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INDEX 1. Location, regions, provinces, borders‌ 2. History. 3. Capital city. 4. Famous people. 5. Festivals. 6. Typical meals. 7. Monuments. 8. Flags.

This is the magazine of the third term of eTwinning Project “Communic-ACTION!�. In the elaboration of this magazine, Spanish Project partners have investigated about Turkey, and Turkish Project partners have investigated about Spain. All the work, both investigating and elaborating the information have been done by students from both schools. They have established collaborative activities in order to create this magazine. We all hope that you enjoy reading it!



GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN • Borders: Portugal, Gibraltar, Morocco, France, Andorra, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea • Total Size: 504,782 square km • Size Comparison: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon • Geographical Coordinates: 40 00 N, 4 00 W • World Region or Continent: Europe • General Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north • Geographical Low Point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m • Geographical High Point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m



The ancestors of today’s Spaniards included Stone Age hunters from Africa; Greeks, Romans, Visigoths and other European peoples; Berber tribes from Morocco; and Phoenicians, Jews and Arabs from the Middle East. The ancestors of a good half of the people living in the Americas today – and others dotted across the rest of the globe – were Spaniards. The key to this great ebb and flow of peoples, cultures and empires is Spain’s location: on both the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean; in Europe yet just a stone’s throw from Africa. This pivotal position has entangled Spain in the affairs of half the world – and the affairs of half the world in Spain’s.


• The climate of Spain varies across the country. Three main climatic zones can be distinguished, according to geographical situation and orographic conditions:

• The Mediterranean Climate is dry and warm/hot summers and cool to mild and wet winters. • The Oceanic Climate is located in the northern part of the country • The Semiarid Climate is located in the south eastern part of the country

CAPITAL CITY OF SPAIN • Madrid is the capital city of Spain. • Madrid is the third-largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin and it is metropolitan area is the third-largest in the European Union after London and Paris.


• Madrid is a cosmopolitan city that combines the most modern infrastructures and the status as an economic, financial, administrative and service centre, with a large cultural and artistic heritage, a legacy of centuries of exciting history. • Population: 3.166 million (2016)

SpanÄąsh Famous People

FAMOUS SPORTERS Spain has famous and talented sporters like Rafa NADAL at tennis and Gemma MENGUAL at swimming..

Rafael NADAL PARERA 14 Grand Slam singles titles. His nickname is Rafa. He began playing tennis when he was a child. He is a Spanish professional tennis player who has won 4 with his uncle. He won many tennis tournaments and be a fenomen in the world. He is married.

Gemma MENGUAL Gemma MENGUAL is a Spanish synchronised swimmer. She has competed at the 2000, 2004 and 2008 Summer Olympics. She was born on 12th of April in1977 Barcelona Spain. She is married and has two children.

CINEMA ARTISTS • Spain has famous and talented cinema artists who has known all around the world, as Antonio BANDERAS and Penelope CRUZ.

Antonio BANDERAS • José Antonio Domínguez Banderas was born on 10th August in1960 Malaga, Andalusia, Spain. Antonio Banderas, is known as a professional Spanish actor, director, singer, and producer. • His father was a policeman. He graduated School of Dramatic Art, Malaga, Spain • He performed as Zorro and was the voice of Puss in Boots in the Shrek franchise. • His awards are; Emmy Award and a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in 2003.

Penelope CRUZ • Penelope Cruz is a talented Spanish and Hollywood actress. • She was born on the 28th April 1974 in Alcobendas, Madrid Spain. She won the Empire Award for Best Actress for her role in Volver in 2006. • She has a child, named Leo Encinas Cruz •

• Also Miguel de CERVANTES and Gloria FUERTES are some of the famous writers in Spain. Especially «DON QUİXOTE» is the most famous novel.


• He was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded in the world. • He was born in Alcala de Henares, Spain on 29th of September in1547 and died on 23 the of April in 1616. • In year of 1585 he wrote his first novel «La Galatea » a romance novel.

