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Engineering Student Writing Contest Essays


V.24 | N.4 WINTER 2020

125 A Walk through ESD’s Past 125 Years of Service 22

ESD Members on the Evolution of Engineering 26

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Take a walk down Memory Lane, with some photos from the past, such as this one from January 1965.

Technology Century



Winter 2020


| N.4

3 4 5 6 7 8 10



2019 Writing Contest Winners


Tomorrow’s Engineers at ESD’s MSU Student Chapter


The Changing Faces and Facets of Ethics in Engineering



The Evolution of ESD: The First 100 Years

20 The Formation of the Society

While not the oldest society of its kind, ESD is proud to be the largest, as this photo from 1970 shows. See more photos throughout this issue.


Timeline: The Society Turns 125


Members, Past and Present


The Evolution of Engineering: ESD Members Reflect on the Profession’s Progression esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 1

Congratulations, ESD, on your 125th Anniversary!

The Engineering Society of Detroit, founded in 1895. Michigan Mining School, home of the Huskies, in 1885. Hey, we’ve practically grown up together! Here’s to 125 more years! Michigan Tech creates the future—get the latest: mtu.edu

@michigantech Michigan Technological University is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer, which includes providing equal opportunity for protected veterans and individuals with disabilities.

techcentury V.24 I N.4 Winter 2020

20700 Civic Center Drive, Suite 450 • Southfield, MI 48076 248–353–0735 • 248–353–0736 fax • esd@esd.org • esd.org


CHAIR: Karyn Stickel, Hubbell, Roth & Clark Jason Cerbin, Honeywell Energy Services Group Sandra Diorka, Delhi Charter Township Utpal Dutta, PhD, FESD, University of Detroit Mercy Linda Gerhardt, PhD Richard, Hill, PhD, University of Detroit Mercy William A. Moylan, Jr., PhD, PMP, FESD, Eastern Michigan University Matt Roush, Lawrence Technologicial University Larry Sak, PE, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (retired) Rajiv Shah, PE, ACSCM Michael Stewart, Fishman Stewart Intellectual Property Filza H. Walters, FESD, Lawrence Technological University Cyrill Weems, Plante Moran CRESA Yang Zhao, PhD, Wayne State University


PRESIDENT: Daniel E. Nicholson, PE, General Motors Company VICE PRESIDENT: Kirk T. Steudle, PE, FESD, Econolite TREASURER: Alex F. Ivanikiw, AIA, LEED AP, FESD, Barton Malow Company SECRETARY: Robert Magee, The Engineering Society of Detroit PAST PRESIDENT: Douglas E. Patton, FESD, DENSO International America, Inc. (retired) Paul C. Ajegba, PE, Michigan Department of Transportation Larry Alexander, Detroit Metro Convention and Visitors Bureau Carla Bailo, Center for Automotive Research Katherine M. Banicki, FESD, Testing Engineers and Consultants Michael J. Cairns, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Sean P. Conway, American Axle and Manufacturing Robert A. Ficano, JD, Wayne County Community College District Farshad Fotouhi, PhD, Wayne State University Alec D. Gallimore, PhD, University of Michigan Lori Gatmaitan, SAE Foundation Malik Goodwin, Goodwin Management Group, LLC Kouhaila G. Hammer, CPA, FESD, Ghafari Associates, LLC Ronald R. Henry, AIA, NCARB, Sachse Construction Marc Hudson, Rocket Fiber Leo C. Kempel, PhD, FESD, Michigan State University Scott Penrod, Walbridge Robert A. Richard, DTE Energy Bill Rotramel, AVL Powertrain Engineering, Inc. William J. Vander Roest, PE, ZF TRW (Retired) Terry J. Woychowski, FESD, Caresoft Global


Robert Magee, Executive Director Nick Mason, Director of Operations Susan Thwing Keith Cabrera-Nguyen

Technology Century® (ISSN 1091-4153 USPS 155-460), also known as TechCentury, is published four times per year by The Engineering Society of Detroit (ESD), 20700 Civic Center Drive, Suite 450, Southfield, MI 48076. Periodical postage paid at Southfield, MI, and at additional mailing offices. The authors, editors, and publisher will not accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made in this publication. The publisher makes no warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Advertisements in TechCentury for products, services, courses, and symposia are published with a caveat emptor (buyer beware) understanding. The authors, editors, and publisher do not imply endorsement of products, nor quality, validity or approval of the educational material offered by such advertisements. ©2020 The Engineering Society of Detroit


NOTES Karyn Stickel Associate, Hubbell, Roth & Clark

Happy New Year! 2020 marks the 125th anniversary of the Engineering Society of Detroit. TechCentury plans to honor that anniversary throughout the year, starting with this special 125th happy anniversary edition. Our issue includes photos and stories that outline the impact of ESD on Detroit, and its evolution keeping up with the engineering industry. Our member focus in this issue includes thoughts on the industry, and its changes, from several of our long term members. TechCentury is also pleased to present the winner and two runner ups of our 2nd Annual Student Writing Contest. Thanks to all the applicants, and our appreciation goes to Fishman Stewart PLLC for the sponsorship of this award. Special congratulations to our winner, Grace Zalubas! You can help celebrate ESD’s anniversary—while taking advantage of the industry and business exposure you will receive— by sponsoring celebration activities and advertising in the 2020 editions of TechCentury, so that we can continue to provide quality content to our readers. By doing so you can share your industry expertise with our 22,000+ engineers and technical leaders in Michigan. If you are interested in learning more about those opportunities, please contact Susan Thwing at sthwing@esd.org.

esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 3

Happy New Year to Engineering Society of Detroit members, and Happy 125th anniversary to ESD! What an accomplishment it is to have served Detroit engineers for so long, and so well. Over the past 125 years—spanning three centuries of extraordinary innovation, growth and change—ESD’s history is rich and momentous. Beginning with ESD’s founding in 1895 and beyond, the Society boasts a long list of accomplishments, achievements and impact along the way. As engineering has evolved—and the education of engineers along with it—ESD has been in tune and in touch, making a difference in the process. From the beginning of engineering, when the focus was on physically building things to today’s world of digital programs such as the Building Information Modeling for construction engineers to automation and simulations in the automotive industry—ESD has served generations of engineers, scientists and allied professionals. The Society has also been dedicated to fostering the next generation. From supporting STEM and STEAM education to sponsoring thought-provoking, problem-solving competitions like Future City for young students, as well as partnering with Michigan colleges and universities in programs for ESD Student Chapters, tomorrow’s engineers can turn to ESD for guidance and inspiration. It’s not difficult to imagine that the next one hundred years will bring incredible innovations in transportation, architecture, electronics, computers and health care. What has occurred over the past 125 years, let alone the past 50, has far surpassed what brilliant minds imagined when ESD first formed. It’s an exciting time. And while no one has a crystal ball to predict the future, there is one thing I’m sure of: The Engineering Society of Detroit will be part of it, helping to keep our members fully integrated, networked and nurturing the creative engineering spark in young minds. Happy anniversary, ESD!

Daniel E. Nicholson, PE President, The Engineering Society of Detroit Vice President, Global Electrification, Controls, Software & Electronics General Motors Company

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ESD President’s Message



AKT Peerless Environmental Services Altair Engineering American Axle Manufacturing American Center for Educational and Professional Services American Society of Employers Aristeo Construction AVL North America The Bartech Group Barton Malow Company Brightwing Central Michigan University Chrysan Industries Citizens Insurance Clark Hill, PLC CMS Enterprises Comfort Engineering Solutions, LLC Construction Association of Michigan Cornerstone Environmental Group, LLC CPCII Credit Union ONE CulturecliQ Danlaw, Inc. DASI Solutions DENSO International America, Inc. Detroit Metro Convention & Visitors Bureau Detroit Transportation Corporation Dow Chemical Company DTE Energy DTE Energy Gas Operations Dürr Systems, Inc. Eastern Michigan University Education Planning Resources, Inc. Electrical Resources Company Electro-Matic Products, Inc. Energy Sciences Experis Farbman Group Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Financial One, Inc. FirstMerit Bank Fishman Stewart PLLC Fusion Welding Solutions Gala & Associates, Inc. Gates Corporation GHD

General Dynamics General Motors Company Gensler George W. Auch Company Ghafari Associates, LLC Glenn E. Wash & Associates, Inc. Golder Associates Inc. Gonzalez Contingent Workforce Services GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. Harley Ellis Devereaux Hartland Insurance Group, Inc. Hindsight Consulting, Inc. Hubbell, Roth & Clark, Inc. The Hunter Group LLC IBI Group Ideal Contracting Integrity Staffing Group, Inc. ITT Technical Institute Canton ITT Technical Institute Dearborn IBEW Local 58 & NECA LMCC JNA Partners, Inc. Jozwiak Consulting, Inc. JTL America, Inc. Kettering University Kitch Drutchas Wagner Valitutti and Sherbrook, PC Knovalent, Inc. Kolene Corporation Kostal North America Kugler Maag CIE North America Lake Superior State University Lawrence Technological University LHP Software Limbach Company, Inc. Link Engineering Co. LTI Information Technology Macomb Community College Maner, Costerisan & Ellis, PC Makino McNaughton-McKay Electric Company Meritor MEDA Engineering & Technical Services MICCO Construction Michigan Regional Council of Carpenters Michigan State University Michigan Technological University

