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CONTENTS Malala Yousafzai (pg 2-3)

Editor’s Note

We all have a view on life, whether it’s music, politics, the atmosphere or what you dreamt about last night. It all counts. The whole idea behind Teenage Democracy is to create awareness on topics that yes, might be a little wacky or left wing, but they’ll get you thinking. We have to get our ideas and beliefs from somewhere right? It just seems that a lot of everyday conversation is related toward what we hear on main-stream media, but why? I mean, it’s nice to know what the weather is like on BBC news, but how informative are their stories in the global scheme and why are so many topic areas left out? Anyway, shifting back to this magazine; it’s ultimately a student run organisation to platform unconventional expressions, beliefs, news, projects and events. I want to thank everyone involved in Teenage Democracy; I’ve loved everyone of our crazy meeting’s. So, here it is, the first issue, I hope you enjoy…

Reclaim the Night (Pg4-5) One Small step for man, One giant hoax for humanity (Pg 6-7) Who are the real hooligans in the Arctic? (Pg 8-9) This Week’s 30 Song selection (PG 10) Nelson Mandela (Pg 12) Shark Fin Soup (pg 13) In My Opinion (PG 14) War On Terror; The Irony (pg 16-17) Liquid Gold (PG 18) Never Vote Tory (PG20-23) Mental health in Teenagers (PG 24) New York; The Living Dream (PG 25)

Brigitte Cross de Valk

Extinction-Good or Bad? (pg 26-27) Opinions expressed in this publication represent the personal views of the contributing authors.

OCD; The ugly Truth (pg 2829) 1

Caption Competition (Pg 30)

‘I raise my voice, not so that I can shout, but so those without a voice can be heard’- MALALA.


In October, 2012, headlines ricocheted around the world, ‘16-year-old school girl shot by the Taliban’. A poignant expression as it conveys the complete absence of morality; the innocence of youth silenced by the corrupt old. Although in this case, a voice as pure and daring as Malala’s could not be suppressed into silence.

where she currently lives with the hope of returning to her home country: Pakistan. One of Malala’s now famous quote’s reads: ‘I raise my voice, not so that I can shout, but so those without a voice can be heard’. This represents her use of the weapon that we all possess: the ability to speak our minds and share our thoughts. It is the capacity, to express ourselves, which stimulates and brings forth the real fear among any oppressive organisation. Fear of a female voice led to the scar over Malala’s left eye; the remains of the bullet wound and the evident truth of the 9th of October, 2012.

Malala Yousafzai, a Pakistani school girl born 12th July, 1997. At the age of eleven she drew inspiration from the courageous energy of her father to begin her own activism. Through her BBC blog writing, on the daily life of young school girl living the life under the Taliban (a hostile militia), the importance of her education was clear. Her acknowledgement of the power of knowledge meant that she could not stand for the prohibition of a woman’s education.

The day inhumanity and indifference almost took the life of a young woman.

Under abbreviated equality, Malala had a choice: to pick up her books and make the journey to school or to leave them in the corner to succumb to dust. A symbolic act that embodies the decision which must be made in the wake of a witnessed injustice. To protest against what is wrong, or to remain kneeled in constructed indifference. On the 9 October 2012, Malala Yousafzai was shot in the head and neck in an assassination attempt by Taliban gunmen while returning home on a school bus.

Brigitte Cross de Valk

The one question asked by the gunman, which ultimately led to Malala’s critical condition, was ‘Which one of you is Malala?’ Malala’s bold reply resulted in her presence in Queen Elizabeth Hospital, city of Birmingham. This is the same city


(Portsmouth), to the Guildhall square to rally against rape, all forms of male violence against women and safety for women on the streets. The Portsmouth White Ribbon Group and Aurora New Dawn 'Reclaim the Night', is a worldwide organisation and has been running for 5 years in Portsmouth. It is a night where men and women take over the streets for the night and march for change.


In 2012 over 1.2 million women were domestically abused and over 400,000 women were sexually assaulted, 700,000 have been raped, and many stalked. From all these disgusting figures, only 1 out of 10 women will report these incidents. Feelings of fear and isolation leave many unable to seek help. 35% of women worldwide have experienced some form of sexual violence at one point in their lives. This statistic, along with the many others issued out every year: is disturbing. Women have not only been treated as objects for too long, but are also being blamed for the cause of the sexual violence and rape they are forced to suffer. This needs to change.

On Friday November 22nd I took part in a march from the Spinnaker Tower


Hundreds of male and female supporters followed the deafening drums of Batala Portsmouth and chanted their way around the Portsmouth streets armed with determination, the spirit for change and an empowering combo of placards and megaphones. The atmosphere was intense, exhilarating and brought supporters and the general public together, sharing the same opinion: all wanting change. To see and join so many men and women dancing round the streets chanting 'What do we want? Safe streets! When do we want it? NOW!' was great to be a part of. You could really feel how many people understood that women cannot suffer and live in fear anymore. Also, the fact that we could all come together and show the public what was wrong, was phenomenal. The organisation was beautiful to watch; signs being handed out, friends being made, organisers dancing in the streets to lead chants all demonstrated how amazing people can be in caring and wanting to make a difference- it was inspiring.

