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Yalta 1945 TEIMUN 2011 • Historical Council Dr. Lutz F. Krebs


Your task Agree to collaborate to end this war on two fronts, to bring justice to the victims, and to prevent such wars in the future. *** All this, while keeping your nation’s interests at heart.


Overview !

What brought us here? !

Nationalism

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Realism vs. idealism

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Technological change

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What are the issues, what are your options?

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Discussions with the individual delegations?


Nationalism


French Revolution 1789 The ancien rĂŠgime stumbles over the cost of war and social divisions. July 14, 1789 marks the storm of the Bastille.

Monarchy is abolished by the 3rd estate‌ With the revolution, the people, la nation, become the source of sovereignty


Definitions The nation is an emotional association whose adequate expression would be an own state, and that normally has the tendency to produce such. — Max Weber

Nationalism is a political principle that states that the political and national units should be congruent. — Ernest Gellner


Nationalist Propaganda On both sides, schools served as propaganda machines to build concepts of the enemy


“Breakfast in Paris!”


Nationalism !

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Nationalism has devastated the world twice already British Empire is threatened by nationalist tendencies from within Soviet Union is on a nationalist upswing (see national anthem of 1944), has been threatened by nationalism from within and without


Consequences !

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Just as after the Great War, you will establish and abolish nations ‌ tread lightly! When dealing with Germany and Japan, it may be necessary to reshape society Something is needed to prevent another resurgence of nationalism to lead us to World War III


Idealism vs. Realism


Wilson’s Plans With his famous „14 points“, Wilson tried to establish an alternative to the balance of power. His ideas had an important influence on the peace treaty of Versailles

US-President Woodrow Wilson

Lloyd George, Clemenceau & Wilson 1919 at Versailles


The League of Nations The League of Nations is founded 1919 with its general secretariat in Geneva. The US are not a member: senate refuses to ratify the treaty.

The League was supposed to reconcile conflicts peaceful and so to prevent wars. The Kellogg-BriandPact (1928) declared war as a means of solving international disputes illegal in international law.


Japan’s Challenge

Japan conquers Manchuria in 1931, and leaves the League of Nations in 1933.


Italy’s Challenge

Italy attacks Ethiopia in 1935, and leaves the League in 1937


Germany’s Challenge

Hitler comes to power in 1933 and leaves the league in the same year.


Idealism vs. Realism !

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US seems substantially more idealistic than its counter-parts UK, SU are fundamentally “realistic” in their world views It may be necessary to find a middle path…


New Technology


The Nature of Warfare has changed‌


New Technology !

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Since the American Civil War, mechanized warfare has taken hold The last two wars have reached as-yet inconceivable levels of devastation The speed and decisiveness of early action gives an incredible advantage — Blitzkrieg!


Consequences !

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The relations between states need to discourage the use of force Conflicts can escalate too quickly — you need to find a way to de-escalate equally quickly It is crucial to avoid a hegemony


Issues & Options


Issues !

How to deal with Germany & Japan — territory, nation, elites?

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How to deal with liberated territories?

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How to build a lasting peace?


Territories !

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Territories are zero-sum games Stalin: “whoever occupies a territory also imposes on it his own social system� (Djilas 1962) Your victory ensures multiple claims on all territories


Nations Aggressors !

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Leadership — trial or not? Need for deeper involvement in German & Japanese society? Continued existence as one state? Reparations?

Liberated nations !

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Leadership — whom to recognize? What amount of choice do the people get in the shape of their future societies? What support can be made available to them?


“United Nations” !

What kind of conflicts should a “united nations” deal with?

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How should membership be structured?

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How can its influence be assured?


Your influence !

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You will decide the course of this war … and whether it ends soon You will decide the course of numerous nations other than your own You will have the opportunity to promote the cause that you deem just — rule of the workers, democracy, socialism, capitalism But you cannot proceed without each other’s support


Yalta