Midwest Steel Inc. Mitsubishi Motors R&D of America, Inc. Monroe Environmental Corporation Myron Zucker, Inc. Neumann/Smith Architecture Newman Consulting Group, LLC NORR Architects Engineers Planners Northern Industrial Manufacturing Corp. NTH Consultants, Ltd. O’Brien and Gere Oakland University Optech LLC Orbitak International, LLC Original Equipment Suppliers Association Pure Eco Environmental Solutions R.L. Coolsaet Construction Co. Rocket Fiber ROWE Professional Services Company Rumford Industrial Group Ruby+Associates, Inc. SEGULA Technologies Saginaw Valley State University Special Multi Services SSI Talascend, LLC Testing Engineers & Consultants Thermal-Netics TRANE Commercial Systems Troy Chamber of Commerce Trialon TRW Automotive Turner Construction Co. UBS Financial Services—Lott Sheth Farber Group Universal Weatherstrip & Bldg. Supply University of Detroit Mercy University of Michigan University of Michigan-Dearborn U.S. Farathane Corporation voxeljet America Inc. Wade-Trim Walbridge Walker-Miller Energy Services, LLC Wayne State University Western Michigan University Whitehall Industries The Whiting Turner Contracting Company WSP ZF

In the News

ABOVE: The staff of Ruby + Associates celebrates having earned the designation of a Great Place to Work (#GPTW), a certification that recognizes an outstanding workplace culture.

$3,575 Donated to Support ESD Student Outreach in Honor of Tricia Ruby This December, the staff of Ruby + Associates picked The Engineering Society of Detroit to be the recipient of donations made in honor of firm president and CEO Tricia Ruby. The Society thanks everyone who donated for their generosity and joins them in celebrating the leadership of Ms. Ruby. Donations support outreach programs such as ESD’s Girls in Engineering Academy and ESD Student Chapters at Michigan universities.

6  | TechCentury | WINTER 2020

Tricia Ruby Receives Community Service Award Tricia Ruby, president and CEO of Ruby + Associates, in Bingham Farms, MI, received the 2019 Community Service Award from the American Council of Engineering Companies (ACEC), during its upcoming ACEC Fall Conference in Chicago. The award recognizes a principal or manager of an ACEC member firm who has made a significant contribution to the quality of life in their community. Since Ruby became CEO in 2011, Ruby + Associates has donated over $450,000 to Tricia Ruby local Detroit-area and national charities, including to The Engineering Society of Detroit. She also fully supported her staff ’s 750-plus hours of volunteer time with compensation for giving back outside the office. Ruby and her staff have sponsored and participated in Life Remodeled, a non-profit that provides $5 million and over 10,000 volunteers to beautify a Detroit neighborhood each year over six days of renovations, home repairing and repurposing former community assets. Ruby also overseas her company’s coordination of fundraising and community efforts, including a Wear Red Day in March, the Ruby Heart Walk, Pi Day and an in-office fundraising lunches.

In the News / In Memoriam ESD Represented at FIRST Robotics Launch


The FIRST Robotics competition kicked off this January with a live-streamed event broadcast from Manchester, NH, and ESD was there. The competition was co-founded by inventor Dean Kamen, whom ESD honored in 2002 with a Da Vinci Award, and Woodie Flowers, FIRST founder Dean Kamen with who died in 2019. ESD Executive Director Robert Magee

With deep gratitude for their participation and service, The Engineering Society of Detroit acknowledges the passing of the following members:

WILLIAM F. FORDON Retired, President, Soil Tech Environmental, LLC General Contractor, The Fordon Co. General Contractor, G.C. Millgard Environmental Corp Member since 1967

CHARLES M. HEIDEL, PE, FESD Retired, President & COO, Detroit Edison Co. Member of the College of Fellows Member of the Senior Engineers Council Member since 1964

RICHARD P. KUGHN Chairman & President, Kughn Enterprises Vice Chairman, The Taubman Co. Owner, Lionel Trains Horace H. Rackham Humanitarian Award Recipient Member since 1972

ROBERT L. NEFF, JR. Director Marketing, Sales & Marketing Insight, Cybetech Member since 2016


LTU Opens Industrial Engineering Lab Lawrence Technological University has unveiled its new Siemens Electro-Matic Industrial Engineering Laboratory. Through in-kind and cash donations, contributors have provided more than $500,000 in industry-donated hardware and software, allowing LTU industrial engineering students to study everything from the human factor of production-line fatigue to the optimal placement of robots, sensors, and parts bins.

Altair Names New Chief Information Officer Altair, a global technology company providing solutions in product development, high-performance computing and data intelligence, has named Andrea Siudara as Chief Information Officer. Siudara will lead Altair’s global information technology team.

R.M. Okster Associates Inc. Constructor Manager, Smith Hinchman & Grylls Engineer, Honeywell Inc. Member since 1951

WILLIAM M. SPREITZER, FESD Retired, Technical Director, Executive Consultant, General Motors Corp. Member of the College of Fellows Member of the College of Fellows Board of Advisors Membership Committee Member Member since 1964

STANLEY K. STYNES, PhD, PE, FESD Professor Emeritus, Wayne State University Horace H. Rackham Humanitarian Award Recipient Distinguished Service Award Recipient Member of the College of Fellows ESD Foundation Board Member Legislative Fellow Candidate Committee Member Member since 1963

Andrea Siudara

esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 7

Upcoming Events

PERSONAL ENRICHMENT COURSES ENGINEERING EXAM REVIEW COURSES FOR MICHIGAN Are you ready to set yourself apart? Adding PE initials after your name provides many benefits including a higher salary, faster career advancement and the ability to sign and seal contracts and drawings. For over 75 years, ESD has helped thousands of engineers pass the State licensing exam. ESD’s review courses will prepare you to pass the exam on your first try. You’ll learn in a small classroom-like setting from expert instructors who have first-hand knowledge of the course material. For details or to register for the review courses, visit esd.org or contact Elana Shelef at eshelef@esd.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 119.

Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) for Civil, Electrical and Mechanical TUES. & THURS., FEB. 4–APRIL 9

Principles & Practice of Engineering (PE) for Civil, Electrical Power, Environmental and Mechanical

This course provides instruction in engineering fundamentals for candidates planning to take the CBT exam. Classes are held Tuesdays and Thursdays from 6-9 p.m. and on Saturdays for Civil and Mechanical (morning or afternoon depending on discipline). The Saturday sessions start on February 22, 2020.

This course consists of six half-day sessions. Civil and Environmental meet 8:30 a.m.–12:30 p.m. Electrical Power and Mechanical meet 1–5 p.m. The 2020 state exam dates are April 17 and October 23 for Civil & Electrical. Environmental and Mechanical are year-round.


PE CONTINUING EDUCATION CLASSES Michigan professional engineers who want to enhance their personal and professional growth – or who need continuing education hours— can check out ESD’s three and four-hour courses. Current PEs can take ESD review course classes on an à la carte basis to satisfy state requirements. A broad range of topics are offered— over 50 different courses to choose from. The instructor-led courses are taught by academic and industry professionals. All courses are held in the evening on Tuesdays and Thursdays and in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays at ESD Headquarters in Southfield. For a class schedule and to register, visit esd.org, or contact Elana Shelef at eshelef@esd.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 119.

8  | TechCentury | WINTER 2020

CONFERENCE 30th ANNUAL SOLID WASTE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE Sponsored by ESD and the Michigan Waste & Recycling Association WEDNESDAY, MARCH 11 (Training Day) THURSDAY, MARCH 12 (Conference)

Learn about cutting-edge technological innovations and solutions related to the solid waste industry and hear national experts present on issues related to policy, new technologies and what the future holds for the industry. The conference will be March 12 at the Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center in East Lansing. The training Day is March 11 and includes a tour of the East Lansing Community Solar Park, dinner, and presentations. Sponsorships and exhibitor opportunities are available. For more information, visit esd.org or contact Leslie Smith, CMP, at lsmith@esd.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 152.


Join ESD’s Affiliate Societies in honoring the best of the best. 5:30–8 p.m. in Southfield. $60 individual tickets through March 6; $75 thereafter. Visit esd.org or contact Elana Shelef at 248-353-0735, ext. 119 or eshelef@esd.org to attend.

Upcoming Events


Employers: Find the talent your organization needs! ESD job fairs regularly draw hundreds of engineers, technology professionals and recent college graduates. Join some of Michigan’s leading companies and meet candidates looking for full and part-time positions, and internships. Register by March 23 and receive a complimentary job posting. Job seekers: Connect with future employers and discover hundreds of opportunities!Whether you are a seasoned professional, a recent graduate or an in-between careers job seeker, you’ll find your next position at ESD’s Engineers Get Hired Job Fair. ESD’s job fair is your best opportunity to meet one-on-one with representatives from leading engineering and technology companies. Past companies have included Altair Engineering, DTE Energy, Ford Motor Company, Gala & Associates, Ghafari, ITC, Link Engineering, MDOT, Optimal, Peter Basso, TEC Group, Tetra Tech, Solutions Group, and many more. The job fair will be held at the Suburban Collection Showplace in Novi from 2–7 p.m. Visit EngineersGetHired.org for more information or to register. For exhibit space contact Leslie Smith, CMP, at lsmith@esd.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 152.






