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DIGITAL TWINS Application In The Diﬀerent Technical Disciplines CLOUD AND AUTODESK FORGE Analysis And Visualization Of Data In Digital Twins Technology
Free electronic publication Special Issue, January 2021 Publisher: TeamCAD 10v/4 Mihajla Pupina Blvd. Suite 423 Belgrade, Serbia www.TeamCAD.rs www.BIM-DT.com Project Director: Slobodan Lazić Authors: Predrag Jovanović Anđelija Sandić Vladimir Guteša Editor and Coordinator: Marko Kozlica Cover Page and Design: Marko Kozlica Prepress: Jack Russell Advertising: Jack Russell
ADVANCED BIM DATA MANAGEMENT 010
BIM WORKFLOW AUTOMATION 016
SMALL BUT BIG SAVINGS IN THE BIM WORKFLOW - EXAMPLES 021
WHAT ARE THE DIGITAL TWINS? 028
DIGITAL TWINS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY 035
TEAMCAD BIM CONSULTANTS
DATA IS THE NEW GOLD, DOES THE SAME APPLY TO DATA IN DT? 075
SENSORS AND IOT IN THE DIGITAL TWIN TECHNOLOGY 082
STORING AND AVAILABILITY OF DIGITAL TWIN MODEL DATA 089
ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION OF DATA IN DT TECHNOLOGY 096
A DIGITAL TWIN OF A SHOPPING MALL 098
BIM REAL ESTATE APP FOR SIMPLIFIED SALES & RENTALS
DATA MANAGEMENT IN THE DIGITAL TWIN OF THE BUILDING 045
WHAT IS BEP AND WHAT SHOULD IT CONTAIN? 052
WHAT IS LOD - THE LEVEL OF DETAIL OF BIM ELEMENTS? 057
THE BIM MODELING CONVENTION 062
THE BIG SAVINGS BEP BRINGS TO THE INVESTOR
Advanced BIM Data Management AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
WITH THIS TEXT, I WOULD LIKE TO ANNOUNCE A SERIES OF ARTICLES WHERE I AM GOING TO WRITE ABOUT ADVANCED BIM DATA MANAGEMENT. AS BIM IS INCREASINGLY BEING SET AS THE DEFAULT STANDARD FOR PROJECT DESIGN, THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BIM WORKFLOW IS BECOMING ESSENTIAL FOR BOTH DESIGNERS AND INVESTORS, AND IT ALSO INCREASES FOR CONTRACTORS.
How one sees BIM could be very diﬀerently interpreted depending on the viewing perspective. Because of that, in the following text, I process diﬀerent interpretations of the BIM workﬂow depending on who is the viewer – designer, investor, or contractor. In the following articles, I am going to carry over my thoughts, conclusions, and suggestions, based on more than ﬁfteen years of experience in implementing BIM workﬂow as BIM coordinator and BIM manager in international design and consulting company.
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BIM Implementation From The Designer Perspective For the designer, BIM is usually the workﬂow that helps him draw a 3D model of its discipline, and which is going to be coordinated with other disciplines in the project. Often, but not as a rule, the BIM model within a particular discipline is also used for diﬀerent calculations. Thus, for example, the structure BIM model is often used for structure analysis, the MEP model is
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commonly used for various calculations such as heating and cooling installations calculations, while the architectural model is most often used to design architecture and check the coordination of an architectural project with other disciplines in the project. Besides BIM data generated for the designing needs of the particular discipline in the project, the BIM model is often used for the quantities of the materials. The quantities of the materials are not the same as the bill of quantities, and those two terms we should not be confused. The bill of quantities is the contractor's obligation, and the designer could do the quantities of the materials. It could be beneﬁcial for the investor in deciding for the most economical design solution in case the client
has to choose over a few design solutions in one project. We could say, from the designer’s perspective, that above mentioned BIM activities imply as suﬃcient contribution in generating BIM data. Also, we could say that every discipline in the design process generates a lot of BIM data, which could be used for the design process optimization within a particular discipline. What is the problem in the above mentioned is that BIM workﬂow often wrongly represents generating data and parameters which designer needs for its discipline, with no ambition to share generated data with other disciplines and project participants in an arranged way. In that way, we often have a problem with too much data and too many parameters in a BIM
model of a speciﬁc discipline, which most commonly stay in that particular model of the discipline. As such, they do not worth anything for other disciplines in a project. The easiest way to illustrate the BIM model without well-planned and arranged data exchange between disciplines is with the image below, which I am going to explain with comparing the worth of load which truck transports. The truckload could be compared with data that stay „captured“ in a BIM model of a speciﬁc discipline. Unfortunately, in the vast majority of projects, the data generated in a BIM model of a certain discipline stays useful only for that discipline in a project. The data arranged similar to the truckload, loses worth signiﬁcantly, and substantially limiting full BIM potential,
keeping in mind that almost every project is multidisciplinary in the investor’s perspective.
buyer of the goods or services to obtain the highest quality product and to pay as little money as possible for that product. There is, however, a problem with placing investors in the project in an appropriate context.
Basically, without data exchange between diﬀerent disciplines in a project, we cannot even say that BIM workﬂow is applied in full capacity in a particular project. It should not be mistaken that only sharing parameters and data is enough by itself, because it may seem very chaotic, like an example on the following image:
Exchanging the BIM data of a particular discipline with other disciplines in a project makes sense only if the data and parameters are shared with other disciplines in an optimized and arranged way. I often point out in my presentations and speeches in diﬀerent professional conferences that I in BIM is the most crucial thing and that information in a model of a certain discipline worth if and only if it is shared in a right moment of the design process. To sum up, the essential prerequisite for the successful BIM workﬂow implementation in the design process of the multidisciplinary project are:
• Establishing the eﬃcient BIM workﬂow inside a speciﬁc
discipline and eﬃcient data ﬂow within diﬀerent disciplines in a multidisciplinary design process; • Excellent communication in the whole project team; • Eﬃcient and arranged data sharing at the right moment of the design process. It is possible to achieve the prerequisite mentioned above only with the BIM workﬂow automatization, both inside the discipline in a project and data sharing in a multidisciplinary design process. I am going to write about the BIM workﬂow automatization in the few following articles.
BIM Implementation From The Investor Perspective I often hear opinions that it is eﬀortless to cover this topic because each of us ﬁnds ourselves in the role of investor several dozen times every day. By deﬁnition, when you buy goods, it is in the interest of the
If the investor is not BIM educated, he will very often be satisﬁed with a project printed in a paper, most commonly A0 and with the diﬀerent calculations, that he would pass to the contractor to build a building which is a subject of the investment. The not BIM educated investor is going to be satisﬁed by delivering a project in paper format and by building construction. The problem is that he will not even be aware that such a project format would cost him much more than a BIM project, and there are many reasons for this. I am going to state some of the reasons:
• Inadequate coordination between disciplines in a project, which means more construction site issues, more construction delays and very often need for “additional works” which makes construction ﬁnancially diﬃcult for the investor; • Impossibility of building’s lifecycle simulation; • Impossibility of calculating facility operational use expenses; • Impossibility of giving or selling the digital model to the facility manager, who is going to use that building for maintenance
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planning and continual updates of the completed state of the building.
All of the lacks mentioned above, and many more others that I did not count, the BIM educated investor would avoid. He would be aware of the BIM workﬂow advantages, and he would actively participate in BIM workﬂow and engage BIM manager, who would work in its interest.
I am going to process the topic of "digital twin" in one of the following articles individually and explain in detail the optimal way of creating and handing over a digital twin to newly designed objects. I am also going to explain the need and value of digitizing existing buildings, all for that more eﬃcient management of the building's operating costs and the cost of the life cycle of the building mentioned above.
BIM Implementation From The Contractor Perspective
With the document „BIM Execution Plan“ or abbreviated BEP, BIM educated investor would formulate BIM requirements, both for designers of diﬀerent disciplines and for the contractor, who would hand over the digital models to the investor after design and construction phases. These models would then be handed over or sold by the BIM educated investor to the facility manager to manage the operational maintenance costs of the facility as eﬃciently as possible.
When, as a very young engineer, I started working at a small contracting ﬁrm, the boss often criticized my laziness. It was because before undertaking a speciﬁc operation on a construction site, I did not draw that detail and elaborate it in CAD in many ways and more variants. I have to be honest that at ﬁrst, I didn't even realize the need for it.
This type of design process and the construction completion results in ownership of a digital model of the completed state of the building, which can often be classiﬁed as having a "digital twin" of a building that is under construction or of the already constructed building.
I remember his deﬁnition vividly that a drawing serves to make errors several times in suggesting a solution until the best option is reached. His conclusion, which I now completely agree with, was that a mistake in a drawing is much cheaper than a mistake in the construction site itself.
Several drawings of elaboration of one detail cost the cost of paper and toner for the printer or plotter, while on the construction site, every mistake is very costly, as it often requires additional work and additional costs when constructing the building.
The story, which I started the section on BIM implementation from the contractor’s perspective, was intended to explain, through a straightforward example, the meaning of the most ordinary drawing of details and the construction of that part of the construction site. I hope you noticed in the introductory section about BIM implementation from a contractor perspective that I indicated that I elaborated on the detail in CAD and try to imagine how much savings can be made by applying a BIM workﬂow over a traditional contracting project made in two dimensions and paper format. If we try to make a comparison between a CAD project drawing and a fully coordinated multidisciplinary BIM model, it
would be easiest to make such a comparison by racing motors through dense forest and racing along a well-maintained Formula 1 race track, where motor racing along track with Formula 1 race track quality is, of course, the construction of a building using the BIM workﬂow. Here are just a few of the key beneﬁts that the BIM workﬂow provides, without going into a detailed explanation of each item, which I am going to do in one of the following articles:
• 4D – digital simulation of the construction and simulation of the construction phases; • 5D - digital simulation of building construction, which also takes into account the cost of each element in the building. It allows us not only the making of the bill of quantities before the start of construction works but also an expense summary at any time during the construction. If the contractor has more than one active construction site, in simple terms, it allows the 5D contractor to manage the money and supply of materials in a simulated digital process of building multiple facilities, which would signiﬁcantly beneﬁt the contractor during the construction of the facilities; • 6D - facility life cycle cost calculation or facility maintenance cost management. By itself, developing a 6D model is not necessarily the obligation of the contractor. Still, it largely depends on the desire of the investor to whom
they would entrust the creation of the 6D model. I must mention that all of the beneﬁts mentioned above of implementing a BIM workﬂow when building a facility cannot be implemented without a previously fully coordinated multidisciplinary BIM model. This leads to the logical conclusion that there should be an arranged relationship and trust between the designer and the contractor in the data they both generate during the design process. Based on professional experience, I can say that in many cases, the role of deﬁning BIM requirements and managing the generated BIM data between the designer and the contractor is taken over by the investor.
The logical reason is that he ﬁnances the design of the project and the construction of the building, and therefore an arranged and eﬃcient data management during the design process brings signiﬁcant savings to the investor.
In the case where the investor is also the end-user of the constructed facility, the arranged and eﬃcient management of all the generated data by the designer and contractor seems to be the only logical solution that brings signiﬁcant savings to the investor, and in this case to the owner of the facility during the design process, construction process and in managing the operational cost of maintaining the facility. Having deﬁned, and thus rounded up, data management and relationships between the designer, contractor, and investor in the domain of the BIM workﬂow and advanced BIM data management, I would like to ﬁnish this ﬁrst article and announce more of them in which I am going to go deeper and in more detail in the topics I started
with this one. In the following articles, I am going to cover the topic of "BIM Project Process Automation". There, I am going to discuss eﬃcient data generation workﬂows, the role of Dynamo /
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Python scripts in more eﬃcient data exchange within the BIM model of a speciﬁc discipline, and optimized data exchange between BIM discipline models in a multidisciplinary project environment. If you have any questions, comments or want to know more about the topic I covered in Advanced BIM Data Management, please contact TeamCAD, who would be happy to provide you with additional information. Until next time, Predrag Jovanović BIM manager Arup
Predrag Jovanović – short biography Predrag Jovanović is a civil engineer with over sixteen years of experience in BIM technologies and over 2,500,000 square meters of BIM modeling and multidisciplinary coordination. Predrag has much experience in BIM coordination and BIM management, which he gained while working at the international company "Arup" in the position of "Project BIM Coordinator". In addition to designing, managing data, and BIM coordination on multidisciplinary projects, Predrag has been organizing and managing various BIM workshops for more than ten years, in which knowledge and experience in applying the latest BIM technologies and problems in implementing them are exchanged between employees. He is characterized by great enthusiasm for ongoing professional development, improving, and learning of the latest BIM technologies. He focuses on ﬁnding new and better ways to work, more eﬃcient automation, and improving the BIM workﬂow.
Predrag is a BIM champion for the Arup Germany group. In addition to designing and BIM coordination, Predrag currently organizes and manages Skype Dynamo / Python workshops for the European region and BIM multidisciplinary workshops for Arup Germany. He has extensive experience in Revit Structure, Revit Architecture, Navisworks, Solibri, Reizto, Revit / Soﬁstik / GSA interoperability, data management (Dynamo, Revit / Excel link). He also has extensive experience in various project environments such as BIM 360, Aconex, BIMcloud, etc.
BIM | DIGITAL TWINS | BIG DATA | VR | AR | 360 | RENDERING
BIM Workﬂow Automation AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
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WE WILL CONTINUE TO COVER INTERESTING TOPICS RELATED TO THE BIM WORKFLOW. AS ANNOUNCED IN MY PREVIOUS ARTICLE, “ADVANCED BIM DATA MANAGEMENT“, I WILL BE COVERING THE AUTOMATION OF BIM WORKFLOW IN THIS ARTICLE. IT IS LOGICAL THAT, BEFORE WE GO DEEPER INTO THE ANALYSIS OF THE BIM WORKFLOW AUTOMATION, WE FIRST DEFINE WHAT BIM MEANS PRECISELY AND WHAT THE TERM AUTOMATION MEANS, AND THEN CONSIDER LATER WHAT WE REALLY WANT TO AUTOMATE. In my opinion, the best deﬁnition of the BIM workﬂow is the one saying: “BIM workﬂow is a methodology that relies on an intelligent, data-rich 3D model, as a basis for designing, simulating and collaborating between designer, contractor, and investor through the various phases of project process “.
Automation can be deﬁned as “product making technique, process or system that works automatically “or as “creating and implementing technology and workﬂow that oversees or controls the production of products and services and their
delivery “(deﬁnition is translated from “International Society for Automation “– ISA). After deﬁning what a BIM workﬂow is and what automation is, we are facing an issue of deﬁning the relation between BIM workﬂow and automation.
The questions such as – is not the BIM workﬂow itself a design process automation? Is automation a tool for improving BIM workﬂow? How can process automation in the BIM workﬂow itself add value to the BIM workﬂow and bring savings to
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project participants? are imposed. If you have read the questions carefully and then thought through them, you will admit that it is not so easy to give a short and simple answer to any of the questions asked. Therefore, I am going to elaborate on each of the questions raised below and provide a detailed answer to each one.
Is the BIM Workﬂow Itself A Design Process Automation? If you go back to the introductory section of this article and read the BIM workﬂow deﬁnition, I think you could agree with me that the BIM workﬂow does not mean automation of the project process by itself.
We can say that BIM automates the project process only partially. Still, we cannot consider it as a tool for the full automation of generating and exchanging data in the BIM workﬂow itself. Here is an explanation for such a claim: We already know that every BIM model of discipline, within the BIM multidisciplinary project, generates a large amount of data during the project process. To give a more precise answer to the question - is the BIM workﬂow itself a design process automation, in my opinion, it is necessary to roughly classify the generated data in the BIM model of discipline into data related to the BIM model geometry, data related for analytics and diﬀerent calculations in the BIM discipline model and the data generated to exchange between various disciplines in the project to optimize the multidisciplinary
BIM workﬂow. Then it is necessary to consider how they are generated and what they are worth in terms of automating a multidisciplinary BIM workﬂow: Data related to the geometry of the BIM discipline model: • Generated partially automated during the modeling of the BIM discipline model; • Have value mainly related to multidisciplinary coordination between BIM models of diﬀerent disciplines; Data related to materials, analytics, and various calculations in the BIM discipline model: • Not automatically generated; • To be of value within the discipline, it is generally necessary to manually add data; Data generated for the exchange between diﬀerent disciplines to optimize the multidisciplinary BIM workﬂow:
• Generally not automatically generated;
• To have value in the data exchange in a multidisciplinary project process, it is generally necessary to manually add data. After analyzing the generated data during the BIM workﬂow, classiﬁed according to how they were generated and their value, it is clear that there is plenty of room for improvement of the BIM workﬂow. Is it possible to achieve this by using diﬀerent digital tools to optimize and automate the BIM workﬂow?
Is Automation A Tool For Improving BIM Workﬂow? The answer to this question is signiﬁcantly more straightforward compared to the previous one, and it does not require an extensive explanation.
Automation of the BIM workﬂow with diﬀerent digital tools has become necessary and, as such,
brings many beneﬁts and savings to all participants in the project. During the BIM workﬂow, considerable savings are achieved through the use of various digital tools that automate non-standard parametric modeling, generation of additional BIM data, processing and manipulation of generated BIM data, automated and regulated exchange of BIM data between diﬀerent disciplines. However, by deﬁnition, the automation of the BIM workﬂow beneﬁts the most for the investor, because by implementing the automation of the BIM workﬂow, the investor receives much more data for the same number of hours spent by the designer and contractor. The data generated in this way is also very accurate since manual and human error are minimized when the BIM workﬂow is automated. To better understand how the automation of the BIM workﬂow
can be helpful, we must ﬁrst identify which digital tools are most commonly used in the BIM
workﬂow automation process and the BIM workﬂow optimization process in general:
• Dynamo is a digital tool used for non-standard parametric modeling, generating additional and non-standard data for more eﬃcient calculations within the BIM discipline model; to process, manipulate and facilitate the visualization of the generated data in the BIM model and the arranged data exchange between diﬀerent disciplines in a multidisciplinary BIM workﬂow. Dynamo is a programming language and is based on the principle of visual programming. The reason that makes it a favorite digital tool for automating the BIM project process is that it is integrated with the Revit platform and does not require any additional procurement costs. It is easy to learn and does not require extensive programming experience. The massive advantage of including Dynamo as a digital tool to automate the BIM project process is that once written Dynamo script, which automates a speciﬁc logical part of the BIM workﬂow, can be used on an unlimited number of projects. This, with a well-designed Dynamo script applicable to multiple projects, gives tremendous value and brings great savings to project participants. • Python is an object-oriented programming language most commonly used to generate, transfer, and process data in the BIM workﬂow. Python helps as
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eﬀectively as Revit plugin (PyRevit) or as part of Dynamo scripts integrated into Dynamo “Node”. What characterizes Python is that it is also a favorite tool in data science, system automation, API development, etc. Otherwise, the ﬁrst book written to learn developers on using the Python programming language is called “Automate the Boring Stuﬀ.” This fact simpliﬁes any further explanation of why Python serves the domain of BIM workﬂow automation, both for operations in the BIM discipline model and in a multidisciplinary BIM project environment. • The Revit / Excel link is a digital tool for automating data entry into the BIM model, as well as for data processing, diﬀerent calculations, and data visualization of the BIM model discipline or multidisciplinary BIM model. The Revit / Excel link can also be used for an arranged exchange of data between diﬀerent disciplines in a multidisciplinary BIM workﬂow.
trying to ﬁnd the best digital tools for BIM workﬂow automation and optimization.
How Can Process Automation In The BIM Workﬂow Itself Add Value To The BIM Workﬂow And Bring Savings To Project Participants? Process automation in the BIM workﬂow itself can bring signiﬁcant savings to all participants, provided that the regulated data exchange is predeﬁned in the BIM Execution Plan (BEP) itself. Discipline designers and contractors in a multidisciplinary project then only have to follow the BIM requirements, most often set by the investor.
entering speciﬁc values into the BIM model parameters, as well as in the larger amount of digital data in the BIM disciplines generated without the extra hours spent on manual data entry. Before I continue about how process automation in the BIM workﬂow itself can add value to the project process and bring savings to project participants, I need to remember my colleague’s discussions during one BIM forum, where he explained the best way to excellent optimization and savings in the BIM workﬂow. Namely, he metaphorically introduced me with the automation of the BIM workﬂow as a long-lasting war, in which to win, one must win many small battles. Dynamo and Python scripts can be taken similarly, as well as the Revit / Excel link.