Gloria Fuertes • Gloria Fuertes was born in 1918 in Sevilla, Madrid, Spain, where she lived most of her life. She worked at various office jobs and as a librarian to support her writing. • She was a Spanish poet and author of children’s literature Languages. From 1955 to 1960 she studied library science and English at the International Institute. In 1961 she won the Fulbright Scholarship in the USA.

Enrique IglesÄąas and Concha BUIKA are the famous pop singers of Spain. BuÄąka sings her songs as flamenco, soul and the mix of jazz.

• He is one of the most famous and known pop singers all of the world. • He met with the music when he was a child because his father Julio Iglesıas is the most known pop singer all of the word. Both of Enrique and Julio Iglesıas are very successful about music. • Enrique Miguel Iglesias Preysler known professionally as Enrique Iglesias, is a Spanish Singer. • He was born on 8th of May in 1975 Madrid, Spain. • His albumes are : 1997-VIVIR, 1998-COSAS DEL AMOR,1999-ENRIQUE, 2001-ESCAPE, 2002-QUIZAS, 2003-SEVEN (7), 2007INSOMNIAC…

• She was born on 11th of May, in 1972 Palma de Mallorca' Spain • Concha Buika's voice filled with emotion • Vivir Sin Miedo, was released the first album of her • This was her first album and she sang in English, Spanish and a mix of the two languages.


Spain is a fun place to live and a big part of that comes from it’s amazing fiestas and festivals throughout the year. Most of these events come from religious holidays but don’t be fooled, that doesn’t stop the party!

FESTIVALS IN SPAIN • Make room in your calendar for these fun and unique festivals around Spain to make your trip even more memorable! Some of them are: • December: Nochevieja Universitaria (Salamanca) ... • January: Tamborrada (San Sebastian) ... • March: Las Fallas (Valencia) ... • 40 Days Before Easter: Carnival (Cadiz) ... • April: Feria de Abril (Sevilla) • July: San Fermin & The Running of the Bulls (Pamplona) • August:Tomatina (tomato festival)

December: Nochevieja Universitaria (Salamanca)

• A creative invention by the University in Salamanca, University New Years Eve was created for the students of Salamanca to celebrate the New Year with their fellow students before heading home to see their families. It has now become a massive festival that is celebrated by everyone from locals to tourists.

January: Tamborrada

(San Sebastian)

• This very loud festival is a wonder in the northern Basque region of Spain. People fill the streets from far and wide as they drink, dance and watch performances by many of the drumming bands from Spain. From sunrise to sunset you will hear the loud booming of the drums as bands represent their regions.

March: Las Fallas (Valencia)

• Some call Fallas the largest celebration in the world, with parades, mass gatherings, fireworks ceremonial burnings and large amounts of drinking and dancing in the streets. If you can only visit 1 major fiesta while in Spain, Fallas is tied with Carnival as the one to experience.

April: Feria de Abril (Sevilla)

• As spring begins to emerge in the south of Spain, the people of Sevilla begin preparing for the famous Feria de Abril. The city centre dresses up to entertain some of the most traditional Spanish activities – flamenco, salsa, food, wine and merrymaking! Over 1 million people travel from far and wide to attend the feria, and maybe you will be among them next year!

July: San Fermin & The Running of the Bulls (Pamplona)

Probably the most well known Festival in Spain, The Running of the Bulls is a token of Spanish culture. The festival commemorates the be-heading of the Saint Fermin who died a Martyr. Famously, at 8:00 am a people risk their lives to run the streets with 7 large bulls with the goal of touching as many as possible, while the days close with bull fights.

August:Tomatina (tomato festival)

• Tomatina is funny festival in Spain . Everybody • People throw tomatoes to each other . The streets and the people get red. People from all over the world travel to throw tomatoes at each other and have their clothes stained in the juice for memories.

New Year Celebrations

• In Spain, 31 December is a very special celebration, where the fun and partying go on well into the early hours. If you want to get the year off to a good start, then come and celebrate New Year’s Eve in Spain. You will have a great time eating the traditional “lucky grapes’’.