In its 23rd year, this conference, hosted by DTE Energy and ESD, the only one of its kind in Michigan, is designed to educate small to large commercial and industrial businesses on technology, products, and services that will assist them in successful energy management. This year’s conference will feature: % A keynote presentation during luncheon % Educational tracks—technology, industrial, commercial and financial—offering informative 30-minute presentations % Dozens of exhibitors offering energy-related products and services % Major awards recognizing energy efficiency initiatives % A Ride-and-Drive featuring a fleet of new vehicles, as well as energy efficient vehicles Registration cost is $90 for ESD Members; non-members $105 or join and attend the conference at a discounted rate of $160 (new, first-time members only). The conference will take place at the Suburban Collection Showplace in Novi, Mich. For more information or to register online, visit esd.org or call 248-353-0735 to register by phone. To sponsor or exhibit, contact Leslie Smith, CMP, at lsmith@esd. org or 248-353-0735, ext. 152.

Come out for a day of networking and fun in support of engineering! Outing proceeds help outreach and educational efforts such as the ESD Girls in Engineering Academy, the Michigan Regional Future City Competition for middle schoolers, ESD Student Chapters at 14 Michigan universities, and scholarship programs for high school and college students. Register early as this popular event sells out each year. Don’t miss it! Registration cost: $275 individuals; $165 senior individuals; $1,000 foursome; $85 dinner only. The golf outing will take place at Oak Pointe Country Club in Brighton. For more information, to register or for sponsorship opportunities, visit esd.org or contact Heather Lilley at hlilley@esd.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 120.


The biggest event for innovation and creativity in the world. August 20–22 at TCF Center in Detroit. Visit USA.Campus-Party.org for info. Co-hosted by ESD and the Detroit Metro Convention and Visitors Bureau.

esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 9

Upcoming Events / Deadlines 125 YEARS: LET THE CELEBRATION COMMENCE! This year, The Engineering Society of Detroit celebrates its 125th anniversary. To honor the occasion, ESD is planning a series of events. Please plan to join us in celebration. Look for dates, times and more details in future issues of TechCentury as well as at esd.org.

Diamond Luncheon

This special luncheon will bring together the Society’s longest-serving members for an afternoon of camaraderie, retrospection, and great food. Eligible members will receive their invitations this spring.

ESD Annual Dinner

ESD’s Annual Dinner, again held in June, will be an extra-special event this year. Look for details to emerge in the coming months.

Young Professionals Event Our younger members— including members of ESD Student Chapters—will be invited to join together to network, look to the future of engineering and have loads of fun. Eligible members will receive invitations by email.

125th Anniversary Celebration

Our year-long celebrations will culminate in a major event this fall where members can join us at no cost, enjoy the company of old friends and make new ones, look at ESD’s past and talk about the future—all while enjoying outstanding food, drink and music.

10  | TechCentury | WINTER 2020



Outstanding Young Engineer of the Year Award

Help us recognize leaders by nominating a Fellow, one of the highest recognitions that ESD can bestow its members. Candidates are selected based on outstanding professional accomplishments, leadership and service. They must be an ESD member for at least 5 years. Full details and instructions are at esd.org. For questions, contact Heather Lilley at hlilley@esd.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 120.


This award recognizes a young professional under the age of 35 who has best distinguished him/herself in the engineering and scientific communities. Criteria include education, work experience, and professional and community activities. Applicants must be members of ESD.

Outstanding College Student of the Year Scholarship

This award recognizes an undergraduate student who has best distinguished him or herself in the engineering and scientific communities. Criteria include academic background, extracurricular activities, and employment experience. The winner(s) will receive a $2,000 scholarship.

Outstanding High School Student of the Year Scholarship

This award recognizes a graduating high school senior. To be considered, applicants must have a least a 3.0 GPA, plan on pursuing a career in the field of engineering or the life sciences, and participate in volunteer activities. The winner(s) will receive a $2,000 scholarship. Applications and additional criteria can be found at esd.org. For more information, contact Sue Ruffner at sruffner@esd.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 117.



ESD’s 46th Annual Construction and Design Awards honor the three primary members of the building team—owners, designers, and constructors—and recognize outstanding team achievement and innovative use of technology. For more information on submission criteria and how to submit entries, visit esd.org or contact Leslie Smith, CMP, at lsmith@esd.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 152.


The TechCentury Image Award recognizes individuals who have promoted, publicized and enhanced the engineering and technical professions to the public-at-large through public engagement, mentoring, public speaking, authoring articles, and other publicly visible activities. Nominees do not have to be ESD members. Nominators must be ESD Members. Nomination requirements and additional information can be found at esd.org or contact Susan Thwing at sthwing@esd.org.



his magazine is pleased to announce the winners of the second annual TechCentury Engineering Student Writing Contest. To promote and engage student voices and ideas about the profession of engineering, TechCentury launched the contest in 2018. Open to all engineering students attending Michigan universities and studying within any of the engineering and related disciplines, the top three entries follow.

The students were asked to address one of three topics in a 750 essay. The top award-winning essay, written by Lawrence Technological University student Grace Zalubas, will receive a $1000 scholarship, sponsored by Fishman Stewart, and recognition at the 2020 Gold Award Reception. Thank you to everyone who participated in this competition. Please enjoy reading the top three essays from these promising engineers!

FIRST PLACE: Grace Zalubas

MAKE IT WORK Grace Zalubas, of Farmington Hills, is a Lawrence Technological University student studying architectural engineering with an anticipated graduation of May 2024. Her essay addresses the question: “STEM/STEAM Education: why is it important, did it play a role in your career choice, and if so, how?”

In fifth grade, I completed my first college course. Granted, it was only a week long, and awarded no grade to prove my merits. During the Structure and Design Camp at Schoolcraft College, the “lectures” consisted of discussing what engineering was, and brainstorming solutions to real-life problems. For the “final project,” I constructed an open-frame model house from balsa wood and added wiring to install functional light bulbs. At this camp, I enjoyed the challenge of overcoming engineering problems. I enjoyed making it work. After learning STEM skills in my camp, I brought these principles home with me; as a child, I loved building Lego sets. More than just playing with the construction toys, I enjoyed the process of snapping bricks together into a real structure, modeling the buildings after those I saw around me every day. I would disassemble and rebuild the sets over and over again, ensuring that no piece fell out of place. During the next few years, the concepts from my previous Lego sets inspired me to make my own creations. I added moving parts to the structures, and gave them forms that followed my own personal style as well as practical function. STEM education, including camps and educational toys, allows kids to apply fundamental principles that relate to the physical sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics while also gaining exposure to real-world situations. Activities involving decision-

making and logic cement these skills and build the foundations to solve complex problems. For instance, when a wall collapses in the structure camp, kids take the initiative to redesign the pieces and manage their remaining resources to make the best project that they could in a limited time frame. STEM enrichment opportunities teach students to make sense of the world around them and, based on concrete evidence, create new ideas or improve upon existing ones. Learning the structural strategies behind a Lego set unlocks the door to personal resourcefulness with a child’s own designs; rather than traditional lectures and predictable activities, STEM prioritizes discovery from a hands-on approach. When integrated with conventional teaching methods, STEM education offers kids the chance to consider multiple perspectives before linking ideas to solve the issue. Key concepts, such as the scientific method, translate to fields that range far wider than just engineering or technology. Regardless of future pursuits, STEM education fosters critical attributes that will help a student succeed in any career path. The ability to face obstacles in a dynamic environment engenders a newfound sense of confidence and, as a result, reflects the advantage of STEM education in any sphere of life. As technology continues to advance and permeate more aspects of our lives, it is also essential that students gain 21st century skills with real-world applications. More and more jobs involve science and math, and the demand for STEM expertise in the workplace has skyrocketed. To move forward as a society, we need innovators to challenge the current standards and push boundaries. Gaining these skills, while in school, allows kids to explore these areas without fear of failure, and sets them up to achieve success in the future. To illustrate, my experiences with STEM activities pushed me to transform my childhood passion for construction into developed skills. Grade-school-level engineering and architecture courses provided me the esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 11

opportunity to express my designs through both physical models as well as through computer-aided software, and lent me a chance to manage my own time and resources effectively. My experiences in STEM education pushed me to pursue a career in architectural engineering, because I can use both my logical problem-solving skills as well as my creative vision to construct all aspects of a building, rather than focusing solely on the practical or aesthetic design. I can apply multiple engineering disciplines to work together in the design process, just like I combined electrical and structural engineering in my fifth grade model house.

During the summers after my junior and senior years of high school, I returned to Schoolcraft College to work with the Structure and Design Camp, this time as an assistant instructor. This experience as a STEM educator has also contributed to my decision to work towards a career in engineering because, in teaching kids the importance of building design in everyday life, I realized the true value of this field; since we live, work, and play within the built environment, engineering and technology affect every aspect of our lives. STEM education, quite literally, serves as the foundation for our future. »

RUNNER UP: Nasir Sharaf

IT'S ALL PART OF THE PLAN Nasir Sharaf, of Bloomfield Hills, is a graduate student at Oakland University studying computer science with an anticipated graduation date of December 2021. Nasir’s essay addresses the topic: “Explain the role of ethics in engineering—its perceived challenges and solutions.”

