L ogistics O fficer A ssociation Professionals Shaping the Military Environment
The Exceptional Release Winter 2013 - Contents
Executive Board President Col Emily Buckman
Click on titles to link to the corresponding article.
Vice President Lt Col Chris Boring
email@example.com Chief Financial Officer Maj Mike Sander
Chief Information Officer Ms. Wendy Yonce
Membership Development Maj Alex Mol
firstname.lastname@example.org Chapter Support Maj Camille LaDrew
email@example.com Executive Senior Advisor Lt Gen Judith Fedder Webmaster/Website Capt Andrew Cobb
firstname.lastname@example.org www.loanational.org T h e E x c ep t i o n a l Re l e a se Editor Lt Col Rich Fletcher
Assistant Editor Col (ret) Mary H. Parker, 412 AMXS/MXAD
ER Managing Editor/Publisher/Advertising Marta Hannon
ER Worldwide Staff Lt Col Michelle Hall, AFSOC/A4RX Maj James Dorn, AMC/A4MM Maj Timothy Dodson, 438 AEAG/CC, Det 3 Capt Dara Hobbs, AFSPC/A4RDX Capt Scott Manno, 927 LRS/LGR Ms. Donna Parry, AF/A4/7PE Graphic Design MMagination LLC – Atlanta, GA
LOA National PO Box 2264 – Arlington, VA 22202 Issue No. 129 - Winter 2013
Nuclear Weapons Technician 2W2 Upgrade Training Requirement Analysis
By Captain Timothy M. Liebold ................................................................................... 14 from the flightline
Logistics Out Of This World
By Major Lawrence Ware .............................................................................................. 18
Vehicle Fuels Inspections of the Future
By Master Sergeant Chad Ohr........................................................................................ 22 COCOM/JOINT STAFF/HAF
Evolving Maintenance Data Sharing to Fully Support the Joint Logistics Enterprise
By Colonel Steven J. Morani, USAF, Ret. and Colonel Bill Black, USMC, Ret.............. 26
IN EVERY ISSUE VOICES
President’s LOG(istics), Colonel Emily Buckman............................................................................................. 2 Editor’s Debrief, Lieutenant Colonel Rich Fletcher................................................................................ 3 From the E-Ring, Lieutenant General Judith Fedder................................................................................ 4 SES Speaks, Ms. Lorna B. Estep.................................................................................................... 6 Perspectives Brig Gen Duke Z. Richardson.................................................................................... 8 Focus on a Field Grade Officer........................................................................................... 12
voices | President’s log
President’s LOG(istics) Amazing LOA Members: These are exciting times in LOA as we get ramped up for next year’s LOA Symposium. We will continue to lean on the talents and good work of all LOA members to bring us back to together next year. In addition to preparing for next year’s event, the following is an update on key LOA initiatives your National Board is working on at this time. Your LOA National Board is committed to continuing to equip today’s logisticians for tomorrow’s challenges affecting our defense community. We certainly appreciate your continued support to LOA, and I welcome any feedback you may be willing to send me at my email address: President@loanational.org. Our highlights include:
Col Emily Buckman
1) HAF/A4/7 Sponsored Logistics Day. As you are all aware, General Fedder sponsored an Air Force Logistics Day in October, and she was gracious enough to allow LOA to participate. I think it’s safe to say we had over 2,000 participants through the various dial-ins and chapter-hosted sessions. The Logistics Day event, and the follow-on LOA Call for members, was in lieu of an in-person symposium due to the conference limitations that we have previously mentioned to. The Logistics Day event provided the single greatest aspects of a similar LOA symposium… an opportunity for logisticians to hear directly from the top logistics leaders in the AF and DOD community. The audience was able to hear from our Air Force Logistics Leaders: Lt Gen Fedder, Lt Gen Litchfield, and Maj Gen Cooper, and Vice Admiral Harnitchek from the Defense Logistics Agency. We received significant input asking LOA to offer streaming to our members on non-DoD networks. While that option wasn’t possible for this past event (because it was a DOD event), with the proper corporate sponsorship we hope to make similar LOA events available to our retired and industry members as well in the future. I also want to say how proud I was to present the 2013 LOA Annual Awards and Scholarships to our very deserving chapters and individual volunteers. All winners are posted in our website and later in this edition of the ER. We will also highlight all of them on our stage at next year’s Symposium along with next year’s Award winners. 2) 2014 Symposium. Although this effort will require significant corporate sponsorship, we are marching down a path to host an event in DC next October that will combine a face-to-face event with a Virtual aspect. We received great feedback from many of you that reminded us the intent for these events is the interaction with fellow logisticians and industry. While the fancy food and big screen projectors were nice in past year’s events, we are aiming for a simpler event in 2014. We will focus on the small personal interactions and the ability to link DOD and industry in a way that considers future military logistics challenges. Even a scaled back approach such as this requires an incredible amount of time and effort from dedicated volunteers, but we look forward to another successful LOA event. If you have any suggestions to help make this event useful to you and other LOA members, we welcome your feedback and support. 3) LOA Certification. One LOA effort that I am particularly excited to tell you about is a certification program for LOA members who meet specific qualifications and educational criteria. I believe Col (ret) David Koch, our LOA Chief Learning Officer, has assembled the right team dedicated to see this issue through completion. Our intent is to offer another LOA membership opportunity that is clearly aligned with a core LOA focus…to develop future logisticians. Our intent is to offer a logistics certificate that would be applicable to members in a wide range of experiences and backgrounds, to include Active Duty, Civil Service and Industry members. As many of you know, Supply Chain Certification is something Corporate America looks for on a resume--our goal is to better equip our Loggies while serving and when they leave the AF. There will be much more to come on this endeavor. 4) Membership Drive. We were fortunate to Maj Alex Mol, our National Membership Chair, who delivered exceptional results with our membership drive in October. Under Alex’s leadership, LOA generated over $25,000 in revenue through 202 individual renewals, 59 new members, 57 lifetime memberships, and multiple corporate memberships. This revenue will help to sustain the association and help bridge the gap until additional sponsorship can be generated in the coming months. Way to go Alex and LOA! 5) LOA App. I mentioned previously we were working to make an App available to help promulgate LOA information. We are proud to say this is now a reality and hope that you will download the free version on your mobile devices. Search for “mobileLOA” to install the App on your Apple, Amazon, or Google devices. In just a few months this App has transpired from a concept to a full version…and multiple updates make it more useful to members each week. Special thanks to J.D. DuVall for the App development and his work seeking sponsors for future capability for the LOA App. LOA, your National Executive Board continues to focus on developing future logistics leaders, and you, the members play the most important role in that endeavor…our focus is squarely on the logisticians (military, civil service, retired and corporate) who are executing today’s logistics missions and on those who will solve tomorrow’s logistics challenges. My very best regards for a great 2014, Colonel Emily Buckman and Your LOA National Board email@example.com 2 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
Editor’s Debrief Happy New Year! It is hard to believe that another year has come to an end. 2013 was a year marked with uncertainty, change, and hope for our Air Force as well as the Logistics Officers Association. As we stare into the future, once again we find ourselves partnered with industry looking for innovative ways to get the most capability out of our limited budget. This edition of the Exceptional Release is focused on the AF-Industry partnership in the fiscally constrained environment. Our senior leaders made a point of addressing this topic in their articles. I recommend you take the time to read what is on the minds of our leaders as we move forward. As you know, the central goal of the Exceptional Release is professional development. This is not possible without Lt Col Rich Fletcher articles and military professionals who want to share lessons learned, experiences, and thoughts with the LOA members. It is an annual tradition to recognize those individuals who submitted articles that stretched our minds and further developed our members. The annual winners are listed below. Additionally, I would like to thank the ER staff for their continued volunteer efforts. Thanks go out to: Col (ret) Mary Parker, Lt Col Michelle Hall, Maj Jim Dorn, Maj Tim Dodson, Maj Dara Hobbs, Capt Scott Manno, Ms. Donna Parry, Ms. Marta Hannon, and Ms. Meilyn Marino. SUSTAINMENT
CGO Award Winner: Summer 2013
fRom tHE fLIgHtLInE
1LT John S. Whitehouse:
“LRS Meets the Blackhawk “
LRS Meets the Blackhawk By 1st Lieutenant John S. Whitehouse Airmen in today’s Air Force are expected to be ready for a host of challenges. The nature of today’s threats is diverse and can appear without warning. LRS personnel are key players in today’s fight. From managing supply warehouses, to maintaining Air Force motor transportation, to ensuring deployed personnel are where they need to be in a timely manner, the LRS needs to be ready for whatever challenges arise in completing the Air Force mission. During the summer and fall of 2012, Airmen from DavisMonthan AFB took part in the “Dog Tag Days of Summer.” The training was established by
Davis-Monthan Airmen lift off and guard the LZ during October’s “Dog Days of Summer”. (Photo by TSgt Anthony Ashbeck, 355 CES)
Lt Col Kjäll Gopaul. Being a Pathfinder and former Army officer, Lt Col Gopaul worked with the Arizona Army National Guard 2-285 Aviation Regiment to bring their rotary assets to Davis-Monthan. UH-60 Black Hawks trained Air Force personnel in helicopter sling loading operations, MEDEVAC litter carries, tactical passenger loading, hot re-fueling operations, and landing zone establishment/operations. While transporting people and equipment using helicopters is typically a US Army function,
While transporting people and equipment using helicopters is typically a US Army function, the distinction between Army and Air Force core activities can be blurred in a deployed environment.
the distinction between Army and Air Force core activities can be blurred in a deployed environment. As 11 years of the Global War on Terror and Overseas Contingency Operations have demonstrated, today’s Airmen need to be prepared to adapt to whatever complexities the mission demands. Sling loading cargo onto a hovering helicopter is one deployment competency Airmen can learn. Knowing how to do this important process properly promotes the safety of all personnel involved. Aerial Transporters (those with the 2T2 AFSC or “Port Dawgs”) from the 355th Logistics Readiness Squadron (LRS) took part in the training sessions in August, September and October of 2012. In total, nine 2T2s, five Logistics Readiness Officers (21Rs) and civilians from the 355 LRS have received this training.