Once the march had ended and we'd snaked our way through the streets lined with nightclubs and pubs, we arrived at the Guildhall square to see microphones and speakers set up ready for various guest speakers and speeches. There were harrowing accounts told, that really reminded you of exactly why we were marching that night. One of these was about their youngest domestic violence victim being just 7 years old. There were some wonderful guest speakers, a great musical performance from a local artist, and finally it was time to catch the ferry back home.

Reflecting on that night three weeks later, I'm so thankful it was organised, and I urge other supporters of women's rights and survivors to join us all next year, to help bring change. Come and support the hundreds of other men and women who walk and donate for CHANGE: women cannot live in fear any longer. It MUST stop.

If you're interested in attending the walk next year check out the Aurora New Dawn website:

If you're suffering, or witnessing any domestic abuse, or rape, and need any help please call the Aurora New Dawn helpline: 02392 472 165 or visit their website.

By Ellie Harman-Taylor


One small step for mankind one giant hoax for humanity conspiracy theorists may claim they come from ‘studio lights from a production set’. Believers of the moon landing however, argue the point “Why would NASA make such a irrefutable mistake of showing these lights when they’d funded so much money in this mission?” The answer however is simple. Whistle-blowers deeply unhappy with the fraud they were perpetrating, may have deliberately introduced these anomalies for the population to notice and so prove the moon landing was a hoax. This nevertheless, is still open for discussion and I’ll leave upon you to make your decision. Another discrepancy occurred in the lack of continuity between still photographs and live TV footage of the Apollo 16 mission launched in April 1972. In the photograph taken using the specially designed Hasselblad camera shown above, the astronaut seen to be jumping forward toward the camera appears to have his Personal Life Support System (PLS) flap unfastened. This is the triangular fabric shown in the following photograph, however in the filmed version of this event shown in a frozen picture form following, depicts a different story. This picture shows the astronaut jumping in the same manner, with the flag from the opposite direction and with the other astronaut stood taking the picture using the Hasselblad camera in the distance. However, the PLS flap appears to be fastened securely down on the astronaut’s suit. How can this be if the photograph and film were undertaken at the same time? A whistle-blower must have intentionally unfastened the flap for the still photo of the incident. This clearly shows that the events were occurring at different times and perhaps at different places. Surely this couldn’t have happened on the moon’s surface as it would

It has been identified that one in four Britons believe that the Apollo 11 mission to the moon (which included Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins), was a hoax, meaning that the first trip and visit to the moon in 1969 never truly happened in a quarter of the British population’s eyes. In this article the lunar photography of this mission will be examined and help prove conspiracy theorists views credible. In 1959, Bill Kaysing a writer said to be the father to this moon landing hoax, had heard by officials, that only unmanned space trips could be possible in the early 1970’s with only a 0.001% chance of manned space missions being conducted. This was due to limited technological advances of the late 1950’s and also due to the risks of solar flares and the Van Allen radiation belt (two layers of highly charged particles at high altitudes in the Earth’s magnetic fields) as well as other contributing factors. However, despite all of this, President Kennedy set America on this perilous moon mission saying in 1961, “America should commit ourselves before this decade is out to put man on the moon and return him safely to the Earth.” In this article, I will attempt to introduce you to some of the inconsistencies in these missions first starting with the lunar photography of previous Apollo missions. The lack of continuity between the live TV footage of man’s ‘first steps’ on the moon and the still photographs received after the mission had landed safely ‘back’ on Earth suggests that whistle-blowers involved in this hoax were not entirely comfortable with the severity of this deception. The shadows in both live footage and still photographs, show a clear discrepancy with the astronauts on whether they were filmed and photographed on the moon using the Sun as the only light source, or having multiple artificial light sources at a film set in Area 51 where these could have been conducted. This is a photograph taken upon the Apollo 11 mission to the moon that clearly shows a form of reflection and light beams coming from some unknown source, or as 6

have required a third party to have unfastened it for the photograph, perhaps at a production set on Earth as we know it. These are only two contributing factors to the entirety of the Man-on-the-Moon conspiracy theory but in the following issues I will be addressing further discrepancies in the Apollo missions and address reasons as to why NASA and the US government would invest so much money in a hoax. Tess Wood