• Most families eat their main Christmas meal on Christmas Eve before the service. The traditional Spanish Christmas dinner is 'Pavo Trufado de Navidad. People in Spain go to Midnight Mass or 'La Misa Del Gallo' (The Mass of the Rooster). It is called this because a rooster is supposed to have crowed the night that Jesus was born.


• Locally known as Semana Santa (Holy Week), Easter is the most important celebration in Spain, and stands out for its epic brotherhoods’ processions and unique, ageold traditions specific to each region.

SPAIN’S TYPICAL MEALS Paella Paella is currently an internationally-known rice dish from Spain.Today paella is made in every region of Spain, using just about any kind of ingredient that goes well with rice. There are as many versions of paella as there are cooks. It may contain chicken, pork, shellfish, fish, squid, beans, peas, artichokes or peppers.

Potatoes Omelette A beloved Spanish classic,potato omelette, is a soul satisfying tapa. The comforting flavor of this classic Spanish dish is popular across the country and is served at almost every restaurant and cafĂŠ. Made from potatoes, eggs and onions.

Fabada Fabada Asturiana is a slow cooked white bean and pork stew that is served all over Spain. Because it’s such a hearty dish, it’s usually served during the winter months. The stew is filled with large Asturian white beans called Fabes de la Granja and it also typically includes pork shoulder or bacon, black pudding, chorizo and saffron.

Migas Migas -fried breadcrumbs- are a popular supper or snack at any time of the day, usually served with a fried red chorizo sausage, or with fried eggs with paprika and a little vinegar dribbled over them. This version includes some extras and can be used to stuff a chicken for roasting. Good bread and plenty of fat will produce greaseless migas.

Rice Pudding Rice pudding is one of the most traditional and popular Spanish desserts.It is rice with milk, but it's actually a thick rice pudding that everyone makes a slightly different way. Most recipes call for lemon peel and cinnamon sticks, and others add alcohol, additional spices, orange peel and even a layer of caramelized sugar on top.

Historical Monuments In Spain Alhambra De Granada MezquĹta de Cordoba Malaga’s Citadel Las Ventas Bullring Madrid


• The Alhambra takes its name from the Arabic language. It means the Red Castle. The first palace on the site was built by Samuel Ha-Nagid, In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Nasrid emirs turned the area into a fortress-palace complex, adjoined by a village of which only ruins remain. After the Reconquista (Christian reconquest), the Alhambra’s mosque was replaced with a church, and the Convento de San Francisco (now the Parador de Granada) was built. Carlos I , had a wing of the palaces destroyed to make space for his huge Renaissance work, the Palacio de Carlos V. During the Napoleonic occupation, the Alhambra was used as a barracks and nearly blown up. What you see today has been heavily but respectfully restored.


Originally built by Abd ar-Rahman III in 951 as the Mezquita's minaret, it was encased in a strengthened outer shell, and heightened, by the Christians in the 16th and 17th centuries. You can still see caliphal vaults and arches inside.


This fortress palace, whose name in Arabic means citadel, is one of the city's historical monuments and is much visited because of its history and beauty. According to Arab historians, it was built between 1057 and 1063 at the instructions of Badis, King of the Berber Taifa of Granada. Transported material was used in its construction and columns, capitals and other materials were taken from the nearby Roman Theatre.

Las Ventas Bullring, MADRID

Plaza de Toros de Las Ventas is a famous bullring located in Madrid, Spain. Situated in the Guindalera quarter of the district of Salamanca. Based on a project by JosĂŠ Espelius, who died during its construction, it was completed by Manuel MuĂąoz Monasterio in 1931 and opened in the same year. Las Ventas Bullring is one of the most important bullrings in the world.

SPANISH FLAG The flag of Spain consists of three horizontal stripes with red on top and bottom, yellow in the center. The coat of arms of Spain, featuring the Royal Crown, positioned left of center on the gold band.