FGO Award Winner: Summer 2013
Maj Michael Boswell: “Air Force Logistics: An Enabler or Casualty in Cyber-Warfare”
Airmen going through the training start by driving out to an austere landing strip used for helicopter operations. The pre-flight training ensures the Airmen are properly outfitted with eye and ear protection, dog tags, and a rubberized M16 or equivalent weapon. Helicopter
Air Force Logistics: An Enabler or Casualty in Cyber-Warfare
By Major Michael Boswell
The Story Begins… It was a frigid mid-December Friday afternoon on the island of Okinawa, Japan. Captain Derrick Roberts, a Logistics Readiness Officer and the Materiel Management Flight Commander for Kadena AB grabbed his jacket, gloves and briefing notes, rushing out the door for the 1500 hours Maintenance Operations meeting. As Derrick hurried to the door, he knew that he had only 10 minutes to make it to the meeting and the drive took eight. Just as he flung open the door leading to the parking lot, MSgt Joe Nettles, the Maintenance Supply Liaison Non-Commissioned Officer InCharge (NCOIC), came rushing from the parking lot and yelled, “Sir we have a problem.” Derrick slowed the pace to his car and responded, “Go on.” Nettles began by telling the Capt that the three electro-hydrostatic actuators grounding F-15 tails 6543 and 6756 were not in the FEDEX truck that had arrived a few minutes earlier. In an overly frustrated voice Derrick belted out, “ You have got to be kidding me…again! For the past three days I’ve been briefing that these parts were coming in and now I have to tell the Wing Commander (WG/CC) that these birds will still be down for a few more days? This is unacceptable!” He took a deep breath and softened his Above: TSgt Chris Sterling and SSgt Sean Tracey, 927th Maintenance Operations Flight, take information from a caller while monitoring maintenance logs on several screens at Macdill Air Force Base, Fla. (USAF photo by SSgt Jennie Chamberlin)
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42 | The Exceptional Release | SUMMER 2013
Civilian Award Winner: Fall 2012
from the flightline
Mr. Steven J. Morani: “Maintenance – A Critical Process of Supply Chain Operations” Maintenance A Critical Process of Supply Chain Operations
By Mr. Steven J. Morani
Recently, I had the opportunity to participate in a strategy session where a group of senior logistics leaders assembled to develop options for improving the Air Force logistics enterprise. As we discussed organizational designs, processes and desired outcomes we addressed the subject of how to better integrate and synchronize supply chain operations. What I found compelling was the varying opinions among the group on what processes were actually part of the supply chain and what outcomes were delivered to the customer. When I made the point that maintenance was a critical supply chain process, it was clear I held the minority opinion in the group. I figured if there was confusion over how supply chain operations was understood in a room full of seasoned logistics leaders, it would probably be a good discussion topic for the Air Force logistics community at large. What better way to start the dialog rolling than by publishing an article in the ER?
As logisticians, we are all responsible for satisfying Warfighters’ requirements in order to maximize the joint force commander’s freedom of action. For the maintainer, this means sustaining Warfighters’ readiness by delivering the necessary operational availability of assigned systems. Equally important is the need to exercise the best possible stewardship of our scarce resources and satisfy Warfighters’ readiness in the most efficient and affordable manner. So if we are to structure the logistics enterprise to
It is important we understand how the DOD describes supply chain operations and why it is essential process owners in the chain understand the roles, relationships and information requirements needed to provide the optimal level of support to the Warfighter.
Above: Crew chiefs from the 509th Aircraft Maintenance Squadron and 131st Bomb Wing perform a phase inspection on a B-2 Spirit at Whiteman Air Force, Mo. Every 1,000 flight hours the B-2 must be ‘phased’ in search of any discrepancies that could cause major damage. (USAF photo by SrA Nick Wilson)
achieve these outcomes, it is important we understand how the DOD describes supply chain operations and why it is essential process owners in the chain understand the roles, relationships and information requirements needed to provide the optimal level of support to the Warfighter.
DOD Supply Chain and the SCOR© Model To understand what is meant by “supply chain”, or “supply chain operations”, we need to use an accepted, authoritative source for the definition, and not one shaped by experience or opinion. The DOD has endorsed the use of the SCOR© model (supply chain operations reference) management processes of Plan, Source, Make/Maintain, Deliver and Return as the accepted framework for describing the DOD supply chain. This endorsement is documented in DODI 4140.01, DOD Supply Chain Materiel Management Policy. The purpose of the model is to explain relationships between the supply chain processes in an agreed upon framework in order to communicate across process owners. The SCOR© model is a consensus model developed by members of the Supply
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Honorable Mention: Spring 2013
SrA Dennis Sloan: “437th APS Makes
Baggage Detail Easier”
437th APS Makes Baggage Detail Easier By Senior Airman Dennis Sloan
The 437th Aerial Port Squadron (APS) baggage claim service team at the passenger terminal recently upgraded their baggage bins from weathered wooden bins to steel bins. These bins are used for transporting military member’s baggage to and from the aircraft. The team moves all baggage of deploying and returning military members at Joint Base Charleston, which means they can move hundreds of bags a day. “We support several units on this base when they deploy,” said MSgt Serge Ladd, 437 APS NCOIC of Passenger Service. “When the units deploy, they sometimes use commercial aircraft, which requires us to store the baggage underneath the belly of the aircraft, and getting it there was a hassle before the arrival of the new steel bins.” The new steel bins reduce the process of moving baggage to and from aircraft by an hour and are easier to use, since they were specifically built for the job. The bins also carry more bags than the previous wooden bins. “The older bins had to be built-up and broken-down every time we used
them, and they were not in the best condition having been exposed to the elements throughout the years,” said Ladd. “The new steel bins don’t require build-up or break-down and they’re easier to get in and out of when the Airmen are loading them with baggage.” The project to replace the older wooden bins began in December 2011. Ladd researched the internet to see what type of bins were available, but all he found were plastic bins that would likely break and require replacement often. He then decided to create a blue print of a steel bin with a gate on the front for the Airmen to get in and out of when necessary. “We needed something durable and since we were going to purchase new ones, I made sure these bins would be versatile and last a long time,” said Ladd. After the 628th Contracting Squadron awarded the bid to a local steel company, the 437 APS team received the bins in July 2012. “Since there is no build-up or break-down involved when using the new steel bins, the process of moving baggage requires less people,” said SSgt Trevor
44 | The Exceptional Release | SPRING 2013
Keep ‘Em Flying!
Lt Col Rich Fletcher and your ER Worldwide Staff Editor@loanational.org or Marta@loanational.org 3 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
From the E-Ring Industry Partners—Keys to Logistics Innovation and Mission Success Greetings fellow Logisticians! You continue to make a difference during these uncertain fiscal times. The government shutdown in October once again brought to the forefront how flexible you are in your abilities to continually generate the mission, no matter the constraint.
Lt Gen Judith Fedder
As you continue to “fuel the fight” with innovation and resilience in an ever-changing operational and tight budget environment, I am reminded daily of the need for all of us to tap into creative ideas to ensure effective and efficient success. In this dizzying age of rapidly evolving technology, I can think of no better advancement for us to capitalize on than off-the-shelf products from our commercial industry partners, specifically mobile devices. I don’t have to tell you how important leveraging technology is to our logistics mission and certainly each of you already use a number of personal mobile devices in your daily lives. Now is the time to really ramp up our focus on these tools and ask ourselves how mobile devices and current technologies help our mission when applied on the flightline. Commercial mobile devices (CMDs) are just one option of many cutting edge initiatives we have recently partnered with commercial industry on in the pursuit of increasing production and lowering sustainment costs. Commercial mobile technology is extremely capable and increases management effectiveness and process efficiencies which, if applied to our mission set properly, will keep Airmen on the forefront of technology and help us generate our mission in a more predictable fashion.
The Exceptional Release
A Professional Military Journal written by logisticians for logisticians The purpose of the Logistics Officer Association (LOA) is to enhance the military logistics profession. LOA provides an open forum to promote quality logistics support and logistic officer professional development. Policy on Written Submissions: The editor invites articles and other contributions on issues that support LOA’s purpose. Direct manuscripts, letters and other communications to: firstname.lastname@example.org. Deadlines: The 15th day of January, April, July, and October. Story Format: Double-spaced, typed and electronically submitted to email@example.com. Please visit the LOA website for more details. Photos & Graphics: Send individual electronic files (hi-res JPG, TIFF, PDF or EPS) along with stories (as separate text files) and include cutlines/captions (numbered). Name your photo files with the author’s last name and number them according to their match with the caption, such as ‘smith1.jpg,’ ‘smith2.jpg,’ and so forth. All photos and ads should be at least 200 dpi or greater resolution. Submitter data: Should be typed at the end of the story file. Information included should be: Rank; full name; service; home mailing address; business name and address; business phone (DSN and commercial); email; three to five sentence biographical sketch; and a photo (as a separate file – see “photos and graphics” specs above). Editorial Policy: The editors reserve the right to edit all submissions for length, clarity and libel. All submissions become the property of LOA. Advertisement Formats: Each ad must be sent as a composite hi-res (300 dpi or greater) EPS file with fonts saved as outlines. Full-page ads with bleeds should allow at least 3/8” bleeds. Ad rates visit: http://www.loanational.org/exceptional-release/advertising-rates.php Advertising Contact: Ms Marta Hannon, Managing Editor | PO Box 2264 – Arlington, VA 22202 | email: firstname.lastname@example.org | Phone 703.568.5651 Subscriptions: The ER is published quarterly and is available via membership in the Logistics Officer Association at the annual rate of $35. Access membership forms on the website at www.loanational.org.
4 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
fedder In April 2012 we concluded an exciting six month study with our commercial industry partners in conducting research on use of CMD’s supporting a wide variety of our aircraft. To no one’s surprise, the results concluded CMDs more than meet logistics requirements and outperform existing ruggedized Mobile Work Stations, or Digital Technical Operating Systems (DTOS) when it comes to viewing maintenance technical data. With test results in hand, the next step is to make sure we spend our money wisely in the face of numerous budget demands. We need to make sure we can justify the transition to this new tech gear and prove overall cost savings. Initial results show that using a blended set of CMDs and mobile work stations can yield an estimated annual logistics enterprise-wide cost savings of $12.7 to $14.2 million. Exploiting this technology realizes immediate cost savings and is a tool we’ve recently given maintenance group commanders to view aircraft technical data…..a good idea that is in the field working, now! Other benefits to this blended IT move include addressing concerns from the flightline like the Common Access Card requirements and battery life of devices. These two areas are an ongoing central focus for your logistics Air Staff during fielding as we hear instances of Airmen climbing up and down ladders and maintenance stands due to CAC driven access issues and dead batteries. We’re well aware we can’t take full advantage of CMDs if access is denied and/or the device is dead. On the first issue, we’re working to improve “team access” to the system so if a 7-level working a task has to leave the flightline and remove a CAC, the job will continue with a “team CAC” versus hampering the repair time and ultimately the mission over something as simple as a technician with no access to technical orders. On the second issue of battery life, we’ve seen that some systems barely make it out of the Expeditor truck before the battery dies—clearly an unacceptable condition that slows the safe and compliant repair or our weapon system. This is yet another area where our team here on the staff is partnering with industry in the development of devices with extended life battery. We owe you fixes on all these issues and you can expect more updates to come in the near future as we work with our commercial partners in fielding new and improved devises that better meet your mission needs. We are seeing success with hand-held mobile devices and right now the HAF team is working to expand the approved use of CMDs beyond aircraft maintenance to additional logistics business areas such as vehicle maintenance, fuels, aerial port, maintenance training, and supply chain management. Additionally, we are working with your MAJCOM A4s to push a field survey as a means to look at other uses for CMDs at the point of maintenance, supply, and across all logistics functional areas. The survey results will be used to inform the HAF of future activities required to properly identify and employ the tremendous potential of CMDs and associated technology. Look for this survey soon and I enLLC courage you to take time and respond…we need to hear what you want and need. Straight Forward,
Semper FI Investment Advisors,
Today’s dynamic fiscal environment requires that we have logistics processes that are agile, responsive and cost effective. Finding ways to implement CMDs and other innovative ideas into our mission generation process is critical and will become more so as we continue to transform our logistics force. I know each of you understand the importance of your role and I look forward to continued growth and evolution when it comes to getting better and more capable mobile devices into your hands. Thank you for what you do every day…it is an honor to serve with you.