To Be Continued Next Issue‌


Who are the real ‘hooligans’ in the Arctic? On the 18th September 2013, 28 Greenpeace activists and 2 journalists embarked on a protest against drilling for oil in the Arctic. Representing 18 nationalities, the Arctic 30 travelled to the Barents Sea to scale Russian oil giant Gazprom’s most recent drilling platform – a risky addition to their oil-thirsty industry. This isn’t the first time Greenpeace has actively protested against drilling in the Arctic. In August 2012, Greenpeace climbed the same platform. In this instance, 6 activists climbed the rig where they hung from portable ledges and claimed to have interrupted operations, although this particular act didn’t seem to draw too much attention. Unfortunately, the September protest led to Russia taking offence to the action, initially charging the crew with piracy but then dropping the charges to hooliganism, which carries a maximum sentence of seven years, within private waters. Greenpeace argues that they were in international waters.

climate change is happening, and the number one cause is our fossil-fuel consumption. This exploitation of our planet’s resources has led to further emissions of carbon dioxide, more than our planet is able to cope with. We are suffocating the systems that maintain the conditions millions of species depend on for survival.

Russian security personnel boarded the activists’ Dutch-owned ship, Arctic Sunrise without any evident warning, wearing balaclavas and pointing guns and knives at the crew. This overreaction to the peaceful protest has even had Russian President Putin, questioning the way the Arctic 30 have been treated. Letters home from the activists have reported freezing cells, poor diets and very little time allowed outside.

Arctic sea-ice has shown large reductions over the past few years, disappearing more each summer and returning smaller and thinner each winter. This has been noted as a business opportunity by oil companies like Gazprom, some having already staked claim on newly accessible ‘oil fields’. These companies are searching for longevity and economic success amongst growing competition for shrinking resources that are nothing but destructive for the future of this planet.

But it isn’t only about the wellbeing of those that oppose exploration for oil. The Arctic itself is an extremely fragile environment that is already feeling the effects of a warming planet. Global

A major concern, highlighted by the Arctic 30, is that in the event of an oil spill, the rigs are extremely remote and may not be easily accessible by any help sent. This


would prolong the stopping of the spill and contaminate a once pristine environment with decades’ worth of damage. BP’s deep-water oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is an example of such long-term damage; two years after the spill, beaches are still covered in oil and traces of oil components continue to be found within the Gulf’s food chain. If it took BP eight attempts to staunch the escaping oil from a relatively less risky location, how many attempts would it take Gazprom and how many spills can we afford in the Arctic? From an environmentalist’s perspective, perhaps it is Gazprom (and other potential Arctic exploiters), that should be charged with hooliganism rather than the 30 activists, recently locked up in St Petersburg awaiting trial. Surely it is worth the future of our planet to give up drilling and harming a planet already headed for irreversible change, to begin looking for alternative energy sources, before it’s too late? Anna McArdle




By Grace Baggott 11


Nelson Mandela South Africa's first black president and anti-apartheid icon Nelson Mandela has died aged 95 after suffering from prostate cancer for twelve years, suffering from a serious lung infection and having been in hospital for three months earlier this year. Madiba, as he was known in his home country, led South Africa's transition from white-minority rule in the 1990s, after 27 years in prison. Current South African President, (President Jacob Zuma), has promised Mandela a full state funeral and ordered all flags to be flown at half mast until the funeral, adding that "our nation has lost its greatest son." Mandela was elected president in 1994, soon after being released from prison after serving 27 years for opposing white rule. Mandela has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (in 1993) and was one of the world's most esteemed statesmen after preaching reconciliation despite being imprisoned for 27 years. He retired from public service in 2004 and has rarely been seen in public since. There is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the shadow of death again and again before we reach the mountaintop of our desires. ~ Madiba Peter Marcus


Shark Fin Soup reproduce very regularly and simply cannot deal with the rate of shark finning. And with no sharks, the whole marine ecosystem is at risk. When you take out the top predator from any food chain, there is going to be a lot of problems. Life underwater will never be the same again! Sharks are extremely important, and as long as you do not interfere with them they are harmless (you are more likely to get hit by lightning than be killed by a shark, the film ‘Jaws’ just gave sharks a bad name).

Every year, an estimated 100 million sharks are murdered for their fins. The sharks are caught by fishermen, have their fins savagely removed, and then are dumped – normally still alive – back into the ocean, where they are left to starve, be eaten by other fish or drown. This inhumane and barbaric trade means that many species of sharks are now endangered or are on the brink of extinction. Sharks have been in our oceans for over 400 million years. Something needs to be done, and fast.

The good news is that there are ways that you can help. Firstly there are online pledges and petitions to stop restaurants serving shark fin soup and to stop the sharks being finned in the first place. Secondly, you can raise awareness of the issue to friends and family so they can look out if they ever see shark fin soup on a menu. Oh, and finally, you can never eat shark fin soup.

So what is “shark fin soup”? Well, it is a so-called Asian delicacy, consisting of shark fin, chicken breast and other vegetables and flavourings. The thing is, the shark fin itself is pretty much tasteless – it is used to add texture. So why do people insist on eating it? It is not like it comes cheap – one bowl of shark fin soup can cost you up to $100 (£62.71).