As I mentioned earlier, besides the time savings during the BIM workﬂow, automation brings
It is simply not possible to write a very complex script and expect it
additional value to the project itself by minimizing the possibility of human error when manually
to automatically automate the complete BIM workﬂow with the click of a button.
The digital tools mentioned above are the most powerful tools for automating the BIM workﬂow. Of course, there are many more digital tools that are very useful for successfully implementing the automation of the BIM workﬂow. However, the goal of the text is not to present all possible tools for successful implementation of BIM workﬂow automation, but to give you an idea of what direction you should be considering when
But with multiple smaller Dynamo and Python scripts, as well as Excel ﬁles linked to the Revit model, which automate logical entities in the BIM workﬂow, it is possible to optimize the BIM workﬂow and reduce the sheer amount of manual work. Then it is possible to embed the formulas in Dynamo and Python scripts and an Excel ﬁle linked to the Revit model and obtain results from them that will help us in the further BIM workﬂow. Last but not least, with the help of Dynamo and Python scripts, as well as Excel ﬁle, it is possible to link data both for the exchange between disciplines and for linking additional data related to elements in the BIM discipline model, which can be of great help with the BIM model for calculating facility maintenance operating costs. I have attended many presentations where the spectacular capabilities of speciﬁc digital tools have been announced. Still, since I have not seen them with my own eyes or seen them working in a real project environment, I have not been wholly convinced of the capabilities that were presented at the presentation. Since this text can also be seen as a kind of presentation, I would not leave readers disappointed. Therefore, I give you a link to examples of the successful implementation of automation tools in the BIM project layout: http://bit.ly/3qcwUy6
In the following text, “Small but Big Savings in the BIM Workﬂow”, I am going to give you many more examples of successful automation of the BIM workﬂow with Dynamo / Python / Excel. And it is hopefully going to give you an idea of how you can automate BIM workﬂow on your next project by yourself. With this said, I would like to ﬁnish the article on the automation of the BIM workﬂow. If you have any questions, comments or want to know more about the topic I covered in the article “BIM Workﬂow Automation”, please contact TeamCAD, who will be happy to provide you with additional information. Until next time, Predrag Jovanović
Representing BIM Software Autodesk Revit CREATE COORDINATED, CONSISTENT, AND COMPLETE BIM MODEL-BASED DESIGNS Use Revit® to drive eﬃciency and accuracy across the project lifecycle, from conceptual design, visualization, and analysis to fabrication and construction.
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Small But Big Savings in The BIM Workﬂow - Examples AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
WE CONTINUE TO COVER INTERESTING TOPICS RELATED TO THE BIM WORKFLOW. AS I ANNOUNCED IN THE PREVIOUS ARTICLE "BIM WORKFLOW AUTOMATION", IN THIS ARTICLE, I AM GOING TO ADDRESS THE SAVINGS THAT CAN BE MADE BY OPTIMIZING THE BIM WORKFLOW. IF YOU HAVE READ MY PREVIOUS ARTICLE, AT THE VERY END, I MENTIONED
THAT I HAD ATTENDED MANY PRESENTATIONS ANNOUNCING THE SPECTACULAR CAPABILITIES OF SPECIFIC DIGITAL TOOLS. SINCE I HAVE NOT SEEN THEM WITH MY OWN EYES NOR SEEN THEM WORKING IN A REAL PROJECT ENVIRONMENT, THAT IS WHY I WAS NOT WHOLLY CONVINCED OF THE OPPORTUNITIES THAT WERE PRESENTED AT THE PRESENTATION. IN THIS ARTICLE, I WILL DO MY
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BEST TO IMPROVE THE IMPRESSION AND TO GIVE SOLUTIONS TO CONCRETE PROBLEMS THAT OCCUR IN MANY REAL PROJECTS IN A MULTIDISCIPLINARY BIM WORK ENVIRONMENT. I will start with the most straightforward cases, where it is necessary to accelerate the generation of the BIM discipline model geometry. I am going to deal with the situations where it is required to generate data eﬀectively in the BIM discipline model to optimize the design
process of the same discipline. Finally, I am going to elaborate on the establishment of an eﬃcient BIM workﬂow, which would give data "captured" in BIM discipline models (which I wrote about in the introductory article "Advanced BIM Data Management" ) value through the exchange of data between BIM models of diﬀerent disciplines.
Optimization Of Generating BIM Discipline Model Geometry
problems, take a lot of BIM modeling time, and it will always be questionable whether we have arranged the elements according to the given criterion with suﬃcient precision. Notably, Dynamo script can help us with this. It will very quickly, eﬃciently, and, most importantly, in a perfectly precise manner, distribute a certain number of BIM elements along an irregular ﬁnite-length line. Please watch the video:
The simplest scenario is when let’s say, we have a straight line of a certain length, along which it is necessary to arrange certain elements - we will use "Array" and, in a straightforward way, allocate certain BIM elements to the desired positions. However, if a line of a given length is crooked or changes direction several times, then we are talking about the arrangement of elements along the “spline”. Such a request can give us a lot of headaches and
It would take in classic BIM workﬂows between half an hour and one hour to model openings in a BIM construction model. The issue of coordination between the BIM model of structure and the BIM model of architecture with the standard BIM workﬂow, i.e., classical modeling, would be highly questionable because of the possibility of human error in the process of BIM modeling. A Dynamo script, which by clicking a button copies the type of opening selected by the BIM operator (doors, windows, generic openings) from the linked BIM architecture model to the BIM construction model, can also help us with this.
Example 1 In projects, it is prevalent that you need to arrange certain BIM elements along a speciﬁc direction at equal distances. The elements could be columns, piles, lights, diﬀusers, etc., and practically all of the elements whose coordinates are deﬁned with a particular point or vertical line.
building project), previously generated in the BIM model of architecture.
Example 2 Please watch the video: In each project, there is a problem of coordinating openings between diﬀerent BIM discipline models. It is typical for the BIM model of construction and MEP (mechanical, electrical, and plumbing) installations to follow the given openings that are generated in the BIM model of architecture. Take, for example, the need to coordinate door openings between the BIM architecture model and the BIM structure model. In this example, take the assumption that it is necessary to coordinate and model 168 door openings in the BIM construction model (a very realistic assumption for a 20-story
Example 3 When designing buildings, most often, the architect ﬁrst generates a BIM model. Except for the beams and foundations, the ﬁnished BIM architecture model contains almost all the essential elements needed by the structural engineer to begin modeling the BIM structural model. The process of modeling a
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Eﬀective Data Generation In The BIM Discipline Model
"preliminary" BIM structural model usually consists of the fact that the BIM structural modeler models elements of identical physical characteristics and that the BIM structural elements are modeled at the same place as in the BIM architecture model.
Please watch the video:
This scenario is very reminiscent of Example 2, where I showed that by clicking „Run“ in Dynamo scripts, it is possible to copy elements from a linked BIM architecture model to a BIM construction model.
If you want to optimize the design process further and get from the BIM structural model to the structural model to perform a preliminary static structural stability check, you need to model the foundations and beams, and your BIM structural model is ready for a preliminary static analysis.
Generation of surface and line loads from the drawings of loading diagrams - it is very debatable where exactly this example belongs. Namely, static loads in the construction model do not fall within geometry, and on the other hand, it is impossible to classify them as real data either.
Of course, the process itself from exporting the BIM construction model to generating the FEM model can be optimized, and Dynamo and Python can signiﬁcantly assist you in this. It is also possible with Dynamo and Python to return data from an analytical model to a BIM structural model to visualize data obtained in a static analysis, to generate reinforcement for concrete construction projects, and much more.
But, as they are far closer to the data, here I am going to address the automation of load input in the BIM construction model.
So why not do the same with columns, walls, and slabs and get a "preliminary" BIM construction model in a very fast and eﬃcient way? Assuming that you like the idea of copying columns, walls, and slabs from a BIM architecture model to a BIM construction model, the problem remains in "translating" BIM architectural elements into BIM structural elements. This can be helped, you can guess, by Dynamo, which translates the columns, walls, and slabs from the „Architectural“ category into the „Structural“ category. Of course, it is further possible to adapt the generated constituent elements in the BIM construction model to the families loaded into the BIM construction model template. Only two Dynamo scripts are required for such a thing.
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Here I have to limit myself to the examples for BIM modeling automation since it is not my intention to present you a complete workﬂow related to optimization and automation of model generation of a particular discipline in a project, but to give you an idea what are the capabilities of Dynamo and Python, as the main tools in automating BIM modeling in the BIM workﬂow.
If you want to input loads into the BIM construction model, which often requires a lot of manual work, and which can further result in a BIM model with input loads whose accuracy and precision are questionable, a possible solution may be to take load values from load diagrams in the BIM construction model and generate surface and line loads directly from load diagrams. Depending on the project complexity, only inputting the load into the BIM construction model can take up to several hours, while using the Dynamo script, after completing load diagrams and reading the load values from the diagrams with Dynamo, you can generate surface and line loads literally for a few seconds.
Please watch the video:
Example 5 In this example, I am going to try to show you how quickly you can generate information about the distance of two groups of BIM elements. You can understand this example as a functional check of the BIM model of architecture and other disciplines, in this particular case, a useful check between an architecture project and an electrical installation project. In this example, the idea is to check if it is possible to plug a laptop into a socket from any chair in a particular room. Let's say that we have the classroom and that the project requirement is that every student, during class, can plug their laptop into a socket. The length of the cable that charges the laptop is three meters. I have no idea how long it would take if the process were done manually. Depending on the size of the room, a functional check would probably take more than an hour. Again, the problem of data accuracy arises if a BIM modeler measures the distance of each
chair to each socket. Fortunately, for such a thing, you can ﬁnd help in applying a Dynamo script that will, instead of a modeler, measure the distance of each chair from each socket and paint all the chairs more than three meters away from all the sockets in red, which means that it is not possible to plug the laptop cable into no single socket. Please watch the video:
Example 6 Another excellent example of how we can fully automate data generation, but also processing them further through diﬀerent calculations and visualization of the data obtained, I can give you an example of room occupant load calculations. Namely, using the Dynamo script, it is possible to collect data on the room's area and then calculate the room occupant load using the room occupant load factor. Actually, this avoids any manual work that was traditionally done in Excel since the value of the room occupant load is automatically changed every time the room area changes with the change in the room geometry in the BIM architecture model.
Please watch the video:
Data Exchange Between BIM Models Of Diﬀerent Disciplines I want to start this part of the article with a brief introduction about the relationship between BIM generated data and their use by other disciplines, participants in a multidisciplinary project in the BIM environment. I hope that every BIM architecture model you have encountered so far in the BIM project environment contains data for each room. In the architectural category "Room", the architect typically input data related to the purpose of the room, and then the BIM software automatically generates information about the area and volume of the room. Indeed, the purpose of the room also aﬀects the expected load, which will be used by the structural engineer in his analysis. I hope that you come to the idea that such data should be used and somehow downloaded into the BIM construction model, or BIM model of mechanical,
electrical, or plumbing installations and speed up the process of data generation for these disciplines. Also, remember that importing data instead of manually entering data minimizes the possibility of human error. I hope that by reading the introductory part of the data exchange between BIM models of diﬀerent disciplines, you have come to realize that such an exchange is indeed possible by clicking on the “Run” button of a speciﬁc Dynamo script. So let's start with the examples. Example 7 Take, for instance, the necessary exchange of data related to a room in the BIM architecture model - "Room" and a room in the BIM mechanical installations model - "Space". Using the Dynamo script, it is possible to transfer data from the Room to the Space in a straightforward way. Please watch the video:
Example 8 It is also possible to use data from the architectural category "Room" related to the room purpose and then generate
surface loads using them. Please see an example:
With this example, I would ﬁnish the article on the BIM workﬂow automation and give some conclusions. I hope that by reading the article "Small But Big Savings in The BIM Workﬂow" and looking at the examples, you have seen the potential of the BIM workﬂow automation tool, and how much time can be saved by automating BIM modeling, generating data for a BIM model of your own discipline, and what is the potential of automated and arranged data exchange between diﬀerent disciplines in the BIM workﬂow. Always keep in mind that by using the BIM workﬂow automation tool, you minimize the potential for human error when generating or entering incorrect data. The purpose of automation by using its tools is to relieve the people from the tedious, manual tasks of the BIM workﬂow, and to enable spending the time spent in manual work on tasks that require creative, intelligent, human-only solutions that automation tools could not reach. If you look at the possibilities of
BIM workﬂow automation and that once written script can be applied to an unlimited number of projects, it practically means that any script or other BIM workﬂow automation tool will pay you oﬀ through subsequent projects. Always keep in mind that the limits of your imagination are the only limiting factor in the ideas of how to optimize and automate BIM modeling since, in the tools related to the automation and optimization of the BIM workﬂow, there are practically no limitations. If you have any questions, comments, or want to know more about the topic I covered in the article "Small, But Big Savings in The BIM Workﬂow", please contact TeamCAD, who will be happy to provide you with additional information. Also, if you want to automate the BIM workﬂow on your projects and you are not sure which way to do it or what tools are best for something like that, TeamCAD will be happy to help you. I thank you for reading "Small, But Big Savings in The BIM Workﬂow", and I am announcing my next article "What are Digital Twins". Respectfully, Predrag Jovanović
What Are The Digital Twins? AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
CONTINUING WITH INTERESTING TOPICS RELATED TO THE BIM WORKFLOW IN THIS ARTICLE, I AM GOING TO COVER A VERY INTERESTING TOPIC ABOUT DIGITAL TWINS. LET'S START BY DEFINING WHAT THE DIGITAL TWINS ARE. THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT INTERPRETATIONS OF WHAT A DIGITAL TWIN IS, DEPENDING ON THE POINT OF VIEW.
THE SITUATION WITH DIGITAL TWINS IS VERY SIMILAR, TO DIFFERENT VIEWS OF THE BIM MODEL WHICH I DESCRIBED IN PREVIOUS ARTICLES, WHERE SEEING A DIGITAL TWIN DEPENDS HEAVILY ON WHETHER IT IS VIEWED FROM A DESIGNER, CONTRACTOR, OR INVESTOR POINT OF VIEW. TO MAKE THINGS MORE INTERESTING, WITH DIGITAL TWINS WE OFTEN HAVE A CASE WHERE "DESIGNER, CONTRACTOR
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AND INVESTOR" ARE COMBINED INTO ONE VIEW OF THE DIGITAL TWIN MODEL, FOR EXAMPLE WORKING WITH MANUFACTURERS IN THE AUTOMOTIVE AND AVIATION INDUSTRIES, THEN IN SHIPBUILDING, IN THE PRODUCTION OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS, PROCESS LINES, ETC. The most common deﬁnition of a digital twin is that it is "a digital replica of physical data, processes, systems and digital
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digital tools of simulation, the involvement of machine learning, and artiﬁcial intelligence.
Digital Twins Of Objects Being Fabricated Or Constructed
simulation of reality, which can be used for various purposes." After deﬁning the term digital twin, many BIM specialists will recognize that the BIM model can easily be placed in the context of the digital twin, which is not so far from the truth. In chronological terms, the BIM model can be seen as the very beginning of digital twin generation, i.e., as his starting point. If you go back to the deﬁnition of a digital twin, the BIM model can be conditionally viewed as a digital replica of real data. However, the BIM model cannot adequately meet the requirements of the digital twin model, which can be a simulation of the life cycle of a building, diﬀerent types of industrial process simulation, simulation of building behavior during a ﬁre, evacuation of people during a ﬁre, simulation of crash tests in the automotive industry, particle motion and their behavior during movement, etc.
It is important to note a few other things related to the digital twin. The digital twin represents one of the pillars of the fourth industrial revolution, and the potential and savings of such an approach are increasingly evident. Digital twins can be classiﬁed in many ways depending on the person’s point of view. I think the best way to classify digital twins is to digital twin objects that are under fabrication or construction and to objects that are already made or built. Still, we need additional information about those objects. What we will not be able to avoid in this article as topics closely related to digital twins are the
With this type of digital twin, we typically mean objects that are subject to future fabrication or construction. In this digital twin generation workﬂow, we ﬁrst mean creating a BIM model, which is almost always an object or part of it being design. By object or part of a designed object, I mean objects such as buildings or parts thereof, cars or parts thereof, production line or parts of a production line, dynamic objects, simulation of the destruction of a building (progressive collapse), etc. All of the above objects or parts of objects that are subject to future fabrication or construction, if you have noticed, are characterized by the fact that from a BIM point of view they can be considered as fully static BIM
Let’s compare what information the rotary dial phone contained about its owner versus the smartphone.
models and cannot be attributed to the dynamic properties that underlie any simulation process. This further leads us to the conclusion that the critical diﬀerence between the BIM model and the object's digital twin, which is the object of fabrication or construction, is the ability to simulate with diﬀerent digital tools the inﬂuences from the real environment, that is, to apply diﬀerent dynamic inﬂuences to the BIM model. Practically, digital tools that enable diﬀerent simulations modify the BIM model into a digital twin model.
Digital Twins of Objects That Are Made or Built With this type of digital twin, we typically mean objects that are already made or built. At the very beginning, I face the question of the skeptic in himself, who asks me the question: “And why would you create a digital model or digital twin for anything that is already made or built?
Apart from the additional cost, which cannot be considered as any beneﬁt, what economic beneﬁt can one expect from such a model? The digital realist in me has a ready answer, which will hopefully easily disarm the skeptic in me through a straightforward example from everyday life. I belong to a generation that used rotary dial phones daily in childhood.
Later, of course, I used cordless home phones, and here I am in the modern era in which I happily use all the beneﬁts of human achievement, and therefore "smartphones".
Apart from the phone number, to which you could call not me but my family, there was virtually no information regarding the phone owner. With the advent of smartphones, a wealth of information about the phone owner and the number assigned to the owner is available. Free international communication is possible via the telephone number and speciﬁc applications. The information about himself that the smartphone user wants to share is accessible to everyone. It's important to note that the ﬁrst iPhone came out in mid-2007. From a smartphone user perspective of just twelve years, we can't imagine going back to the old handsets with the rotary dial, since the capabilities between it and the smartphone are merely hard to compare both devices are phones, but they do not necessarily belong to the same device category. In a very similar way, we can look at an already made or built object that has its own digital twin and an object that does not have its own digital twin. Namely, even though the object already exists, we really know little about it since the made or constructed object contains very little data in itself. The skeptic in me wonders if it is necessary that now, even though
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we have new and very eﬀective digital tools to digitize existing objects, we need the facilities we have already built to be digitized? Quite simply, why do we need it, and what will the digital twin of the made and built object serve us in the ﬁrst place? Take the existing building as an example and imagine the situation when walking through a building to ask the building owner or facility manager what are the properties of a wall what is its thickness, what material is it made of, what is the brand of the concrete wall, is it bearing wall, whether it has a ﬁnish and of which thickness, from which material the ﬁnish is made, is the load-bearing capacity of the wall such that we can hang brackets for pipes of a certain weight, which is the ﬁre resistance of the wall, whether we can make a hole in the wall to accommodate the damper and "pull-in" the cooling or heating duct when planning a wall painting, what is the wall area in order to calculate the cost of wall painting, etc. I am convinced that it would take a few days for the building owner or facility manager to answer the above questions if we assume that he did not have a digital twin model of the building.
Simply, the owner of the building or the facility manager would have to go through a pile of paper to get the information I needed, he would have to contact the archive for some information, and I am sure he would not be able to ﬁnd some information. However, if the building owner or the facility manager had a digital twin building model, I am conﬁdent that for some questions, I would get answers within minutes, and for slightly more complex questions, such as wall openings and wall-mounted pipe holders I believe I would get the answer in a few hours.
I think that you have, through a straightforward example of an ordinary wall, seen the potential of a digital twin of an existing facility, which, for example, can save you signiﬁcant ﬁnancial resources by optimizing the cost of maintaining the facility, ﬁnding the best option for renovating, upgrading and adapting industrial facilities to a diﬀerent purpose and ﬁnally when calculating the operating costs and life cycle of the facility.