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Lt Gen Judith Fedder Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics, Installations and Mission Support Headquarters U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C.
Contact: email@example.com Phone: (919) 554-1113 A Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business 5 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
SES Speaks Logistics IT Systems Strategy: A Call for AF/Industry Collaboration Like many “geeks,” I became interested in Information Technology (IT) that we improve the availability because of the capabilities it brings to enable more effective and effiand delivery of information from Ms. Lorna B. Estep cient outcomes to my functional area of expertise: logistics. The technolthese systems to the point of use, ogy transformations over the last 30 years have been incredible. I have whether that is on the flight line, lived through the times when the first IT “bug” was a moth that shorted in the middle of a desert, or on a hurricane-ravaged island. Several out a vacuum tube on the mainframe, a “portable” computer weighed of these systems are financial-feeder systems that contribute to the 70 pounds and required a cart to move, and information exchange was AF’s ability to comply with the Chief Financial Officer Act and limited to the 80 card columns on a punch card. My current computer, Financial Improvement Audit Readiness (FIAR). Ensuring that a notebook, weighs less than two pounds and fits in my purse, and I can we achieve full financial auditability is critical. “Google” unlimited information on any subject. Our Air Force logis2. Transform and standardize lotics community needs to better tap into gistics processes to be more effective and Our Air Force logistics community the technology explosion to support our efficient in meeting the warfighting mismission needs. needs to better tap into the sions. We are employing the Service Detechnology explosion to support our velopment and Delivery Process (SDDP) Over the past year, I have been a member mission needs. of a small group of AF professionals deto help us, as a functional community, veloping strategies to tap into that techclearly articulate the business problems nology explosion. We have developed a that we are attempting to solve, the delogistics IT roadmap that aligns the portfolio to support the AF Entersired business outcomes and their measures of success, the as-is and prise Logistics Strategy (ELS) (http://www.my.af.mil/EnterpriseLogisto-be logistics processes, the data needs supporting those processtics). I’ve extracted components of that strategy I believe are critical to es, and the full spectrum of materiel (e.g., IT and infrastructure) developing the requirements for our future logistics capabilities: and non-materiel solutions (e.g, policy, training, TTP) needed to achieve the business outcomes. As a functional community, we • An integrated end‐to‐end logistics system that is fast, agile, have taken greater ownership and are delivering more comprehenresponsive, reliable, and efficient sive user requirements as a result of using SDDP. Our requirements are bounded, enabling us to deliver IT solutions rapidly with • A capability to plan, deploy, and execute expeditionary logistightly scoped increments of capability. This approach is expected tics in anticipation of warfighter needs to reduce cost and schedule risk to field products faster and at a lower cost. • End‐to‐end logistics processes that ensure efficiency and effectiveness all the way to the flight line At the heart of both our existing legacy systems and potential new IT Our existing processes and systems have served us well, but most of solutions is logistics data. Again, as a functional community, we have us know there are components that are in severe need of an overhaul. taken ownership and responsibility for understanding our data to inCommercial technologies are available through industry partners and clude knowing the data formats, how to interpret the data, where to go will enable this overhaul of our logistics enterprise. However, our role for authoritative data, and data accuracy. We are simplifying how data is in the AF logistics community is to clearly define how we want to do shared and increasing the number of devices and locations to which the business, our process requirements, and our need dates for these IT solu- data can be delivered. Commercial mobile technologies have revolutiontions within the context of our overarching AF ELS and the Logistics ized the expectations of our logistics data consumers! IT Strategy it supports. Commoditized infrastructure presents significant opportunity for cost Our AF team focused our Logistics IT Strategy on establishing stan- savings and reduced technical risks for our IT solutions. Commercial dardized processes, employing shared IT services, and driving efficien- infrastructure technologies have matured and become more open, allowcies across supply, maintenance, product support, and deployment/dis- ing for standardization and sharing of infrastructure services between tribution. These critical logistics business areas provide a framework in IT solutions. For several years, the Department of Defense has been consolidating hosting facilities. In a partnership with the AF acquisiwhich we execute two major IT work streams: tion community, standard, cheaper, commoditized infrastructure will be 1. Stabilize, remediate, and modernize operations of our existing, core made available to both existing and new transformational logistics IT logistics systems upon which day-to-day warfighting and humani- solutions. The end user will see improved performance and greater availtarian missions depend. We must keep these systems operational ability but also can be more confident that their data is protected behind until they can be replaced by transformational systems or enhanced robust security solutions. to meet the future mission. Our dynamic environment demands 6 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
Proposed Capability Initiatives (CIs) Development & Deployment Strategy Figure 1: Proposed Capability Initiatives (CIs) Development & Deployment Strategy
Our first transformational initiative developed under this new strategy is Complete Maintenance, ReEnterprise pair, and Overhaul (MRO), supporting Expanded Maintenance, depot operations. SCM & PLM We have just deliv• Field Mx (ICBM & ered our bounded Com/Elec) user requirements to • Vehicles Support for MROi & PEO BES (our ca• MROi (PDM) • Munitions Item Master • MROi (depot sfwr) pability acquisition • Distribution • Field Mx (aircraft) partners) and PEO • Equipment • PLM (TO aircraft) • PLM (Item Data C3I (our infrastruc• PLM (Commodities) • SCM (Inventory Mgmt) MROi Purch/Acq • Item Master ture acquisition part• Item Master (Aircraft) • SCM (Procurement (commodities) ners). We are col• Supply Planning Item Master) • SCM (Order Mgmt, Item laborating with them • Commodities Catalog Visibility on the next steps to deliver MRO capability. Although the initial implementation is targeted to the depots, we have collaborated with HQ 1 AF and a cross–maIntegrity - Service - Excellence jor command team of base-level maintenance subject matter this collaboration would be to create a forum for us to further discuss in experts to ensure this capability can be re-used as much as possible to detail our Logistics IT Strategy and the initiatives supporting it. I will support the entire repair network. work with my AF partners to create such a forum.
Build from MROi in an Integrated approach
Our next priority for the transformation work streams targets developing the supply chain and product lifecycle management business process requirements needed to support this repair network. Figure 1 identifies the envisioned initiatives supporting this transformation over the next 10 years. 1
I am excited about being part of the AF team to deliver next generation logistics capabilities to support the AF mission. It’s a team effort across the AF and our industrial partners. Let’s do it together!
... [T]he difficult task ahead is to select the right approach(es) for each of these initiatives and deliver the enterprise capabilities to meet our AF needs.
Although the Logistics IT Strategy is sound, and articulates at a very high level the work that must be done over the next 10 years, it is just the beginning of creating an executable plan. Incremental steps will be taken and transitional states utilized. Along this path to achieving the Logistics IT Strategy, these transitional states will feel uncomfortable at times for our end users…just think of the many transitional roads and bridges that were deployed in Boston, Mass., on its path to achieving its end state of the Big Dig! Driving through Boston during the Big Dig was a nightmare, but the end result is amazing! Many of our industry and government experts have brought technologies, tools, and methods to our attention which may assist in the way ahead. This close partnership with industry is essential for success. Although our strategy is influenced by these ideas, the difficult task ahead is to select the right approach(es) for each of these initiatives and deliver the enterprise capabilities to meet our AF needs. I suggest this is an ideal space for an AF/industry partnership. I expect the beginning of 1 USAF Logistics Capabilities Transformation Plan, 23 Sept 13, drafted by HAF A4I
Special thanks to Brig. Gen. KJ Johnson and the HAF A4I for their leadership in developing the Logistics IT Strategy.
Lorna B. Estep, a member of the Senior Executive Service, is the Deputy Director of Logistics, Directorate of Logistics and Sustainment, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. She is responsible for all depot maintenance, supply management and sustainment transformation activities within the command. She develops and directs policy and procedures for major overhaul, repair, and modification of weapon systems and spare parts. The depot maintenance activity is valued in excess of $6.5 billion in annual revenue and employs more than 35,000 people at the command’s three Air Logistics Centers. She establishes guidance relating to the Air Force retail and wholesale supply chain management of spare parts, valued at more than $5.8 billion. She oversees the Centralized Asset Management Office, managing all active-duty weapon system sustainment requirements to support more than 1.3 million flying hours each year, which is the single largest Air Force operations and maintenance account at $14.1 billion. As the staff lead for logistics and lifecycle sustainment issues, she plans and coordinates product support and acquisition logistics for all fielded and emerging Air Force weapon systems. K
7 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
Perspectives In Step with Brigadier General Duke Z. Richardson, Director, Logistics and Sustainment, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio
The New Air Force Materiel Command: Opportunity Springs from Necessity Confessions of a Program Manager For years I’ve robotically repeated the mantra, “60 to 70 percent of the life cycle cost of a weapon system is tied up in sustainment.” It’s almost as if by repeating it I was proving to my colleagues--and myself--that I was paying as much attention to the product support aspects of my work as I was to the technology development aspects. I can remember thinking I knew tons about logistics. The reality is, while I did pay attention to it, I didn’t know enough. I didn’t know what I didn’t know. Few of us did. We weren’t forced to think deeply about it, and our own command, AFMC, wasn’t even organized that way. How things have changed in just a few short years.