“Nobody panics when things go ‘according to plan.’” —The Joker, the Dark Knight If your formal introduction to ethics was anything like mine, you might’ve been told about how resonance destroyed the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. You’re probably quite aware of how improper O-rings destroyed the Challenger space shuttle and claimed seven lives. And by now, everyone and their cousin has seen Chernobyl. Each of these examples is brought up in an introductory engineering ethics class to enforce upon young, impressionable minds the importance of proper engineering. Each fixates on when engineering fails. It’s here that one has to stop and wonder, why does engineering ethics never seem to talk about what happens when everything seems to go right? It’s not often openly discussed among engineers how technology carries an ethical implication by virtue of its existence. For example, the humble air conditioning unit. It might be taken for granted among some readers that HVAC systems aren’t ubiquitous or common in the rest of the world as they are here in the United States. Many European cities and towns make do without HVAC. No one sees it, so no one really thinks about it. But HVAC systems typically contribute to about one third of a buildings energy consumption. In context of a global discussion about climate change, the humble air conditioner’s silent and steady use seems to have a pretty unnerving ethical implication. And this is not 12  | TechCentury | WINTER 2020

because of a design flaw or failure in air conditioning. Hundreds of thousands of HVAC units working flawlessly are contributing to this growing issue. There are several examples of this phenomenon of technology working according to design but causing moral and ethical questions. The Haber-Bosch process has led to a massive increase in global population, the internet can now amplify the best and worst ideas humanity has dreamt, and automation may hollow the economy or may lead to a new leisure society. Some fields directly acknowledge this strange quality of technology, like bioengineering and stem cells. But in general, much of the engineering ethics discourse is concerned less with the everyday ethical issues of a technological society and is more concerned with not failing. Why don’t engineers like to talk about engineering ethics in this way? I think there are three reasons. The first is that many engineers simply aren’t persuaded that technologies bring up ethical questions. If I haven’t convinced you, shame on me then. The second is that thinking about ethics in this way seems to imply that we must give up engineering or technology. But coming to this conclusion would be foolhardy. It’s not that technology is inherently evil. Every single one of the examples provided have provided genuine good for humanity. It’s just that in addition to the technical tradeoffs engineers are very well versed in, there are social and ethical tradeoffs that aren’t overtly discussed. Sometimes, those tradeoffs aren’t seen for centuries. We don’t have to immediately jump to the conclusion that technology or engineering should be abandoned because technology opens ethical issues, we just have to acknowledge that engineering is hard. Not just technically hard, but philosophically. These two reasons for why engineers may not want to talk about the ethics of working technology are pretty straightforward and concrete. But there’s a third, more abstract reason engineers may avoid talking about

the ethics of technology working according to design. It might be because functioning technology acts as a mirror and forces us to contend with our humanity (or lack thereof ). Much of technology exists to abstract away certain aspects of the human condition. For example, we make houses to weather the elements because we prefer not to. We make cars to cross distances that we would prefer not to. Computers crunch numbers and process data because we would prefer not to. Most functioning technology is defined by its ability to do things we would rather not

do. All technology, viewed in this way, is a prosthetic. They extend our abilities but are in fact a part of us. Our smartphones, vape pens, and fidget spinners all define and shape our understanding of ourselves. It may be that engineers, like many laypeople, simply don’t want to contend with such a stark look inwards. Kurt Vonnegut famously wrote “We are what we pretend to be, so be careful what you pretend to be.” Engineers should heed a similar warning – we are what we extend ourselves to be, so be careful what we extend of ourselves. »

RUNNER UP: Sophiya “Sunny” Pulickal

THE ROLE OF ETHICS IN ENGINEERING Sophiya “Sunny” Pulickal, of Clinton Township, is a graduate student at Wayne State University planning to graduate in December 2021 with an advanced degree in Construction Engineering and Management. She also addresses the topic “Explain the role of ethics in engineering—its perceived challenges and solutions”

Ethics can be defined as the comprehension of what is right and what is wrong within the moral context of an individual. Different cultures and communities have varying perceptions of right and wrong depending on their individual regulations, religious beliefs and cultural practices. Regardless of this setting, ethics is formulated to ensure that individuals choose right over wrong when faced with difficult decisions and challenging situations. Engineering is the application of scientific, economic, social and practical knowledge in order to design, build and maintain structures, machines, devices, systems and processes. Engineers build products such as cell phones, home appliances, heart valves, bridges and cars. Engineers also develop processes such as the conversion of salt water into fresh water, the techniques to recycle waste, improve emissions in vehicles, enhance cybersecurity for individuals and corporations etc. In general, they enhance the quality of life and help advance the society using innovations in technology. Even though these products and processes can change the way we live and what we can accomplish, they have consequences which can impact the lives of people in the society. Real-world examples of unethical conduct and their consequences include: % The Volkswagen Diesel-gate emissions scandal where engineers intentionally programmed diesel

engines to activate their emissions controls only during laboratory emissions testing. This caused the vehicles NOx output to meet US standards during regulatory testing but emit up to 40 times more NOx in real-world driving. % The Facebook–Cambridge Analytica data scandal where Cambridge Analytica had harvested the personal data of millions of people’s Facebook profiles without their consent and used it for political advertising purposes. This has been described as a watershed moment in the public understanding of personal data and calls for tighter regulation of the use of personal data by tech companies. % Uber-Waymo scandal where Uber’s self-driving unit used technology developed by Waymo, which was stolen by a former executive who worked for both companies. % Boeing 737 Max crashes of Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 and Lion Air 610 which claimed the lives of more than 300 passengers on board. The crash was caused due to the malfunction of the 737 MAX’s Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS) which was influenced by inputs from a faulty angle-of-attack (AOA) sensor. This brings to light the importance of ethics for engineers who make critical decisions on a daily basis. Engineering is an important and learned profession. As members of this profession, Engineers are expected to exhibit the highest standards of honesty and integrity. Engineering has a direct and vital impact on the quality of life for all people. Accordingly, the services provided by engineers require honesty, impartiality, fairness and equality, and must be dedicated to the protection of public health, safety and welfare. Engineers must perform under a standard of professional behavior that requires adherence to the highest principles of ethical conduct. Continued on page 15 esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 13

ESD Student Chapters

MSU Tomorrow’s Engineers at ESD’s



ood advice comes in many forms. College students earning degrees, mapping out internship and employment choices, and networking for effective career connections can receive advice from many sources. For students at Michigan State University, some of that good advice came from peers during the university’s Engineering Society of Detroit (ESD) Student Chapter Reverse Career Fair. The MSU Chapter is one of 14 student chapters at ESD. At the chapter’s recent Reverse Career Fair, students seeking internships and employment opportunities were able to network and garner advice from students who had already worked at their target companies. With students representing more than 10 top-tier companies, chapter members were ready to share their best tips for applying and interviewing at these soughtafter organizations. Shadman Rahman, 2019 president of the ESD Student Chapter at MSU and a senior computer science major, said “the students were able to offer participants in the career fair advice on what skills were best suited to a particular company, what the company culture was like, and tips on interviewing and getting their foot in the door.” Students interested in a particular company after the event were also able to draw from resources to put them in direct contact with key leadership. In addition to hosting events such as the student-tostudent career fair, ESD Student Chapters help members with: % Networking skills % Opportunities to meet executives at engineering firms % Visiting successful companies % Attending events such as Industry Preview Day at the Auto Show % Finding internships that meet career goals Through its association with ESD, student chapter membership helps students close the gap between their 14  | TechCentury | WINTER 2020

technical education and the realities of the modern engineering workplace. “What ESD does that you don’t always see in associations is bring together engineering students – and company leadership—from all segments of the industry,” Rahman said. “You will have a chemical engineer, a computer engineer, a mechanical engineer—all working in a team. It’s the only society that covers all disciplines of engineering.” Networking and interviewing skills are also enhanced. “In talking with [ESD Executive Director] Robert Magee, he has helped me learn how to bring the skills I have to the

ESSAY CONTEST Continued from page 13

ABOVE: Devin Moses, a chapter member, shared with other students about his experience working at Marathon. OPPOSITE TOP: Shadman Rahman, 2019 president of the ESD Student Chapter at Michigan State University (left) with Sydney Hickmott, who has taken over as chapter president for 2020. OPPOSITE BOTTOM: ESD Student Chapter members discuss internships at FCA.

table, how to sell myself, but also how to ask the questions I need to obtain a position that’s right for me,” he said. In addition, Rahman said attending events like the Detroit Auto Show Preview Day assist students in putting a “real world” aspect to the field they are studying. “At the auto show, we were able to see brand new concepts in place in the cars, and later spend time with executives to reflect on what we experienced,” he said. “The whole experience illuminates what skills we need and what other engineering fields come into play.” Which, he said, is extremely important for engineers just entering the field. “In the last 50 years the world has changed dramatically, but looking forward that pace of change is accelerating. Just a few years ago to have a cell phone in high school was unusual, now it’s the norm. Things are changing fast and in the coming years each area of engineering will need to work together,” Rahman said. “We will need a far more personalized set of technical skills and one field will not be able to grow without the other...with ESD covering all engineering fields, participating in this Society at a student level is a definite advantage for the future.” For details on Student Chapters and how to join them, please contact Heather Lilley at 248-353-0735, ext. 120, or hlilley@esd.org.