Try to imagine how much savings you can make when maintaining mechanical and electrical installations, production lines in factories, maintaining ﬁre installations, etc. I am going to write much more about digital twins of objects that have already been made or built in the following article: "Digital Twins in The Construction Industry," since my wish for this article is to stay focused on the concept of the digital twin in the broad sense. So let's move on to a topic that combines the need for making a digital twin in both objects that are subject to
fabrication or construction and in objects that are made or built.
Digital Simulation Tools for Digital Twins When talking about digital simulation tools for the digital twin, keep in mind that we are entering the rainforest, and it is very diﬃcult to capture all the tools available. Therefore, I am going to list just a few of the most
the deﬁciencies to give the building user adequate comfort. Machine learning A digital tool that is deﬁned as a sub-area of artiﬁcial intelligence.
important digital simulation tools for digital twins and write a few sentences about each tool: CFD (Computational ﬂuid dynamics) This is a calculation of ﬂuid dynamics and is part of ﬂuid mechanics, which uses numerical analysis and structured data to solve problems related to ﬂuid and gaseous ﬂuid behavior. CFD analysis has an extensive application including forces and moments on various digital models, pressure in tubes caused by liquid and gaseous substances contained in the tubes, explosion analysis, simulation of motion and ﬂow of diﬀerent types of particles, temperature action, simulation of weather, the behavior of digital models in an air tunnel, etc. Dynamo and Python Digital tools that are detailed in the article "BIM Workﬂow Automation". Here, I would like to avoid a more detailed description of Dynamo and Python as digital tools that, in addition to
automating the BIM workﬂow, are also widely used in data processing for digital twin models. If you would like more information about Dynamo and Python, please select this link. Sensors For made or built objects, diﬀerent types of sensors are used to measure the values needed to optimize pre-existing elements within an existing object. For example, sensors can measure the number of people in a particular room. Then the data obtained can be compared with the data assumed by the architect during project design. If the number of people in a given room is consistently higher than the projected number, the building owner can optimize the machine's system of fresh air injection.
Machine learning is a process where a machine is learning things based on the experience and imitation of human actions in certain repetitive circumstances. In simple terms, machine learning is based on observing the actions a person performs when encountering a speciﬁc typical problem. After several repetitions, the program that "monitors the human" learns and adopts the algorithm of human behavior and assumes the execution of the same operation that he learned "monitoring the human". Given that artiﬁcial intelligence is not yet able to make very complex decisions and look at the problems that occur with data generated by diﬀerent simulations. I think that we cannot yet speak of the massive and default use of artiﬁcial intelligence as a digital tool to simulate the process in a digital twin.
Similar is possible with measuring the brightness of rooms. By comparing the data thus obtained, if an error is detected, the building owner can correct
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The Savings That Digital Twins Bring • By applying BIM workﬂow and digital tools used in various simulations on the digital twin model, and with proper BIM management of the complete BIM project process, there are between 5% and 15% more problems in the early stages of the project process, that is, long before the contracting project and the construction of the facility itself, which brings signiﬁcant savings to the investor ﬁnancially;
• The use of diﬀerent sensors in buildings, which generate data through data processing platforms, helps to automate the equipment in the facility more easily and eﬃciently, which improves the energy eﬃciency of the building and at the same time improves the comfort of the building occupants;
• By analyzing the data collected through sensors in already fabricated and constructed objects and incorporating such data in the design process of future objects, the investor makes signiﬁcant savings in the speed of fabrication or construction of the object, in the selection and installation of equipment, which, as a consequence, brings signiﬁcant ﬁnancial savings to the investor;
diﬀerent sensors into existing objects and processing the data obtained from them, the investor receives "collective knowledge and experience" classiﬁed by object type, which in future projects of objects classiﬁed by type and purpose, brings signiﬁcant ﬁnancial savings at all stages of the project, then during the construction of the facility and in the life cycle of the facility itself;
• Given that it is diﬃcult to expect a price drop of urban construction land and site ﬁtting, the only segment where an investor of building construction can make savings is to optimize the implementation of the BIM workﬂow and to produce digital twins, in which the digital performance of the simulation tools will permanently improve the performance of the building in all stages of project design, during and after construction. This would end the article on digital twins and my view of how they can help in many areas through cost optimization and better functionality, both for objects that are not fabricated or
built, and for objects that are fabricated or built. I would also like to take this opportunity to announce my next article "Digital Twins in The Construction Industry", in which I hope to bring you even closer to the concept of digital twins and to indicate the need for you to think about the need to design a digital twin of your object. If you have any questions, comments, or want to know more details about the topic I covered in "What Are The Digital Twins", please contact TeamCAD, who will be happy to provide additional information. Also, if you need any help in designing the process of how to get a digital twin model, or you need to create a digital twin model yourself, TeamCAD will be happy to support you. Until the next article, Predrag Jovanović
• By developing and permanently implementing a digital strategy, which involves developing digital twin models, incorporating
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Digital Twins In The Construction Industry AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
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IN THIS ARTICLE, I AM GOING TO COVER AN EXCITING TOPIC ABOUT DIGITAL TWINS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. FOR THE BEGINNING OF THE TEXT, ONE INTERESTING QUESTION DO YOU KNOW WHEN AND HOW DIGITAL TWINNING TECHNOLOGY WAS DEVELOPED? I THINK THE ANSWER WILL AMUSE YOU - THE TECHNOLOGY OF CREATING A DIGITAL TWIN MODEL, IN THE FORMAT WE KNOW TODAY, WHICH IS AN EXISTING OR DESIGNED OBJECT AND AN IDENTICAL COPY OF THE OBJECT IN DIGITAL FORMAT, WAS CREATED IN 2002 AND WAS FIRST USED IN ASTRONOMY BY NASA FOR THE PRODUCTION OR PROCUREMENT OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FROM DIFFERENT SUPPLIERS. Digital twin models have been used primarily to calculate the life cycle of components, systems, and various assemblies and structures after installation, production, and construction.
Primarily, digital twins were used to estimate the cost of maintaining diﬀerent components, systems, circuits, and buildings by making various simulations of phenomena and processes that would occur on existing objects using their digital format replicas. I assume that you have concluded that by accessing a digital replica of an existing building, component or system and simulating the various real-world impacts on them we come to the information on all aspects and causes of the life cycle costs of a particular object, component, or systems in a real environment and in the real-world impacts of diﬀerent phenomena that interact with an building, component, or system in a much cheaper way.
the meaning of digital twin models, I want to focus on the very topic of this article, which is the purpose of digital twin models in the construction industry. For a start, we must bear in mind that we have more participants in the building construction, namely the designer, contractor, and investor. Depending on the role in the project process, I am sure that you have in mind that their interests may not be identical
when it comes to designing a digital twin. The interests of the designer and contractor in designing the digital twin in the design process are mainly related to the optimization of their own work. They have no primary interest in passing on the digital twin model of the constructed building to the investor after completing the project and building construction, i.e., something like that represents an additional cost to them.
After having fun with the interesting facts in the introductory part of the article and also learning
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On the other hand, the investor should be very interested in getting a digital twin model of the ﬁnished building for reasons that I will list below. Unfortunately, it often happens that the investor does not require the making of a digital twin model of the constructed building at the end of the design process. Most often, he does not realize its value and the potential savings in operating costs and life cycle costs of the built facility, which it will bring to the investor, the owner of the facility, the user of the building or facility manager. Also, a common cause for the absence of a digital twin model of a built facility is a certain skepticism with the investor, owner, or user of the facility or facility manager.
The most common questions I hear in discussions about the need to build digital twin models in the construction industry are:
• Why do I need a digital twin model of a building, if I have a construction stage project? • Why do I need a digital twin model of a building, if I have an as built project? • What additional value does the digital twin model give me? • How to manage the project process so that the investor will
eventually get a cheap but quality digital twin model? • Does it make sense to create a digital twin model if the building is already built? • What to do with a digital model of a digital twin after making and purchasing it? Before giving detailed answers to each of the questions asked by the investor, the owner, the user, or the facility manager, the basic question is asked - who should fund the creation of the digital twin model of the facility? It is not grateful to go into this dilemma from this position and to advise who should ﬁnance the digital twin model, as this may depend on the contractual obligations between the investor, the owner, the user, and the facility manager. However, I am going to be free to suggest to the investor that, in the case of the construction of a brand new building, if it has a capable BIM manager who manages the BIM project process from the start of the project to the completion of the construction, it can have signiﬁcant ﬁnancial beneﬁts if he gets the digital twin model at the end of the project. He can accomplish this by "reﬁning" the BIM model of the construction stage project, which he could then hand over or sell to the owner, user, or facility manager. On the other hand, when it comes to creating a digital twin model of an existing building, it seems most logical to me that the costs of making the digital twin model should be taken over by the person who
manages the life cycle and pays for the maintenance costs of the building and its equipment, which is usually the owner or user of a facility. To simplify the terminology and relations between the investor, the owner of the building, the user of the building and the facility manager, below, I will look at the issue of the need to design a digital twin of the building through the prism of the user of the facility, since the user is the one who will pay the costs of operating the facility, it’s life cycle costs and the equipment in it, and the one should be most interested in the design and procurement of a digital twin model of the facility.
Why Do I Need A Digital Twin Model Of A Building, If I Have A Construction Stage Project? By deﬁnition, the construction stage project is a detailed design of the main design with all the necessary details deﬁned for the project to be constructed. The problem with the construction stage project is that, in practice, the built facility is almost always signiﬁcantly diﬀerent from the
solution given in the construction stage project for various justiﬁed or unjustiﬁed reasons, which the designer and contractor did not consider when designing the construction stage project. Therefore, we can conclude that a construction stage project cannot give an entirely exact digital or paper 2D replica of the completed state of a newly constructed building. When considering building structures that were built before the advent of digital twin model technology, this puts the facility user in a worse position, since from the 2D drawings on the paper sheets he is not able to grasp every detail of the building that he uses or in an orderly fashion track the changes, maintenance and life cycle costs of each element in the building. Also, it is almost impossible to imagine that the contractor was so conscientious during construction that everything, even the slightest deviation from the construction stage project, was documented by an additional graphic revision.
Why Do I Need A Digital Twin Model Of A Building, If I Have An As Built Project?
use, and maintenance of the facility. The as built project of a completed facility is a set of mutually synced projects showing all the details of the constructed facility necessary to determine its suitability for use. The as built project can be made for parts of the building which, in the opinion of the technical inspection committee, or following the technical documentation, represent the technical and technological unit and can be used as such independently, and for which the suitability for use is determined in accordance with the rulebook governing the technical inspection of facilities and for which a special use permit is issued. " (deﬁnition is taken from the site paragraf.rs from the Rulebook On The Content, Manner, and Procedure Of Preparation And Method Of Control Of Technical Documentation According To The Class And Purpose Of The Facility - Oﬃcial Gazette RS number73/2019. From the very deﬁnition, we can see that the as built project,
whether in digital or paper format, somewhat considers the facility maintenance, but does not provide clear guidance on how to document the maintenance of the facility, how to assess the monthly, quarterly, annual life cycle costs of the facility and installed equipment. From a law point of view, it's enough to do an as built project that would document all deviations of the building from the construction stage project, which completely ignores the process of the complete life cycle of the building and the installed equipment. What may be good about the overall story of an as built project is that in newly designed and constructed buildings and equipment, if the BIM workﬂow is implemented appropriately in all project stages, the BIM as built model can be taken as a starting model for development of a digital twin model of the building and the installed equipment. In simpler terms, adding attributes relevant to monitoring the operating life cycle cost of a facility to the BIM as built model
To better address this issue, it is best to look at the very deﬁnition of an as built project. "The as built project is being made to obtain the use permit,
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How To Manage The Project Process So That The Investor Will Eventually Get A Cheap But Quality Digital Twin Model?
is the most ﬁnancially viable way to obtain a digital twin model of the construction facility and the equipment built into it. What precisely all this means, I will explain in answer to the next question.
What Additional Value Does The Digital Twin Model Give Me?
The digital twin of a building and its built-in equipment enables the cost anticipation of each element during its life cycle. These costs can be predicted on a monthly, quarterly, yearly, or multi-year basis, which can provide valuable information to the investor or user of the facility to optimize and more eﬀectively manage its own ﬁnance.
Assuming we are talking about a BIM project, the most straightforward answer to the asked question is that the investor, during the preparation of all project phases, has in his team an experienced BIM manager (employed by the investor or hired as a BIM consultant), who will manage the BIM requirements in the interest of the investor during all stages of the BIM workﬂow. The starting document, which should also form part of the contract between the designer and the
If we are talking about a BIM project, the simplest explanation for the diﬀerence between a BIM as built model and a digital twin model is that the BIM as built model provides static information about a built object, such as its geometry, equipment capacity, properties of used materials and equipment, etc. In contrast, the digital twin model contains dynamic data such as maintenance costs and the life cycle of all elements of a building and equipment installed, as well as elements that simulate various “real-world” impacts on them.
contractor with the investor, is called the "BIM Execution Plan", a BIM project execution plan, which manages the delivery of the BIM project at diﬀerent stages of the project. This document, usually drafted by an investor, deﬁnes what BIM models need to contain at diﬀerent stages of the BIM project process, protocols for names of varying BIM elements in discipline models to optimize and automate the BIM project process (naming convention), collision deﬁnitions for each of the stages of the BIM project process, the platform on which the BIM combined model will operate, the "level of detail" (LOD) of the discipline elements throughout all stages of the BIM project process and many other things. I think it should be reiterated here that the process itself between the BIM as built model and the facility digital twin model should be an integral part of the BIM Execution Plan, since it is more than evident that something is in the investor's interest. I am going to write about the BIM Execution Plan in detail in one of the following articles. The previous brief description of what the BIM Execution Plan should contain, I just wanted to give an idea of why the investor needed it. It seems logical that the ultimate goal of the investor should be to create a digital twin to use after the construction. An experienced BIM manager or BIM
consultant can assist him greatly by developing a BIM Execution Plan and managing the complete BIM workﬂow.
Does It Make Sense To Create A Digital Twin Model If The Building Is Already Built? I think there is much need for a digital twin model for an already built facility, and there are many reasons for this. The ﬁrst and foremost reason is that as time goes on, every building and installation requires more money for maintenance, more frequent failures in mechanical, electrical, and plumbing installations. Also, every change in the building regulations involves speciﬁc works, and there are more of them as the building structure or equipment in it is older. With this in mind, it is almost impossible to see all the changes
that have taken place over the years of using the building, and every user of the building is aware that there will be many more changes, alterations, replacements, and upgrades in the future. The logical conclusion is that in order to consider the cost of maintaining a building, it is almost necessary to create a digital twin model of an existing building. Practically, there are no substantial diﬀerences in explaining why a digital twin model of an existing building is needed compared to the building being designed. In both cases, the essence of the digital twin model is to enable the facility user to view the life cycle costs of the facility and the installed equipment. The only diﬀerence is that as time goes on, the cost of maintaining older buildings is increasing, so the digital twin model is very precious in assessing the cost-effectiveness of further investment in existing facilities and equipment built into it.
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from the real - physical world are transferred to the digital world, i.e., into the digital twin model of the existing building and the equipment built into it.
What To Do With A Digital Model Of A Digital Twin After Making And Purchasing It? The answer to the last question I am going to discuss in this article should be, at the same time, a recapitulation of everything we have learned about the need for digital twinning in the construction industry. First and foremost, the purpose of developing a digital twin model in the construction industry is to obtain, in a digital format, and in a much cheaper way, a user of a facility about all aspects of the life cycle cost of a particular building, component or system in a real environment and the real eﬀects of diﬀerent phenomena that interact with a building, component, or system. When a facility user purchases a digital twin model of a facility and built-in equipment, it would be best to do monthly, quarterly, annual, and multi-year cross-sec-
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tions of building and equipment maintenance costs so that tenant can manage ﬁnances in the best possible way. Any changes to the building itself or the equipment built into it must be updated in the digital twin model as well since future changes cannot be properly tracked nor can the costs of future maintenance work be monitored unless the digital twin model is a perfect digital copy of the building current state and the equipment built into it. And at the very end of the article, I will make a personal comment and my more free-standing view of the digital twin model in the construction industry.
I would also like to conclude this article on digital twins in the construction industry and my view of how they can help the construction industry through cost optimization and better functionality, both for under construction facilities and already built facilities. Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to announce my next article, "Data Management In The Digital Twin", in which, through the examples, I will try to show you the need to think for yourself about the need to design a digital twin of your building. If you need any help in designing the process of how to get a digital twin model, or you need to create a digital twin model yourself, TeamCAD BIM Consultants will be happy to support you. Until next time, Predrag Jovanović
The digital twin model of a building and equipment built into it is essentially a BIM as built model, with added functionality that can be used for tracking the life cycle cost of the building and the equipment built into it. In order to maintain the status of a digital twin model of a facility, it is necessary that it is continuously updated and that all changes
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Data Management In The Digital Twin Of The Building AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
IN THIS ARTICLE, I AM GOING TO FOCUS ON AN EXCITING TOPIC ABOUT DATA MANAGEMENT IN DIGITAL TWINS. IN THE PREVIOUS, I HAVE TRIED TO EXPLAIN IN THE BEST POSSIBLE WAY WHAT DIGITAL TWINS ARE IN A BROAD SENSE, WHAT IS THEIR POTENTIAL, IN WHAT AREAS THEY CAN BE USED AND MAKE SIGNIFICANT SAVINGS AND FINALLY - WHAT DIGITAL TWIN REPRESENTS AND
WHAT ITS VALUE IS, WHETHER IT IS ABOUT BUILDING PROJECT OR THE ALREADY CONSTRUCTED BUILDING. IN THIS ARTICLE, I HAVE THE INTENTION TO COMPLETE THE STORY OF DIGITAL TWINS AND TO GIVE YOU AN IDEA OF HOW TO MANAGE DATA AFTER THE CREATION OF A BUILDING DIGITAL TWIN IN THE BEST WAY. Let's start with the assumption that the investor, owner, user of
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the facility, and / or facility manager is interested in creating a digital twin model of the building he is using, as well as interested in monitoring, forecasting and managing the facility's maintenance and life cycle costs. For such a thing he needs:
• The contract and the BIM Execution Plan, which clearly deﬁnes the obligations of the investor and the legal entity that will create and maintain the digital twin model. I am going to give more details on this topic below; • BIM as built model, which
reﬂects a perfect, as built copy of the constructed building and the equipment built into it (digital twin model); • A digital twin model containing parameters valuable for monitoring the life cycle of a building and the equipment built into it; • Permanent maintenance of the geometry and parameters of the digital twin model after each intervention on the building and the equipment built into it; • Generation and labeling of elements QR codes in a building or part of equipment over which an intervention is performed and labeling with an identical QR code of an identical element in a digital twin model to coordinate real-world building data and its digital twin model in the digital world.
The Building’s Digital Twin Creating and Maintenance Contract and BIM Execution Plan The primary role of the building’s digital twin creating and maintenance contract is to clearly deﬁne the rights and obligations of the building user on the one hand and the company that will be engaged in the creation and maintenance of the digital twin on the other. It turned out very useful to include in the creating and maintenance contract a company that will provide maintenance services for the constructed facility and the equipment built into it, i.e., facility
manager. This greatly minimizes the possibility of communication problems on the relation building user - facility manager maintaining the digital twin of the building. Namely, in contracts that clearly deﬁne the rights and obligations between the interested legal entities engaged in the maintenance of the existing building, it is crucial to deﬁne clearly and unambiguously the procedures from the appearance of the need for intervention on the building to noting it in the digital twin model, i.e., to update it. BIM Execution Plan, in addition to the building’s digital twin creating and maintenance contract, represents a document which has the power of the contract and it is written in the form of contract addition where it is deﬁned:
• Methodology for creating building digital twin model; • Level of Detail (LOD) i.e., the level of detail of the geometry of each type of graphic element within the digital twin model; • Elements of the building and
equipment that will be subject to processing in the digital building twin model database; • The parameters in the digital twin model that will be assigned to the graphic elements of the model to track them in terms of maintenance costs and the life cycle of the facility and the equipment built into it; • The manner of issuing orders and labeling for intervention on the constructed facility; • A way to update the digital twin and the data itself in the building database after the intervention; • Documenting all changes made to the building and the equipment built into it in the digital twin model, not only by changing the geometry of the digital twin model, but also establishing a link between the element in the digital twin model that was the subject of the intervention and the attachments, invoice scans, textual description of the work and how to make changes, as well as other relevant documentation related to that element in the digital twin model. In the end, it is essential to note in the contract that it is desirable
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Even more complicated is the situation where the owner or user of the building does not own the as built project, so before creating a digital twin, it is necessary to perform a building observation, which requires a lot of manual and not so intellectual work. Finally, there is the possibility of laser scanning of an existing object. Still, the purpose of the generated point-cloud 3D model of a digital twin of an existing building is highly questionable from a BIM point of view. Let’s consider these four cases: to deﬁne the costs of maintaining a digital twin model. In most cases, the item in the maintenance contract involves paying by the facility user after an intervention order is issued, which is a less favorable option for the user. The second most common option is the annual subscription of the facility user to a company that is contractually obliged to update the model and document any changes to the digital twin model after each order and intervention.