Necessity Drives a New AFMC In a surprise blow to the world I knew and loved, the Air Force announced in 2011 it was re-organizing AFMC into a simple 5 Center Construct (5CC). Prior to 5CC, AFMC consisted of three [product] centers focused primarily on the development of new systems and modernization of legacy systems; three [logistics] centers focused primarily on susS&T tainment, mainte(AFRL) nance, repair, and overhaul of fielded systems; two centers focused on
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...[T]ake stock of the Air Force’s currently fielded cadre of effective weapon systems to know this “12 center construct” served us well for many, many years. Of course, one immediately noticeable problem with it is the amount of center staff overhead required at the 12 different geographic locations. testing; separate centers focused on supply, science and technology (S&T), and security assistance; and a specialized center focused on the acquisition and product support of nuclear weapons systems. You only need to take stock of the Air Force’s currently fielded cadre of ef-
Brig Gen Duke Z. Richardson
fective weapon systems to know this “12 center construct” served us well for many, many years. Of course, one immediately noticeable problem with it is the amount of center staff overhead required at the 12 different geographic locations. For this reason, out of a higher Air Force call for efficiencies, AFMC proposed a large-scale re-organization to eliminate seven center staffs and 1,051 personnel authorizations, resulting in a savings of $109M every year going forward…without any loss in AFMC “tooth” (i.e., the ability to equip the Air Force with the materiel needed for world-dominant airpower) or change in the geographic location where we executed the work. This new AFMC would be founded upon one specialized center (Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center, or AFNWC), and four centers that each have responsibility for one of the four distinct mission areas that comprise materiel management: Air Force Research Labora-
Materiel Enterprise (AFMC)
Life Cycle Weapon Systems Management (AFLCMC, AFNWC)
Development Test (AFTC)
MRO & Supply (AFSC)
Grouped by mission area & integrated via the AFMC Strategic Plan
complete with performance metrics, that once and for all unifies the Command around common Richardson
priorities that work together to deliver cost effective, sustainable world dominant airpower. tory (AFRL) for S&T; Air Force Life Cycle Management Center (AFLCMC) for life cycle weapon systems management (i.e., acquisition and product support of new and legacy weapon systems); Air Force Test Center (AFTC) for development testing; and Air Force Sustainment Center (AFSC) for maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO), as well as supply.
Maintenance, Repair, Overhaul (MRO) and Supply
Life Cycle Wpn Systems Management
AFMC Development Test
Air Force Instructions (AFIs), one for Acquisi-
how we’ve implemented ILCM via the AFMC
Four of the five centers are each aligned to one of the four distinct materiel mission areas. The AFNWC was tions and another for Logistics, the Air Force 5CC organization. retained as a specialized If approved, this new AFMC would mean ge- center in order to keep focus on the nuclear enterprise. ography would be set aside, and therefore not used as a criterion for how to best group the Command’s work into centers or how to best manage the resulting seams between centers. And it was approved. On October 1, 2012, General Janet Wolfenbarger, the AFMC Commander, declared Initial Operational Capability (IOC), and just this past October 2013, she declared Full Operational Capability (FOC).
This means a Program Office at one of the three product centers under the old 12 center AFMC construct can no longer “throw a fielded program over the fence,” hoping a sustainment Program Office at one of the prior Air Logistics Centers (i.e., a depot in Air Force parlance) would catch it. Opportunity Realized: Integrated Life Cycle Management In addition to having an immediate savings in staff overhead, the new AFMC finally activated, and therefore made real, the long-standing idea of what the Air Force calls Integrated Life Cycle Management, or ILCM. Instead of two
recently re-published (on March 7, 2013) a single AFI for managing both, which is appropriately titled, “Integrated Life Cycle Management.” AFI 63-101/20-101 defines ILCM as “…the seamless governance with transparent processes that integrate all aspects of infrastructure, resource management, and business systems necessary for successful development, acquisition, fielding, sustainment, decommission, and disposal of systems, subsystems, end items, and services to satisfy validated warfighter capability needs.”
This means a Program Office at one of the three product centers under the old 12 center AFMC construct can no longer “throw a fielded program over the fence,” hoping a sustainment Program Office at one of the prior Air Logistics Centers (i.e., a depot in Air Force parlance) would catch it, because under the new AFMC 5CC, the two Program Offices are now part of the same geographically-dispersed AFMC/AFLCMC program office working for the same Program Manager working for the same Program Executive Officer (PEO). Ah, we’ve achieved “Weapon System Unity of Command.” Thanks to the new AFMC 5CC organization, and strong agreement with our Headquarters Air Force teammates, we’re driving life cycle thinking and actions--to include truly caring about sustainment and its associated costs--into crusty Program Managers and fresh Logisticians like me. And, we’re also realizing several other opportunities because of
One Materiel Enterprise Commander Because the new AFMC only has five centers, and each1 is distinctly focused on one materiel mission area, the AFMC Commander’s job has changed from just trying to “herd 12 cats” to instead integrating the fewer seams and standardizing operations between and within the distinct, yet interdependent centers. This has allowed the Commander to implement a strategic plan, complete with performance metrics, that once and for all unifies the Command around common priorities that work together to deliver cost effective, sustainable world dominant airpower. This change is driving a new “One Team” culture within the Command that still leaves room for each of the five centers to build a supporting culture unique to their distinct mission area.
One Center Commander for Each Materiel Mission Area In the prior 12 center AFMC, the old joke went something like, “if you’ve been to one Air Force depot, then you’ve been to one Air Force depot.” The point was that each of the three
Ü 1 Four of the five centers are each aligned to one of the four distinct materiel mission areas. The AFNWC was retained as a specialized center in order to keep focus on the nuclear enterprise. 9 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
VOICES | perspectives depots managed their operations differently, and used different processes and tools. Today, if you visit the collection of three AFMC/ AFSC Air Logistics Complexes (ALCs), each located in a different state, you’d soon see the AFSC Commander, Lt Gen Bruce Litchfield, is establishing a standard mode of operations as well as culture--something he calls “the AFSC Way”--at all three depot locations. Similarly, if you visited one of the many AFMC/AFLCMC Program Offices, also located in multiple states, you’d see that the AFLCMC Commander, Lt Gen C. D. Moore, is also implementing a common set of center management and leadership principles in order to gain momentum for his “Revolution in Acquisition and Product Support.” And it’s working. At every geographic location, the AFLCMC team--whether working on aircraft, engines, weapons, or electronics and groundbased systems--all know they are “Providing the Warfighter’s Edge.” The commanders at the other three AFMC centers are each implementing similar strategies, in full support of the AFMC strategy of integrated life cycle materiel management.
Getting a handle on the processes is allowing the Command to reduce variability in its output Power of Process Standardization A central part of the AFMC strategic plan is the idea of standardizing the critical processes the command uses to integrate operations across the centers, as well as the critical processes unique to each center. Getting a handle on the processes is allowing the Command to reduce variability in its output--whether it be a KC-135 Programmed Depot Maintenance (PDM) overhaul or a competitive source selection for a new weapon system simulator. By employing common processes at all locations, and systematically improving them at the same time at all locations, the Command is unlocking the ability to leverage “best of breed” ideas from one location to another, build standard training methods, quickly bring employees up to speed when they change programs or duty locations, and measure process cycle time in order to safely reduce it to become more cost effective. 10 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
Weapon System Sustainment Cost Reduction By establishing one center focused on life cycle weapon systems management (AFLCMC) and another on organic maintenance, repair, overhaul, and supply (AFSC), AFMC was able to kick-start a Product Support Steering Board (PSSB), co-chaired by the Commanders of AFLCMC and AFSC, to advise the PEOs and AFMC Commander, as well as the Air Force Acquisition Executive, on the best courses of action for lowering weapon system sustainment and other Product Support Element (PSE) costs. Through this new forum, these two center commanders have already demonstrated great ability to collaborate and present a common AFMC plan to their 4-star boss and Headquarters Air Force. In all my time within AFMC, I’ve not witnessed better communications between acquisition/product support and sustainment as that which we’re seeing under the new AFMC construct. I attribute the improvement to the simplified center structure and the Command’s overarching strategy for integrating the seams between centers.
In all my time within AFMC, I’ve not witnessed better communications between acquisition/product support and sustainment as that which we’re seeing under the new AFMC construct. The Returns are Coming In The benefits of the new AFMC are already starting to show. We’ve seen a marked increase in depot aircraft production, a decrease in critical parts shortage, and a decrease in depot backorders. Close collaboration between AFMC headquarters, AFLCMC, and AFSC led to a tighter understanding of workload requirements (funded customer orders) across our three depots, which in turn led to a more realistic depot business plan for resourcing depot operations, resulting in a first-ever 5% rate reduction and $515M in fiscal year 2015 savings (rates are what the depots charge the customer to do work; when the rate reduces, the customer has more buying power). AFLCMC implemented a standard ‘Should Cost’ process that captured the life cycle costs for its Acquisition Category (ACAT) I programs, leading
to conservative savings projections in the hundreds of millions of dollars so far, with more expected, once we expand the process across all ACAT programs, as well as services and sustainment programs.
Summary While the new AFMC was born from necessity, we’re learning the benefits of the Command’s overarching strategy extend well beyond the $109M a year in staff reduction savings. We continually remind ourselves we’re just at the beginning. Eliminating waste, standardizing and improving business processes, and building a new materiel culture takes time. In fact, because of the magnitude of the change, we expect our largest gains are still several years down the road, after which time we’ll be more “comfortable” operating in this new construct and our newest employees won’t even have memories of the old ways. It’s an exciting time to be in AFMC. The command is now structured to “get after” that other 60-70 percent of the life cycle cost. Whether Program Manager, Logistician, or another functional specialty, the women and men of AFMC are now waking up every day thinking about and delivering sustainable weapons at an affordable cost. Times have indeed changed! About the author: Brig. Gen. Duke Z. Richardson is the Director, Logistics and Sustainment, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, WrightPatterson Air Force Base, Ohio. He is responsible for developing and directing guidance and policy for the depot overhaul, repair, and modification of Air Force weapon systems, as well as for the Air Force supply chain. The depot maintenance activity is valued at $6.5 billion per year at the command’s three Air Logistics Complexes (ALCs), while the supply activity is valued at $5.8 billion. His responsibilities also include shared oversight of the Air Force’s Centralized Asset Management (CAM) Office, which manages active-duty weapon system sustainment requirements to support 1.3 million flying hours valued at $14.1 billion annually. In addition, he directs policy and procedures affecting AFMC aircraft maintenance, munitions, supply, logistics plans, transportation and packaging methods, and logistics data systems. Finally, as the staff lead for logistics and life cycle sustainment issues, General Richardson plans and coordinates product support and acquisition logistics for fielded and emerging Air Force weapon systems. K
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VOICES | FOCUS ON A fgo
FOCUS ON A FIELD GRADE OFFICER Typically in each edition of the Exceptional Release, we highlight both a chapter leader and a Company Grade Officer. For this edition, we’re adjusting our focus to the Field Grade Officer. There’s no doubt about it that logistics is a dynamic profession. Constants can be found in the strength of our NCO corps, dedicated Company Grade Officers and in the skill and leadership of our Field Grade Officers. Take for example, Major Abbi Johnson, who recently celebrated eleven years of service to the Air Force. Major Johnson, a proud graduate of the University of Central Florida, began her journey in the Air Force after commissioning through Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC). Upon completing AFROTC she was recognized as the Distinguished Graduate from Detachment 159 for the Winter Class of 2002. Maj Johnson completed Logistics Readiness Officer Technical Training in the Fall of 2003 and is currently deployed to Haiti as the Logistics Plans & Projects Officer for the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti. Her family resides at Scott AFB, IL after a recent move from Orlando, FL in the Spring of Name: Major Abbillyn “Abbi” M. Johnson 2013. Maj Johnson also deployed to Iraq in 2006 as a Logistics ReadiLOA Chapter: Gateway Chapter, Scott AFB IL ness Officer assigned to Combined Joint Special Operations Air ComHometown: Crystal River, FL ponent (CJSOAC) and again to Afghanistan in 2008 as the Deputy College(s): University of Central Florida, Orlando FL and Amberton UniverDirector for Logistics, CJSOAC. sity, Garland TX She was recognized for her actions with Air Force Commendation Degrees: BA in Liberal Studies and MBA Medals. Prior to her assignment Management at Scott AFB, Maj Johnson was assigned to Malmstrom Air Force Family: Husband, Christopher; Son, Base, MT, Hurlburt Field, FL and Spencer (6), Son, Parker (3) AFROTC Detachment 159 at the University of Central Florida in Past Duty Titles (starting with most current): Orlando. - Logistics Plans & Projects Officer, United ER: What do you like most about Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti being a loggie? - Executive Officer, 635 SCOW I love the versatility of the job. No two jobs have ever been the - Operations Officer/Commandant of Cadets and Education Flight Commander, AFROTC same! Det 159, University of Central Florida ER: What was your biggest learn- Installation Deployment Officer & Flight CC, ing moment? Deployment & Distribution, 1 SOLRS I could not possibly narrow it - Flight CC, Vehicle and Equip Management, down to just one moment. I try 1 SOLRS to learn something new every day. Most of my biggest learning - Flight CC, Materiel Management, 1 SOLRS moments have come from the incredible NCOs that I’ve had the - Flight CC, Installation Readiness, 341 LRS privilege of working with.