So let’s put an end to this needless killing and help the sharks back to living safely again, the way nature intended. Tom Rogers

The finning means that one day there may be no sharks. Sharks do not


My opinion on the minds of Buddhist monks: Hello reader, recently in my philosophy class we were discussing the idea that our real selves are not our physical bodies but instead our non-physical selves or our souls. This belief is one practiced by Buddhists all over the world and most prominently in Buddhist monks. The monks are able to invest their entire beings into their belief in god and can reach a state of absolute nirvana in which they can feel nothing, have no sense of anything including their own existence and can be ultimately calm. In this state, the monks cannot feel pain at all; in 1963 there was a very interesting case of this in which a monk named Thích Quang Duc (pictured left) set himself on fire in protest of the Vietnamese government’s mistreatment and persecution of Buddhists. What I find particularly interesting yet also shocking is that throughout Quảng Duc’s slow and obviously painful burn to death, he did not scream or cry but instead remained perfectly still with an expression of calm on his face. The reason for this is not what you may think (no he wasn’t a wizard and it was not a magic trick of some kind) his mind and soul were elsewhere while his body was being destroyed! While to us this may seem shocking and perhaps a little hyperbolic, you must admit that the power of the Buddhists mind was absolutely incredible. Quang Duc was not the only monk to set himself alight in protest, in fact several others followed his example when the leader of the Vietnamese government Ngo Dinh Diem failed to cease his fury against the Buddhists. To conclude, the point of this column was not to turn you all into Buddhist monks or encourage you to set yourselves fire (I wouldn’t advise the latter), but I believe that we can all learn from the braveness of these people and perhaps train our own minds to reach a state of peace. After all is there any harm in reaching a calmness of the soul and content in our lives through the wisdom of others? In my opinion…no, there is not. Have a beautiful day,


Evie Carroll x



War on Terror: The Irony By Brigitte Cross de Valk It’s a phrase so over-worn by a parade of US government officials that many perhaps, even mouth this idiom during sleep. It’s an excuse for undisciplined violence, and a fragile one at that. Even the name ‘War on Terror’ makes no sense, as the act of war in itself, constitutes terror. Therefore, by attempting to battle this emotion, it can be argued that further conflict is created. Welcome to the logic of America. One form of war that sits comfortably under this predisposed banner, is the targeted killing programme, more commonly known as ‘Drone Attacks’. Deadly (and arguably futile) missions constructed as a means to dispose of ‘enemy’ military personnel connected to al-Qaeda. These missions are, as quoted by President Obama, ‘accurate and legitimate’. However, most of these excursions have resulted in the annihilation and destruction of untold innocent civilians and communities. It is a heart-wrenching situation for many small villages in Pakistan and Yemen; children no longer look to the sky without fear and trepidation. Instead, a growing number of inhabitants of these countries gaze at the gleaming underside of remote-controlled drones, which hover over-head in pursuit of their human targets. A harrowing case, recently brought to public attention, is the death of a sixtyeight year old grandmother: Mammana Bibi, a ‘human target’, her body brutally destroyed by a drone. The attack was a

meticulous copy of the standard procedure, where the initial strike is closely followed by another, targeted toward rescuers. It is this second progression, (of directing missiles toward helpers), which the UN states to be a ‘war crime’. Although with Obama still adamant that these attacks are necessary, due to his foreign policy and global warmaking, responsibility is still not claimed by the US. Furthermore, the reluctant nature of admission has been demonstrated by the number of congress members who attended the Rafiq family testimony on the death of their family member: Mammana Bibi. Five. Five solitary congress members felt the case important enough to turn up. The rest, well, I’m sure they were all too preoccupied with ironing their American flag.

The first US authorised attack was documented December 17th 2009, Yemen. It is on this precise date when a small Bedouin village in Majalah became the victim of an event so sickening, that the US attempt of holding the Yemen government responsible, crumbled in its wake. Forty six people, fourteen women and twenty one children: massacred. However, not a drop of discrepancy can

be found in any mass media outlet. A fact further worsened with the Yemen government’s claim that this was a ‘successful air-force strike against an alQaeda training camp’. In response to enquiries such as why these ‘trainees’ were not just arrested, the rapid retort was that the village could not be ‘easily reached.’ The village was two kilometres from the tarmac road. A fact brought to attention by Salen Bin Fareed, one of the first people to bear witness to the devastated village. Sharing his experience on the show Democracy Now, this encounter can be summed up in a few of his sentences. ‘What I have seen, I have not seen I my life, and I don’t think I will ever see, even if it is like a third World War. Those people were living in a small valley, and honestly, we could only find very, very few whom we could recognise, bodies and blood mixed with hundreds of sheep and goats.’ “Indistinguishable, human bodies amongst the carcasses of animals” A recent news quote from on-the-ground witnesses to the carnage. Has the value of human life really stooped so low? Reconsideration, at this present moment, is dire, vital to the world’s morality and to our own conscience. Is the distance between our country and the next so great that the barrier between different ethnicities becomes ‘us’ and ‘them’? To some, however, this is only a matter of contention, for action is being taken by people to attain transparency on these issues. Resistance is growing. Last week

five anti-drone activists were arrested in upstate New York for protesting outside the Air National Guard Base near Syracuse. It has also been stated that Obama has been personally challenged by young activist Malala Yousafzai on the effect of drone strikes. People are standing up and speaking out, to undermine not only the drone war but the whole concept of abused power. This is a movement that faces long hills to climb, but as Einstein once said ‘Nothing will end war unless the people themselves refuse to go.’