Creating Of The Digital Twin Of The Building To understand how digital twin data of the building is managed, I must indicate to you that the methodology for generating data is not the same for the digital twin that is the subject of the project and the digital twin that is generated based on data from the as built project if the owner or user of the building has it.
• The digital twin model generated during the BIM workﬂow is essentially a model generated after the building construction and can be considered as an as built project. As I mentioned in the previous article, if the investor adequately hired his BIM manager, who constantly checked the coordination of the constructed building with the digital as built model, it can be said that with certain, not so large additional works on the digital as built model, the investor can easily have the digital twin model; • Digital twin model generated from the as built project using 2D drawings and additional project documentation is a far more complicated case since it requires a lot of BIM modeling, assigning adequate parameters to the elements in the digital twin and linking those parameters to a database that documents all future repairs and works on the facility. I must mention that the
responsibility for the validity of the drawings, as well as possible disagreements between the drawings of the as built project and the real constructed building, is the responsibility of the facility’s owner or user and that he is obliged to document all diﬀerences to the company engaged in the development of a digital twin model of that facility. To put it simply, any discrepancy between the current state of the facility concerning the as built project is the sole responsibility of the facility’s owner or user. Unless the user of the facility has documented the diﬀerence between the constructed facility and the as built project, the digital twin model cannot be described as a mistake by the company engaged in the digital twin creation. • The digital twin model generated from the observation of the constructed building involves the engagement of a company or individuals who will record the complete facility and document that recording in a format acceptable to the company engaged in the creation of the digital twin model of the constructed building. The process itself places much responsibility on the company or individuals hired for observation of an as built facility. It should be borne in mind that
such a scenario can only be imagined in buildings that were built in the distant past. Therefore, the propensity to malfunction and repairs is signiﬁcantly higher than the recently constructed facilities whose owners or users own the as built project. • The digital twin model generated from laser scanning is a highly debatable digital twin model format. In my opinion, it cannot be considered an adequate model of a facility’s digital twin. It provides a visually acceptable model, where its elements can get some attributes through their labeling. The problem with the digital twin models thus generated is that the elements in that model are not intelligent and do not know whether they are a column, wall, or diﬀuser, so their systematization and data structuring in such models is challenging to achieve and very unreliable.
Issue An Order For Intervention Using The Digital Twin Model On The BIM 360 Cloud Platform Does it seem too futuristic for you, as the facility’s owner or user, to order the maintenance technician of your facility to go to a speciﬁc location of your facility, identify the element on which to intervene, and then follow the instructions given to you by voice or text message to his smart phone, all from a digital twin model found on the BIM 360 cloud platform? This technology is actually possible, feasible and easily applicable. What is particularly fascinating is that when generating a ticket for a particular intervention, a QR Code or Unique ID number is automatically generated and assigned on the one hand to
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the element of the facility over which was intervened and, on the other, to an identical element in the digital twin model stored in the BIM 360. A once generated QR Code or Unique ID assigned to a speciﬁc element in a facility and an identical element in the facility's digital twin model allows you to track all interventions and history of all interventions on one or more elements in the facility and the facility's digital twin model. More description of digital twin model maintenance in the BIM 360 cloud service, can be found if you follow this link: https://bit.ly/36qfyGm
Issuing A Ticket Using The Digital Twin Model In Bim 360 And Database Related To The Digital Twin Model If you have read the text in the previous subtitle and watched the BIM 360 Ops video, I believe you are fascinated with how easily any change made to a real-world facility and a digital twin model in the digital world can be documented. In a very similar way, it is possible to create a ticket and monitor its implementation using databases and speciﬁc procedures. What is very convenient about databases is that it is possible to look at all interventions that have happened in the past, but also to write tickets that will be
executed in the future based on the life cycle data of a particular element in an existing facility and a digital twin model of an existing facility. Tracking incoming and previous costs with the help of a database, whether it is regular work, renovations, repairs, upgrades, or adaptation of a building to new regulations, allows the facility user the opportunity to view all the life cycle costs of the building. Doing so will signiﬁcantly enable him to optimize his ﬁnances and provide signiﬁcant savings.
Which Data Should The Digital Twin Model Contain? The most straightforward answer to this question is - the building's digital twin model should contain all of the data that is valuable to the facility user and the facility
manager for the eﬀective maintenance of the constructed facility and the equipment built into it. Practically, there are no restrictions on the parameters of the digital twin model, so it can be said that the user, the facility manager and the company in charge of creating and maintaining the digital twin model in the BIM Execution Plan deﬁne all the parameters that are valuable primarily to the facility user. However, it proved to be that the data that are most often the default parameters in the digital twin model are related to the life cycle costs of certain elements of the facility and equipment, diﬀerent parameters that can provide a quick response regarding the cost of any changes to the facility in terms of upgrading, adaptation or change
of purpose of the facility or part thereof and ﬁnally, the parameters of the elements that will signal incoming regular construction work on the maintenance of the facility and the regular replacement of equipment or parts of equipment by the speciﬁcations of their manufacturers. It should be added that it is possible to install diﬀerent sensors in a facility, which continuously monitor and collect data during the life cycle and the facility exploitation, as well as the equipment built into it, but this requires the participation of machine learning and Internet of Things, for valid data processing, which is a vast topic and I am going to explain that workﬂow in one of the following articles. At the very end, I would like to make a few observations and conclusions about digital twin
technologies. The capabilities of modern technologies are increasing, and therefore the beneﬁts that digital tools provide us with data processing, whether generated by human labor, automation tools or machine learning, are increasingly apparent. Essentially, any real-world ﬂaws can be remedied in digital models, including the digital twin model of a building. The advantage of a digital model of a building is that its elements can be assigned much more readily available data than the elements of the building in the real world. It should be borne in mind that the use of digital maintenance technologies for an existing facility, in addition to better communication between the facility manager and facility users, also improves communication
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and documentation within the facility management team. The result is transparency in the maintenance work of the constructed facility, as well as signiﬁcant savings by reducing the number of participants in the process of issuing a ticket, during the intervention itself, and ﬁnally documenting the ticket execution for any intervention at the existing facility. I hope you found the articles about digital twins interesting ("What Are The Digital Twins?" and "Digital Twins In The Construction Industry"). With this article, I would also conclude a series of articles on digital twin technology and announce the following text "What Is BEP And What Should It Contain". If you have any questions, comments, or want to know more about the topic I covered in "Data Management In The Digital Twin Of The Building", please contact TeamCAD, who will be happy to provide you with additional information. Also, if you need any help in designing the process of how to get a digital twin model, or you need to create a digital twin model yourself, TeamCAD will be happy to support you. Until next time, Predrag Jovanovićhttp:// bit.ly/3qcwUy6z z
What Is BEP And What Should It Contain? AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
WE CONTINUE TO COVER INTERESTING TOPICS RELATED TO THE BIM WORKFLOW. AS I ANNOUNCED IN MY PREVIOUS ARTICLE, "DATA MANAGEMENT IN THE DIGITAL TWIN OF THE BUILDING", IN THIS ARTICLE, I AM GOING TO COVER A TOPIC ABOUT BIM EXECUTION PLAN – BEP. I THINK IT WOULD BE VERY USEFUL TO DEFINE THE
TERMS AT THE VERY BEGINNING OF THIS ARTICLE THAT I WILL USE EXTENSIVELY THROUGHOUT THIS ARTICLE.
What Is BEP? BIM Execution Plan - BEP is the default and necessary document of every BIM project in the construction industry. The role of BEP is to deﬁne various aspects of the BIM project process implementation, in addition to the contract between the designer, contractor and investor.
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Since BEP does not yet have the power of a contract, it is usually attached as an addendum to the contract between the designer, contractor and investor, thus introducing an orderly and predeﬁned relationship between participants in the BIM project process. At the very beginning of the article, it is important to note that BEP development is entrusted to the BIM manager on the project, which is, in most cases, employed or hired by the investor himself. It is important to note that no clear recommendation or law is
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which at the end of the design process will allow the investor to eﬃciently reach the digital twin of the facility and the equipment built into it. A characteristic BEP usually contains the following typical BIM project management chapters:
• Project management; • Format for delivery and exchange of BIM documentation;
• Technical details of the BIM project;
• BIM multidisciplinary collaboration;
• LOD - level of development of BIM elements
• CDE - a common data environment;
governing the obligations of participants in the BIM project process, regarding obligations on the responsibility of BEP design, but it seems most logical that BEP design falls into the domain of investors for the following reasons:
• The investor ﬁnances the entire project process, including the preparation of project documentation at all project stages, then the construction itself and ﬁnally the development of a BIM as built model, which the investor will use as a digital twin to calculate the operating life cycle costs of the facility and the equipment built into it; • By designing a BEP, the investor clearly and unambiguously sets the required BIM standards to be applied by the designer and contractor, which will best ﬁt into
the formats and workﬂows of the investor; • By designing BEP, the investor ensures the consistency of modeling, convention of naming objects or parameters in BIM model disciplines to establish a process of automation of data generation; • By designing BEP, the investor ensures consistency of BIM data generation and BIM modeling,
Below, we are going to look at each typical BEP chapter individually by giving a detailed explanation of their purpose as well as their content.
Project Management The purpose of the BEP chapter on project management is to deﬁne the scope of
implementation of BIM technologies, for all participants and disciplines in the BIM project process. This chapter also assigns investor requirements and roles to teams and disciplines in the BIM project process and key dates for the start, completion and delivery of BIM project documentation. Also, the project management chapter deﬁnes the process of approval of BIM project documentation by investors.
Format For Delivery And Exchange Of BIM Documentation The BEP chapter on the BIM documentation delivery format is intended to deﬁne in the BIM project process all aspects necessary for the successful and optimized functioning of the entire project team in all disciplines in the project. In this
chapter of BEP, the most commonly deﬁned are units that will be used during all project phases. Then, the BIM model formats (.rvt, IFC, nwd, xlms, etc.) are deﬁned to be exchanged between disciplines during the project process and later, BIM model formats to be delivered to the investor. Other BIM project documentation formats such as data formats (.xlsx, db, odbc, etc.) and various reports and speciﬁcations (.doc, xlsx, pdf, bcf, etc.) are also deﬁned.
Technical Details Of The BIM Project The chapter on the technical details of a BIM project aims to standardize and classify data, to regulate how it is generated and delivered at the end of each
project phase or the end of the BIM project process. It is common for this chapter to include "BIM modeling convention ", which deﬁnes naming conventions for BIM elements to achieve BIM design process automation and the ability to update and monitor all BIM data parameters after handing over a BIM digital twin model to an investor at the end of the BIM design process. In addition to the aforementioned parts of the chapter on technical details of the project, in this chapter, it is also desirable to deﬁne the geographical data of the building that is the subject of the project design. Then, it is useful to deﬁne the software that will be used in the BIM project process. Last but not least, In the chapter on technical details of the BIM project process, it is common to see a detailed description of the output
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standard related to graphic documentation and data from the BIM model of all disciplines participating in the BIM project process.
BIM Multidisciplinary Collaboration I believe that the goal of the investor is to get a fully coordinated project at the end of the BIM project process without collision between diﬀerent disciplines in the project. In reality, that implies that the investor is going to get a fully coordinated multidisciplinary BIM model at the “as built project” stage done by the contractor. This BIM model means the BIM model of each discipline in the project process, which is combined into a multidisciplinary BIM model and where all BIM discipline models are fully coordinated ie. have the status of "zero
clash BIM multidisciplinary model“. This kind of makes perfect sense, given that the building and the equipment built into it are completely collision-free, so it is quite expected that the BIM model will be a perfect digital replica, ie. a digital twin of the building. I have written three articles on the topic of digital twins and their purpose, which detail the purpose and methodology of their creation - "What Are The Digital Twins?", "Digital Twins In The Construction Industry", "Data Management In The Digital Twin Of The Building". However, it should be borne in mind that during the BIM project process, starting from the conceptual design, at the end of each project phase (except the as built project), the BIM multidisciplinary model does not imply a
multidisciplinary BIM model without collision between diﬀerent disciplines in the project. The process of moving from coarse BIM discipline models to a fully coordinated multidisciplinary BIM model is achieved by BIM virtual coordination meetings (VDRs ), where a visual review of the BIM discipline model is performed and a collision detection test is performed. It is expected that as project phases progress, there is going to be fewer collisions, but it is unrealistic to expect a BIM multidisciplinary model without collisions between diﬀerent disciplines until the as built project, because many collisions can be solved on the construction site, while on the other hand there is no sense in solving some of the collisions in the early stages of the project due to the investor costs, as long as those
collisions do not signiﬁcantly compromise the coherence of the project of diﬀerent disciplines. It would be best if the whole process of BIM virtual coordination meetings (VDRs) is managed by a BIM Manager or a BIM Consultant on a project, either employed or hired by the investor. The process from coarse BIM models to a fully coordinated multidisciplinary BIM model can save a lot of money for an investor if it is managed by an experienced BIM Manager or BIM Consultant. The frequency of BIM virtual coordination meetings cannot generally be deﬁned, but it is common for BIM virtual coordination meetings to be held once a week or once every two weeks. It is desirable for the BIM Manager or BIM Consultant to keep a record during the BIM virtual coordination meeting and, after the meeting, to report on the progress of the BIM discipline models and project coordination ie. coordinate the BIM disciplines with each other and submit that report to the investor.
attached as an integral part of the BEP. The level of development of BIM elements is going to be discussed in the next chapter.
am going to give much more detail in my next article, and therefore I ask the readers for some patience on this subject.
LOD - Level Of Development Of BIM Elements
CDE - A Common Data Environment
This chapter deﬁnes the level of development of BIM elements according to the project phase in which the project teams of each discipline in the BIM project process are. In this BEP chapter, the investor deﬁnes the levels of development of BIM elements during all stages of the design process and places them before the designer and contractor, not only in terms of the graphic requirements of the BIM model but also in terms of the data that the BIM elements contain. The consistency of the level of development of the BIM elements and the project phases is a very broad topic, of which I
The last typical BEP chapter, as its name clearly suggests, deﬁnes the environment where the BIM project will be done. This means in practice that this chapter deﬁnes how to exchange models of diﬀerent disciplines in the BIM project process, then the frequency of BIM model exchange, the server where the BIM models and the data related to them will be uploaded, etc. The traditional way of exchanging BIM models, data from the BIM models and generally the complete project process does not give the investor the ability to check the progress of the BIM project process at any time during the project process. However, this can be
At the very end of the chapter on BIM multidisciplinary collaboration, we should mention that there are LOD (Level Of Development) Engagement Protocols, which in some countries respect the predeﬁned format of BIM parts, during the various project phases. However, most commonly, the level of development of the BIM elements in the project process is related to the diﬀerent project phases and is usually
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compensated by an investor hiring a BIM Manager or BIM Consultant. herefore, it is very useful for all participants in the BIM project process - including designers of diﬀerent disciplines, contractor and investor - to work in a cloud-based project environment where there is no upload of updated BIM discipline models. In a cloud-based project environment, BIM discipline models remain virtually in the cloud all the time and are updated in real-time, and BIM models can be considered "alive". This means that every change in the BIM model made by the participants in the project is reﬂected in the BIM model of discipline in the cloud. This provides maximum transparency to all participants in the BIM project process and helps to identify multidisciplinary problems in the project process
faster and to solve them in the early project stages. It is not my intention to give a ﬁnal judgment or impose my own opinion, but after really many projects in diﬀerent cloud common project environments, my opinion is that the BIM 360 provides the best opportunities for permanent coordination between diﬀerent BIM discipline models in the BIM project process, because all changes are visible after the data in the BIM discipline model is synchronized. Such a BIM workﬂow enables the investor or his BIM Consultant to constantly monitor the progress of the project and the level of compatibility of the BIM model disciplines at any point in the project process. At the very end of the article, I would like to make a summary of everything I have outlined in the article.
BEP is a necessary document for the successful implementation of BIM technology on a project where the investor places a BIM claim on the project participants. It is logical that BEP development is the responsibility of the investor, as he pays for all project life cycle costs - from the conceptual design to the as built project. Depending on the experience of the BIM Manager or BIM Consultant hired by the investor to design the BEP and oversee the implementation of the requirements contained in the BEP, the investor himself can make signiﬁcant savings at all stages of the project process. In the end, it is possible to have a BIM as built model with installations - a future digital twin of the facility, which he can hand over or sell to a future facility user to track the life cycle cost of the facility and the equipment built into it. If an investor is also a future user of a facility, creating a BEP by the investor, by hiring a BIM Manager or BIM Consultant and overseeing the implementation of the requirements contained in it, seems like the only logical option. I would like to conclude with an article on "What Is BEP And What Should It Contain?" and my view of how it can help an investor in many areas by optimizing costs and achieving better functionality, both for facilities that are not made or built and for facilities that are built. Until next time, Predrag Jovanovic
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Whati Is LOD - The Level Of Detail of BIM Elements AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
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WE CONTINUE TO COVER INTERESTING TOPICS RELATED TO THE BIM WORKFLOW. AS I ANNOUNCED IN MY PREVIOUS ARTICLE, "WHAT IS BEP AND WHAT SHOULD IT CONTAIN?", IN THIS ARTICLE, WE ARE FOCUSING ON A TOPIC CONCERNING LOD - LEVEL OF DETAIL OF BIM MODEL ELEMENTS.
What Is LOD - The Level Of Detail Of BIM Elements? The Level of Detail of BIM elements or LOD is a chapter of BEP (BIM Execution Plan). In BIM terminology, it presents a precise description of all typical elements in the BIM model, both in terms of graphic details of BIM elements and in terms of quantity type data that the BIM element should contain. The level of detail of BIM elements is usually directly related to the work and data delivery at certain phases of the project, so it can be safely concluded that the level of detail of BIM elements deﬁnes the graphical appearance of BIM elements and the type and quantity of data allocated to BIM
of data have to match?
• How to verify the
elements during and at the end of each project phase. All of the above leads us to the logical conclusion that the levels of detail of the BIM elements change at each project phase during the project life cycle. One has to be very careful about the required level of detail of BIM elements during each project phase, primarily for coordinated exchange of BIM data during the BIM project process and then for ﬁnancial reasons, since all participants in the project process should be aware of the fact that the higher requirement in terms of the level of detail of BIM elements at some phase of the project, the higher work, and therefore the higher cost of generating BIM geometry and data in the BIM discipline model. After deﬁning exactly what the LOD or the level of detail of BIM elements means and explaining in principle the relationship between the level of detail of BIM elements and project phases, logical questions arise:
implementation of BIM element LOD? • Is the chapter on the LOD of the BIM elements suﬃcient to ensure eﬃcient coordination of the BIM model and the exchange of data from all participants in the BIM project process? Below, I will give you a detailed answer and explanation for each question asked.