- OIC, Traffic Management Flight, 341 LRS
12 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
Maj Johnson and an unnamed Haitian orphan taken during a visit to a local orphanage. Photo taken by Lt Col Daniel Goodale-Porter in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. June, 2013.
The biggest supporters of Team Johnson. Maj Abbi Johnson’s husband Chris and sons Spencer & Parker were photographed in St. Louis, MO. Photo taken by Carlin Fisher of Carlin Fisher Photography. October, 2013
JOHNSON ER: What are you most proud of in your time on active duty? When it comes to my career, I’m most proud when I see the success stories of my students from Detachment 159. Watching them develop and achieve great things on active duty now, after having taught them as the Commandant of Cadets, is really special. When it comes to my family however, I’m most proud of their resilience and amazing attitudes. We fondly refer to ourselves as “Team Johnson.” I’d be nowhere without them. ER: Is there anything you to do to keep your leadership skills honed? I do a lot of professional reading and I spend time talking to my peers and mentors. Being able to share my ideas and get their valuable feedback in return is so crucial. ER: What leadership skill/trait do you find most important in logistics officers? You have to have a good attitude. Combining a good attitude with a “firm but fair” leadership style is where I’ve found success. Additionally, be a “yes” person to your customers. If you can’t say “yes,” then help find a suitable solution. ER: Of your deployments, what would you say was your biggest lesson learned? My biggest lesson was that no task is too small or irrelevant. Every task has a purpose. ER: What would you recommend to junior officers to be better prepared for a deployment? My best piece of advice is to ensure your support network back home is taken care of before you deploy. When it’s time to leave, go in with a positive attitude and be prepared to learn from your predecessor. Understand that things don’t operate the same way in the AOR as they do back at home. ER: What are your aspirations?
Johnson Family Photo 2013. Maj Johnson and family were photographed just prior to her deployment to Haiti at Scott AFB, IL. Photo taken by Carlin Fisher of Carlin Fisher Photography. March,
My goal in the Air Force is, and always has been, to be a commander. ER: As a recognized leader in past local LOA Chapters and the National Board, what activities/events are you most proud of ? I’ve had the pleasure of serving in three LOA chapters in my career as well as the National Board. I began in the Big Sky Chapter at Malmstrom AFB, MT, went on to the Commando Chapter at Hurlburt Field, FL and I’m currently a member of the Gateway Chapter. My proudest moment in LOA though was when I served on the National Logistics Officer Association Board as the Volunteer Coordinator and was awarded the 2011 General Babbitt National Distinguished Service Award. K
The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti Logistics Branch located in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Maj Johnson’s co-workers hail from (left to right), Philippines, Jordan, Brazil, Chile, USA (Maj Johnson), Philippines, Indonesia and Canada. Photo credits: UN Photographer. August, 2013
13 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
education Airmen keep watch over multiple Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missiles from their launch control center. They are missile combat crew members with the 90th Space Wing at F.E.Warren Air Force Base, WY (USAF photo by SrA Javier Cruz Jr.)
Nuclear Weapons Technician 2W2 Upgrade Training Requirement Analysis
By Captain Timothy M. Liebold
This article is an abridged version of a research paper submitted to the USAF Advanced Maintenance and Munitions Operations School. Please contact the author directly to obtain an unabridged version of the research. 14 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
Overview The United States Air Force (USAF) maintains two-thirds of the United States Armed Forces’ nuclear triad with bomber aircraft and Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM). The LGM-30G Minuteman III missile is the current version of the ICBM and is on alert 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.1 The ICBM fleet consists of 450 missiles located at three operational Missile Wings in the Continental US: F.E. Warren AFB, WY; Malmstrom AFB, MT; and Minot AFB, ND.2 To maintain a weapon system as intricate as the ICBM, it takes multiple Airmen with varying Air Force Specialty Codes (AFSC).3 Each AFSC has a specific Career Field Education Training Plan (CFETP) to cover all required training and the timelines for upgrade.4 The Chief of Staff of the Air Force (CSAF), General Mark A. Welsh III, recently said, “Education and training are the foundation of our airpower advantage. To maintain this advantage in the future, we must safeguard and reinforce that foundation. All Airmen, whether teacher or student, have a role in ensuring that we remain the most technically proficient, best-educated, and best-trained air force in the world.”5 The CFETP serves as a comprehensive education and training document identifying life cycle education, training requirements, training support resources, and minimum core task requirements for the nuclear weapons specialty. The CFETP provides personnel a clear career path to success and instills rigor in all aspects of career field training.6 The Nuclear Weapons CFETP outlines the 2W2X1 technician’s training for their career development and progression.7 It specifically iden-
liebold tifies initial skills, upgrade, qualification, advanced and proficiency training.8 Upgrade training (UGT) identifies the mandatory courses, task/knowledge qualification requirements, and correspondence course requirements for the award of all skill levels.9 A training strategy must ensure nuclear weapons technicians possess fundamental technical knowledge to perform weapons related duties and possess specific systems knowledge prior to upgrade.10 Prior to handling war reserve (WR) weapons, each technician and team chief must undergo certification from a quality assurance evaluator to confirm systems knowledge and technical ability.11 Certification applies to nuclear weapons maintenance, handling, and final assembly test operations.12 The certification program is a requirement over and above the qualification and certification procedures contained in AFI 36-2201, Air Force Training Program, and AFI 36-2232, Maintenance Training, and takes precedence over all other publications in the area of nuclear weapons certification and evaluation.13 Technicians must complete weapons academic training, applicable safety training, and be task qualified prior to task certification.14 Lastly, 5-level technicians are required to complete two sets of career development courses (CDC) and 7-level team chief are required to complete one set of CDCs prior to upgrade.15
Discussion of the Problem
According to CMSgt William Nygren from the 341st Munitions Squadron, training is the foundation of our nuclear deterrence and without quality training our adversaries will question the accuracy, reliability and sustainability of our ICBM force.
According to CMSgt William Nygren from the 341st Munitions Squadron, training is the foundation of our nuclear deterrence and without quality training our adversaries will question the accuracy, reliability and sustainability of our ICBM force.16 As leaders, we charge all supervisors to provide quality and timely training to ensure the US remains the worldâ€™s superpower in nuclear deterrence.17 The AF requires a minimum of 12 months experience as a trainee for upgrade to the 5-level and 7-skill level.18 In addition, individuals require a minimum of 12 months training on general maintenance and 4 months on Limited-Life Components exchange as a team member and/or team chief prior to upgrade.19 By having the additional time requirements for 5-level and 7-level upgrade training, senior squadron leadership makes training decisions with new personnel assigned to the unit and personnel who enter into UGT after arrival.20
Individuals must have experience performing tasks such as inspecting, maintaining, storing, handling and repairing nuclear weapons, weapon components, and use of test and handling equipment.21 Table A1, an excerpt from the 2W2X1 CFETP, depicts those additional time requirements.22 When assigned to a section other than Weapons Maintenance,
341st Munitions Squadron supervision decides whether to leave the personnel in their current duty position or move them into the maintenance section to initiate hands-on training.23
Problem Statement & Relevance of the Research
Currently, no research exists to determine if the additional 2W2 UGT requirements have any effect on the 341st Munitions Squadron by (1) prematurely moving 5-levels from work center to work center to expedite entry time into 7-level training and (2) expediting 3-level Airmen into training to minimize time before weapon certification. The 341st Munitions Squadron and the other ICBM Munitions Squadronâ€™s will benefit from research showing whether the additional time requirement influences decisions to move or not move personnel for training to limit the overall completion time for training.24
Results Figure 1 contains data from the 341st Munitions Squadron and is a compilation of Tables C1 and C2. Tables C1 and C2 show the number of
Ăœ 15 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
education | nuclear weapons technician... 5-level and 7-level personnel and the time it took them to complete their CDC training and total time for UGT after the mandatory 12-month certification requirement. Figure 1 also shows where the individuals worked when they entered UGT. Raw data showed the average time for 18 personnel to complete their required 5-level CDC work and handson training was 13.5 months, including the additional 12-month requirement. The results show the average time for four personnel to complete their required 7-level CDC work and hands-on training was 20 months. The average time for 5-level upgrade would have equated to 12.05 months and 12.50 months for 7-level upgrade without the additional 12-month requirement.
