŚ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĚĞdžŝŶŐ͘ WĂƉĞƌ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚ Ăƚ the SIGIR’05. ŚƚƚƉ͗ͬ​ͬůĞŵƵƌ͘ĐŵƉ͘ƵĞĂ͘ĂĐ͘ƵŬͬZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚͬƐƚĞŵŵĞƌͬƐƚĞŵŵĞƌϮϱĨĞď͘ƉĚĨ >ĂŵďŝŽƚƚĞ͕ Z͘ ;ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ DƵůƚŝͲƐĐĂůĞ ŵŽĚƵůĂƌŝƚLJ ŝŶ ĐŽŵƉůĞdž ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬƐ͘ WĂƉĞƌ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ tŝKƉƚ ϮϬϭϬ Ͳ ϴƚŚ /Ŷƚů͘ ^LJŵƉŽƐŝƵŵ ŽŶ DŽĚĞůŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ KƉƚŝŵŝnjĂƚŝŽŶ ŝŶ DŽďŝůĞ͕ Ě ,ŽĐ͕ ĂŶĚ tŝƌĞůĞƐƐ EĞƚǁŽƌŬƐ͘ EĞǁŵĂŶ͕ D͘ ͘ :͘ ;ϮϬϬϰͿ͘ ŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ǁĞŝŐŚƚĞĚ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬƐ͘ WŚLJƐŝĐĂů ZĞǀŝĞǁ ͕ ϳϬ;ϱͿ͕ Ϭϱϲϭϯϭ͘ ^ĂůƚŽŶ͕ '͕͘ tŽŶŐ͕ ͕͘ Θ zĂŶŐ͕ ͘ ^͘ ;ϭϵϳϱͿ͘ ǀĞĐƚŽƌ ƐƉĂĐĞ ŵŽĚĞů ĨŽƌ ĂƵƚŽŵĂƚŝĐ ŝŶĚĞdžŝŶŐ͘ ŽŵŵƵŶ͘ D͕ ϭϴ;ϭϭͿ͕ ϲϭϯͲϲϮϬ͘ ĚŽŝ͗ϭϬ͘ϭϭϰϱͬϯϲϭϮϭϵ͘ϯϲϭϮϮϬ ǀĂŶ ĐŬ͕ E͘ :͕͘ Θ tĂůƚŵĂŶ͕ >͘ ;ϮϬϬϳͿ͘ sK^͗ EĞǁ DĞƚŚŽĚ ĨŽƌ sŝƐƵĂůŝnjŝŶŐ ^ŝŵŝůĂƌŝƚŝĞƐ ĞƚǁĞĞŶ KďũĞĐƚƐ͕ ĞƌůŝŶ͕ ,ĞŝĚĞůďĞƌŐ͘ tĂůƚŵĂŶ͕ >͕͘ Θ sĂŶ ĐŬ͕ E͘ :͘ ;ϮϬϭϯͿ͘ ƐŵĂƌƚ ůŽĐĂů ŵŽǀŝŶŐ ĂůŐŽƌŝƚŚŵ ĨŽƌ ůĂƌŐĞͲƐĐĂůĞ ŵŽĚƵůĂƌŝƚLJͲďĂƐĞĚ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ ĚĞƚĞĐƚŝŽŶ͘ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ WŚLJƐŝĐĂů :ŽƵƌŶĂů ͕ ϴϲ;ϭϭͿ͘ ŝ Vi kan i princip jämställa termer med ”ord”. Sedvanlig förbehandling har dock applicerats på varje dokuments textinnehåll så som borttagandet av icke innehållsbärande ord (the, or, and …) samt ĂŶǀćŶĚĂŶĚĞƚ Ăǀ ĞŶ ƐƚĞŵŵĞƌ͕ ĚǀƐ͘ ĞŶ ĂůŐŽƌŝƚŵ ƐŽŵ ƌĞĚƵĐĞƌĂƌ Ğƚƚ ŽƌĚ ƚŝůů ĚĞƐƐ ŵŽƌĨŽůŽŐŝƐŬĂ ƌŽƚ ;:ĞŶŬŝŶƐ Θ ^ŵŝƚŚ͕ ϮϬϬϱͿ͘ &Ƃƌ ƚĞŬŶŝƐŬ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƚŝŽŶ ƌƂƌĂŶĚĞ ĚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĨŝŬĂ ĂůŐŽƌŝƚŵĞƌ ƐŽŵ ĂŶǀćŶĚƐ ĨƂƌ Ăƚƚ ŝĚĞŶƚŝĨŝĞƌĂ ůŽŬĂůƚ ŵŝŶŝŵƵŵͬŵĂdžŝŵƵŵ ƐĞ ;tĂůƚŵĂŶ Θ sĂŶ ĐŬ͕ ϮϬϭϯͿ ŽĐŚ ; ŽƌŐ Θ 'ƌŽĞŶĞŶ͕ ϭϵϵϳͿ ĂǀƐĞĞŶĚĞ ĨƌĂŵƚĂŐĂŶĚĞƚ Ăǀ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌůƂƐŶŝŶŐĞŶ ƌĞƐƉĞŬƚŝǀĞ ŐƌĂĨƌŝƚŶŝŶŐĞŶ͘ ŝŝŝ sŝ ŬĂŶ ƚćŶŬĂ ƉĊ ĚĞ ƉĂƌǀŝƐĂ ůŝŬŚĞƚĞƌŶĂ ; sij Ϳ ƐŽŵ ƵƚŐƂƌĂŶĚĞ ĞůĞŵĞŶƚ ŝ ĞŶ ƐLJŵŵĞƚƌŝƐŬ ůŝŬŚĞƚƐŵĂƚƌŝƐ ŝŝ

;ϱϳϴϱdžϱϳϴϱͿ͘ DĞĚ ƌĂŶĚŽŵŝƐĞƌŝŶŐ ĂǀƐĞƌ ǀŝ Śćƌ Ăƚƚ ĚĞ ƵƉƉŵćƚƚĂ ůŝŬŚĞƚĞƌŶĂ ŵĞůůĂŶ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚĞŶ ƐůƵŵƉŵćƐƐŝŐƚ ďLJƚĞƌ ƉůĂƚƐ ŝ ůŝŬŚĞƚƐŵĂƚƌŝƐĞŶ ŵĞŶ ŵĞĚ ĚĞŶ ďĞŐƌćŶƐŶŝŶŐ Ăƚƚ ƐƵŵŵĂŶ Ăǀ Ğƚƚ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚƐ ƵƉƉŵćƚƚĂ ůŝŬŚĞƚƐǀćƌĚĞŶ ; k i Ϳ ŝŶƚĞ ĨƂƌćŶĚƌĂƐ͘ Det är denna ”nollmodell” som styr ĂŶƚĂůĞƚ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ ŽĐŚ ŝ ǀŝůŬĞŶ ƵƚƐƚƌćĐŬŶŝŶŐ ƚǀĊ ĚŽŬƵŵĞŶƚ ĨƂƌƐ ƚŝůů Ğƚƚ ŐĞŵĞŶƐĂŵƚ ŬůƵƐƚĞƌ ĞůůĞƌ Ğũ͘