History of the Spanish Flag The flag of Spain was adopted as the national flag of Spain on December 6, 1978. Long before the current flag's usage, Spain was divided into many kingdoms, which had their own flags or emblems that are now represented on the Spanish national flag. The color scheme was first selected by King Charles III, and the flag was first used as the naval flag of the country. Queen Isabella II made the flag official in 1843. The Second Spanish Republic replaced the flag in 1931, incorporating a purple band into the design. After the Spanish Civil War, the red and gold flag, this time featuring an eagle, became the national flag of Spain in 1936. With the Spanish Constitution in 1978, the current flag of Spain was designated the official national flag of Spain.

Turkey Turkey is a huge country. The regions of Turkie are:: Marmara Region, Àgaische Region, Mittelmeer Region, Zentral Anatolien Region, Sudost Anatolien Regiion, Ost Anatolien Region, Schwarzes Meer Region. Turkey is in northern Syria, in western Armernia, Azerbaijan, in eastern Greece and south of the Black Sea.

Located in the continent of Asia, Turkey covers 769,632 square kilometers of land and 13,930 square kilometers of water, making it the 37th largest nation in the world with a total area of 783,562 square kilometers. Turkey was founded as a distinct and original nation in 1453. The population of Turkey is 79.814.871 (2017) and the nation has a density of 104 people per square kilometer.

The currency coin of Turkey is the Turkish Lira (TRY). As well, the people of Turkey are refered to as Turkish.

Turkey shares land borders with 8 countries: Greece, Bulgaria, Syrian Arab Republic, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia.

The History of Turkey The history of Turkey, understood as the history of the region now forming the territory of the Republic of Turkey, includes the history of both Anatolia (the Asian part of Turkey) and Eastern Thrace (the European part of Turkey). The name Turkey is derived from Middle Latin Turchia, i.e. the "land of the Turks", historically referring to an entirely different territory of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, which fell under the control of Turkic peoples in the early medieval period. From the time when parts of what is now Turkey was conquered by Turks, the history of Turkey spans the medieval history of the Seljuk Empire, the medieval to modern history of the Ottoman Empire, and the history of the Republic of Turkey since the 1920s.

Turks began migrating into the area now called Turkey ("land of the Turks") in the 11th century. The process was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantine Empire at the The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt. Several small beyliks and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol Empire's invasion. Starting from the 13th century, the Ottoman beylik united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its defeat in World War I, parts of it were occupied by the victorious Allies. A cadre of young military officers, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, organized a successful resistance to the Allies; in 1923, they would establish the modern Republic of Turkey with Atatürk as its first president.

The first Grand National Assembly under the leadership of Ataturk created a new political and legal system based on the principles of parliamentary democracy, human rights, national sovereignty and division of powers, private ownership and secularism, and the separation of religion and state affairs. A new, secular education system was established, the Arabic alphabet was changed into the Latin alphabet, and new civil and criminal codes were adapted from European models. Turkish women received equal rights under the law such as the right to vote and be elected to public office, which put Turkey ahead of many Western nations in terms of women's rights. It was a revolution, unparalleled at its time and even today, to bring a predominantly Muslim nation in line with Western civilization and universal values.

History of Turkey

9000 a.C:In Turkey was invened farming 2371-2316 a.C.Sargon king created the first empire. 1184 a. C. In Turkey was produced Troya's wr. 657 a.C: Bizancio war founded (Estambul nowdays) 559-529 a.C. Ciro, the big one, was the king. He founded persian empire.

History of Turkey

330d.C. Constantino transformed critianism in to the oficial language of Bizancio. 1909:Abdou Hamid war the first constitutional sultan in Turkey. 1914 a.C. Turkey participated in the 1st World War. 1923d. C first Turkey's republic was founded.

History of Turkey

1924 d.C.Turkey became the 1st laic and muslin country. 1913 Turkey didn't parcipate in the 2nd World War. 1945 d.C:Turkey created the “United Nations¨ 1952: d.C:Turkey became a member of OTAN organisation. 1963 Turkey wanted to be a country of the European Union. 2000 Galatasarai, Turkish team, got he UEFA and supercup.