Discussion The researcher attempted to determine if the additional 2W2 UGT requirements had any effects on the 341st Munitions Squadron. The researcher analyzed if the requirement resulted in the 341st Munitions Squadron prematurely moving 5-level Airmen from work center to work center to expedite entry time into 7-level training. The researcher subsequently analyzed if the requirement caused the 341st Munitions Squadron to expedite 3-level Airmen into 5-level training to minimize time for upgrade. The results show that while the additional 12-month certification requirement affected the overall UGT time, it did not cause most trainees to exceed the 24-month threshold. Only one person in both the 5-level and 7-level categories exceeded the 24-month requirement. When removing the additional 12-month requirement, the 5-level UGT timeline went from 94% of personnel completing UGT within 24-months to 100%. Likewise, when removing the additional 12-month requirement the 7-level UGT timeline went from 80% of personnel completing UGT within 24-months to 100%. By analyzing only the raw data, it was unclear to the researcher if additional factors delayed any of the personnel during UGT. During this time, personnel could have experienced delays for medical, physical, emotional and/or personnel reliability program issues, which led to extending time for UGT.
Recommendations Due to the lack of significant delays caused by the 12-month certification requirements, any changes to current management philosophies could adversely affect the overall UGT timing for 5-level and 7-level personnel. The researcher recommends the 341st Munitions Squadron Maintenance Training Section keep a historical record for all training personnel to include reasons for delayed entry into the hands-on portion of UGT. This will allow the 341st Munitions Squadron to research whether the additional 12-month requirement is causing delays for the personnel exceeding the 24-month UGT timing or if outside factors are at fault. 16 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
Author Name Furthermore, the 2W2 Career Field Functional at Headquarters Air Force should not reduce the 12-month certification requirement to alleviate the potential for personnel to exceed the 24-month timeline. Technical proficiency for the nuclear weapons maintenance technician should be the number one priority.25 Munitions Squadrons currently have the flexibility to move personnel from one work center to another while balancing the technical proficiency of their maintenance work center. Finally, during the researcher’s fact-gathering stage, the scope of the problem was too small and more detail from similar units would be beneficial to determine if a greater issue exists within the 2W2 UGT process. The researcher recommends that a future AMMOS student analyze all three ICBM 2W2 UGT programs to include outside factors. About the author: Capt Timothy M. Liebold is the 341 Munitions Operations Officer at Malmstrom AFB, Montana and a recent USAF AMMOS graduate, class 13A. K
Appendix Notes LGM-30G Minuteman III Fact Sheet, [Online] Available: http:// www.af.mil/information/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=113, 23 Apr 2013 2 Ibid 3 Ibid 4 “2W2X1 Nuclear Weapons Career Field Education and Training Plan,” 1 January 2011 5 “The World’s Greatest Air Force Powered by Airmen, Fueled by Innovation,” The United States Air Force [Online] Available: https://www.my.af.mil/gcss-af/USAF/AFP40/d/ s6925EC1356510FB5E044080020E329A9/Files/editorial/A_Vision_ For_The_USAF.pdf 6 Ibid 4 7 Ibid 4 8 Ibid 4 9 Ibid 4 10 Ibid 4 11 Ibid 4 12 Ibid 4 13 AFI 21-204, [Online] Available: http://static.e-publishing.af.mil/ production/1/af_a4_7/publication/afi21-204/afi21-204.pdf 14 Ibid 4 15 Ibid 4 16 Interview with CMSGT William Nygren, 341 MUNS Superintendent, 15 Feb 2013 17 Ibid 18 Ibid 4 19 Ibid 13 20 Ibid 15 21 Ibid 4 22 Ibid 4 23 Ibid 15 24 Ibid 15 25 Ibid 15 1
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from the flightline
Logistics Out Of This World By Major Lawrence Ware Many of us have a story about looking at a generic plastic thermometer and saying to ourselves “Seriously, what kind of place am I in where the mercury line goes past 130 degrees!” Or a story from someone that found themselves on a flightline where people wear three layers of insulated clothing to be outside for 15 minutes in a negative 65 degree wind chill. Now consider a place where the temperature can be 500 degrees one minute and -150 degrees the next. It’s a place where not very many people have been, but many aspire to get there, and where the US is a leader among other nations -- space. Space aids the US military’s capabilities such as communications (COMM), ISR, weather forecasting, and ICBM early warning. All of these are essential for the DoD to efficiently execute its global mission every day.
Minotaur I launch. (Photo courtesy of Wallops Flight Facility, VA.)
As logisticians, we constantly rely on many of the capabilities that space offers to accomplish our day- to-day mission. We sion Assurance.. For experimental and test launches the 1st Air and depend heavily on COMM to track and order parts, accessing the InteSpace Test Squadron (1st ASTS) works with a hands-on approach for grated Maintenance Data System (IMDS) and other web-based tools, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC). The AF has ensured an elaborate and communicate with our loved ones when we are separated. Our missystem of checks and balances are put in place so satellites make it to sion requires us to know how the weather will behave because we work their intended orbits 100% of the time. in the elements and standup extensive logistics chains for national disasters. We also require a network to send The 1st ASTS is AFSPC’s Launch Veand receive information from anywhere hicle Test Squadron that assists emergFor experimental and test launches on the planet and provide us with a ing launch programs through a wide the 1st Air and Space Test Squadron picture of the battlefield before we get variety of roles. They provide the Air (1st ASTS) works with a handsthere. Satellites in space help provide Force with new options to support on approach for Air Force Space us with all of these resources. traditional mid- to heavy-launch proCommand (AFSPC). grams, like the Atlas and Delta rockets, Those in the space launch business are or new programs that will allow Comcharged with ensuring satellites get to batant Commanders to place a COMM their intended orbit unharmed. Some satellites cost upwards of $2B and or ISR satellite into a precise orbit within 24 hours of call up versus the the DoD literally cannot afford to lose them. The space launch industraditional 1 year time period. They support launches for experimental try at Cape Canaveral AFS and Vandenberg AFB, depends heavily on satellites that may be the size of a lunch box, opposed to the usual pickup its contractor workforce for the hands-on work of the launch vehicles, truck size, or can’t wait to hitch a ride with larger satellites. The unit while “blue suit” technicians and engineers provide oversight called Misis based out of Vandenberg AFB, but all of these missions do launch 18 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
ware from different parts of the globe and require the people and equipment to be in-place when needed. Their diverse mission requires them to be able to operate efficiently in different roles regardless of what locations or what outcomes the customers are seeking. The driving force, like any good unit, is manpower. The organization has a 1:1 officer to enlisted ratio, with engineers (62E), program managers (63A), space operators (13S), and missile maintenance technicians (2M0X1, X2, X3). These crews are some of the only military technicians in AFSPC that perform hands-on work and transportation of flight hardware versus provide mission as- Modified Transport Erector being unloaded at Wallops Flight Facility, VA. (Photo courtesy of MSgt Tim Favreau) surance. This allows the squadron Peacekeeper or Minuteman ICBMs to work on very diverse systems that Blue suit maintainers and engineers as lower stage boosters combined are sometimes still in developmental accomplish the movement and stacking with new upper stages. Blue suit stages. These systems include the operations of the boosters similar to their maintainers and engineers accomMinotaur family of launch vehicles roles in the missile fields, as well as oversight plish the movement and stacking that are based on ICBM systems operations of the boosters similar and the X-37B space plane. of contractors, as they are making the modifications to the systems for integration of to their roles in the missile fields, The Minotaur launch vehicle is a as well as oversight of contractors, the upper stages and payloads. combination of decommissioned as they are making the modifications to the systems for integration of the upper stages and payloads. The Minotaur launch vehicle has provided a platform for multiple customers, from targets for Missile Defense Agency tests to launching experimental satellites into orbit. It also supports missions for other US government agencies. An example of this would be a recent mission where NASA sent a satellite to the moon to collect lunar dust samples.
Launch vehicle processing at Vandenberg AFB, CA. (Photo courtesy of 30SW PA.)
One of latest missions for the 1st ASTS has been supporting New Entrant Certification (NEC). NEC is AFSPCâ€™s approach to expand competition for launching DoD payloads to commercial companies. The 1st ASTS has been evaluating the first certification launch of a commercial company for NEC. Space Exploration Technologiesâ€™ (SpaceX) first NEC launch was accomplished from a refurbished launch site at Vandenberg AFB on 29 September 2013.
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from the flightline | out of this world 1st ASTS engineers and technicians are challenged with reviewing and observing SpaceX’s procedures and processes in order to provide an evaluation to Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC). The review compilation will go into their overall evaluation, which will consist of two more launches from Cape Canaveral AFS. In the end, NEC will provide the government with more alternatives for launching satellites and cut launch costs significantly; perhaps up to 50%. The men and women of the 1st ASTS also provide operational expertise and assessment to emerging launch programs, helping to avoid pitfalls during the development of the technology. Satellites have made significant advancements in the last few years, whereas big capabilities can be integrated into little packages. Traditionally, these small satellites would ride alongside the bigger satellites during a Delta or Atlas launch. This creates problems for the small satellites, because the larger launch vehicles are expensive and it’s a long wait for a spot on a big rocket. There is an abundance of active research to develop rapid/low cost vehicles for small satellites. One of the programs is the Soldier Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS). SWORDS is a Joint Capability Technology Demonstration sponsored by Pacific Command (PACOM) and managed by the Army’s Space and Missiles Defense Command. The 1st ASTS’s role is to provide an operational evaluation to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), so they can determine if they would like to make it a formal acquisition program. 1st ASTS technicians and engineers will determine if SWORDS will be able to meet the sustainable operational goals of launching a 25 kilogram satellite into orbit within a 24-hr notice and for less than two million
dollars per launch using an all military team. Like any good logistician, the 1st ASTS technicians must frequently adapt to new challenges like the X-37. The X-37 is an unmanned space plane that launches vertically on an Atlas rocket and then lands horizontally after completing a mission lasting over 1 year. 1st ASTS technicians provide a critical role in recovering the vehicle at the end of its mission. They are the first personnel to safe the vehicle on the runway and assist in the processing while it is on Vandenberg AFB. Also, during the periods when the vehicle is not going through its initial processing, the unit’s facility mangers and mission managers are ensuring that the facilities and personnel remain trained and on standby for the next landing. Space, like logistics, is essential to our everyday operations and neither operations nor logistics would exist without the other. Even for satellites, the missions still begin and end with moving equipment around the globe and turning wrenches out in the elements. The members of the 1st ASTS are constantly evolving the skills that were learned during their primary training and adapting them to new challenges allowing the AF to become a leaner and capable Warfighting machine. To stay at the forefront of developing new technology to meet the needs of tomorrow and ensure that the US Air Force remains the dominating force in the air and beyond! About the author: Major Larry Ware is the Assistant Director of Operations for the 1st Air and Space Test Squadron. K
1 ASTS and Boeing Technicians performing post landing checks at Vandenberg AFB, CA after a 469-day space flight of the X-37 Space Plane. (Photo courtesy of 30SW Public Affairs.)