Brigitte Cross de Valk

Liquid Gold; the sub culture of bottled water.

class distinctions. Drinking bottled water induces a higher standard in something which should be available to everyone in equal measures, for the benefit of the wealthy. I strongly believe that this extremely wealthy group of people feel it is below them to have to drink the same quality of water as the poorest group.

In the UK the wealthiest 10 percent of society earn 12 times as much as the poorest 10 percent; an inequality that can be represented through the use of bottled water.

To the upper class, drinking bottled water is a culture or a lifestyle. After going for a morning yoga session and then tending to the horses nothing quenches the thirst like a cool bottle of Evian, Volvic or Spa. This culture has been created as a lifestyle which not many can afford, making it exclusive. Another negative to bottled water can be found through the unnecessary waste it creates. Water can flow straight out of a tap into a glass, but instead, when we drink bottled water the plastic must be recycled or it can take up to 1000 years to bio degrade. U.S. landfills are overflowing with 2 million tons of discarded water bottles alone.

In 2006, the bottled water industry was valued at $60Billion, while globally 200 billion bottles of water are consumed. These are worryingly large figures due to safe UK water being available to everyone equally. In theory, the question of ‘if water is equally good and safe in the UK why would people go out of their way to pay for something which is already provided to them?’ can be raised.

There is also in-depth research to show that bottled water is no better or safer for you than tap water. So we must ask why people drink it. I put it down to 2 reasons. Firstly, people have been brainwashed into believing it is better for them and drinking tap water puts them in some kind of danger. The other possible reason is that people use water as a statement to suggest that they are better than everyone else in some way because of it. Hamo Forsyth said that “Bottled water has become liquid gold” and is symbolic of the capitalist society we live in today.

The view, that huge mass market of people all drink bottled water from a disliking in the taste of the tap water is easily dismissed as 40% of bottled water comes from the same supply of water which taps also provide. I think the reason that there are so many people paying into the bottled water industry is due to water being available to everyone equally, with no

Simon Finn



Never Vote Tory

The modern conservative party’s ideology is a mixture of traditional conservatism and ‘the new right’, which itself is a mix of neoliberalism and neo-conservatism.

It is quite normal, (and has been for a great many years) to ruthlessly attack to ‘the government’ for whatever reason great or small. This is because it is never possible to keep the masses happy within the constraints of a capitalist system, which, whether they realise it or not exploits them. Also, the nature of our voting system leads inevitably to a two party system where the policies are broadchurch and centrist in order to keep more people moderately satisfied.

Traditional conservatism places emphasis on law and order, with strong and powerful prisons to punish. This is a way of the ruling classes maintaining more power over the people, it is not so much for the public’s safety. Prisons should be for reform, to try and correct and help criminals. They should not be hellish places of torture and suffering as they once

But, it is important, that we, as young people are not weighed down by ignorance, it is important that we research the political world for ourselves and see that not every government is the same, not every government screws people over (in the same way). It is particularly important that we criticise the current (coalition) government for their austerity measures –their cuts, their attacks on ordinary people, on welfare, on education, immigrants, multiculturalism and the arts and culture. The conservatives, with their Liberal Democrat puppets, pose a great threat to our society and are in the process of slowly dismantling it as we speak.

were, before the Quakers’ movement towards prison reform. Traditional Tories also place great importance on the ownership of private property, because if people own more they may feel like they have a larger stake in society and would have more to loose from radical changes in the status quo, e.g. revolution. (Conservatism is all about conserving the status quo, conserving tradition and wealth.) Unbelievably, traditional Tories actually see humans as naturally, inherently evil. This may stem from Christian views and concepts of

It is important, though, to know why the Tories do what they do, what their beliefs are, what their view is of humanity, and indeed, who they are. These are the things I shall be exploring with you here.


original sin. Because of this view, conservatism is less about helping others, because one is too suspicious of other’s because of their natural evil nature. Instead, they believe that everyone should merely look after their own interests, this links to the way in which conservatives are currently trying to take away benefits form the most vulnerable in society because they feel they are lazy or weak and the state should not have to look after them. Traditional Tories believe that the upper class know what is best for everyone and so should naturally be in control. Conservatism is usually associated with elitism, for example, a large number of conservative MPs attended schools like Eton.

change should be avoided and if it must happen, then it should happen slowly, in order to maintain the status quo as much as possible, and keep the power in the hands of this elite upper who believe that they are the only ones who deserve to have said power. Another important part of traditional conservatism is the emphasis on the concept of the greatness of ‘the Nation’ and indeed the emphasis on patriotism; these things are seen as important because they lead to collectivism and a united nation, in which everyone, in their different positions in the hierarchical society work together to produce for profit. David Cameron and his rich mates say that profit is not a dirty word. We must argue that it is because profit can only be achieved with the exploitation of workers and paying a worker less than his or her labour is actually worth. If people were not paid less then what their work is worth then the bosses would not make these vast sums of money whilst ordinary live in comparative poverty.