Capital city of Turkey: ANKARA The city of Ankara is situated in the center of Anatolia, on the eastern edge of the great Anatolian Plateau. The Anatolian plateau can be divided into two parts: the Inner Anatolia, a succession of plateaus with heights of the order of 1,500 meters, with numerous lakes and some isolated volcano; And Eastern Anatolia, with heights higher (about 2,500 meters) and more volcanoes, like the Ararat, of 5,165 meters. The center of the province bears the same name, which is a predominantly fertile wheat steppeland with wooded areas in its northeast region. Linda with the provinces of Cankiri and Bolu to the north, Eskisehir to the west, Konya and Aksaray to the south, and Kirikkale and Kirsehir to the east.

The history of the region dates back to the Bronze Age. The Civilization of Hatti was consolidated in II the millennium a.C. By the Hittites and later by the Phrygians (the tenth century BCE); The Lydians and Persians followed. Later, came the Galatians, a Celtic race that made Ankara its capital (3rd century BC). At this time, the city was known as Ancyra, meaning "anchor". The city subsequently fell under the Romans, Byzantines and Selcuks, under Alpaslan in 1073. Later the Ottomans came under the command of Yildirim Beyazit in 1402, who retained control of Ankara until World War I.

The city became an important center when Kemal AtatĂźrk chose it as a base for leading the Liberation War. As a result of its role in the war and its strategic position, Ankara was declared the capital of the Turkish Republic on 13 October 1923.

Famous Turkish People


Omer Onar

He is a professional basketball player and current team manager of Fenerbace of the Turkish basketball team (BSL). Standing 1.94 m and weighing 95.4 kg, he played at the Shooting guard position.


The soccer player Arda Turan plays in the Barsa Football Team, in Spain, and before that, in the Athletic of Madrid Football Team.

CINEMA Nuri Bilge Ceylan

Nuri Bilge Ceylan is an actor from Turkey. He won the Palme dÓr, the highest prize at the Cannes Film Festival, in 2014.

TĂźrkan Soray

She is beautiful Turkish screenwriter and director.



Orhan Pamuk

Orhan Pamuk is a famous writer who was born in Istanbul in 1952, and he has a big family similar to those which he describes in his novels Cevdet Bey and His Sons and The Black Book


Ĺžafak is a Turkish writer that has published 15 books, 10 of which are novels. She writes fiction in both Turkish and English.

SINGERS Tarkan TevetoÄ&#x;lu

He was born 17 October 1972). He is a Turkish pop singer. He has released several platinumselling albums during his career, with an estimated 29 million albums and singles sold.

Ajda Pekkan

AyĹ&#x;e Ajda Pekkan was born 12 February 1946 in Istanbul, Turkey. She is also known as Superstar. She is a Turkish pop singer and actress. Pekkan has released more than 20 albums and she is one of the most commercially successful female Turkish music artist with the sales of over 42 million copies worldwide. She is nicknamed the Superstar of Turkish pop music.

• NEW YEAR New Year’s Eve is one of the most popular holidays in Turkey. The New Year’s Eve traditions in this country include a family dinner, a national lottery drawing and a countdown to midnight. New Year’s Eve falls on December 31 in the Gregorian calendar. New Year’s Day in Turkey starts with fireworks after the traditional countdown at the end of the New Year’s Eve. Celebrations usually last until dawn and many people use the day off on January 1 to relax and visit friends and relatives.

RADAMĂ N FEST Ramadan Feast in Turkey

The Ramadan Feast in Turkey is a time for visiting relatives and paying one’s respect to older people. Many Turks give away sweets and desserts during the festival, and children may watch free Turkish shadow plays.

Many people wake up early on the first day of the Ramadan Feast. They put on their best clothes, called bayramlık, which they often buy specifically for the occasion, and have a large breakfast. This symbolizes the end of the fasting period, which many Muslims observe during the preceding month of Ramadan. The Ramadan Feast has an alternative name in Turkey, the Sugar Feast (Şeker Bayramı), because people treat their guests to sweets and traditional desserts during the festival. It is customary to visit one's relatives, especially older ones, and kiss their hand as a sign of respect. Children may go door-todoor, kissing hands of the grown-ups and receiving sweets and small amounts of money in return.