The primary challenges of ethics in engineering are: % Competition between individuals, groups and companies % Lack of ethical leadership % Workers feeling mistreated, marginalized and disrespected % Individual values that are misaligned with organizational values % Individuals being unaware of performance standards and expectations % Cutting corners to meet cost and schedule targets % Lack of commitment, responsibility and accountability % Overpromising and under-delivering % Lack of responsibility for action/results % Extreme behavior: dominating management ignoring input and insights from team members, eliminating collaboration and healthy communication within an organization Engineers must learn to take responsibility of decisions they make and their consequences. For example: take ownership of errors and correct them promptly; report unethical and illegal conduct to appropriate bodies etc. Engineers must learn to exhibit high regard for self, others and entrusted resources (people, money, reputation, safety, natural resources and environment). They must be open to one another’s point of view with an intent to understand them and must not exercise the power of their expertise or position to influence the decisions of others or benefit personally at their expense. This calls for transparency in decision making and an environment where others feel safe to share the truth. There must be ethical and compliance programs that are designed to institute and maintain the highest ethical standards and conduct in every organization. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas will always exist since there are different views, theories, principles, opinions and policies. However, it is important to ensure that critical decisions in engineering are not taken based on a hunch or opinion, but upon well informed and calculated evaluation of a situation and the possible outcomes. » esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 15

Ethics in Engineering

THE Changing Faces and facets of

Ethics in engineering BY WILLIAM A MOYLAN, JR.


rom the time The Engineering Society of Detroit (ESD) began 125 years ago, the desire to promote engineering as an honorable profession was a driving factor for the Society’s formation and, then, continuation. One of the hallmarks of a profession includes requiring the aspiring individual to pledge freely to strictly follow a code of professional ethics and professional conduct. Although ESD does not have a published code of engineering ethics, the Society does promote professional conduct by the members. For example, during the Order of the Engineer ceremony, the ESD professional member pledges adherence to the Engineer’s Creed. The aspects of professional conduct for engineers include:  Integrity [being honest in all dealings]  Respect for other professionals 16  | TechCentury | WINTER 2020

 Duty to provide one’s clients with the utmost value in their service that meets their needs and protects the public good above one’s own interest, and  To pursue excellence in pushing the limits of technology to serve humankind Historically, the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) offers a case study in how their code of ethics for engineers has changed over time. The NSPE professional code of ethics for engineers, first formally published in January 1947, delineates the member’s responsibilities in respect to the quality of their work and the safety and well-being of the public at large. There are three historical phases of the NSPE code of ethics— awareness, actions and actualization.


In the 1940s and 1950s, NSPE initiated, codified, published and

disseminated their Code of Ethics for Engineers. Major highlights included: 1940s: In 1946, the NSPE Board approved the Canons of Ethics for Engineers sponsored by the Engineers’ Council for Professional Development. The January 1947 issue of The American Engineer included publication of the Canons. In September 1948, NSPE urged the state societies to adopt revised Canons of Ethics for Engineers as published in the November 1947 issue of The American Engineer. 1950s: In June 1952, the NSPE Board adopted 15 Rules of Ethical Conduct to supplement the Canons of Ethics. In June 1957, the NSPE Board adopted Rules of Professional Conduct to supplement the Canons of Ethics.


During the decades of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, NSPE undertook regular actions to update and refine their Engineering Code of Ethics.

1960s: In 1961, the NSPE made changes to the Rules of Professional Conduct concerning competitive bidding [Rule 49] and procedures for responding to requests for engineering proposals [Rule 50]. In 1964, the new NSPE Code of Ethics replaced the existing Canons of Ethics for Engineers and Rules of Professional Conduct. In 1965, clarifications concerning combined engineering and construction work, participation in strikes, and criticism of another engineer’s work. In 1966, the Code included text on conflict of interest, submission of tenders for work in foreign countries (the “When in Rome” clause), review of the work of another engineer, and engineers-insales making engineering comparisons of their products. In 1968-1969, editing and changes to the Code concerning the overseas engineering (“When in Rome” clause), advertising of engineering services, and contingent contracts. 1970s: Continuing revisions made to the Code pertaining to professional conduct including advertising, commissions and political contributions to secure work (the Spiro Agnew “payola” clause), admonishing self-promotion and intentional deriding the professional reputation of another engineer. Additional items addressed the continued admonition of “free engineering” to secure paid engineering assignments, changes to competitive bidding, adequate compensation for engineering work, conflicts of interest and disclosure, and permitting outside employment. 1980s: NSPE adopted a new code format for their Code of Ethics, along with important restrictive actions on providing professional services on contingency basis, restricting engineers in sales from giving engineering advice, and the ethical duty of engineers to report the suspected illegal practice of engineering. The Code did allow engineers to seek indemnification for their professional services, receive salary according to professional qualifications, and accept part-time engineering work.


In the following thirty years from the 1990’s until today, the revisions by NSPE to their Code of Ethics were outward facing versus the inward facing goals of the previous three decades. That is, inward facing goals of professional ethics include guidance in ethical gray-areas, reducing internal conflicts, standards of professional behavior towards others, deterring unethical behavior, and, peer support for ethical conduct. Outward facing goals address protecting public safety, professional reputation, adjudicating disputes, institutional resistance and responding to past harms done by the profession.

AS YOU CAN SEE, AS THE DECADES HAVE EVOLVED, AND ENGINEERING WITH IT, THE CODES OF ETHICAL CONDUCT HAVE CHANGED AS WELL In the 1990s, NSPE dealt with seemingly antithetical rulings by the Federal Trade Commission. The FTC issued an order on August 6, 1993, that provides that “NSPE may not prohibit or restrict its members from engaging in truthful, non-deceptive advertising.” In 1996, NSPE countered with the addition of Fundamental Canon relating to engineers conducting themselves honorably and responsibly. In 2001, NSPE deleted the section of the Code of Ethics on “Engineers shall not actively participate in strikes, picket lines, or other collective coercive action.” In 2002, the Code of Ethics now included “Engineers shall not

aid or abet the unlawful practice of engineering by a person or firm.” In 2003, the NSPE Code of Ethics required “Engineers [to] continue their professional development throughout their careers and […] keep current in their specialty fields by engaging in professional practice, participating in continuing education courses, reading in the technical literature and attending professional meetings and seminars.” Then in 2006, the Code requires “Engineers shall strive to adhere to the principles of sustainable development in order to protect the environment for future generations.” In 2007, the NSPE Code included revisions to their professional obligations requiring Engineers at all times strive to serve the public interest. This includes participating in civic affairs; career guidance for youths; and work for the advancement of the safety, health, and well-being of their community. In 2018, the revised Code of Ethics incorporates all of these requirements to read, “Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers and should keep current in their specialty fields by engaging in professional practice, participating in continuing education courses, reading in the technical literature, and attending professional meetings and seminars.” In 2019, a new NSPE Code of Ethics section on harassment and anti-discrimination—“Engineers shall treat all persons with dignity, respect, fairness and without discrimination.” As you can see, as the decades have evolved, and engineering with it, the codes of ethical conduct have changed as well. William A Moylan, Jr., PhD FESD, PMP is an Associate Professor in Construction Management at Eastern Michigan University. He can be reached at william.moylan@emich.edu.

esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 17

The Evolution of ESD: The First 100 Years Editor’s Note: Text reprinted from February 1995 ESD Technology magazine under the title “Evolution of ESD: Engineering Society Celebrates 100 Years of Service.” New graphics and captions have been added here.


n 1895, the Association of Graduate Engineers of the University of Michigan (AGEUM) was organized to save the College of Engineering from possible extinction at a time when some Regents of the University were questioning the value of the engineering program. Dr. Mortimer Cooley, Dean of the Engineering School, welcomed his former students support, which eventually re-established the College of Engineering to a position of prominence within the University. With the battle for the survival of the Engineering School behind them, the AGEUM created a multidisciplinary technical society based on Dean Cooley’s “Total Man” philosophy that true professionals must continue to learn and expand their intellectual credentials throughout an exemplary technical career. As the Association and its founding ideals grew in popularity, the Society moved many of its principle meetings to Detroit and organized the Detroit Engineering Society (DES) in 1901. At that time the graduates of other four year engineering programs were invited to join the new Society. The DES began to develop swiftly with the industrialization of southeastern Michigan and the birth of a rapidly developing automotive industry. The Detroit Engineering Society conducted monthly meetings at the Saint Claire Hotel in downtown Detroit on a variety of topics. Special technical committees were established to assist the City of Detroit with the design of public works projects which included water supply, sanitary sewers and public lighting. One of these special committees developed a package of building codes and safety ordinances which were adopted by more than 100 municipalities in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana and southwestern Ontario. In 1920, the DES purchased a stately mansion on Alexandrine Street in Detroit which housed monthly 18  | TechCentury | WINTER 2020

meetings and committee activities, and a full time staff was hired. In the new DES headquarters facility, the University of Michigan offered extension service classes. With the increased utilization of the facility, the DES Board gave approval to a major expansion plan for the building, just prior to the 1929 stock market crash. The Depression severely impacted the finances of the DES and the Society's ability to be current with the Detroit Bank & Trust on a monthly mortgage for the building. As the Society's financial position deteriorated, the possibility of forfeiture of the DES headquarters became eminent. On March 17, 1936, two DES members approached the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund (the Rackham Fund [RF]) regarding the survival of the Society. This first discussion with the Fund produced a $25,000 grant to the DES—saving the organization from bankruptcy. The dialog with the Rackham Fund continued and the request was made by the Rackham Fund for the DES to reorganize for legal reasons. On April 15, 1936, the Engineering Society of Detroit was incorporated as a Michigan, 501(c)(6), nonprofit corporation. One month after the incorporation of the new Society, a $500,000 trust was created by the Rackham Fund to be administered by a permanent trustee organization for the benefit of ESD. In the early part of 1937, the new Society's membership had grown to a record 1,000 members. Because of ESD's encouraging prospectus, a second grant of $500,000 was made by the Rackham Fund for the express purpose of building and furnishing a headquarters building. The first half of 1938 was devoted to studies of operating costs of similar buildings in Detroit, New York, Philadelphia and Dayton. The suggestion was made by a Rackham family member that the Society should explore a joint building with the University of Michigan. In January of 1939, the Rackham Engineering Foundation (REF), the ESD trustee organization, negotiated an agreement with the University of Michigan for the Rackham Memorial Building, resulting in a $750,000 grant from the Rackham Fund to the University of Michigan for their portion of the building. Ground was broken on Ju1y 1, 1940 for the Rackham Memorial Building and the building was dedicated in January, 1942.