Traditional conservatives believe in an organic society where everyone has a special and different role, but some roles are more important than others. This view of society justifies class barriers and hierarchy because if everyone has a different role, and one role is more important than another, then surely a person with a role which is considered to be more ‘important’ deserves higher pay and a better life than some who is more replaceable and less important. Traditional Tories believe that

The next aspect of the modern Conservative Party that makes them the evil force they are today is the ‘new right’. The new right is based, unsurprisingly on the old right (traditional conservatism), but there are a few important differences; Traditional Tories always treated our welfare state with great care because of their idea of an organic society, where it is relatively important to care for 21

all the people in their different roles, even the more replaceable, lower ranking workers, but with the rise of Thatcher, the new right and neo-liberalism came a more mechanistic view of society among Tories. This is more dangerous because it means that the workers are now almost totally replaceable, they and indeed whole industries can be replaced if there is a better workforce for the job, and new workers can be ‘bought’, this means that the new right sees no real need to care for the poorest people in society as the traditional Tories did. We saw a ruthless example of this replacement of workers and industry with Thatcher’s attacks on the miners. Also, with neo-liberalism and the new right, came unprecedented attacks on trade unions. Trade unions are one of the only way for workers to stand up for themselves in an exploitative, capitalism system. They are a way of workers saying that they deserve better pay or working conditions or more reasonable working hours. When Thatcher crushed the unions, nearly to breaking point, she took away the control workers had over their own lives and destinies. Neoliberal Tories believe that unions are bad for society because they prevent profits for the big bosses and allow workers a say in the way they work.

society –which in itself is good because it is more interesting to live in and is less likely to lead to racism and conflict –if different cultures understand each other rather than being totally separated

by monoculturalist barriers. Conservatives back monoculturalism because it leads to more patriotism and nationalism which they believe is good for collectivism within countries which in turn is good for production and profit. Conservatives back capitalism because it benefits them; they are a part of the ruling class who exploit the masses for their gain and for profit. One must always remember that we live in a capitalist world and so everything is controlled by money and the ruling class. For example, the ruling class own the means of production, so, people who work –be it in factories or big offices are owned and controlled by the owners of the company who are the reapers of most of the profit generated by the work of workers. The media is a justifier of the tyranny of the ruling class, as the people who own the papers belong to the same elite class as the Tories and the bankers and the CEOs etc.

With the neo-conservatism of the new right came more emphasis on monoculturalism and more attacks on ethnic diversity and multiculturalism. Multiculturalism is a good thing because it leads to a vibrant and colourful and diverse


There are many other complexities to conservative ideology but these are the basics. Now, if we understand the Tories’ motives, it should be easier for us to defend ourselves and our communities from conservative attacks. We can see the effects of this stagnant, putrid ideology on our society if we look around us; I ask you now, think about the different parts of the conservative ideology that I have listed here and see if you can see that part of the ideology’s influence on society today –be it a big or small influence. The most important aspects and ideals to strive for in life and society are: love, freedom, equality, community, family, friendship, peace, etc. These ethics are not valued by conservatives; instead they value greed, self interest, money, profit, tradition, patriotism control and power. Resist hatred of humanity and greed, chose the way of compassion instead. Mataio Austin Dean