Who Deﬁnes The Level Of Detail Of Bim Elements? Bearing in mind that the interests of the designer, contractor and investor do not completely coincide during the BIM project process, I do not think it is possible to give a simple answer to the question which party in the project process needs to deﬁne precisely the level of detail of the BIM elements. First, it should also be borne in mind that the BEP chapter, which deals with the level of detail of BIM elements, most commonly deﬁnes the graphical layout of BIM elements and the data
assigned to those elements in BIM discipline models. Indirectly, the BIM element LOD also aﬀects the multidisciplinary BIM workﬂow and data sharing in a multidisciplinary BIM environment by placing clear requirements on the BIM element LOD in front of the disciplines designers, both graphically and in terms of data that the BIM discipline model should include. All this provides a framework for discipline designers to exchange information eﬃciently from the BIM discipline model, and it is therefore very valuable to set the level of detail of the BIM elements to the discipline designers, which would allow them to exchange data as eﬃciently as possible within the BIM project process during a particular project phase. Considering all the above in the article section on who deﬁnes the level of detail of BIM elements, I think it is most logical that the investor is a participant in the project whose interest is to manage the LOD requirements of BIM elements for each discipline in the BIM project process.
• Who deﬁnes the level of detail of BIM elements?
• How to deﬁne the level of detail of BIM elements depending on the project phases? • Do the graphic level of detail of BIM elements and level of detail
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The reasons for this are many, and I m going to list only the most important:
• Better control over the process of generating graphic documentation and data in BIM discipline models at each project phase; • Optimized transition to the next phase of the project in the BIM project process; • Easier establishment of automation of the BIM project process, which results in the absolute accuracy of the generated data and more eﬃcient exchange of data between diﬀerent disciplines in the BIM project process; more on that topic, you can ﬁnd in the article „BIM Workﬂow Automation“ • Reduction of design costs through automation of the BIM project process; • By controlling and managing the LOD requirements of BIM elements, the investor gets a cheaper BIM as built model, which can serve as a very good basis for the FM model and digital twin model; read more in the article "What Are The Digital Twins?" Following the reasons why an investor should manage the LOD requirements of BIM elements, it is important to note that it is very easy for an investor to achieve the above goals by hiring a BIM Manager or BIM Consultant, who with his knowledge and experience could bring signiﬁcant ﬁnancial savings to the investor through optimization of requirements of the LOD of BIM
elements at all phases of the project in order to establish the most eﬃcient BIM project process.
How To Deﬁne The Level Of Detail Of Bim Elements Depending On The Project Phases? Fortunately, the answer to this question is not that complicated. Speciﬁcally, the BIM project process monitors the requirements of each project phase, so the direct relationship between the LOD of the BIM elements and each project phase is more than obvious, with some exceptions. I m going to try in a very simple way to explain the requirements of each LOD of BIM elements during the project phases through a very simple example the evolution of the door LOD through the diﬀerent phases of the project: After a very simpliﬁed way of reviewing the requirements of the LOD of the BIM elements according to the project phases, I think it would be useful to also
make a description of each level of detail of the BIM elements LOD level:
• LOD 100: • graphic requirements - the most basic 3D geometry; • parameters - the most basic geometry without material data; • LOD 200: • graphic requirements – 3D geometry; • parameters - the most basic data of elements materials; • LOD 300/350: • graphic requirements - 3D geometry with details suﬃcient for the preparation of tender documents; • parameters - information on the materials of the elements suﬃcient for the preparation of the tender documentation; • LOD 400: • graphic requirements detailed 3D geometry with details suﬃcient for the construction state project; • parameters - information on the elements materials suﬃcient for the construction state project; • LOD 500: • graphic requirements detailed 3D geometry with details suﬃcient to produce the as built project, FM model and digital twin;
• parameters - data on the materials of the elements suﬃcient to produce the as built project, FM model and digital twin;
Do The Graphic Level Of Detail Of Bim Elements And Level Of Detail Of Data Have To Match? The answer to this question may be a conditional yes. Namely, in practice, I often encountered diﬀerent requirements in terms of the LOD of BIM elements which were not strictly following the typical requirements of the project phase ie. according to the brief overview given in the previous chapter of the article - comparing the BIM element level of detail from LOD 100 to LOD 500. To tickle your imagination, I am going to give you a typical example that completely deviates from the schedule view of the LOD 500 of BIM elements during
the various phases of the project. Take elevator geometry and elevator data, for example. In the FM model and the digital twin model of a constructed building, for example, the elevator can be presented geometrically as a simple prism, while in terms of parameters and data it must be presented in much more detail. Elevator data in the FM model and digital twin model must provide information about who the elevator manufacturer is, what material the elevator was made of in the BIM model, when the previous elevator service was, when the next elevator service is, how many people can ﬁt in the elevator, cable data and other details related to elevator lifecycle monitoring, etc. After this very simple example regarding the LOD requirements of the BIM element related to the elevator in the FM phase of the project or the digital twin model, I think it is clear to you why I initially answered the question as a conditional yes. In this regard, I hope you understand that LOD 200 or LOD
300 is suﬃcient for the graphic requirements of the elevator, while the LOD 500 is required for parameters and data for the FM model or the digital twin model to fulﬁll all requirements for an adequate LOD of the BIM elements.
How To Verify The Implementation Of Bim Element Lod? The most logical answer to this question is that the investor should verify that all requirements related to the LOD of BIM elements in the BIM project process have been met. The simplest way for an investor to do this is to hire an experienced BIM Manager or BIM Consultant, who would check, in the interest of the investor, the degree of implementation of the BIM element LOD in the BIM discipline models. To avoid any complications and to identify any shortcomings in the BIM discipline models on time, it is best to organize periodic virtual multidisciplinary BIM meetings, where a mutual review of all BIM discipline models is conducted. Such a process would prevent any problems in reaching the required LOD of BIM elements in the BIM model of any discipline and would give suﬃcient time to all project participants to remedy any deﬁciencies if they were noticed at any time during the BIM project process.
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Is The Chapter On The Lod Of The Bim Elements Suﬃcient To Ensure Eﬃcient Coordination Of The Bim Model And The Exchange Of Data From All Participants In The Bim Project Process? The answer to this question is short and simple - no. Although the chapter on the LOD of BIM elements can serve as a very good starting point for eﬀective coordination of the BIM model and the exchange of data of all participants in the BIM project process, the process of BIM workﬂow coordination between disciplines, as well as the data exchange between participants in the BIM project process belongs much more to the BEP addition called "BIM Modeling Convention".
article on LOD - Level of detail of BIM elements. The level of detail of BIM elements is an integral part of BEP, which further clariﬁes the required LOD of BIM elements, both graphical, parameters and data. The BIM element detail levels are usually deﬁned from LOD 100 to LOD 500 It is common for the LOD of the BIM element to match the project phase in which it is generated, but this rule may not always apply. The most common discrepancies in this regard are with the FM and digital twin models. The LOD of BIM elements is an excellent starting point in deﬁning and coordinating the BIM model of disciplines, both graphically and in terms of a framework for coordinating and exchanging data of all participants in the BIM project process.
governed in the best way by the "BIM Modeling Convention", of which I will provide much more information in the following article. I would also like to conclude this article "What Is LOD - The Level Of Detail Of BIM Elements?" and my understanding of how it can assist the investor in all phases of the project process through optimization and automation of the BIM project process, optimization of multidisciplinary coordination and improved implementation of the BIM project process. I would also like to take this opportunity to announce my next article, „The BIM Modeling Convention“. Until next time, Predrag Jovanović
However, the LOD of the BIM elements does not fully regulate the multidisciplinary BIM workﬂow, but rather it is
This document describes in detail the way and techniques of BIM modeling of each discipline, BIM workﬂows for automated and optimized data exchange between disciplines, the process of BIM multidisciplinary coordination, ways of data visualization, etc. At the very end of the article, I would like to give a brief recapitulation related to the
The BIM Modeling Convention AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
IN ORDER TO BE ABLE TO DELVE DEEPER INTO THE ANALYSIS OF THE BIM ASPECT RELATED TO THE TOPIC WE ARE GOING TO COVER, I THINK IT WOULD BE VERY USEFUL TO DEFINE, AT THE VERY BEGINNING OF THE ARTICLE, THE CONTEXT AND DEFINITION OF THE WORD „CONVENTION“ PUT IN THE CONTEXT OF BIM WORKFLOW. THERE ARE INDEED MANY DEFINITIONS OF WHAT THE WORD CONVENTION MEANS EXACTLY, DEPENDING ON
THE CONTEXT IN WHICH THE WORD CONVENTION IS USED. IN TRYING TO FIND THE CORRECT DEFINITION OF THE WORD CONVENTIONS, WHICH WOULD BEST FIT INTO THE CONTEXT OF A BIM WORKFLOW, I CAME ACROSS TWO DEFINITIONS THAT, IN MY OPINION, BEST FIT THIS PURPOSE. By the ﬁrst deﬁnition, the word „convention“ in the context of a BIM workﬂow can be deﬁned as: "A rule, methodology or common
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practice established by long-term use by users." Another very appropriate deﬁnition of the word „convention“, which can help us put the word in the right context within the BIM workﬂow, is: "A convention is an agreement, an agreed use, and a standard procedure established by long-term use by users." Both of the above-mentioned deﬁnitions of the word „convention“ meaning ﬁt perfectly in the context of the BIM workﬂow, and I took and translated them from Dictionary.com.
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modelling process, it is common to deﬁne:
• Coordinates and the project base point;
• Methodology for modelling BIM elements in discipline models;
• Coordination of the BIM
After deﬁning the meaning of the word "convention" in the context of a BIM workﬂow, questions such as the following are imposing:
• What is the BIM modelling
procedures concerning both the BIM modelling process itself and the naming of parameters and attributes in BIM discipline models and in a multidisciplinary BIM project environment.
convention? • What is the purpose of the BIM modelling convention? • Is it possible to successfully automate the BIM project process and visualize data without the BIM modelling convention? • Can the BIM modelling convention become part of the BIM standard?
It is common for the BIM modelling convention to be attached as a separate to BIM Execution Plan.
Below, I will do my best to answer each of the questions raised.
The purpose of the BIM modelling convention is to ensure consistency of both aspects of the BIM project process - the BIM modelling process itself and the generation and management of data, whether we are talking about a multidisciplinary BIM environment or a BIM discipline model.
What Is The BIM Modelling Convention? The BIM modelling convention is, in my opinion, an integral part of the BIM design process. The BIM modelling convention is a set of agreements, rules, methodologies and standard
What Is The Purpose Of The BIM Modelling Convention?
What exactly does that mean? As for the part of the BIM modelling convention on the BIM
discipline models in a multidisciplinary BIM environment; • Division of project zones, if it is a complex and large project; • Levels height in each of the BIM discipline models. The above-mentioned part of the BIM modelling convention is not as complicated to implement as it is mainly related to the skills of BIM modelers and BIM discipline coordinators in a multidisciplinary BIM environment. What requires a much more serious approach from participants in the BIM project environment of disciplines and in a multidisciplinary BIM environment is the part concerning data and parameter management. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to this aspect within the BIM modelling convention framework. Namely, the part of the BIM modelling convention about data and parameter management within the BIM discipline model and in a multidisciplinary BIM environment is of the utmost importance when talking about the successful establishment of BIM design process automation, since only the preliminary deﬁnition and consistency of
Is It Possible To Successfully Automate The BIM Project Process And Visualize Data Without The BIM Modelling Convention? parameter naming ensures successful implementation of BIM design process automation and visualization of data obtained from that process. So, in the part of the BIM modelling convention about the generation and management of BIM data, the most commonly deﬁned are:
• BIM elements naming convention; • The naming convention of parameters of BIM elements; • Data management methodology in a multidisciplinary BIM environment; • Filter color coding as preparation for BIM data visualization; • BIM data visualization methodology.
Unlike the part of the BIM modelling convention related to the BIM modelling process, which is more concerned with geometric data, the part of the BIM modelling convention on the methodology of generating and managing BIM data forms the core of successful or unsuccessful BIM implementation, because information - data in the BIM model make the key diﬀerence between 3D models and BIM models. Therefore, we are going also to consider the issue of interaction, on the one hand, the BIM design process automation and data visualization, and on the other, the BIM modelling convention.
I have a very simple answer to this question and it says NO. Why is it not possible to automate the BIM project process and visualize data without a modleling convention? I think I am going to answer this question in one very simple example. About half a year ago, I attended a very interesting webinar on data, where one of the presenters was a programmer from a company that wrote a package for the visual programming language Dynamo. Because part of the presentation also included a live demonstration of the Dynamo package tool, at one point the presenter wanted to ﬁlter and isolate all the trees in his BIM model to further process the data and then visualize that data. He chose the „tree“ parameter as the criterion for ﬁltering elements in his BIM model and hit the "Run" button in his script. We all naturally expected that after the "Run" button in the Dynamo script was pressed, only the trees would be visible. However, this did not happen, the screen remained completely blank, so
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nothing was selected after the Dynamo script and the script reported that the number of elements that could be selected by the given criteria was zero... What actually happened? The criterion in the Dynamo script ("Node" code block = tree;) for element selection in the BIM model was set to search for all elements containing the word "tree" in its name. The presenter typed "tre" in the name of its element - a tree - and made a mistake in naming the element. It turns out that the script looked for BIM elements trees named "tree", but in the BIM model used in the presentation, there was no such element. The reason is that the element tree in the BIM model is called "tre" by mistake of the BIM modeler. Therefore, since no element met the criteria of the
predeﬁned ﬁlter for the selection of the BIM element tree – „tree“, therefore the tree could not even be selected.
accuracy of data entry and ﬁlter use that give you the ability to visualize data from the BIM discipline model and multidisciplinary BIM data.
If we analyze this problem from a purely human - common sense, not programming or automation perspective, we come to the paradoxical situation that the object we see on screen is a tree.
And about the data visualization from the BIM discipline model and the multidisciplinary BIM environment, more in the following articles…
So we want to select a tree and know what a tree is in the BIM model, but scripts and automation tools do not allow us to select all trees in the model by a given criterion, for procedural reasons.
Can The BIM Modelling Convention Become Part Of The BIM Standard?
I hope this very simple example, in a picturesque and easy to understand way, explains the importance of the BIM modelling convention above all, and the predeﬁned BIM element naming convention in a BIM discipline model and multidisciplinary BIM environment, and then the
The question posed does not require a vast BIM knowledge and experience, but is a more common sense question. If we look at the entire history of the human civilization development, it is clear that the very beginnings of the ﬁrst language on our
planet, used by the human species, are certainly based on the convention of naming objects in nature, phenomena and characteristics that surround us. Every word that is in use today, in any language in the world, has its roots in the distant past, where the then members of the human species have agreed, or in the spirit of this article, have made a convention to name the objects that surround them. From the agreed names for particular objects, phenomena and characteristics for natural phenomena, we have come to standardized languages, which have a set of default rules, which can be called a standard. Do you notice any similarities in the process, from agreement and convention to the standardization of the language creation process described above with the BIM modelling convention and the BIM element naming convention? I think you can see for yourself the answer to the question of whether the BIM modelling convention can become part of the BIM standard. After all, let's remember the CAD naming convention of a layer in AutoCAD,
at the level of each company, when the CAD standard began to apply, and compare it with today's AIA CAD standard for the layer naming. I think it is quite clear that one day, instead of the BIM modelling convention, we will talk about the BIM modelling standard and that this article will be ridiculed, but to be honest, I cannot wait for that to happen, since the standardization of BIM modelling will bring us great beneﬁts and savings in the BIM project process in the future. At the very end of the article, I would like to give a recapitulation of the topic and give personal conclusions based on years of practice in implementing BIM technologies. The BIM modelling convention is more often an integral and default part of the BIM Execution Plan and helps all participants in a multidisciplinary BIM environment to standardize both the BIM modelling process and the naming of BIM elements in BIM discipline models. The predeﬁned naming convention for BIM elements is not an administrative or bureaucratic
requirement on the part of the BIM Project Manager but aims at establishing data generation automation in BIM discipline models, which brings signiﬁcant savings to all participants in the BIM project process. Also, the BIM modelling convention also signiﬁcantly helps to automate the exchange of data between diﬀerent BIM model disciplines in a multidisciplinary BIM project environment. Finally, the BIM modelling convention largely optimizes the establishment of data generation automation, which is later used to visualize data obtained from BIM models. It can be said that the BIM modelling convention, mostly its part on the BIM elements naming, is the basis for the successful implementation of the BIM design process automation in a multidisciplinary BIM environment and the automation of data generation to visualize data obtained from the BIM disciplines or multidisciplinary BIM model. I would like to conclude with the article on the topic „The BIM Modelling Convention“ and my view of how this document can help us to establish the automation of the BIM project process at all stages of the BIM project process, then to optimize multidisciplinary coordination, and ultimately to advance the implementation of the entire BIM project process. Until the next article, Predrag Jovanović
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The Big Savings BEP Brings To The Investor AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
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IF YOU READ ONE OF MY PREVIOUS ARTICLES, „WHAT IS BEP AND WHAT SHOULD IT CONTAIN?“, I HOPE I ASSURED YOU BEP IS NOT ONE MORE BUREAUCRATIC DOCUMENT IN BIM PROJECT DOCUMENTATION, THAT „BOTHERS DISCIPLINE DESIGNERS AND CONTRACTOR TO EXPRESS THEIR CREATIVITY“, BUT THE KEY DOCUMENT THAT IN CLEARLY AND UNAMBIGUOUSLY, FROM BIM IMPLEMENTATION POINT OF VIEW, DEFINES ROLES AND ARRANGES RELATIONS BETWEEN DISCIPLINES DESIGNERS, THE CONTRACTOR AND THE INVESTOR IN BIM PROJECT PROCESS. In my opinion, writing BEP should be investor’s obligation, either by hiring BIM Manager or BIM Consultant, because the quality and consistent BIM model generated during diﬀerent project phases and organized data generated in it could serve as an excellent base for transforming the BIM model in the digital twin model at the very end of BIM project process. Furthermore, the digital twin
model enables big savings in facility maintenance through the cost optimization of facility lifecycle and equipment built into it. After the introduction, let me continue with considering what way the investor can make considerable savings with BEP making and the control of its implementation in the BIM project process. I am going to present a few ideas and conclusions, which, I am sure, bring considering beneﬁt to the investor:
• By optimizing BIM elements LOD, the investor achieves big savings; • By optimizing CDE (Common Data Environment), the investor achieves great savings.
• The consistency of the BIM
All the above-mentioned recommendations and conclusions can bring signiﬁcant savings in the BIM project process to the investor and they can be explained in detail. Also, I think that the above-mentioned conclusions need to be conﬁrmed with some examples from the real BIM project environment, which I am going to do below. So let's go in order…
discipline models during all phases of the BIM project process allows the investor large savings; • Well designed and implemented BIM modelling convention brings the investor big savings; • By optimizing the multidisciplinary coordination of the BIM discipline models, the investor achieves great savings;
Note: In the following text, I am going to explain in detail all the above-mentioned conclusions and recommendations based on my personal experience and very successful BIM project process implementation for one of the biggest investors and data center owners in the world.
The Consistency Of The BIM Discipline Models During All Phases Of The BIMProject Process Allows The Investor Large Savings I am not sure that the vast majority of readers understand why it is necessary to ensure the consistency of the BIM discipline models during all project phases and how this allows the investor great savings, so I think it is necessary to explain this conclusion in detail. For a start, it would be good to try to put yourself in the role of an investor and consider what would be in your interest, and that is related to the consistency of the BIM discipline models during all phases of the BIM project process.
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Let's take the example that the investor, although this is usually not the case, foresaw the same designers of disciplines during all phases of the project, from the concept phase, all the way to the construction stage project. Furthermore, it usually happens that, after the tender phase of the project, BIM discipline models are handed over to the contractor, who extracts from these BIM models the necessary data related to construction dynamics, bill of quantities, quantities of materials needed for construction, materials and equipment that are going to be installed in a building, etc. If the investor, with the help of his BIM Manager or BIM Consultant engaged in the project, did not monitor the consistency of the BIM discipline models during the previous project phases and if it turns out that BIM discipline models are not usable for the contractor for various reasons, justiﬁed or unjustiﬁed, the investor can easily face the problem that the contractor requires him to develop completely new BIM discipline models for the construction phase of the project,
which exposes the investor to additional and unplanned costs.
help of BIM Manager or BIM Consultant on the project.