20 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
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majcom/naf Fuels personnel conducting checkpoint operations during the 1980’s. (Photo courtesy of MSgt Ohr)
Vehicle Fuels Inspections of the Future By Master Sergeant Chad Ohr There are many changes happening throughout the Department of Defense and they are having an effect on how we operate. Today we hear words like sequestration, budget cuts, and furlough. We are currently in an “Every Dollar Counts” environment and more than ever, Airmen have the ability to submit ideas and have their voices heard across the Air Force. In Air Combat Command Directorate of Logistics we are keenly focused on strategies for success across the logistics enterprise, employing a clear strategic vision, harnessing “game changers,” and promoting continuous process improvement. The climate is ripe for discovery, prompting the ACC Fuels Staff to take a fresh look at a 40year old operation in an effort to seek out efficiencies. We teamed with the Air Force Petroleum Agency (AFPA), Warner Robins Air Logistics Complex (WR-ALC), and Fuels Management Flights world-wide and were able to develop a new, streamlined fuel vehicle inspection process. This “all in” approach enabled fast buy in and quick validation, resulting in full implementation in just 152 days. The Air Force refueling vehicle inspection checkpoint operation ensures safety and serviceability prior to aircraft refueling operations. The 40-year old method consisted of a four-person team with a daily drive-through inspection utilizing an all-inclusive, 189-step vehicle checklist. Unfortunately, no Air Force standardized checklists existed, leaving individual units to develop their own, creating a wide variance of inspection methodology. Team members would call out checklist numbers for each step while a team chief tracked completion of the inspection items. Each inspection took an average of 30 minutes 22 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
to complete. Time-consuming steps of the operation included daily engine fluid level checks and a rigorous 60 foot refueling hose inspection. To put the time consumption piece in perspective, envision POL personnel using this process to inspect 10 or more refueling vehicles at every Air Force base, every day. This time and task intensive operation was in need of an overhaul. After being identified as a possible improvement area during the annual Fuels Support Equipment and Vehicle Working Groups, the ACC Fuels Team eagerly accepted the challenge to revamp the fuel vehicle checkpoint operation. The team focused on the current inspection process and quickly recognized an opportunity to standardize checklists and streamline the entire operation. This new process would eliminate unnecessary steps and, ultimately, streamline inspection procedures across the Air Force. The team explored the initiative utilizing Air Force Smart Operations (AFSO 21) concepts and employed a Rapid Improvement Event approach. ACC Fuels Management meticulously examined the 189-step drive-through inspection process with numerous subject matter experts and leveraged expertise across MAJCOMs during brainstorming sessions. Additionally, the team partnered with two of the Air Force’s busiest Fuels Management Flights, the 99 LRS at Nellis AFB and 379 ELRS at Al Udeid AB, to compile and validate crucial vehicle fluid consumption data. By reaching out across the fuels community, the team was armed with 450 inputs from around the globe. With these “ground truth” inputs and the data gathered from Nellis, Al Udeid and Warner-Robins, we redesigned the inspection process and drafted nine standardized checklists supporting four different types of refueling trucks.
ohr Utilizing hard data from a 60-day trend analysis, subject matter experts determined modern vehicle technology eliminates the need for daily fluid level checks. Furthermore, they determined monthly fluids checks would better align with general purpose vehicles under T.O. 36-1-191 guidance. The team further analyzed the wear and tear factors of the legacy inspection including wear on the vehicles and tires while driving to the checkpoint location and wear associated with extending the fuel hoses across pavement each day for inspection. We discovered a significant reduction in hose wear could also be achieved by changing inspection intervals to a monthly inspection. Careful data analysis of hose failure data demonstrated the interval change could be made without assuming increased risk. With the research and coordination complete, the daily, four-person, 189-step drive-through operation was transformed to a two-person,
A1C John Pisano from Joint Base Langley-Eustis, 633 LRS Fuels Management Flight, demonstrates the 30 day inspection of fuel hose during checkpoint operations. (Photo courtesy of MSgt Ohr)
56-step “on-the-spot” operation, eliminating unnecessary daily fluid checks, hose inspections, and vehicle movement. The standardized procedures also shifted many daily inspection items into a comprehensive monthly inspection. Additionally, we submitted 80 changes to seven different Technical Orders and completely realigned the special purpose vehicle inspection guide. The team leveraged their expertise and advances in technology to streamline many outdated procedures and inspection frequencies. Many key agencies brought great insight to the table enabling this success. Close partnering and significant collaboration with AFPA and WR-ALC facilitated resolution of limiting factors and challenges on a wide variety of related topics. Additionally, the ACC Fuels Staff recognized the high probability for unintended consequences if a “half staffed” project was sent to the field for implementation. So we rolled up our sleeves, got out from our cubicles, and went to work. Working with the 633 LRS Fuels Management Flight at Joint Base LangleyEustis, we alternated running the checklists, making observations and suggesting changes. Ultimately, 27 items required refinement to gain further efficiencies. The ACC staff was elated with the validation process, and the outstanding inputs and support we received from Team Langley. Due to the enormous amount of savings and efficiencies, AFPA published an interim Fuels Technical Letter to implement the procedures immediately. Since then, AFPA coordinated with WR-ALC to approve and publish the new procedures and checklists. This enabled all fuels flights across the globe to quickly reap the benefits of this manpower and money saving effort.
SSgt Tyler Spencer from Joint Base Langley-Eustis, 633 LRS Fuels Management Flight, demonstrates the 30 day engine fluid check/inspection. (Photo courtesy of MSgt Ohr)
Overall, the numbers are impressive, saving manpower, money and Airmen’s time. First and foremost, from start to finish, this initiative cost the tax payers zero dollars. There was no need to buy new systems or equipment, just a smarter way of doing what we had been doing for 40 years. Inspection times per truck were reduced by an impressive 50%. The previous daily inspection took 30 minutes per truck to com-
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majcom/naf | vehicle fuels inspections...
A distribution airman assigned to a Fuels Management Flight refuels a MQ-9 “Reaper” at an undisclosed location. (Photo courtesy of MSgt Ohr)
plete while the new operation now requires only 15 minutes. Now that vehicles are inspected at their parking spot rather than being driven to a designated location, the amount of diesel fuel consumed is reduced. Fourteen bases across all commands compared baseline engine run times for the old and new procedures. The reduced run times alone calculated with the current diesel price and a burn rate of 2.36 gallons per hour saves an astonishing $580,673 annually. Additionally, the team gathered data on hose and tire replacement for a one year period using a similar method as a baseline. A definitive savings on tires and hoses will not be available until a year’s worth of data is compiled, but
the team estimates savings will likely exceed $500,000 annually. As an added benefit, the 30-day drive-through inspections are now aligned with the required monthly quality control sampling. This enables Fuels Laboratory personnel to draw fuel samples during checkpoint operations while the vehicles are pressurized for hose inspection. This eliminates the need for lab personnel to run the vehicles and pressurize the system, further saving man-hours and reducing engine wear. The team’s forward thinking saved time and money for 179 flying wings, over 4,000 Total Force fuels personnel and more than 2,100 refueling vehicles. As logisticians, we are very proud of this achievement and hope our example can become a catalyst to other agencies. We demonstrated that with a little brainstorming, determination, and strong collaboration many processes throughout our Air Force can still be improved, and often without any additional cost. There are still many opportunities out there—we just need to find them!
About the author: MSgt Chad Ohr is currently assigned to the Air Combat Command A4 staff serving as Superintendent, Command Fuels Technology and Resources at Joint Base Langley-Eustis. MSgt Ohr manages ACC’s Forward Area Refueling Point program providing direct oversight of 18 personnel filling 6 UTCs supporting ACC’s Combat Search and Rescue mission. MSgt Ohr also, directs, oversees, and validates Bulk Petroleum Contingency and Designed Operational Capability Reports for 14 locations. K The ACC Fuels Management Team From left to right: SMSgt Matt Sides, MSgt Chad Ohr (Author), SMSgt Greg McDonald, and CMSgt Will LaFoy. (Photo courtesy of MSgt Ohr)
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Evolving Maintenance Data Sharing to Fully Support the Joint Logistics Enterprise
By Colonel Steven J. Morani, USAF, Ret. and Colonel Bill Black, USMC, Ret.
Let’s face the facts, the fiscal environment for the Department of Defense (DoD) has changed and budgets will continue to shrink over The Case for Change the next ten years. Therefore, if the Services are going to be successful at achieving the required levels of joint readiness at lower cost and “Across all domains, we will improve sharing, with a smaller logistics footprint, they are going to have to change how processing, analysis, and they sustain forces. No longer are intraEssential to achieving this vision dissemination of information Service enterprise solutions adequate to is the ability to share information achieve the fiscal reductions the DoD to better support decision across the Joint Logistics is mandated to meet over the next ten makers.” years. If the Services are to sustain the Enterprise (JLEnt) and provide forces with fewer resources, then it is time the knowledge necessary to make --National Military to explore joint enterprise solutions to informed decisions. Strategy 2011 eliminate unnecessary redundancies and 26 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
morani & black inventories. One way to achieve this is by improving the Services’ ability to structure and operate joint maintenance with greater integration and interdependency. Essential to achieving this vision is the ability to share information across the Joint Logistics Enterprise ( JLEnt) and provide the knowledge necessary to make informed decisions.
are worth it in savings to transportation, sustainment, and support resources that could otherwise be reprioritized or eliminated.
“The Department must continue to reduce the “cost of doing business”. This entails…finding further efficiencies in overhead and headquarters, business practices, and other support activities before taking further risk in meeting the demands of the strategy.”
Traditionally, Service Components provide their own maintenance support of forces assigned to the Joint Force Commander with minimal deliberate integration. While there are examples of joint logistics for -- DoD Strategic Guidance 2012 common use items (e.g., fuel, logistics services, mortuary affairs, contracting) sustainment strategies are typically Service-specific and result One of the barriers to pooling or sharin a significant redundancy and compeing of resources is the inability of SerEstablishing an interoperable and tition for logistics resources, material, vices’ maintenance information systems to shared environment that is easily and infrastructure--even though many communicate with one another. Because accessible to members within the end items and components are common these systems lack interoperability and across the JLEnt. Transitioning from a joint supply chain can resolve this visibility, the supply chain is artificially doctrine of self-sufficiency to one where lack of visibility, and achieve more constrained. Managers are unaware, and Service Components are interdependent coordinated and synchronized limited to manual means for requesting for support requires greater coordination, sharing of maintenance capability. synchronization and trust. The benefits
The Joint Logistics Enterprise (JLEnt) OSD and Joint Staff Military Services and Defense Agencies Industry Joint Deployment Joint Distribution Process Owner Process Owner
Joint Force Commanders
Integrated Joint Logistics Processes Multinational Partners
27 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
cocom/joint staff/haf | Evolving Maintenance resources available in other Services or coalition partners. Establishing an interoperable and shared environment that is easily accessible to members within the joint supply chain can resolve this lack of visibility, and achieve more coordinated and synchronized sharing of maintenance capability. This shared environment will enable users to publish and subscribe relevant logistics information to provide optimized sharing of resources to meet warfighter readiness at reduced cost.
tion the Joint Staff ( JS) J-4 is pursuing to achieve this preparedness is through Enterprise Visibility. At its core, this strategic theme is to improve global visibility of enterprise resources and supply chains by integrating processes and data to improve decision making. Shared knowledge is an essential JLEnt capability to provide leaders decision-quality information. Through the secure linking of authoritative maintenance, supply and distribution data sources, decision makers can build the logistics sight-picture they need to match available resources to operational demands. To optimize access to these data sources, a shared data exchange environment will enable activities to publish and subscribe to information that is targeted to specific users across the supply chain. The advantage of this method is not only lower cost, but the ability to minimize the number of unique “point-to-point” interfaces and required data architecture standards.