Mental Health in Teenagers Mental Health issues are very common among teenagers. Statistics from Young Minds: • 1 in 10 children and young people aged 5 - 16 suffer from a diagnosable mental health disorder - that is around three children in every class • Between 1 in every 12 and 1 in 15 children and young people deliberately self-harm • There has been a big increase in the number of young people being admitted to hospital because of self-harm. Over the last ten years this figure has increased by 68% • More than half of all adults with mental health problems were diagnosed in childhood. Less than half were treated appropriately at the time • Nearly 80,000 children and young people suffer from severe depression • Over 8,000 children aged under 10 years old suffer from severe depression • 72% of children in care have behavioural or emotional problems - these are some of the most vulnerable people in our society • 95% of imprisoned young offenders have a mental health disorder. Many of them are struggling with more than one disorder • The number of young people aged 15-16 with depression nearly doubled between the 1980s and the 2000s • The proportion of young people aged 15-16 with a conduct disorder more than doubled between 1974 and 1999 But even with it being so common, there is still so much stigma and bullying that surround mental health issues. We've all heard the phrase “It's only attention seeking” more than once of twice, haven't we? The truth is that people are bullied and treated differently because they have a mental health disorder, which can ultimately make it a lot worse. We wouldn't treat anyone badly because they had a broken leg, right? So why do people feel the need to pick on someone, because they have depression or an anxiety disorder. Phrases like “Go kill yourself” are so casually used, that we accept them as a social norm. But it's not right. Everyone has the right to be treated fairly and kindly and not be excluded from things, just because they have a disorder. Another issue is that most people don't know where to go for support and help. You can't just tell your mum, it isn't that easy sometimes. She might blame herself or not understand. Speaking to someone you do not know is a way you can clear a lot of things off your chest without the fear of being judged. In college, we have councillers and cyber mentors (if you are being bullied, details of which can be found on the Barton health and wellbeing page), but if you want to speak to someone outside of college, I have provided a list of useful links. • • • • www. • Speak to your friends, family, teachers or GP if you are worried you have a mental health problem or require support. You don't have to do this alone. Jenny Gilchrist


New York: The living dream. If it’s ever your wish to go up New York’s Empire State Building, go up at twilight, because the skyline views are mesmerising. From the 86th floor I am looking down on the yellow cabs you see in the movies as ants. This opportunity has arisen from my family and I being given the chance of a lifetime to visit the big apple; a dream that has become reality because of the charity, ‘Dreams Come True’. The elevator ride that takes me up has practically teleported me from the hustle and bustle of the streets to the most powerful position in the city, giving me a complete bird’s eye view of the landscape. The Statue of Liberty we are visiting on our first full day is a fantastic piece of architecture – a sight to behold. Belonging to the American National Park scheme along with its surroundings, the statue adds to the City’s rich heritage and beauty. A remarkable fact I take away from here is that no workers died in the construction of this masterpiece, despite the hard labour. On our second day, in Broadway (the engine of the city), I have just watched ‘The Lion King’ which makes the film really come to life with colour and character filling the The Minskoff theatre. The way the personified animals walk down the aisles with their amazing costumes put me right in the centre of ‘The Circle of Life’! New York’s ‘Garden Of Eden’ is not commercial or artificial but is one of the most peaceful, tranquil places to be in the whole of the area. There’s more than just stunning views of nature here , the world famous zoo is bringing me up close with sea lions performing unbelievable tricks, playing Frisbee with their mouths! A


photograph could not possibly capture this beautiful display of entertainment. A massive must in ‘The Big Apple’ is to dine within this authentic hamburger, fries and milkshake fast-food restaurant, ‘Shake Shack’. On the first night, after such a long flight, we found somewhere that offers traditionally American food, ‘a juicy hamburger high in taste and quantity’. My taste buds will savour this moment forever. However it’s also the location we are in that makes it so special, we’re right in the centre of the prestigious and majestic Grand Central Terminal with a classic, historic design like that of a palace built in the mediaeval times. Staying at ‘The Barclay Intercontinental Hotel’ 14 stories high in central Manhattan has made this whole experience extra special. It’s like stepping aboard the Titanic with the art décor in the main entrance repelling your right to be there. Angel the doorman (probably the most down to earth New Yorker), gave us tips on our second night, in that harsh yet comforting Italian New York accent, on how to speak with the locals, ‘Yo Taxi, Yo what time is it?, Yo how you doing?’. If you are going to go to New York why not stay in somewhere large and expensive, we did, but that could never have been possible without the endeavours of such an important charity like ‘Dreams Come True’. Sam Waddington

Extinction Good or bad?

that have happened on the earth have been the result of a massive geological or tectonically driven event. The longer a dominant species is around, the more complacent this group will

In 2013 the number of endangered animals reached 60,000 and 25 percent are mammals, all at major risk of extinction. However, is extinction good or bad? Even though the concept of natural extinction (animals made extinct by natural causes), is negatively viewed, it has got some beneficial aspects. So what causes natural extinction? •

• •

Climatic heating and cooling- as the world continues to heat and cool easily, the animals amongst it cannot cope with the climate change. Change in sea levels and currentsThe change in sea levels and currents is a result, in part, of the melting freshwater. The denser, saltier water sinks and forms the currents that marine life depends on. Acid rain- fish cannot cope in rivers that are polluted by acid rain Invasive species- species that invade territory. This causes survival of the fittest, leading to one species dying out. Geographical and tectonically driven events.

become. Over time, this results in a weaker ability to adapt which will eventually completely disappear, resulting in this species extinction. The potential for a new dominant animal is not possible due to the already established ecosystem. An example of this can be seen 250 million years ago. 90% of marine species and 70% of land species were wiped out, this lead to the dinosaur becoming the dominant species and allowed the evolution of mammals to continue. 65 million years ago, a volcanic event wiped out 70% of land and sea life. The mammals and dinosaurs that survived are responsible for providing us the life we live today. Ok, so there are some benefits of extinction, but there is a HUGE difference in natural extinction and human caused extinction! Human-caused extinction is the extinction of a species caused entirely by human activity and is an entire different matter.