THE ENGINEERING SOCIETY The Society’s logo has changed over the years. The shield on the left was used in the early 1900s, while the blue and red logo on the right was designed around the time of the Society’s 100th anniversary. Below are the ESD seal and a special logo used in the 1940s when the Rackham Memorial Building was constructed.

During World War II, ESD headquarters became the central meeting facility for the defense industry and the U.S. military. ESD's regular meetings were suspended and the Rackham Memorial Building became the centerpiece of the arsenal of democracy. Following WWII, ESD focused on the educational needs of the returning veterans. The Engineering Review courses for Professional Engineering Registration began and a series of monthly technical lectures were organized. The committee activities focusing on public works and governmental engineering issues were resumed. The Rackham Building became the central meeting location for all of the Detroit area technical societies. The Society, through its monthly publication, The Foundation, became the principle meeting attendance promoter for all of these technical programs sponsored by the Affiliate Societies. As ESD did not conduct similar technical meetings, the Affiliate Societies programs were a principle mechanism of fulfilling ESD’s role as a technical information resource. The Society, however, did conduct career guidance programs for high school students and initiated many other science/youth projects, which later evolved into the Science and Engineering Fair. Following Detroit’s social and political unrest in 1967, most of the technical programs sponsored by the Affiliate Societies were moved to suburban locations, resulting in lost participation opportunities for the Engineering Society's membership, and the loss of revenue to the Society from meeting services which included food, beverage and rental income. As a result, ESD launched a series of new technical meetings and conferences. These initial events included noise abatement, construction engineering and automotive OEM seminars. More ambitious programs were launched in 1968 including the rotary engine conferences and an annual construction

exposition. These events attracted a regional attendance and produced income over expense for the Society. In the early 1970’s another series of major technical conferences were organized. These activities include computer graphics, automotive electronics, solid waste, programmable controllers, metrication and structural dynamics. In the last 20 years, the gross revenues from ESD technical conferences and programs has risen from five percent to 75 percent of the total gross revenue of the Society. ESD’s monthly technical journal ESD Technology and the recent environmental publication E²m, The Journal of Environmental Engineering & Management have also benefited from these technical events as a generator of editorial content and advertising revenue from exhibitors. On October 20, 1988, ESD changed its tax status from a 50l(c)(6) professional and business league to a 501(c)(3) charitable, scientific and educational organization. In making these changes, the Society amended its Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws.

esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 19

THE FORMATION OF THE SOCIETY Editor’s Note: The following excerpts describe the beginnings of the Society, as submitted by the Secretaries at the time. The reports were published in the Journal of the Association of Engineering Societies volume XVIIL, January-June 1897.


he preliminary meeting for the formation of this society was held at the office of the Engineering Department of the Detroit Water Works Wednesday evening, May 1, 1895, and the original name, “The Detroit Association of Graduate Engineers of the University of Michigan,” adopted upon motion of Mr. W.  A. Gardner S. Williams Livingstone. Mr. G. S. Williams was elected temporary chairman, and Mr. C. W. Hubbell temporary secretary. The constitution was adopted at a second meeting at the same place Tuesday evening, May 28, and the first permanent officers were elected at the third meeting, which preceded the first annual banquet held at the Michigan Club Rooms, Chamber of Commerce, Friday evening, June 14, 1895, the officers being: President—Walter S. Russel. First Vice-President—William A. Livingstone. Second Vice-President—George Y. Wisner. Secretary—Edmund L. Sanderson. Treasurer—George A. Robinson. These officers then selected G. S. Williams to complete the Executive Committee. ...


he second annual meeting and annual banquet were held at Hotel Ste. Claire Friday evening, May 1, 1896, President Russel presiding and 20 members present. The report of the Secretary showed that during the year 42 persons had been connected with the society, of whom four had withdrawn. The constitution was amended, extending the privileges of membership to engineers in general, and 26 new members were elected. The name of the association was then changed to “The Detroit Engineering Society,’’ and the following officers elected: President—Walter S. Russel. First Vice-President—Jesse M. Smith. Second Vice-President—Alex. Dow. Secretary—Gardner S. Williams. Treasurer—Theodore H. Hinchman, Jr.

20  | TechCentury | WINTER 2020

The Executive Committee was completed by the selection of William A. Livingstone, and was directed to revise the constitution to provide for the changed conditions of membership. . . . December 18 [1896] . . . Executive Committee reported that on letter ballot 54 of 58 votes were favorable to increasing dues and joining Association of Engineering Societies, and were instructed to apply for admission. Constitution taken from the table and referred back to Executive Committee for further revision. . . . January 22 [1897] . . . The revised constitution reported, adopted and ordered printed. . . . The admission of the society to membership in the Association of Engineering Societies was announced. . . . February 19 [1897] . . . Chas. E. Greene nominated and confirmed as member of the Board of Managers of the Association of Engineering Societies. ...


he third annual meeting of the Detroit Engineering Society was held in the parlors of the Hotel Ste. Claire, Friday evening, April 23, 1897, President Walter S. Russel presiding. There were present thirty-six members. The Executive Committee reported favorably upon the applications for membership of Jesse M. Smith C.  M. Stephens, of Mt. Clemens, and A. J. Wenzell, of Detroit, and upon secret ballot they were elected to resident membership. The election of officer followed, which resulted in the election of the following: President—Jesse M. Smith. First Vice-President—Alex. Dow. Second Vice-President—William J. Keep. Secretary—Gardner S. Williams. Treasurer—Theodore H. Hinchman, Jr. The annual reports of the Secretary and Treasurer were then submitted by title and the meeting adjourned to the dining room and participated in the annual banquet, at which the President delivered his annual review of the work of the society, and impromptu responses were made by Messrs. Dow, Farmer, D. A. Molitor, Conant, Greene, Field and Smith. The Executive Committee met April 27, and selected Mr. Willard Pope to complete the committee, and nominated Mr. William A. Livingstone as member of the Board or Managers of the Association of Engineering  Societies.

ABOVE: Campus Martius circa 1895. LEFT: The Society’s 1899 Constitution, By-Laws and List of Members listed 92 members. The page showing the officers elected at the fourth annual meeting of the Society is pictured.

LEFT: The Society’s first president, Walter S. Russel, a civil engineer and a graduate of the University of Michigan, was the founder (along with his brother George) of the Russel Wheel and Foundry Company. In 1911, he purchased K-R-I-T Motor Car Co. Tragically Mr. Russel lived to see both his son Sydney R. and 8-year-old grandson Walter II drown in a tragic boating accident on Lake St. Clair. BELOW: A vintage advertisement for the Russel Wheel & Foundry Company, which manufactured railroad car wheels and castings. It employed about 400 people, a sizeable number in pre-assembly-line days.

ABOVE: Detroit Water Works is where the Society was formed on May 1 , 1895. This photo, from the Library of Congress, was taken at roughly that time.

esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 21


The Society Turns 125 In 2020, The Engineering Society of Detroit embarks on its 125th year of promoting the engineering and scientific professions. ESD has been a key factor in the evolution of engineering—and its success—in the city of Detroit and the state. Here’s a brief timeline of Society highlights


In 1895, Dr. Mortimer E. Cooley (eventually Dean of Engineering at the University of Michigan) had word that the university regents were considering dropping the school’s engineering program. They, at the time, doubted the value of an engineering education. That year, 13 University of Michigan engineering students formed the Detroit Association of Graduate Engineers to demonstrate to the regents the value of an engineering education. With the support of engineering alumni and faculty—and the formation of the association—the regents were dissuaded. See page 20. In 1896, the organization became the Detroit Engineering Society and quickly expanded to include engineering graduates from other universities.


With membership at 871, the Society lost 75 percent of its membership as a result of the Great Depression. Faced with bankruptcy, then-president Harold S. Ellington, an engineer and partner in the architectural-engineering firm of Harley and Ellington, sent letters to past and present members asking for financial assistance and suggestions by which the Society could regain solvency. Bryson Horton, a trustee of the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund suggested the Society petition the trustees for financial support, establishing the relationship that continues today between the Rackham Engineering Fund and the Society.


In 1936, at the request of the Rackham Fund, the Society reorganized as The Engineering Society of Detroit. With the financial boost from the Rackham Engineering Fund, the Society experienced phenomenal growth from 523 active members in 1930 to 2,396 in 1938.