National Sovereignty and Children's Day Solemn ceremonies and children’s festivals take place throughout Turkey on National Sovereignty and Children’s Day, held on April 23 each year. Children take seats in the Turkish Parliament and symbolically govern the country for one day.

Many people in Turkey commemorate the first gathering of the Grand National Assembly (the Turkish Parliament), which took place on April 23, 1920, by attending local ceremonies or laying wreaths at monuments of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of the Turkish Republic. The biggest ceremony takes place at the Ataturk Mausoleum in Ankara. Because Ataturk dedicated the Turkish Republic to children, Turkish schoolchildren take seats in the Parliament for the day and symbolically govern the country..

Republic Day Many people in Turkey celebrate Republic Day on October 29 by attending performances and participating in traditional processions with flags and musical bands. The Turkish Republic’s founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk proclaimed Republic Day as Turkey’s most important holiday.

TURKISH CUISINE • It is said that three major kinds of cuisine exist in the world; Turkish, Chinese, and French. Fully justifying its reputation, Turkish Cuisine is always a pleasant surprise for everyone.

• In addition to being the refined product of centuries of experience, Turkish Cuisine has a very pure quality. The variety and simplicity of the recipes and the quality of the ingredients are guarantees of delicious meals.



Hagia Sophia Museum • It is a museum located in the city of Istanbul, Turkey. In its origins it was a cathedral and, later, the main mosque of Istanbul for 500 years. • It is also known by the name of Saint Sophia. It stands out for its dome and was the cathedral with more extension of the world during a thousand years. • Inside there is a large collection of relics of saints.

This is how children see Hagia Sophia Museum

Basilica Cistern • It is the largest cistern built under the city of Istanbul. It is just 100 meters from the Santa Sofia Museum. • They used it to provide water to the Great Palace of Constantinople and water their gardens. • It has two columns on the base of which is carved the face of Medusa, a female monster that turned to stone those who stared into her eyes. • At present it is believed that it distances from evil.


The Sultan Ahmed Mosque or Sultan Ahmet Mosque is a historic mosque located in Istambul (Turkey) The Blue Mosque, as it is popularly known, was constructed between 1609 and 1616 during the rule of Ahmed I Hand-painted blue tiles adorn the mosque’s interior walls, and at night the mosque is bathed in blue as lights frame the mosque’s five main domes, six minarets and eight secondary domes. It sits next to the Hagia Sophia, another popular tourist site.



KĹzkalesi is a castle situated on a small island in Mersin Province of Turkey According to the legend of KĹzkalesi‌ A fortune teller informs the king that his beautiful daughter will be poisoned by a snake. He adds that even the king is unable to change the fate. Shocked by fortune teller's words, the king tries to change the fate by building a castle on an island where no snakes live. He sends his daughter to live in the castle. But a snake hides in a grape basket sent from the main land and poisons the princess.



TURKISH FLAG It is a background flag with all red, accompanied by a moon (in waning quarter) and a star, the latter in white to the center. This flag is in the representation of the Ottoman Empire (multiethnic state present in the part of Asia and Europe between 1299 and 1923, that is also known like Turkish Empire) and that was adopted in 1876. Red comes from the passion and blood of peoples, as well as from the dead in different wars. While the moon is an inheritance of this empire as well as its star. This moon was previously used by the Phoenicians in the 8th century BC until Carthage (now in Tunis). The crescent and star also appears in the pre-Islamic currencies of South Arabia.

FLAG OF TURKEY Adopted: February 16, 1876 Colors: red and white

We would like to say THANKS to those people who have helped us in many different ways along the year, such as the Management Teams from CEIP Manuel Fernández and Toros College, as well as students families, another teachers from both schools and another people from different institutions.

It has been a hard work but an interesting and enjoyable Project, in which we have learnt in an innovative and


collaborative way

“Because frontiers were invented to separate countries, but they must not separate human hearts”

3rd magazine "My country, your country"  

This is the third magazine of the etwinning project "Communic-ACTION", during the school year 2016-17. It has been created by project partne...

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