To optimize access to these data sources, a shared data exchange environment will enable activities to publish and subscribe to information that is targeted to specific users across the supply chain.
Enabling visibility “Importantly, we need to be even more joint-advancing interdependence and integrating new capabilities.”
At the same time, information technology is rapidly evolving from Network Centric to Data Centric solutions and the JLEnt is adapting to these changes. The DoD Joint Information Environment framework currently under development will provide a flexible information enviThe Defense Strategy of 2012 calls for increased agility, responsiveness, ronment to create, store, disseminate, and access data, applications, and and economy of force, and the role of the JLEnt is to meet these im- other computing services when and where needed. It will better protect peratives through sustained preparedness. Part of the strategic direc- the integrity of information from unauthorized access while increasing the ability to respond to security breaches coherently across the system as Point to Point AIS Integration (current) a whole. As future logistics IT systems become part of this framework they will comply with architectures, standards and related policy requirements that meet DoD Data-Centric data sharing objectives for secure, visible, accessible, and understandable data. Providing visibility and accessibility of understandable data is a key attribute to connect the JLEnt and enable more affordable readiness. To achieve this objective for maintenance data, the JS J-4 is pursuing a strategy that focuses on the data within the existing systems, and how to expose, translate, share and manipulate this data in order to reduce manual re-entry of data and “swivel-chair” transactions, and to prioritize supply and maintenance capabilities to operational mission planning for logistics operations. This can be achieved through a strategy that allows currently fielded and future systems to operate within their native data formats, but can deliver and consume information from
-- C JCS strategic direction to the Joint Force 2012
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morani & black other authoritative sources to make informed decisions.
Point to “Pond” (e. g. Service Oriented Architecture)
It’s Happening Now Although this may sound like a tall order, technology is available and affordable to make this possible now. Cloud computing technologies such as Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Data as a Service (DaaS) attempt to tackle the issues of exposing relevant data in an open-exchange environment so that members can publish and subscribe to information they need to perform their logistics functions. DaaS can provide improved data quality by using the authoritative data sources that already exist across the JLEnt as the repositories where data is retrieved and stored. “Cloud Solutions”, such as PaaS or DaaS provide an optimized approach and establish shared computing environments that: a.) reference only the authoritative sources b.) are flexible enough to handle large quantities of data, but light enough to be easily established at a forward location c.) have the smallest impact possible on existing data systems d.) avoid point-to-point solutions e.) use a web 3.0 approach (the “Semantic Web” or Semantic Heterogeneity) to allow access to data or software on any device with a web browser
a Tactical Services Oriented Architecture (TSOA) that links together operations, logistics, and intelligence systems in a shared data environment. They have successfully demonstrated the ability to exchange loA good example of an initiative ongoing within the DoD that will gistics data in shared data environment with a NATO partner nation help achieve the level of interoperability we are advocating is the In- under their Coalition Logistics Interoperability (CLI) initiative. This tegrated Data Environment/Global Transportation Network Conver- initiative uses a data exchange (DEX) format that complies with Intergence (IGC) recently developed by Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) national Standard (ISO) 10303, the international standard for Product and United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM). IGC Life Cycle Support (PLCS). By leveraging PLCS standard exchanges, will establish common integrated data it enabled the creation and exchange of services to enable development of appliThe joint maintenance data maintenance data from one authoritative cations that will provide the Combatant interoperability initiative data system to another, without the need Commands, Services, DoD, and other demonstrated successfully the to modify either system. ISO 10303 is Federal agencies a cohesive solution for an open-architecture format that avoids ability to transfer, manipulate the management of supply, distribution, the requirement to customize individual and return data from one Service and logistics information with a global systems and is not reliant on proprietary authoritative data system to perspective. This effort reduces network software or hardware. What is important another using open standards and dependencies because IGC capitalizes on about ISO 10303 is that it is compliant a cloud computing environment. subscribing to the net-enabled capabiliwith both DoD and coalition partner ties the Services, DLA and USTRANSpolicy1 and data design standards. The COM are modernizing to manage their Marine Corps has demonstrated this exchange capability in both their supply, distribution, and logistics operations. 1 References: OUSD (AT&L) Memo “Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) – ISO 10303” 23 Jun 2005, and Standardized The United States Marine Corps (USMC) has also embarked on an iniNATO Agreement (STANAG) 4661 “Product Life Cycle Support” 20 Ü tiative to improve interoperability of information systems by employing February 2008 29 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
cocom/joint staff/haf | Evolving Maintenance Expeditionary Logistics Wargames and in the NATO sponsored Coalition Warrior Interoperability Exercise (CWIX).
What We Demonstrated
In 2012, JS J-4 sponsored a joint maintenance data interoperability initiative to demonstrate the sharing of authoritative data between two Joint Maintenance Data Enterprise Interoperability (JMServices. This work built upon the previous successes of the Marine DEI) Corps’ CLI initiative by demonstrating the exchange of maintenance pedigree “Through cooperation and The joint maintenance data data and maintenance history. The inicollaboration, the JLEnt must interoperability initiative tiative incorporated the use of existing increasingly provide effective Item Unique Identification (IUID) and demonstrated successfully the and efficient logistics by Serialized Item Management (SIM) as ability to transfer, manipulate integrating the capabilities a way to share relevant item data within and return data from one Service and expertise from the the repair scenario. The scenario was a authoritative data system to military services, combatant ground vehicle repair (a Humvee) that another using open standards and was owned by the USMC but repaired by commands and other U.S. a cloud computing environment. the Army. Using the IUID barcode, the government agencies…” vehicle’s data was scanned and input into the USMC’s maintenance data system. The maintenance discrepancy -- J oint Logistics Enterprise Strategic was then recorded, combined with configuration, usage and maintenance
Joint Force 2020 “Pond to Pond”
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morani & black history data and passed through a translator, as defined by a PLCS DEX. It was then published to the shared environment (aka, the “cloud” or as we called it, the “pond”) to be retrieved through a translator that reformatted the data into the Army’s native data format. Once the repair was complete, the corrective action was recorded, inspection cycle updated and the SIM data changed to reflect the change to configuration. The information was then passed back through the pond and retrieved by the USMC reflecting the updated information. This demonstration took place during the fall 2012 DoD Maintenance Symposium and set the stage for the next steps in development.
The future operating environment for joint logistics will require greater
What Remains to be Done
processes and capabilities must be integrated/synchronized in order to
“Evolve logistics core competencies to fully support Joint Doctrine” -- Air Force Enterprise Logistics Strategy 2012
agility, responsiveness and interdependency to deliver the sustainment
capability required by the Warfighter. Shared maintenance data is only
one aspect of information integration that is required to deliver improved global visibility of enterprise resources. With resources decreas-
ing over the next ten years, it is more important than ever that the JLEnt
be integrated to leverage the sustainment capabilities of the Services
and other logistics enterprise partners. The Joint Concept for Logistics envisions a JLEnt that will provide sustained joint logistics readiness to
the Warfighter, at the right place and the right time. To achieve this, optimize resources and provide the best sustainment support. It also
requires unity of effort through coordinated and cooperative actions necessary to achieve this objective. Finally, it must be networked in a secure
computing environment that enables visibility of secure authoritative
data that is easily accessible, understandable and shareable. This type
of shared data environment can enable the JLEnt to operate with fewer The joint maintenance data interoperability initiative demonstrated suc- resources. For supply chain process owners, fewer resources creates the cessfully the ability to transfer, manipulate and return data from one benefit of planning and sustaining a smaller logistics footprint, which Service authoritative data system to another using open standards and a in turn enables logistics support to be more agile and responsive. With cloud computing environment. But to develop a cloud computing solusecure, interoperable and visible data made available through networked tion that benefits the Services’ field level and depot level repair activities, information systems, the means exists to share services and supplies with there are some key conditions that must be resolved. It will require a colthe other stakeholders in the JLEnt and laborative approach between the Services thereby create a more integrated and synand the Joint Staff to address common With secure, interoperable and chronized sustainment network for the and unique requirements to operationalvisible data made available Warfighter. ize this capability. a.) Establishing a joint information sharing Concept of Operation (CONOPS) for sustainment b.) Continued refinement of the data ontology c.) Developing the financial attributes for sharing services and materiel
through networked information systems, the means exists to share services and supplies with the other stakeholders in the JLEnt and thereby create a more integrated and synchronized sustainment network for the Warfighter.
About the author: Mr. Steven J. Morani is
currently serving as Deputy Chief, Maintenance division, Joint Staff Directorate
for Logistics ( J4). He is a retired USAF Colonel with over 30 years of logistics ex-
perience in DOD, Air Force, joint and coalition logistics.
He has commanded at
the Flight, Squadron and Group levels
These are the next three steps towards sharing information across the JLEnt. To realistically validate joint maintenance data interoperability at the enterprise level, it should be demonstrated successfully within the Joint Exercise framework to refine processes, gain user-level feedback, and establish trust as a means to enable change. By solving these challenges together, the JLEnt can satisfy Warfighter readiness more affordably and with a smaller logistics footprint.
and served in leadership positions on Service and Joint and NATO Staffs.
Enabling Joint Force 2020
military relations and Joint/Coalition logistical operational support. He is
“Facilitated by secure enterprise-wide visibility into logistics processes, resources and requirements, the enterprise ( JLEnt) will promote the efficient and responsible global management of resources.”
Mr. Bill Black is the President of Black & Rossi LLC and a principal in Troika Solutions. He is a retired USMCR Colonel with over 37 years of
experience in defense activities focused on aviation ground support, logistics, maintenance, readiness, science and technology. He has commanded at the
Company, Squadron and Wing level and has experience in international
currently working interoperability challenges as a member of NATO AC/327 Working Group 5, and DOD, Joint and Coalition interoperability initiatives. K
-- Capstone Concept for Joint Operations 2012 31 | The Exceptional Release | WINTER 2013
Published by the Logistics Officer Association