In 1942 the Society moved into its new home which was dedicated as the Horace H. Rackham Memorial Building, located at 100 Farnsworth Street in Detroit’s cultural center. For the next fifty years, ESD and the Rackham Memorial Building served as the hub for metropolitan Detroit’s engineering community.

Above: In 1924, ESD established its headquarters at 478 W Alexandrine Street in Detroit, where it stayed until 1942. Left: The 1917 Annual Banquet featured Martini cocktails and Havana cigars. Detroit Mayor Oscar B. Marx attended.

Early 1900s

Forming special committees within the membership, and becoming more involved in Detroit, members assisted the city with many challenges, such as water, sewer and lighting needs. Out of their work came building codes and safety ordinances. In 1914 only 24 members worked in the automotive field. By 1938, that number was 500. 22  | TechCentury | WINTER 2020

From left: Alex Dow, president of the Rackham Engineering Foundation Trustees; Harvey Merker, president of The Engineering Society of Detroit; Bryson Horton, chairman of the Rackham Fund; Murray Van Wagoner, Governor of the State of Michigan; and Alexander Ruthven, president of the University of Michigan stand in front of the Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial Building.

Throughout the 1950s, ESD co-hosted dinners with Affiliate Societies on the latest technology.

In 1966-67, over 700 students were involved in ESD’s Engineering Youth Day. Over 10,000 students participated in ESD’s Science Fair; more than 900 in the Annual Fall Guidance Conference; and more than 460 in the Thomas Alva Edison Awards.


ESD’s first PE Exam review course was held on March 2, 1946. Pictured above is the first time a course was held in Southfield.

Difficult challenges hit ESD during the late 60s and 70s including the social upheaval of the time, which necessitated moving downtown meetings and events. A 1974 fire also gutted the ESD wing of the Rackham building and it closed for one year.

In 1969, Sol King (right), president of Albert Kahn, became the first architect president of ESD. At left is Walker Cisler, CEO of Detroit Edison.


ESD created the Outstanding Young Engineer award to recognize the most promising engineer under 35. Donald Frey, who eventually became head of Ford Division, was the first recipient. The 1980 awardee, James Padilla, went on to become the President and CEO of Ford Motor Co. The first woman to receive the award (in 1986) was Nancy Philippart, now an ESD Fellow and co-Founder of Belle Michigan, among many other achievements (featured on page 27).

In 1971, the ESD celebrated all those who had been a member when the Society reorganized in 1936, 35 years earlier.


As the 1970s began, membership was at 8,000. ESD’s committees and councils were thriving and numerous. The Student Engineers Council—made up of college students—was in full swing. In 1971, the society recognized 45 members of five different committees at the Annual Dinner, including the Noise Abatement Conference & Engineering Display Committee and the Roster & Refresher Course Committee. A 1967 Traffic Luncheon featured a breathalyzer demonstration.

esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 23


With several hundred corporate and several thousand individual members throughout Michigan, ESD unites engineers, architects and technical professionals in a common goal—the advancement and promotion of the profession through education, outreach and leadership. Having started as ESD’s Membership Director, J. Douglas Mathieson (above) became its longest-serving Executive Vice President, from 1972 to 2000. The leadership title changed to Executive Director when Robert Magee took the position in 2014.


The ESD opened its Conferences and Expositions Regional office in Ann Arbor.


The cost of operating the Rackham building, as well as a desire for a more geographically centered location, prompted ESD to move its headquarters to Southfield.


During a period of turmoil, ESD President Charles M. Ayers reached out to the American Concrete Institute to provide management services to the Society. The new management team was led by Darlene J. Trudell, ESD’s first female executive director, who stabilized the Society and quickly established independence from ACI.


ESD formed the ESD Institute, using the model of the National Academies of Science to solve big regional problems through symposia on topics such as water quality and healthcare. It was dissolved in 2014.


Robert Magee assumed the leadership of ESD, becoming Executive Director. His first initiative was to establish ESD Student Chapters, Wayne State University being the first of fourteen as of 2020.


The ESD Girls in Engineering Academy was formed to improve academic achievement and increase interest in engineering among girls, with a goal to decrease the gender gap in engineering professions.


The Rackham Engineering Foundation sold its half of the Rackham Building, ESD’s historical home, to the University of Michigan, making U–M the sole owner of the property. The sale included agreements to maintain ESD’s strong connection with U–M, and the proceeds from the sale fund the Society’s ongoing outreach efforts. 24  | TechCentury | WINTER 2020

BREAKING BARRIERS In 1980, Charles S. Davis, the president and founder of Charles S. Davis and Associates engineering consulting firm, was the first minority member of the Engineering Society of Detroit College of Fellows. Ann O. Fletcher was the first woman honored as an ESD Fellow, the first woman appointed to the ESD Board of Directors and the first woman to hold the position of Chair of the ESD Affiliate Council. In 1992, Lydia Lazurenko became the first female president of the ESD. A professor of engineering at Lawrence Tech, she was also the first female president of the Detroit Chapter of the Michigan Society of Professional Engineers. In 1995, John G. Petty became the first African American president of the ESD. Petty, who also was an Lawrence Technology University trustee for more than 20 years, was an engineer and LTU alumni who helped develop and analyze gas turbine engines for both aerospace and automotive applications. He also designed tanks for the U.S. army.

MEMBERS, PAST AND PRESENT Over the last 125 year, ESD’s list of members reads like a “Who’s Who” of past and present industry and civic giants who participated as members of the Society. While we have had (and currently have) many members who qualify to be on this list, just a very few of our notable members are: % Dr. David Cole, FESD helped launch the Center for Automotive Research in Ann Arbor. He is a former director of the Automotive Hall of Fame. % Dr. Mortimer E. Cooley was a founder of ESD, a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Michigan and the dean of U-M’s College of Engineering and Architecture from 1904 to 1928. % Keith Crain, chairman/CEO of Crain Communications, is recognized internationally for his contributions to the automotive and publishing industries. % Father William T. Cunningham, a Detroit parish priest, co-founded Focus: HOPE with Eleanor Josaitis in 1968. The organization is a nonprofit human rights organization intended to “help to resolve discrimination and injustice and to build a harmonious community.” % Alex Dow was a mechanical and electrical engineer at the turn of the century. In 1893, he was appointed the first plant manager of the first municipallyowned power plant in Detroit. He went on to become president of Detroit Edison and served until 1940. % Harold Slaight Ellington, 1933-4 President of the Society, founded Harley and Ellington, which later became Harley Ellis Devereaux. % Elliott “Pete” Estes was an automotive engineer and 15th president of General Motors (from 1974 to 1981). % Henry Ford, an industrialist and business magnate, created Ford Motor Company. % Edsel Ford, Henry Ford’s only son, was President of Ford Motor Co. % Henry Ford II, the eldest grandson of Henry Ford, served as president, CEO and chairman of Ford Motor Company between 1945 and 1980. % Youssef B. Ghafari, FESD is the owner of Ghafari Associates and served as U.S. Ambassador to Slovenia. % Clarence W. Hubbell founded Hubbell, Roth & Clark. % Lido “Lee” A. Iacocca, FESD was president and chairman of the board of Chrysler Corporation between 1978 and 1992, best known for the development of the Mustang and Pinto cars. % Albert Kahn was an industrial architect, is sometimes called the “architect of Detroit.” In 1895, he founded the architectural firm Albert Kahn Associates. One of his most notable innovations was using concrete instead of wood in factories.

% Charles F. Kettering, the namesake of Kettering University in Flint, Michigan, was an inventor, engineer and businessman. The holder of 186 patents, he was the inventor of the all-electric starting, ignition, and lighting systems for cars. The founder of Delco, he also was head of research at General Motors from 1920 to 1947. % William “Bunky” Knudsen worked as a senior manager executive at Ford Motor Company and later General Motors. In 1940, President Roosevelt appointed Knudsen as Chairman of the Office of Production Management and member of the National Defense Advisory Commission during World War II. % Richard P. Kughn was a real estate developer who, as Vice Chairman of the Taubman Co, popularized shopping malls throughout the U.S. He went on to purchase the Lionel Train Company. Kughn died last year (see In Memoriam, page 7). % Emmett N. Leith, FESD was a professor of electrical engineering at the University of Michigan. Along with Juris Upatnieks (also from U-M), Leith was the co-inventor of 3D holography. % Henry M. Leland founded Cadillac and Lincoln. He was a member of the Society from is earliest days. % Robert A. Lutz served in executive leadership in each of the Big Three auto companies. % Walter J. McCarthy, Jr., FESD was a leader in the U.S. nuclear energy industry and a former Detroit Edison chief executive officer. % Stanford R. Ovshinsky, FESD founded Energy Conversion Laboratories in Rochester Hills and was a scientist who invented the nickel-metal hydride battery and contributed to the development of solar energy panels, flat-panel displays and rewritable compact discs. % Helen O. Petrauskas, FESD was one of the first top-ranking women in the auto industry. She worked for Ford for 30 years, including as vice president of environmental and safety engineering. Petrauskas is credited with helping introduce air bags as standard equipment in automobiles. % John Rakolta, Jr., FESD, a former CEO of Walbridge, is the current U.S. Ambassador to the United Arab Emerites. esd.org | The esd.org | TheEngineering EngineeringSociety Societyof ofDetroit | 25 Detroit | 25



nniversaries are great times to take a look back and evaluate the progress and changes that took place over the years. ESD’s 125th anniversary is the perfect milestone to connect with what was, what’s in place now and what the future holds. We asked several longtime members for their thoughts on the evolution of engineering in several areas. Here’s what they had to say:


Dr. Richard E. Marburger, President Emeritus, Lawrence Technological University, namesake of the Marburger STEM Center at LTU, ESD Past President (1980-81) and ESD Fellow, has seen numerous changes in the profession over his tenure. He said collaboration among fields has been key to improvements. Richard Marburger “My professional career started nearly 70 years ago in what may accurately be called Engineering Physics at the General Motors Research Laboratories, then located adjacent to the General Motors Building. It has been my observation that the engineering profession has increasingly benefited over the years with extensive collaborations with allied professions such as the sciences, architecture and management,” he said. Technology has made the day-to-day work much easier, he explained. “Years ago for example, a major distraction was embodied in the need to prepare reports. The engineers and the scientists at my first place of employment were reasonably required to submit Tech Memos to inform management of the useful results and positive impacts that were obtained from the experimental

26  | TechCentury | WINTER 2020

work done at the laboratories,” he explained. “ This involved many handwritten drafts handed to squadrons of typists in the departmental offices followed by time consuming corrections and retyping. “Now professionals ranging from beginners all the way up to executives have laptops and access to programs like Microsoft Word so that they can much more speedily prepare their own reports. This leaves much more time for experimentation and analysis!” he said. Thomas Doran agrees. Doran started his engineering career 42 years ago with Hubbell, Roth & Clark where he eventually became a principal with the firm. He is also a Fellow of The Engineering Society of Detroit and former chair of the TechCentury Editorial Board, among many other affiliations. Doran’s technical area of expertise is environmental Thomas Doran engineering, especially water. He says in his area of expertise, technology has made great differences, “In the water area, solutions and technology now produce purer water with less energy, fewer chemicals, and fewer things that need disposal. We also now have analytical techniques that enable us to ‘see’ pollutants at vastly lower amounts than a few decades ago” he said. “In addition, computers, software, modeling, have made things mostly for the better—except when reliance on computers and software prevents us from having a checks and balances process that physically ‘feels’ for the solution.”


ESD Fellow Tito Marzotto, a retired structural engineer who began his career working at the AE firm Smith Hinchman & Grylls (now Smith Group JJR) in July 1963, reflects on the rigorous training he received.

“ESD was instrumental in my achievement of my goals both in giving me the opportunities to serve the profession and to work with some incredible people. ESD’s ability to change along with the amazing changes over the years and to continue to offer all engineers the products, services and opportunities that meet their needs in these trying times speaks to its resilience and value.” — Tito Marzotto, PE, executive consultant, SNP Technical Services, Inc

“My teachers and classmates at WSU in the late 1950’s were very serious and many were veterans. Studies involved rigorous calculations with slide rules and longhand solutions. My first job at SHG put me through an intensive program of training (drawing and detailing) and mentoring before doing elemental designing and slowly progressing Tito Marzotto through the steps of project team involvement to lead project engineer then project management under incredibly experienced, talented and teaching engineers,” he explained. His opinion, like Doran’s, is that technology does not always bring positive outcomes affecting decisionmaking and networking to find solutions. “Over the past decades I have witnessed and been involved in some incredible changes, some good and some not. The University experience has changed dramatically. Young engineers are in a big hurry today. The information and digital solution revolutions have radically changed our way of identifying and solving problems, networking and finding opportunities,” he said. “This has contributed to the decline of participation in the technical and professional societies that face major challenges to remain relevant.” But Marburger adds that a technology in education can open doors to discovery. “An astounding array of technological advances has vastly improved the quality of education,” he said. “An example is my early experience with electron microscopy at the General Motors Research Laboratories (GMRL). In the early 1950’s, I studied specimens in an RCA electron microscope. There was, of course, a rigorous requirement of a vacuum in the specimen chamber and the specimen itself was very thin—so that the electrons could travel through a replica of a prepared surface. “At the time, it was an amazing instrument. Now, in the LTU Biomedical Engineering facilities, we have an

Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope operated by Dr. Yawen Li. She can study specimens in their natural state in a way which makes the instrument I worked on seem like a toy,” he said. Technology also leaves more time to learn. “With improvements in cell phones, fax, email, computer file transfer, etc., the amount of student time consumed in registration, drops and adds, and other administrative tasks is minimized and the time available for attending class, study and homework is optimized,” Marburger said. In addition to technological advances, the growth in mentoring programs is a key to engineering education today, according to ESD Fellow Dr. Nancy Philippart, general partner and co-founder of Belle Michigan as well as Co-Director of the Global Executive Track Ph.D. Program and a professor at Wayne State University. She also Nancy Philippart sites encouraging students at a young age as essential. “I’m very involved in Girl Scouts because it encourages girls to go out of their comfort zone and try new things: to have experiences they don’t know much about. This is much easier today, with all of the programs available,” she said. Trying new things is also a way to find the right focus for education. “I mentored a student in the WSU program last year who wasn’t sure what field to pursue. The one thing she did say was ‘there’s no way I’m going into manufacturing engineering.’ But I had her job shadow at a plant. When she came back, she was so excited because she learned much more about the actual experiences in the field, and decided to take an internship in manufacturing.” Today’s mentoring programs and directed educational opportunities help students pick the field that is right for them, she said.

esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 27


When Philippart entered the engineering field in the automotive industry nearly 40 years ago, she said she faced many challenges. “I started quite young and I was a woman in a field where there were not many women, so being taken seriously was a challenge. My co-workers simply were not used to having someone like me in the room,” she said. Being taken seriously included others doubting her dedication to the profession. “When you got married or left on maternity leave, they did not expect women to come back. When my co-workers threw me a party before I had my first child, they thought it would be a goodbye party, not a baby shower.” ESD Fellow and former board member Dr. Rebecca M. Spearot, who retired from Lear Corporation, worked for Bureau Veritas and now is Regional Coordinator of Future City Colorado, said when she entered the profession in the 1960s they weren’t hiring female engineers because “they didn’t have a women’s restroom.” Later on a Rebecca Spearot construction site, she was told “There will be no time for tears here.” “But all that has changed now—in engineering and in the work world. There is much more inclusivity,” Spearot explained. Philippart said the solution, at the time, was to work harder. “You were under much more scrutiny to achieve as a women: you had to prove yourself.” Over the decades since she started her career, Philippart also said many improvements in attitudes and work life have been achieved. “For both men and women, work life balance is a key factor now. And the engineering profession is much more attainable for women. But this goes a long with all professions. Diversity in the workplace is now pursued and embraced,” she said. Spearot said she learned a lot about that balance from the mentors she had via ESD. “I loved attending the networking breakfast and participating on the committees because I was able to see the ESD leaders as role models. I learned how to run a business but also how to balance it with families and enjoying life. The leaders and members in the Society were very good at finding that balance and committed to helping mentor others.” Her advice to anyone—woman or man – entering engineering is “to just go for it.” “Don’t be afraid to reach and to be an equal; and don’t be afraid to volunteer and be part of a team,” she said. 28  | TechCentury | WINTER 2020


As the rapid pace of improved technology speeds ever faster, Doran said its essential to prepare, and be ready. “Because technology and societies are changing so rapidly, I hope to see more flexible, adaptable infrastructure rather than the 20-60 year design approach when I started in the profession,” Doran said. Marzotto has a similar concern, but feels it can be handled with preparation. “Undoubtedly computers have made us more productive and allowed us to push the boundaries of engineering solutions,” he said. “And this technology leaves unlimited potential for more of the same revolutionary changes we have already seen — we must be ready to overcome the societal, educational, demographic and cultural challenges presented by the revolution we are still in now.” In this vein, Marburger sees collaboration among professions as a key factor of progress. “In higher education, I believe that increasing collaboration between the allied professions is key to further multi-disciplinary success,” he said. “Further, we will find that lifelong learning—as exemplified by a collaborating “no silos” coterie of the Alex and Marie Manoogian School, Lawrence Technological University, Fox Run Senior Campus, the Engineering Society of Detroit and the Detroit Economic Club—will produce a well-educated society capable of dealing effectively with the issues that confront us.” He added that “One of the many aspects of the relevance of ESD to the professions is this emphasis on education.” Philippart sees the key to longevity for young engineers will be flexibility. “Studies indicate that today’s young people will need to have the ability to reinvent themselves several times throughout their careers to keep up with the fields that are in demand,” she said. “Engineering is perfect for this. Engineering demands critical thinking and problem solving skills, a skill industries of the future will definitely need.” And one of those future engineers, Shadman Rahman, 2019 president of the ESD Michigan State University Student Chapter, said bringing all of engineering—as well as other professions—to work cohesively is essential to future success. “The world is changing rapidly, and all fields of engineering are connected. We Shadman Rahman won’t be able to grow one field without the other. We will need to work together and maximize each other’s skills as we grow together.”


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Profile for The Engineering Society of Detroit

TechCentury v.24 n.4 - Winter 2020  

The Engineering Society of Detroit Celebrates 125 Years

TechCentury v.24 n.4 - Winter 2020  

The Engineering Society of Detroit Celebrates 125 Years