What are the benefits of extinction? Extinction, without a doubt, is very beneficial to health and longevity of the earth. The majority of mass extinctions


the threat to its species was created by humans. With global warming increasing and climate changing, the possum could not cope, leading the species to slowly die out. The only reason it survived was due to it becoming noticed, and acted upon. This cannot always be the case and our human behaviour as a whole should be changed.

So what causes human-caused extinction? • • • • •

Over-poaching of a species destruction of habitats degrading of habitats pollution to air and waters climate change and global warming

This November, the Western black rhino was made extinct due to heavy poaching of the species for what it is unfortunately well known for; its horn. Expert conservationists have said that if nothing is done about the level of poaching and cruelty to wild animals, then the northern white rhino and many other species will follow in the western black rhino’s tracks to extinction. This behaviour, towards an animal with the equal rights on this earth as a human, is disgusting.

These are just a few examples of what human behaviour is doing to animals. Extinction does have its problems too. Although numbers are uncertain, most scientists believe the rate of loss is greater now than at any time in the history of the Earth. Within the next 30 years as many as half of the species on the earth could die in one of the fastest mass extinctions in the planet's 4.5 billion years history. 50% of the earth's species will vanish within 100 years. Such a dramatic and overwhelming mass extinction threatens the entire, complex fabric of life, including Homo sapiens, (the species responsible for the crisis.)

In 2008, the white Lumeroid Possum came close to being the first Australian mammal to be made extinct. Although it was not,

Natural extinction happens for a reason, but humancaused extinction can never be justified. It is down to us humans to make the change and consider animals rights. The western black rhino did not deserve to go this year, it was not its time and soon the entire world will suffer due to mass extinction of species and the its consequences if effective change is not brought about. Samuel Bowser 27

ear. With OCD, the ‘voices’ you ‘hear’ aren’t actually voices in the plural sense, but the little ‘voice’ we all hear when we think or read a book. Probably you are reading this with one now.

We have all heard or seen the perfectly lined pencils alongside the phrase ‘OCD’. This is a common phrase that you yourself have said, perhaps over something that annoying you. For example, if somebody turns on a plug and nothing is in the socket, afterwards turning away and exclaiming “Oh my god, I’m so OCD!” much to their amusement, and why not? OCD’s funny, isn’t it? Some funny thing that we all have and use in our daily conversation? It may surprise you, but OCD is not anything like what you think it is. To those who have it, it is not funny in the slightest. We all have our obsessions, but OCD sufferers often comply with these obsessions against their will. Despite the relief they get when they perform it, they hate it and would do anything to be rid of it. To them it is neither ‘cool’ nor ‘trendy’. It plagues the mind every day, extreme voices and thoughts harassing you to perform elaborate rituals to just to shut them up. No, it is not like schizophrenia in the slightest, because that would entail the image of someone whispering in their


OCD sufferers can react in very different ways to their controlling thoughts. Some can shake their head voilently, some twitch, others can have panic attacks, or start to shake uncontrollably. Trust me, it’s not pretty. “Maybe I should eat something. Hysterics have a way of severely depleting one's blood sugar, you know.” - Leo Bloom, The Producers The above quote is extremely accurate in regards to that, after a hysterical fit, you are left quite hungry (especially for chocolate!) and this is particularly difficult if your OCD has given you an eating disorder (where you cannot eat food for fear of what might happen if you do).

Other Disorders linked to OCD

normally quiet nature, it has been labelled the

Several different things can be caused by OCD, such as hording, depression or Generalised Anxiety Disorder. Generalised Anxiety Disorder is where you constantly worry over either little things that happen. The ‘Cure’ The positive aspect of OCD is that, unlike other disorders, it is easily treatable.

Aww….. feel that? That’s serotonin….

People with OCD often have an abnormality with their neurotransmitter of seratonin (a chemical released in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract and is often thought to aid towards happiness and well-being (you know, that feeling when you laugh something funny on the television or you see a fluffy bunny)

‘secret disorder’, as usually people are too scared to talk over fear of becoming bullied because of the jokey press about OCD. And so, my final point is that the next time you make a joke about OCD, or claim you have it, remember those who do and respect them and their troubles. Molly McDade

This abnormality doesn’t mean that you can’t feel happy, or feel lovely and fuzzy when you see the picture above… aww….. *cough* anyway… it doesn’t mean that at all. It is just that you are more suseptable to feeling down. However, you can be given antidepressants such as Sertraline and, more famously (especially for depression sufferers) prozac. These aid the generation of seratonin in the brain and help people to get a legup on beating OCD. It is also entirely possible to completely recover. However, due to its



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