An additional absurdity of this situation is that the investor has already paid the designers of the disciplines designing and making BIM models of disciplines, so the investor, in case the BIM models of disciplines generated by the designer are not consistent with the contractor's requirements, would practically pay the same thing twice.
And how can BEP help us in the consistency of the BIM modelling process? You are going to get the answer to this question in the next few sentences…
So, in this very simple example, you can see how important it is to have consistency and continuity of BIM disciplines models during all phases of BIM project process, regardless of whether BIM model is in the hands of designer, contractor, investor, company engaged in facility maintenance as a facility manager or the user of the building. In answer to the question - how an investor can achieve signiﬁcant savings during all phases of the BIM project process, we can say - by monitoring the consistency of the BIM disciplines models from conceptual BIM model to digital twin model of the building and equipment built into it with the
Well Designed And Implemented BIM Modeling Convention Brings The Investor Big Savings It is this part of BEP - the BIM modeling convention - that ensures the consistency of the BIM modeling process during all phases of the BIM project process. You can ﬁnd much more information about the BIM modeling convention if you read the article "BIM modelling convention" where I covered this topic in detail. In this article, it is not my intention to go into too much detail on that topic. However, I think it is important to note that this part of the BEP largely regulates the manner and consistency of data and
information generation in BIM models of disciplines. This further leads us to the conclusion that special attention must be paid to the ﬁeld of data and information in BIM models because the transfer of BIM disciplines models by the designers of disciplines to the contractor, as well as the transfer of BIM as built model by the contractor to the investor ensures consistency in the BIM model of the digital twin. And what is most important to me, the investor thus, through BEP and hiring an experienced BIM Manager, gains complete control over the consistency of the process of BIM modelling and generating data and information in BIM models, and thus gains conﬁdence in the data generated at the end of the as built project, ie. at the beginning of the digital twin life cycle.
By Optimizing The Multidisciplinary Coordination Of The BIM Discipline Models, The Investor Achieves Great Savings Let’s start on this topic with one simple question. Is full coordination between the BIM models of disciplines expected at the end of the project conceptual phase? The answer is extremely simple and it says no. It should be borne in mind that at the conceptual design stage, BIM disciplines models are located in the very early project phase and that major changes are possible, both in the conceptual design phase and in subsequent phases of the project. The same answer can be expected for all subsequent phases up to the as built project. Namely, even in the construction phase of the project, it is not expected that all BIM models of disciplines are perfectly coordinated and do not have the
slightest collisions (Zero clash model), as it often happens that changes occur on the construction site due to unforeseen circumstances justiﬁed or unjustiﬁed. The BIM multidisciplinary model of the construction phase of the project can be said to be the "liveliest" and to be the one to experience the most changes. It also requires daily coordination due to the high cost of every mistake on the construction site and so on until the construction is performed satisfactorily. In the end, we can conclude that an ideally coordinated BIM multidisciplinary model is expected only in the as-built project, which is also an excellent basis for the model of the digital twin of the building. And what is the connection between BEP, investors, savings and coordination? Well, the answer is simple and I am going to give it through a practical example. Suppose a scenario where an investor in BEP stated that in the main project the frequency of VDR - Virtual Design Review is once a week. This exposes the investor to unnecessary additional costs, as
It may not be necessary, but I am going to mention that the digital twin model of the constructed building and the ownership of it should most often be the ultimate goal of the investor.
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each discipline designer and the BIM Manager himself will add the cost of too frequent multidisciplinary BIM coordination meetings to the project price. Also, there is no signiﬁcant progress in project terms at VDR, especially in the early project stages to beneﬁt from frequent VDR on a weekly basis. Therefore, it is common practice to organize VDR every two to three weeks and as the project progresses to the next phases, VDR becomes more frequent. Since the frequency of VDRs is most often the responsibility of BIM Manager and each project is a story for itself, I would not give me the freedom to give a strict recommendation on the frequency of VDRs, but would leave the decision to the BIM Manager or BIM Consultant.
By Optimizing BIM Elements LOD, The Investor Achieves Big Savings This conclusion does not require much explanation. If you read the
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article "What Is LOD - The Level Of Detail Of BIM Elements?", I believe you could easily conclude that, the higher the LOD of BIM elements, the more demanding it is, both from the BIM modeling perspective and from the perspective of generating data and information related to BIM elements, so we come to the very simple conclusion that the more demanding the LOD of BIM elements, the model development will require more resources, and this will result in a more expensive BIM model for the investor. Very often, to explain this conclusion, I take the BIM element - the elevator car as an example. Let's look at the BIM model of the elevator car in the BIM context and what you need to know about it. It is good to know the dimensions of the elevator car, for the FM model and for the digital twin model it is good to know the basic geometric information, but also information related to regular and extraordinary elevator servicing. I consider all additional information related to the detailed geometry of the elevator completely unnecessary because
apart from the visual eﬀect, they have no practical application from a BIM perspective. Let's ask ourselves why it is necessary to go into the very detailed geometry of the elevator car when in the model it only has the role of "information holder" for service information? Okay, I have to admit that it's nice to see a perfect digital replica of an elevator car, but someone has to pay for it, the investor in this case. Often in BIM models, we ﬁnd very detailed models of certain BIM components. The most common reason for this is that they can be downloaded from the websites of equipment manufacturers completely free of charge. If the perfectly modeled elevator car reached the BIM model in that way, it is quite okay to see it in the BIM model, because making such a digital replica of the elevator car is not expensive and is cost-eﬀective for both the designer and the contractor, as well as the investor. I hope that after this short and simple example of the elevator car, you came to the conclusion that it is not necessary to model
all the elements in the BIM model in great detail if they are used only as "information holders", as such an approach saves time and money to the designer, contractor and the investor as well.
By Optimizing CDE (Common Data Environment), The Investor Achieves Great Savings This conclusion is perhaps the most signiﬁcant because it explains to the investor how in a very simple way he can achieve full control over the entire BIM project process. In short, a common BIM project environment usually involves working in the cloud. During my career, I used the Autodesk BIM 360 platform the most and it allows all participants, and most of all the investor, complete control over the BIM project process. In such a BIM project environment, all BIM models of disciplines are located on the BIM 360 cloud and are available to authorized persons participating in the project, both for virtual veriﬁcation of BIM models and for veriﬁcation of data and information.
which greatly helps in the early stages of the project and in the process of ﬁnding the most optimal solutions for all participants in the BIM project process. I will give you much more information about the common BIM project environment and BIM 360 platform in one of my following articles. At the very end of this article, also at the very end of the series of articles about BEP, I would like to make a short summary of this topic. BEP is a necessary document of every BIM project and its purpose is to regulate and arrange the relations between the designers of disciplines, contractors and investors. Based on my experience, it is most logical for the investor to be engaged and responsible for the preparation and development of the BEP, because it brings the most savings to him. If the investor is not able to compile a valid BEP or has no experience in it, it is the best to hire a professional BIM Manager or BIM Consultant for such work, who will carry out all activities on the BEP
development and control the implementation of BEP requirements in the investor’s interest. This would also conclude the article "The Big Savings BEP Brings To The Investor" and my view on how BEP, as the most important BIM document, can help us establish automation of BIM project process in all phases of BIM project process, then optimize multidisciplinary coordination and ﬁnally improve the implementation of the entire BIM project process. At the same time, I would like to take this opportunity to announce my next article "Data Is The New Gold, Does The Same Apply To Data In Digital Twins?". If you have any questions, comments or want to know more details about the topic I covered in the article "The Big Savings BEP Brings To The Investor", please contact TeamCAD, who will be pleased to give you additional information. Until the next article, Predrag Jovanović
The multidisciplinary BIM model is also located on the BIM 360 cloud, all BIM models of disciplines are linked, so BIM multidisciplinary coordination is always and at any time possible,
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Data Is The New Gold, Does The Same Apply To Data In DT? AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
IN THIS ARTICLE I AM GOING TO COVER THE TOPIC “DATA IS THE NEW GOLD, DOES THE SAME APPLY TO DATA IN DIGITAL TWINS?”. HAVE YOU HEARD THAT THE DATA IS THE NEW GOLD OR NEW BLACK GOLD? If you take a good look at the image above, you are going to admit that these claims come from very competent portals and from very competent companies and institutions. The claim that data is new gold raises many
questions, as information and data in themselves have no material or market value, such as gold or oil. Therefore, we must keep in mind that when claiming that data is "new gold", we do not mean comparing the market value of information and data on the one hand and gold on the other, but something completely diﬀerent. Namely, during the development of the human civilization, gold imposed itself as the most reliable form of preserving the value of property and capital, because, until the seventies of
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the last century, gold was the basis for the entire money supply on the planet. Practically, every banknote on the planet had a base in the gold bars of central banks around the world, and that is what still gives gold great value today and makes it a very reliable form of preserving the capital value. But how to compare the value of information and data with the gold value? In which way to compare them? I think we can easily compare the value of information or data and
the gold value if we compare the potential they carry with themselves. If we know that gold has a limited price, where the factor that limits the value of a gram or ounce of gold is its current price on the international market, the information or data has no such limitations and its value is measured by the potential beneﬁt that the information or data provides to its owner. If we add that information and data as an integral part of data science, along with digital twin technology, are one of the main hopes of the fourth industrial revolution, the high value of information and data becomes more than obvious to us. You have probably heard the saying of the Chinese philosopher Confucius: "Give a man a ﬁsh, and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to ﬁsh, and you feed
him for a lifetime." Therefore, data and information have a supreme value and their value is much greater than anything material, even gold itself.
are based not only on 3D geometry but on something much larger and more valuable on their majesty information and data.
I am of the opinion that, precisely because of the views expressed in the previous part of the article, there are today's comparisons of the value of information, data, and thus skills on the one hand and the value of gold on the other.
Below, I m going to try to support the above thoughts and attitudes related to the potential and value of information and data in digital twin technology and answer some of the questions that, I am sure, arise for every reader of this article:
If we now return to the world of BIM technologies and digital twins and look at the value of information, data, and skills from that perspective, we come to the true meaning of today's popular claim that "data is the new gold".
• Why is data so valuable in
Although this claim stems from Data Science, it is absolutely applicable to today's BIM technologies (Building Information Modelling) and digital twin technologies, which
digital twin technology?
• How to generate data in the digital twin model in the most eﬃcient way? • How to eﬃciently process data in a digital twin model? • How to visualize data most eﬃciently? • How to turn the data in the digital twin model into concrete savings?
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It is also important to note that currently the cheapest option obtained based on data from various digital simulation tools, using digital twin technologies, does not always mean the cheapest option during a certain period of a facility operating in the real world.
Why Is Data So Valuable In Digital Twin Technology? As you could read in one of my previous articles "What Are The Digital Twins?", we deﬁned digital twins as a digital replica of physical data, processes, systems, and a digital simulation of reality that can be used for a variety of purposes. This practically means that we can test a digital replica of a real-world object for various dynamic inﬂuences without any
damage to the physical object itself and make perfectly objective decisions based on comparing diﬀerent results obtained from simulations in digital twin models. If we take into account that simulations on a digital replica of real-world objects can be done an unlimited number of times and in diﬀerent variants, the information and data generated from the various options and solutions considered allow us great savings. Also, the data allow us to make decisions based on data obtained from simulations, ie. Data-Driven Decisions.
For example, if the designer's criterion is to choose the cheapest chiller for the investor, without considering energy consumption during his work as a very important criterion in choosing building equipment, the investor would achieve certain savings in the ﬁrst years of operation due to lower costs of purchase and chillers installation, but in the following years, the chiller operation would lose signiﬁcant funds due to higher consumption of electricity for heating and cooling, and thus higher expenditures to pay the bills for consumed electricity. I hope that with the help of a few previous examples I gave you an idea of why the data are generated by diﬀerent simulations and processed in order to optimize operating costs, very valuable in digital twin technology, and have great potential to bring signiﬁcant savings to the investor. Of course, one of the important parameters in digital twin technology is the way in which information and data are generated, processed, and visualized, which you are going to ﬁnd out more about below.
How To Generate Data In The Digital Twin Model In The Most Eﬃcient Way In Order To Achieve Savings? When we talk about the most eﬃcient way to generate data in a digital twin model, we must consider that there are two typical scenarios:
• Data generated during the BIM project process,
• Data generated during the operational use of the facility and the equipment installed in it. In the ﬁrst case, when we generate data during the BIM project process, the most eﬃcient way of collecting data is good communication in project teams of diﬀerent disciplines on the project, timely data exchange
between disciplines in the BIM project process, BIM project process automation and BIM data exchange, and then implementation of diﬀerent digital simulation tools within digital twin models generated based on BIM models in diﬀerent phases of the project process. When we talk about the data generated during the facility operational use, things are a bit more complicated. It is often the case that we do not have access to any data from the BIM discipline models, it is a very common case that the investor himself does not have a BIM as-built model, and we are often forced to invest great eﬀort in data collection. The fastest way is to create BIM as-built models of the diﬀerent disciplines, and then it is necessary to install diﬀerent sensors in the constructed buildings, which would collect data over a longer period of time. The data collected in this way,
using the "Internet of Things", are transferred to the digital twin model for further processing and analysis, and based on them, we get the opportunity to optimize the data obtained in the digital twin model.
How To Eﬃciently Process Data In A Digital Twin Model? Depending on the purpose for which the digital twin model was created, diﬀerent tools can be used to process the data in the digital twin model in the most eﬃcient way. However, the data processing methodology in the digital twin model can be roughly divided into:
• CFD (Computational ﬂuid dynamics) is a calculation of ﬂuid dynamics and is part of ﬂuid mechanics which takes numerical analysis and structured data as a basis for analysis to solve
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problems related to ﬂuid behavior in liquid and gaseous state. CFD analysis has a very wide application including forces and moments on various digital models, pressure in pipes caused by substances in liquid and gaseous state that are in the pipes, explosion analysis, simulation of motion and ﬂow of diﬀerent types of particles, temperature action, weather simulation, the behavior of digital models in the air tunnel, etc.
• Dynamo and Python are digital tools that are explained in detail in the article "BIM Workﬂow Automation". Here I would like to avoid a more detailed description of Dynamo and Python as digital tools which, in addition to automating the BIM project process, have great application in data processing in digital twin models. If you want more information about Dynamo and Python, please select this link.
• Machine learning is a digital tool that is deﬁned as a sub-area of artiﬁcial intelligence. Machine learning is based on learning a machine based on experience and imitation of human actions in certain repetitive circumstances. Simply put, machine learning is based on observing the actions that a person performs when he encounters a certain typical problem. After a certain number of repetitions, the program that "monitors a person" learns and adopts the algorithm of human behavior and takes over the execution of the same operation that he learned by "monitoring a person".
Given that artiﬁcial intelligence is still not able to make very complex decisions and see the problems that arise with data generated by diﬀerent simulations, I think we still can not talk about the massive and implied use of artiﬁcial intelligence as a digital tool for process simulation in digital twins.
How To Visualize Data Most Eﬃciently? After we have collected relevant data, then processed them and obtained parameters from various calculations and results that can help us optimize the digital twin model, there is a need to visualize the obtained data in a clear and acceptable and understandable way. It should be borne in mind that, when we act from the perspective of the service provider to the client, we must take into account that the information we provide to the client at meetings, where to decide on certain changes in the project or built facility, is easy to understand. It often happened to me to present data at the meeting which, although relevant and that would bring savings to the client, would not be accepted because I did not format them in a way that is easily understood by the client, who does not necessarily have to be of engineering or technical profession. That is why, in my opinion, data visualization is just as important as the accuracy of data generated by diﬀerent
methodologies, because the data must be as simple to understand as possible. I will give you a couple of examples:
• During the preparation for the meeting with the client, it was necessary to prepare and present data on the physical characteristics of steel beams in the platform model. It was necessary to give the proﬁle of the steel beam, the upper elevation of the steel beams, and show the client all steel beams longer than 6.0 m due to the speciﬁc transport requirements and the limited space for the construction of the steel platform. The required data would traditionally be presented using multiple drawings. It would be necessary to mark the upper elevation of each steel beam, to tag each steel beam and dimension the drawing of steel beams to present the required data in an appropriate traditional way. But why not do something like this - directly from the Revit model without any drawings, doesn't the construction model look simpler and easier to understand?
• Using sensors in an already constructed building, temperature measurements were performed in each room during a one month period. After data transfer via the "Internet of Things" and processing of the obtained data, the average temperature in each room was obtained during a predeﬁned time interval. The obtained data indicated that the average temperature in some rooms deviated from the expected values predicted by the project. In this case, the lower temperature than predicted in the project was an obstacle for the tenant of the business space to achieve full comfort. To more easily present the measured data, the data obtained from the sensors were visualized in a digital twin model using the Power BI data visualization program.
• Using sensors on the bridge, vibration data was collected during regular traﬃc. According to the project documentation made following the norms from 1975, the bridge needed to be reconstructed. The client turned to us to check whether it is possible to postpone the reconstruction of the bridge for some time if the current norms are respected. Instead of the classical approach, where we would do static calculations according to existing norms, sensor data and measured
vibrations showed that, with minimal interventions where only one sensor showed higher vibrations than the prescribed norms, it is possible to postpone bridge reconstruction for at least seven years. If we take into account that the bridge is located near the port, which has very intensive ship traﬃc, the client is provided with great savings, because it was not necessary to close the port during the two-month minimum works on the reconstruction of the bridge.
I hope that based on the previous examples you saw the need to visualize the data in the digital twin model in the simplest possible way and that the whole point in the story about the data in the digital twin model is that each participant in the project process easily and simply understands data through a maximally simpliﬁed representation using the various visualization software solutions available to us today.
How To Turn The Data In The Digital Twin Model Into Concrete Savings? We have come a long way in being able to turn the data in the digital twin model into concrete savings for the client.
First, it was necessary to generate relevant data, then process them in a valid way and ﬁnally visualize them in a way that is easily understood by the client. In the case of buildings that are now the subject of the project and that are done according to current standards, the best advice is to do periodic simulations in digital twin models during the project process. Today, the biggest problem are buildings that were already built in the middle and end of the last century. What should be especially kept in mind is the fact that the price of energy has jumped enormously in the last couple of decades, which makes older buildings very energy ineﬃcient. Most often, energy eﬃciency is the main reason for investing in constructed buildings. The technology of digital twins and the application of digital simulation tools provides us with great opportunities to achieve signiﬁcant savings for the client by improving the energy eﬃciency of constructed facilities. Estimates based on previous experience are that without any investment in the purchase of new equipment in the building, i.e. only by optimizing the turning the heating on and oﬀ, cooling, water heating, lighting, etc., the minimum savings that an investor or tenant can achieve is 5% of the energy price which the investor or tenant pays without
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optimizing the energy eﬃciency of the building. So, only in that segment of the building life cycle, enormous money could be saved on an annual basis. If we add to that the predictability of the expenditure on the maintenance of the building and the equipment built into it through data collection using sensors, "Internet of Things" and other tools provided by digital twin technology, I think it is more than clear to any reader what the savings is possible to achieve with the help of digital twin technology and on objective Data-Driven Decisions. This concludes the article "Data Is The New Gold, Does The Same Apply To Data In Digital Twins?" and my view of whether information and data in digital twins are the new gold, as is the case with information and data within the data science. At the same time, In the next article we will look into more interesting stuﬀ - "Sensors and IoT in The Digital Twin Technology". If you have any questions, comments, or want to know more details about the topic I covered in the article "Data Is The New Gold, Does The Same Apply To Data In Digital Twins?", please contact TeamCAD, who will be pleased to give you additional information. Until the next time, Predrag Jovanovic
Sensors and IoT In The Digital Twin Technology AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
IN THE PREVIOUS ARTICLE „DATA IS THE NEW GOLD, DOES THE SAME APPLY TO DATA IN DIGITAL TWINS?", I DEALT WITH DATA IN DIGITAL TWINS IN GENERAL AND TRIED TO EXPLAIN THEIR VALUE AND POTENTIAL. I HOPE I HAVE BEEN ABLE TO PROVE THAT WITHOUT DATA IN DIGITAL FORM, GENERATED DURING THE BIM PROJECT PROCESS OR AFTER THE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION OR OBJECT MAKING, WE WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO
CONSIDER THE POTENTIAL OF DIGITAL TWIN TECHNOLOGY AVAILABLE TODAY. When we consider the data generation process and its processing in the digital twin model, two scenarios are the most common:
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When we consider the ﬁrst scenario, I am sure that the vast majority of readers are familiar with the workﬂow of how to transform data from the BIM model into digital twin data.
1. Digital twin model created by
So, we have a situation that from one digital format we convert the data generated for the needs of the BIM project process into the data of the digital twin model.
the transformation of the BIM model, 2. Digital twin model of an already existing object (building, plane, car…).
From the point of view of the process of data generation and processing, this scenario does not seem so complicated.
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data-related processes can be roughly divided into:
• Data collection; • Data storage; Data analysis; • Data visualization; • Decisions and actions based on the results of data analysis.
Unlike the ﬁrst scenario, the digital twin model of an already existing object seems a bit more complicated. First, in order to convert an existing object from the real world into a digital twin model, it is necessary to make a BIM as-built model of the constructed object and add parameters from the real world to such a model. Then sensors and IoT (Internet of Things) come on the scene, which transfers relevant data measured by diﬀerent sensors to parameters and components in the digital
twin model. Let me mention right away, I am going to discuss this scenario in today's article. But let's go back to His Majesty ﬁrst the data. To make sure that all the processes related to data will be completely clear to every reader of the article, let's look at the data in the digital twin model from the perspective of data science.If we start from the point of view that there is no essential diﬀerence between data in data science and data in digital twin technology,
Given the fact that a detailed consideration of all data-related processes would be very diﬃcult to ﬁt into one article, my intention in today's article is to consider in detail the data collection process in digital twin technology of constructed facilities, while in future articles I will consider other data-related processes.
Data Collection Assuming that the reader of this article is completely clear about the way data is generated in the BIM project
process, I am not sure that it is completely clear to everyone what the purpose of sensors and IoT is and how they support digital twin technology. In order to help readers better understand the role of sensors and IoT in digital twin technology, I will provide answers to the following fundamental questions regarding data collection in digital twins:
• What are the sensors? • What are sensors used for and what is their purpose?
• What is IoT (Internet of
Things) and what is IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things)? • What is the connection between the sensor and the IoT? • How and where to store the collected data from the analysis sensor?
What Are The Sensors? In digital twin technology, sensors are deﬁned as digital devices, which artiﬁcially represent certain sensations that are deﬁned in biology as senses. With the help of sensors, various information and data from the environment can be collected for the purpose of their further processing and analysis. The main role of the sensor is to perform various measurements for the inﬂuences from its
environment, in given time intervals, and to convert physical data from the real world into digital data, which are further analyzed and result in great savings for investors and clients. The purpose of using the sensor is to, by constant or periodic measurements at predetermined intervals, measure all changes and events that are deﬁned as valuable for observation. The data thus collected is later converted into digital data for the purpose of data processing and analysis.
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The number of sensors around us is constantly increasing, due to the potential savings that sensors can bring. In addition, the sensors provide us with a lot of valuable data and parameters from the real world that can be used for various purposes. It is diﬃcult to deﬁne all the parameters from the real world, which can be measured using sensors because the technology is advancing very fast, so I run the risk of failing to list some important parameters from the real world that can be measured with sensors. ut, I am going to list some very important parameters from the real world that today can be measured and converted into digital parameters for further use in digital twin technology. Namely, sensors are most often used today to measure the following parameters from the real world: temperature measurement, motion
registration, location and movement registration, pressure measurement, sound or noise level, humidity, voltage, vibration measurement, etc. From the listed parameters that sensors can measure, it can be concluded that sensors can be applied in diﬀerent industries and for a large number of purposes.
What Are Sensors Used For And What Is Their Purpose? Have you heard of the "smart house"? It is understood that the house itself cannot be smart or intelligent, but it is made smart by devices equipped with diﬀerent sensors that provide input data, which are further processed and based on the processed data, certain decisions are made and diﬀerent actions are taken. A system that makes
diﬀerent decisions and applies actions can be autonomous or based on a human decision, but the basis for making any decision and action, whether made autonomously or based on a human decision, is based on data from various sensors set in a “smart house ". How does it all work together? Take, for example, that for optimal working conditions, it is necessary to provide a brightness of 400 ﬂux and a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius at the table at which the student is sitting, who is preparing for an exam in a certain ﬁeld of Data Science. The student is sitting at a desk and is not able to accurately assess, based on human senses, whether the brightness at his desk is 400 ﬂux or the temperature is 25 degrees Celsius. If we know that the assessment of brightness and temperature can be done by
sensors instead of the student, we will be sure that it is possible to provide the student with ideal conditions for preparing for the exam. However, I hope you will agree with me that, without taking into account energy eﬃciency in creating optimal conditions for the student, an autonomous system that makes diﬀerent decisions and takes actions will not make the best possible decision. For example, if the student studies during the day and the sun illuminates the table with which he sits and prepares for the exam, the autonomous system for making various decisions and actions will not automatically turn oﬀ the light and increase cooling, if such a decision involves more energy to create optimal conditions for student learning.
Perhaps by lowering the blinds and creating artiﬁcial shade, to a level to which the student's desk will have a brightness of 400 ﬂuxes and at the same time reducing the cooling, an autonomous system for making various decisions and actions can provide the required criteria for optimal student comfort. I hope that this extremely simple example gave you an idea of the role of the sensors in data collection. The sensor purpose in the "smart house" is to provide us with data that will provide the most optimal required comfort conditions after data processing, taking into account various parameters, of which in my opinion the most important is energy eﬃciency and energy savings, not only for money savings but also due to environmental reasons and meeting the criteria set by the UN
Convention on Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) that you can see on the previous page. And besides the "smart houses", with which I tried to give you an example of the complexity of not only collecting data through sensors but also the way diﬀerent decision-making systems and procedures make their decisions, where else are sensors used? I am going to list only some ﬁelds in which sensors are most used today:
• • • • • •
Informatics; Car industry; Airplane industry; Construction industry; Process lines; Conveyor belts.
At the very end of this chapter, I must say that this article was
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written in mid-2020. I believe that in ﬁve years, given the beginning of the application of 5G technology and the beginning of the fourth industrial revolution, the list of areas where sensors are used is going to look much diﬀerent and that the list of areas of sensors application, which I have listed in this article, is going to be much longer.
What Is IoT (Internet Of Things) And What Is IIoI (Industrial Internet Of Things)? IoT (Internet of Things) can be deﬁned as a system of interconnected digital devices, connected computer devices, mechanical and digital machines that transmit information through a unique system of identiﬁers. IoT enables transferring data over a network without the need for
human-human or human-computer interaction. IoT is a digital tool that allows unlimited transmission, conversion to the desired format, and reading various data and information from sensors. With IoT, we are able to permanently record diﬀerent readings and measurements from diﬀerent sensors. Constant measurements and readings allow us to predict events and to act in such a way as to prevent unwanted events that await us in the future. IoT can also be considered as a medium that transmits data, information, and alerts from various sensors that monitor certain behaviors, processes, and properties of the objects that are the subject of observation.
IoT is the hope of achieving greater energy eﬃciency in the future than is the case today and the longer life cycle of various products. IoT also enables greater automation of the various decision-making systems. Not so far in the future, Machine Learning will, to a much greater extent, replace the need for human decision-making with the often recurring needs for simple decision-making. IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) can be deﬁned very similarly to IoT, but the essential diﬀerence between IoT and IIoT is that IIoT is primarily applied in industry and industrial products. In practice, IIoT can be considered an IoT whose focus is on optimizing industrial production and extending the
life cycle of manufactured industrial products.
What Is The Connection Between The Sensor And The IoT? All devices connected to the IoT are equipped with diﬀerent sensors. Sensors built into various devices are able to send data to the IoT using WiFi or some other network. We can say that IoT is a digital tool or medium that enables the data exchange of all devices whose sensors have collected data and which are connected to IoT. However, consistent application of sensor measurements and data storage using IoT creates a problem that, after an enormous amount of data, there are diﬃculties in data processing, so the frequency of reading data becomes a very important factor in data processing, which I am going to write about in one of the following articles.
How And Where To Store The Collected Data From The Analysis Sensor? In answering this question, it should be borne in mind that IoT and sensors collect an enormous amount of data on a daily basis. By applying constant sensor measurements and exchanging data via IoT, the problem of how in the most optimal way to store
such a large amount of collected data arises very quickly. The solution to this problem is oﬀered by cloud solutions, which, in addition to the data storage infrastructure, also oﬀer digital tools for processing data collected with the help of sensors and IoT. There are diﬀerent solutions to the problem of data storage and processing in cloud solutions and I am going to give many more details about them in the following article. This concludes the article “Sensors and IoT in The Digital Twin Technology” and my view of how sensors and IoT contribute to data generation in the digitalv twin technology. At the same time, I would like to take this opportunity to announce my next article "Storing And Availability Of Digital Twin Model Data - Are The Forge And The Cloud The Best Solutions?". If you have any questions, comments, or want to know more details about the topic I covered in the article “Sensors and IoT in The Digital Twin Technology”, please contact TeamCAD, who will be pleased to give you additional information. Also, if you need advice on how to best apply digital twin technology or you want to apply digital twin technology to your project or constructed facility, please contact TeamCAD, who will be happy to help you. Until the next time, Predrag Jovanovic
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Storing And Availability Of Digital Twin Model Data AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
LET’S SEE, ARE THE FORGE AND THE CLOUD THE BEST SOLUTIONS? IN THE PREVIOUS ARTICLE „SENSORS AND IOT IN THE DIGITAL TWIN TECHNOLOGY", I DEALT WITH THE TOPIC OF COLLECTING DATA USING SENSORS AND IOT (INTERNET OF THINGS). I HAVE DEALT WITH THE TOPIC OF DATA GENERATION DURING THE BIM PROJECT PROCESS IN MANY PREVIOUS ARTICLES, FOR EXAMPLE, "ADVANCED
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BIM DATA MANAGEMENT", "BIM WORKFLOW AUTOMATION", "DATA MANAGEMENT OF THE DIGITAL TWIN OF THE BUILDING", ITD I THINK THAT WITH THE PREVIOUSLY MENTIONED ARTICLES I HAVE ROUNDED OFF THE TOPIC OF DATA COLLECTION SO THAT IN TODAY'S ARTICLE WE CAN CONSIDER FURTHER DATA PROCESSING IN THE DIGITAL TWIN MODEL.
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Regardless of the way the data is generated, whether during the BIM project process or using sensors and IoT, the question arises how to store this data and make it available to all interested project participants at any time during all phases of the project, but also during life cycle of the constructed building. Therefore, in today's article, I am very intensively going to discuss the BIM project process, digital twin technology, cloud and the Autodesk Forge platform, so I am going to deﬁne these terms at the very beginning of the article.
• BIM is a project process that
• Autodesk Forge is a web service
relies on 3D data-rich model, which serves as a starting point for design within disciplines, as well as for multidisciplinary cooperation in all contracted phases of the project. Also, it can be said that BIM technology is the starting point of every digital twin model and that it is actually BIM (that is a 3D data-rich model) the basis for the transformation of the BIM model into a digital twin model. • Digital twin technology is a technology that relies on a digital replica of physical data, processes, systems and digital reality simulation, which can be used for various purposes. • Cloud is a technology that relies on external servers that are accessed via the Internet, which can contain various model formats, databases, software solutions for data processing and analysis, etc. The key advantage of cloud technology over the traditional approach of storing data on internal servers is that an enormous amount of data can be stored in the cloud and that the data in the cloud is available to all project participants in the way it is agreed and regulated by a protocol on data access between diﬀerent participants in the project. In the construction industry, cloud solutions enable the continuity of application of the BIM technology and the digital twin technology from the conceptual solution and all subsequent phases of the project until construction, and then during the maintenance of the constructed building throughout its life cycle.
application-based platform, which enables the integration of SaaS solutions (Fusion Team, BIM 360, etc.) into the user's workﬂow and / or the installation of some of the components used in these Autodesk user solutions for web or tablet and smart phones.
Having deﬁned the technologies that we are going to consider the most in today's article, let's return to the data. To make sure that every reader of the article is going to be completely clear about all the processes related to data, let's look at the data in the digital twin model from the perspective of data science. If we start from the point of view that there is no essential diﬀerence between data in data science and data in digital twin technology, data-related processes can be roughly divided into:
• Data collection; • Data storage and availability; • Data analysis; • Data visualization; • Decisions and actions based on the data analysis results.
Given the fact that a detailed consideration of all data-related processes would be very diﬃcult to ﬁt into one article, my intention in today's article is to consider in detail the process of storage, availability and analysis of data in digital twin technology, while in future articles I am going to consider other processes related to data.
Data Storage And Availability Storing data, at ﬁrst glance, seems like a very simple process. Anyone familiar with the BIM project process will immediately think that storing data is assigning values and data to certain parameters in the BIM model. However, the problem of data storage and availability becomes much more complex if we look at the BIM project process and the transformation of the BIM model into a digital twin model from diﬀerent perspectives of the participants in the project process. As we know, when we
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involves their exchange between diﬀerent designers of disciplines in a certain time interval, deﬁned by BEP (BIM Execution Plan), in a way enables an orderly exchange of information and data between the participants in the project.
talk about the BIM project process, we usually have the case that the participants in the project process are the designers of the discipline, the contractor, the investor and the legal entity engaged in the maintenance of the constructed building. Their view of the BIM project process, as well as the transformation of the BIM model into a digital twin model, and the availability of data and information in the digital twin model are very diﬀerent. Therefore, I think it would be good to consider each of the mentioned views below:
• Data Storage And Availability From The Designer’s Perspective • Data Storage And Availability From The Contractor’s Perspective • Data Storage And Availability From The Investor’s Perspective • Data Storage And Availability From The Facility Manager’s Perspective • How does the cloud solution help with data storage and availability? • How does the Autodesk Forge platform help with data storage and availability?
Data Storage And Availability From The Designer’s Perspective In digital twin technology, similar to the BIM workﬂow, data can be viewed in two ways. When we consider data in the BIM model or in the digital twin model, it can be intended for diﬀerent calculations within the project of a certain discipline, then for diﬀerent simulations and predictions of how certain digital objects will behave in the real world, etc. But, we must not lose sight of the fact that the BIM model or the digital twin model must also be intended for exchange with other disciplines in the project. So how do you best place them in the BIM model or in the digital twin model and make them available to all participants in the project process? The current traditional approach of exchanging BIM models or digital twin models, which
However, a major problem in such an approach to the project process is that changes made by a particular discipline in its BIM model or digital twin model are not available to all project participants at the time they are made. This further implies that it is possible for an architect, for example, to make certain changes in his BIM model, to even inform other participants in the project, but that these changes may be visible in the BIM model or digital twin model only in a few days, when all participants in the project process exchange their models and data in them. I have found myself countless times in a situation where my project team was informed that certain changes would occur in the BIM model or the digital twin model, which created big problems for us in terms of disrupting the design dynamics of the discipline I was part of and questions whether to continue designing until an updated BIM model or digital twin model arrives. When we talk about the problem of storage and availability of data in BIM models of all participants in the BIM project process, cloud
technology seems to be the best solution. Such an approach allows all discipline designers to see changes in discipline models at agreed intervals in a quite simple way. When we talk about cloud technology, it is possible to work in a live model, where all changes in the models of disciplines can be seen by simply updating the linked models. This makes the project process much more dynamic and intensive in the early stages of the project, but such an approach has the key advantage in providing all project participants with much better project solutions in the early stages of the project and results in a much more optimal project solution at the end of the project life cycle.
Data Storage And Availability From The Contractor’s Perspective In considering the placement and availability of data from the contractor’s perspective, things seem simpler than is the case with the storage and availability of data during the project process. The traditional approach meant that the contractor took the graphic documentation from the designer and then created his brand new BIM model or a digital twin model tailored to his needs. From the point of view of the continuity of the project process, the moment when the contractor entered the project usually meant the interruption of the previously mentioned continuity
of the project process. Practically, all data generated during the earlier project phases, from the conceptual solution to the tender phase of the project, lose their value and the contractor completely ignores the generated model and start to make his completely new BIM model for construction. The problem with this approach is that the investor, who paid the designer to create the BIM model of the tender project phase, now pays the contractor, who re-creates the BIM model for his needs. The investor can prevent this problem if the BEP deﬁnes the criteria of the BIM model tender project phase, which would be of suﬃcient quality and meet the needs of the contractor to the extent that the contractor will not
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make a completely new BIM model for his needs. When we consider the contractor's interest in using cloud technology, I think that such an approach is far more eﬃcient for both the contractor and the investor, since we must keep in mind that the most common case is that we usually have contractors and many subcontractors in the construction. Thus, the conclusion is that during the construction of the building, ie. during the construction phase of the project, there are identical reasons as in the previous part of the article, which recommend cloud technology as the best solution for cooperation between diﬀerent participants in the project process from the conceptual solution and all following phases of the project until construction, and then during maintenance, throughout its entire life cycle.
Data Storage And Availability From The Investor’s Perspective On the storing and availability of data from the investor's perspective, I don't think I'm wrong to say the following - if I were an investor or his representative, I would insist that all project phases - from the conceptual design and all following phases of the project to construction and maintenance of the constructed building during its entire life cycle, they work in the cloud. Why? So if you go back to the very beginning of the article and read the deﬁnition and possibilities of the cloud solution, it will be clear to you why I made such a claim. The cloud solution provides to the investor insight into the entire project documentation at any time of the entire project life cycle. During the various phases of the project before the
construction of the building, the investor has an insight into the complete project process and can see all the problems that occur during the design. When we talk about construction, if the investor has regulated in a good way with BEP the transition from the tender phase of the project to the construction phase, there will be no need to create a completely new BIM model or digital twin model for the contractor. Finally, after the building is built, the facility manager can take over the BIM model or the digital twin model by the contractor at the end of the design phase of the completed building. This will again relieve the investor in ﬁnancial and organizational terms and enable him to continue to supervise all phases of the project life cycle and the life cycle of the constructed building. Practically, complete documentation during any phase of the project process, then during the construction of the facility and ﬁnally during the maintenance of the full functionality of the facility using digital twin technology and cloud solutions make the investor sure to hold all the ends of the project life cycle.
Data Storage And Availability From The Facility Manager’s Perspective When considering the storage and availability of data from the perspective of a facility manager, we must take into account that it
How Does The Cloud Solution Help With Data Storage And Availability? I hope you have come to your own conclusions about how the cloud solution helps with data storage and availability by reading the previous chapters.
appears at the very end of the project process and that its tasks are signiﬁcantly diﬀerent from other participants in the project process. In addition to the necessary repairs to maintain the full functionality of the building and care for the full comfort of building users, modern technologies allow the facility manager to document every change in the building in a digital twin model, but also to store all documentation related to certain activities during the maintenance of the facility. Also, modern technologies allow the facility manager to be more
active in proposing diﬀerent solutions to the user of the building using digital twin technology. The question arises - where to store all the documentation for the facility maintenance, the digital twin model and how to provide the user of the building with full insight into all the documentation related to the building maintenance? It seems to me that the cloud solution again imposes itself as the best option, because it enables complete transparency of all data and documentation related to the facility maintenance.
I am going to present the most obvious advantages of creating a project in the cloud during the entire project life cycle, from the conceptual solution and all the following phases of the project all the way to construction, and then during the maintenance of the constructed building throughout its life cycle. We can say that the cloud solutions application in the project process is the best available project environment because they are characterized by:
• Cost-eﬀectiveness, because they save resources to all participants in the project; • Transparency of all processes and always available documentation during all project phases; • The possibility for the investor to have an insight into the project status at any time during the project life cycle; • Reliability of data generated in the cloud solution • Access to data, BIM models and digital twin models from the web or applications for tablets and smartphones;
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• Constant backups, and thus the reliability of the entire documenting process of all project activities; • Freedom to provide visibility of models and documentation to diﬀerent participants in the project process…
How Does The Autodesk Forge Platform Help With Data Storage And Availability? Unlike the cloud solution, which can be considered as an environment for collaboration during the project process, Autodesk Forge imposes itself as the best platform in case you need to make a web BIM model or a web version of the digital twin. The capabilities of the Autodesk Forge platform are limited solely by the imagination of the team making the digital twin model on the Autodesk Forge platform.
applications or smartphone and tablet applications. Virtually all information from the BIM model and digital twin models can be transferred to a web model built on the Autodesk Forge platform, the digital twin model can be completely disassembled into components and all data related to each component in the model is available in such a representation of the digital twin model. A key advantage of the Autodesk Forge platform is data transparency for users who do not require extensive knowledge of digital and BIM skills. Simply put, a web model built on the Autodesk Forge platform enables Revit functionality in a web model without any knowledge of Revit. Want to learn more about the Autodesk Forge platform and its capabilities? Visit the following links: http://bit.ly/2MZJ8Me http://bit.ly/3d38ELb
I would like to conclude this article containing my opinion on which today-available solutions are the best for storing and availability of data in the digital twins technology. I would also like to take this opportunity to announce my next article "Analysis And Visualization Of Data In Digital Twin Technology - Cloud and Autodesk Forge". If you have any questions, comments or want to know more details about the topic I covered please contact TeamCAD, which will be pleased to provide you with additional information. Also, if you need advice on how to best apply digital twin technology or you want to apply digital twin technology to your project or constructed facility, please contact TeamCAD, who will be happy to help you. Until the next time, Predrag Jovanović
Autodesk Forge allows a large number of users to access the digital twin model in a web format and does not require much knowledge of digital and BIM technologies. The Autodesk Forge platform enables the integration of SaaS solutions (Fusion Team, A 360, BIM 360, etc.) into the user's workﬂow and / or the incorporation of some of the components used in these Autodesk user solutions for web
Analysis And Visualization Of Data In Digital Twins Technology AUTHOR: Predrag Jovanović, BIM Consultant
IN THE PREVIOUS ARTICLE I HAVE TRIED TO GIVE AN EXPLANATION ABOUT THE OPTIONS TO STORE DATA AND MAKE THEM ALWAYS ACCESSIBLE TO ALL OF THE BIM PROJECT PROCESS STAKEHOLDERS. JUST AS A REMINDER – I HAVE COVERED THE SUBJECT OF STORING AND AVAILABILITY OF DATA DURING THE BIM PROJECT PROCESS IN A
COUPLE OF PREVIOUS ARTICLES: “DATA MANAGEMENT IN THE DIGITAL TWIN OF THE BUILDING”, “ADVANCED BIM DATA MANAGEMENT”, ETC. I AM OF THE OPINION THAT I HAVE ROUNDED UP THE SUBJECT OF DATA STORING AND AVAILABILITY DURING THE BIM PROJECT PROCESS IN MY PREVIOUS ARTICLES, SO TODAY I WILL BE
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CONSIDERING FURTHER PROCESSING OF DATA IN THE DIGITAL TWIN MODEL. No matter the source of generated data, during the BIM project process or coming from sensors or IoT, the question is how to analyze this data, how to visualize and make them available to all project stakeholders, at any given moment during all project phases, but also during the completed building project lifecycle.
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After we have deﬁned these technologies that will be the focus of today`s article, let us get back to data. In order to be sure that all of the readers will be completely conﬁdent with all of the processes associated with data, let us look at the data in the Digital Twin model from the Data Science perspective.
Therefore, in today`s article, I will be intensively focusing on BIM project process, Digital Twins technology, Cloud and Autodesk Forge platform, and project environments. To start, I will deﬁne the meaning of the mentioned terms: • BIM is a project process that relies on a data-rich 3D model, serving as a starting point for design in various engineering disciplines, as well as for multidisciplinary collaboration in all of the project phases. Also, we may say that BIM technology is the basis of every Digital Twin model and that in fact, BIM data-rich model is the starting point of transforming the BIM model into the Digital Twin model. • Digital Twins technology is the technology that is based on the digital replica of the physical data, processes, and systems and represents the digital simulation of the reality that can be used for various purposes. • Cloud technology is relying on the external set of servers that can be accessed via the internet. These can hold diﬀerent model
types, databases, software for data processing and analysis, etc. The key advantage of the Cloud technology compared to traditional internal servers is that the Cloud can handle an enormous amount of data while it is available to all stakeholders in the way it is set up in the data access protocol between the project participants. In the building and construction industry, Cloud solutions enable the usage continuity of the BIM technology and Digital Twins technology, from the conceptual design throughout the following project phases up to ﬁnished construction, and afterward during maintenance of the building during its complete lifecycle. • Autodesk Forge platform is based on the web service application that enables the integration of SaaS solutions (Fusion Team, BIM 360, etc.) in user workﬂow and/or implementation of any components used in these Autodesk user solutions for web applications or mobile phone and tablet apps.
If we take that there is no core diﬀerence between the data in the Data Science and data in the Digital Twins technology, processes connected to data can be roughly divided in this way:
• Data collection • Data storage and availability. • Data analysis and visualization. • Decisions and actions based on the data analysis results. Based on the fact that the detailed consideration of all the data connected processes would very hardly ﬁt into one article, my intention in today`s article is to precisely consider process of data analysis and data visualization in the Digital Twins technology, while in the following articles I will write about other processes connected to data.
Data Analysis And Visualization No matter where was the BIM or Digital Twin model data generated, whether during the BIM project process, by diﬀerent sensor measurements or by using IoT, I believe that every reader of this article is aware that its analysis and
visualization can be considered as the key tool which enables us to achieve considerable savings. It is equally possible to save during the BIM project process, but also in the scenario when we strive to optimize economic and ecological aspect of building exploitation. But, Cloud and Autodesk Forge platforms do not give us the possibility of maximum optimization only in the industries in which we are used to presence of BIM and Digital Twins technology – like airplane industry, shipbuilding, construction, bio-mechanics, etc. Cloud based models using the Autodesk Forge platform enables us to, besides desktop applications, make the necessary analysis and visualization of data in the Cloud project environment, as well as on the Autodesk Forge platform. When we want to analyze and visualize the data from the BIM or Digital Twins model, we can use many tools and access points, but in today`s article I will focus on the most eﬃcient and mostly used data analysis and visualization methods with the potentially widest application in various areas and disciplines. In the following part of the article, I will address both desktop solutions, as well as Cloud solutions that give the possibility of eﬃcient BIM or
Digital Twins model data analysis and visualization. For the very end of this text, I will write about Autodesk Forge, as the platform where everything is possible.
Mostly Used Tools For BIM And Digital Twin Model Analysis And Visualization Depending on the purpose for which the Digital Twin model was made, we can use diﬀerent tools that help us to process data most eﬃciently in the Digital Twin model. Despite mentioned, we can roughly divide the Digital Twin model data processing methodology like so:
• CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is the calculation of the ﬂuid dynamics and it represents part of the ﬂuid mechanics that as the basis of the analysis considers numerical analysis and structured data to solve the problems connected to ﬂuid behavior in a liquid or
gaseous state. CFD analysis has wide application including force and force moments on various digital models, pipe pressure caused by matters in liquid and gaseous state present in the pipeline, explosion analysis, motion and ﬂow of diﬀerent particle types, temperature impact, weather condition simulations, the behavior of digital models in air tunnel, etc. • Dynamo is the digital tool that is used for parametric non-standard modeling, generating of additional and non-standard data for more eﬃcient calculations in the area of BIM model, for processing, manipulation and easier visualization of generated data in the BIM model, and for managed data exchange between diﬀerent disciplines in the multidisciplinary BIM project process. Dynamo is the programming language based on the principle of visual programming. The reason why it is popular as a tool for BIM and Digital Twin model data analysis and visualization is that it is integrated with the Autodesk Revit platform and that there are
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no additional charges. It is easy to learn and it does not require big programming experience. Huge advantage of including Dynamo as the BIM project process automatization is that, once written Dynamo script that processes data of a particular logical group of the BIM project process, can be used on an unlimited number of projects, gives great value and brings signiﬁcant savings to the project stakeholders. • Python is the object-oriented programming language most frequently used for generating, transferring, analysis and visualization of the BIM and Digital Twins model data. Python equally eﬃciently helps as the Revit plugin (PyRevit) or as the part of Dynamo scripts integrated in the Dynamo “Node”. What characterizes Python is that it is the favorite tool also in the Data Science, system automation, API development, etc. Also, the ﬁrst book, which was teaching programmers about the Python language was titled “Automate the boring stuﬀ”. This fact maximally simpliﬁes every further explanation what is Python used for in the domain of automated analysis and visualization of BIM data, in both BIM discipline models and a multidisciplinary BIM project environment. • Power BI is the digital tool that in the very simple manner does the analysis and visualization of data, not just in the domain of BIM and Digital Twins technologies, but also in Data Science wider contest. It has embedded
tools that very eﬃciently systematize data from various sources and environments, then put them on their own platform, which was intended for analysis and visualization of data. Power BI enables us also to more eﬃciently address all the problems from the data angle and to make decisions in an easier and safer way, but also act upon them based on the data generated in the BIM or Digital Twins model. This platform is characterized by a very simple user interface and ease of learning and analysis and visualization of data. • Machine learning is the digital tool deﬁned as the sub-discipline of artiﬁcial intelligence. It is
based on machine learning based on human experience an impersonation of human activities that repeat over time. To put it simply, machine learning is based on watching actions performed by humans while addressing the typical problems. After a certain number of repetitions, the program “overlooks humans” while learning and acquiring behavioral algorithms and takes over the execution of the same operation in the future. The above mentioned tools are the most powerful tools for analysis and visualization of data generated during the BIM project process or by developing model of the Digital Twin.
Of course, there are many other digital tools that are very useful for successful analysis and visualization of data, but, the goal of this article is not representation of all the possible tools for successful implementation of BIM project process automation. My idea is to give you the idea in what direction you should consider when trying to ﬁnd the best digital tools for analysis and visualization of data generated during BIM project process or during development of the Digital Twin model.
The Best And The Most Compact Tools For Data Analysis And Visualization In The Cloud Solutions When talking about the best and the brightest, the most compact Cloud tools for analysis and visualization of data, generated during the BIM project process or development of the Digital Twins model, we cannot go around mentioning the following Cloud solutions:
• BIM 360 is the Cloud solution that can be considered the best option at this moment for the BIM project environment. Key advantage of the BIM 360 Cloud project environment is that it provides the same project user experience to all of the stakeholders in the BIM project process during all of the phases, during the construction of the building object, and ﬁnally during the whole lifecycle of the completed building during its exploitation. Huge advantage while working in BIM 360 project interface is that it enables handover of the BIM models during all phases of the project, which gives the investor huge savings and consistency of the data throughout the project lifecycle. Diﬀerent modules give insight in the various types of data at any given moment of the BIM project process, where data is represented in the very simple, understandable manner. With additional analysis and visualization of the data it is possible to make conclusions and decisions and visualize them in the BIM 360 project environment, while making everything available to all of the stakeholders.
*REMARK: In the meantime Autodesk BIM 360 has become Autodesk BIM Collaborate Pro
• Fusion 360 is the Cloud project environment very similar to the BIM 360, but as the BIM 360 is intended for the BIM workﬂow, Fusion 360 is intended for development and design of the various products. It also, very eﬃciently, supports iterations during the design and virtual testing of the object, product or assembly. We can say that Fusion 360 is the most complete Cloud project solution during all phases of the development of products, assemblies, industrial solutions, etc.
• Conﬁgurator 360 is the Cloud solution that gives the possibility of development of any type of product based on client`s needs. Product that the potential buyers can order in the Cloud environment Conﬁgurator 360 is based on component parts and basically the potential buyer conﬁgures the product it wants to order, choosing between the oﬀered parts that the seller oﬀers on the Conﬁgurator 360 Cloud platform. This Cloud solution has a huge application in the
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furniture industry, parts and components of complicated systems and in many other industries. *REMARK: In the meantime Autodesk Conﬁgurator 360 Cloud Service is being retired at the end of May 2021. It will be further available through the Autodesk Forge API.
His Majesty – Autodesk Forge If you have carefully read the description and possibilities of the above mentioned Cloud solutions I hope that you have noticed that all three Cloud options are connected by one thing. Namely, all three Cloud project solutions are characterized by a mutual project environment for all of the stakeholders, transparency of the generated data, compatibility of diﬀerent formats integrated on one platform, access to data generated during all project phases for all participants, possibility of analysis and visualization of data in the
common project environment, etc. Does it seem to you that all three before mentioned Cloud solution are based on the same platform? If your answer is “YES!” you have guessed it right. BIM 360, Fusion 360 and Conﬁgurator 360 are all based on the Autodesk Forge technology and practically represent diﬀerent variations of Autodesk Forge intended for diﬀerent demands when considering project environment and data type that are processed during the project lifecycle. But, despite the similarities with BIM 360, Fusion 360 and Conﬁgurator 360, Autodesk Forge platform gives the possibility of making web models, where all the functionality of the BIM or Digital Twin model, on all levels, including the analysis and visualization level, remains available to all users, despite the fact that it changes the format when transforming from BIM or Digital Twin model to Autodesk Forge model. In this way, Autodesk Forge gives the top level management an option to
see all of the advantages of the BIM and Digital Twins technologies, without additional learning in an easy and simple way. Web model generated on the Autodesk Forge platform, in this way, really enables all project process stakeholders, to check any segment of the model, piece of data or current state of the project, via web model, using a desktop computer, tablet or smartphone. We can safely conclude, thanks to the Autodesk Forge platform it is possible to realize full cooperation and collaboration on all levels, between all stakeholders in the project process, in a very simple intuitive way, without huge eﬀort to learn BIM or Digital Twins technologies. Until the next time, Predrag Jovanović
A Digital Twin Of A Shopping Mall AUTHOR: Vladimir Guteša, TeamCAD Development Director
TEAMCAD ENGINEERS WORKED ON THE CREATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRST DIGITAL TWIN IN SERBIA. SHOPPING MALL „SAD NOVI BAZAAR“ IS SITUATED IN THE CENTER OF THE NOVI SAD CITY, AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PEDESTRIAN AREA AND IS CONSIDERED AS ONE OF THE TOP SHOPPING SPOTS.
THE BUILDING IS SPREAD ON 4 LEVELS AND 9.000 SQUARE METERS OF COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE.
"Sad Novi Bazaar" Shopping Mall Opened to customers in 1984 while being considered one of the architectural jewels in former Yugoslavia. Company for architectural design and engineering “ME.COM” from
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Belgrade did a reconstruction project in 2005. Responsible engineer on the project was Ms. Ksenija Bulatović, M.Arch. The reconstructed object was reopened in 2006. Today, “SAD NOVI BAZAAR” Shopping Mall is managed by Mat-real Estate, part of Matijevic company from Novi Sad.
Project Challenges Some of the standard challenges when managing this type of objects were:
• Providing energy eﬃciency of the object and lower AC costs • Having exact information about the quantity and locations of the equipment )(AC systems elements, ﬁre protection systems, electrical installations…) • Information about the warranties, service intervals, life expectancy for the above-mentioned equipment. • Real-time information about the real estate renting possibilities and vacancies for potential commercial clients. • In case that the clients adapt rented space, they need to promptly access information about the movable and immovable walls. • In case of any changes in the
building or inside the building, accordingly entering new data in the 3D model and technical documentation. The additional challenge was the fact that the original building was designed by an architect Milan Mihelič in the now distant 1972, so there was no existing digital documentation present.
Solution For The Problem As TeamCAD and Matijević companies are successfully cooperating for years, and event Novi Sad branch oﬃce of TeamCAD is situated in the
business part of the “SAD NOVI BAZAAR” Shopping mall, we have decided to continue our partnership on this project as well. We have created the ﬁrst phase of the building`s Digital Twin model and used several other newest technologies, which enable the user to view and move throughout the Digital Twin object, using just an internet browser. There is no need whatsoever to install any type of 3D software. If you would like to take a walk through the Digital Twin model of the “SAD NOVI BAZAAR” Shopping mall please click here.
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BIM Real Estate App For Simpliﬁed Sales & Rentals AUTHOR: Vladimir Guteša, TeamCAD Development Director
WHEN LOOKING FOR A NEW PROPERTY, WHETHER YOU ARE BUYING OR RENTING IT, DO YOU NEED MORE INFORMATION THAN WHAT IS OFFERED AS STANDARD? DO YOU WANT TO KNOW WHICH APARTMENTS ARE AVAILABLE? OR DO YOU NEED INFORMATION ABOUT ROOM AREAS? DO YOU WANT TO MEASURE THE DIMENSIONS OF A
CERTAIN ROOM OR ELEMENTS IN THE ROOM? OR YOU JUST WANT TO WALK AROUND THE APARTMENT LIKE IN THE FIRST-PERSON VIDEO GAMES? HAVE YOU, AS A PROPERTY OWNER, THOUGHT ABOUT HOW MUCH TIME YOU WOULD SAVE IF THE POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS COULD FIND ALL NEEDED INFORMATION IN ONE PLACE?
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Purchasing and renting real estate has become simple As a response to all these, and many other questions, TeamCAD has developed The BIM Real Estate (BRE). BRE is a web app that contains BIM 3D model made in Autodesk Revit. Because it is a web app, anyone who has internet connection and internet browser, could access the 3D model and ﬁnd out the information he wants.
No Need For Specialised Software There is no need for any specialised software solution, or high performance hardware, if you know how to use an internet browser. The ﬁrst implemented building in The BIM Real Estate app is residential building in Đevđelijska Street in Belgrade. The investor of the building is GP Zlatibor-Gradnja a.d., and the architect is Ivana Milinković. The BIM Real Estate app enables the customer to experience the property in 3D surrounding, in ﬁrst or third-person point of view and to get certain information about it.
Real-life Application Some of the most important advantages of The BIM Real
Estate app are availability of information to all interested parties and facilitated communication between them. By this we mean, for example, the case when the customer wants to know the dimension between a wall and a column, to check if he can put his wardrobe there. In some everyday, frequent scenario, he would have to call the owner, then the owner would call the designer, and then designer would check it a project documentation. With the BIM Real Estate app the customer has the possibility to check it on his own. We have developed and added new features as a result of the market research we have conducted and constant dialogue with the clients.
The following functionalities will be very useful to the investors and owners from the sales management perspective, as well as to the app users in the area of improving their browsing experience.
The Panoramic View (360 Photography) The BIM Real Estate App’s focus is on data availability, at the partial expense of view quality in order to obtain the best model loading speed. As we wanted to make the best possible experience for the clients, we have implemented a panoramic view in the app. With a click of a button, the client can activate the apartment’s render or 360 photography in the panoramic view. If you would like to test this new feature head to the BRE App.
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Once it loads, click on the “Show levels” button and choose one of the ﬂoors. This mode can be activated by clicking on the “Panoramic View” button (tool represented by the eye icon in the main 3D view window). Rooms that contain the panoramic view will be shaded. By clicking on one of the rooms you are opening the panoramic view, whereby holding click and
moving your mouse you can view the area in 360 degrees.
Statistics for Sales or Rental Management The second new feature in the BIM Real Estate App was made for the investors or owners of the property. From the app administrator or selling/renting manager’s point of view, we have added a part with the statistics of available or
unavailable properties, and with simple property status management. It is a special part of the app, available only to users who have access to the app’s backend for managing the app. From the “Info” tab, the investor or owner of the property can see the stats on (un)available properties for each level or the whole building. Because of this feature, there is no need for the implementation of additional software solutions for statistics. From the “Status” tab, the investor or owner of the property can change the status of the property from “available” to “unavailable” or vice versa, simply by choosing a certain button. The properties are grouped by status, which increases the clarity of the view.
The Most Popular Units Stats W e have implemented another set of statistics, which represent the most popular apartments and ﬂoors in the building. The building owner can see the most wanted apartments or ﬂoors, based on users’ choices, which could in the end aﬀect the apartment’s price.
The App Features • Real Estate 3D detailed view of the whole building or some speciﬁc parts • Panoramic view of the room render or photography • First or third person view • Control the data presented • Change the rental/sales status via your personalized back end app • All the stats of the property rental/sale status are already available to you • Use your own BIM 3D model or let us help you build it • All parts of the 3D BIM model are measurable, let your clients or other stakeholders plan the interior on their own • Based on Autodesk Revit BIM models
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