SOCIAL ECONOMIC STABILITY
Increasing Completion: Developmental Students
The Pledge Thousands of capable students are going to community colleges in Kentucky and are not earning certificates or degrees. The chancellor of the Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS), Dr. Jay Box, has pledged that if the developmental faculty can come up with viable “comprehensive” alternative models to the problem of completion, he will support them with the resources needed to bring about the changes needed. The chancellor has noted that developmental student completion is the System’s first priority. Close to three quarters of first-time freshmen in KCTCS are underprepared in at least one area. For these students completion (certificates or degrees) is the door to social economic stability. Developmental student completion is a major key for correcting the social economic instability that grips the state and for changing the downward spiral of the country’s middle class. Our students and state’s fortunes are directly tied to increasing developmental student completion rates. Senate Bill 1
To increase the college completion rates of students enrolled in one (1) or more remedial classes by three percent (3%) annually from 2009 to 2014.
Note for Ourselves and Our Students In a changing world, it is our ability to unlearn that will determine our ability to survive, adapt, and move forward. -Breznitz and Hemingway
The temptation is to focus too narrowly on the pieces and the parts and fail to see the larger conceptual framework in which failure to complete is operating. The â€œbig pictureâ€? is completion. The road to completion is filled with many obstacles. The problem cannot be adequately understood from within; however, the potential for grasping overlooked gaps expands from a larger and different perspective of completion.
Introduction The Kentucky Legislature in Senate BIll 1 has legislated that postsecondary education institutions increase the college completion rates of students enrolled in one (1) or more remedial classes by three percent (3%) annually from 2009 to 2014. In the spring, Dr. Jay Box, Kentucky Community and Technical College System chancellor, asked the developmental education community to explore how they might bring this about. The first thing we discovered is that the goal of 3% completion rates annually was probably too low to dramatically ignite the kind of systemic changes that would be needed. However, soon after timely research was coming out of the woodwork supporting the goal of completion for developmental students. Complete College America was building an Alliance of States ready to take bold actions to significantly increase the number of students successfully completing college and achieving degrees and credentials with value in the labor market and close attainment gaps for traditionally underrepresented populations. For the first time ever, the profiles (completion rates) of 33 states (including Kentucky) include completion data on parttime students, full-time students, students pursuing certificates and degrees, students taking remedial courses, transfer students, students by age, minorities, etc. We now have a
much more complete picture of where we stand â€Ś and what needs to be done to ensure that all students have a fair shot at success. See Complete Kentucky Data: http://www.completecollege.org/docs/Kentucky.pdf
The discussion branch of the Kentucky Association of Developmental Education (KADE), the KADEKY listserv, set about making the new information available for discussion and making developmental education, in the process, more visible throughout the state and nation. It became clear that we had been in denial. We had been taking a very narrow view of the goal of developmental education. With the completion data in hand, we began a take a much larger view of developmental education and with it a much larger perspective from within the larger completion framework of completion. The data collected by the Alliance of States made the point our developmental students are not completing. The data also brought to light the fact that with every exit point in a sequence of developmental courses, we were losing students who were capable of succeeding. For example, a student testing two levels down in writing had five â€œexit pointsâ€? where we were losing them. Those exit points were (1) enrolling in the second level developmental course, (2) passing the second level developmental course, (3) enrolling in the first level developmental course, (4) passing the first level developmental course, (5) enrolling in the entry-level course. iii
This and additional data made it further clear that “time” was the greatest barrier to student success. Simple put, “The longer it takes, the more life gets in the way or the longer it takes, the less likely the student will complete.” Every exit point meant the lose of capable students. Community colleges across the country began to explore the idea of eliminating the exit points all together through better instruction models. The main instruction models that eliminated all exit points placed student with few skill deficiencies directly into co-requisite content and skills courses. These instructional models are referred to as accelerated learning models as they eliminate the factor of “time” and make skill instruction co-requisite rather then prerequisite to taking entrylevel courses. With four years of experience behind them, some of these accelerated instruction models are showing great promise. For example, the Accelerated Learning Project (ALP) at the Community College of Baltimore’s results are quite satisfying when focusing on students with few skill deficits. The ALP instruction doubled the success rate, cut the attrition rate in half, did it in half the time, and at slightly less cost per successful student. A number of completion agenda supporters began to take a closer look at how the concept might be expanded to students who had more skills deficiencies. A pattern began to arise in various forms, but essentially they looked like:
• For students with few academic deficiencies, place them into redesigned first-year, full- credit courses with corequisite built-in support, just-in-time tutoring, self-paced computer labs with required attendance, and the like. The length of these courses should mirror the ordinary gateway courses so students stay on track for on-time graduation. • For students needing more help, lengthen redesigned fullcredit courses and consider providing built-in, co-requisite support for two semesters instead of one. Students get the same content but more time on task. • For students with the most significant academic needs, provide alternate pathways to high-quality career certificates by embedding remediation and adult basic skills development into their instruction. Successful programs such as I-Best at Washington State and Accelerated Kentucky Opportunity. (Complete College America)
The KCTCS placement policy placement workgroup had also opened the door for developmental instruction programs within their colleges to explore instructional redesign based on support of entry level classes. Research at the Community College Research Center began to illuminate the fact that entering an academic or vocational program is strongly correlated with degree completion. Research found that having clear goals, and being in programs with well-defined pathways increased persistence, completion or transfer. This brought about the following recommendations: • A logical first step is to commit to a program of study. iv
• No longer allow students to be considered “unclassified.” • Nudge them into first-year pathways — for example, health, business, liberal arts, or STEM.
Guide all students to choose among a limited number of firstyear pathways. For example, health, business, liberal arts, or STEM as soon as possible. Placing developmental students into programs as soon as possible, even “default” programs has implications for assessment, advising. (students having an academic plan) and coaching for ensuring that developmental students not only have a plan but contacts and help as they move along the plan to completion. Students indicated in Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE) reports that they wanted a “plan and milestone support along the way essentially to compete with all of the other issues and obligations in their oftencomplicated lives, giving them reasons to return to class the next week and the next semester.” - (McClenney) This and other findings spurred the need to consider that developmental education needed a model for the support of developmental students from application to graduation.
Workgroup discussions at the forum brought to the foreground the need to couch reform from within the larger framework of completion. By focusing on instruction only, the results may unnecessarily create the same kind of barriers (such as time) that sequences of developmental course unknowingly introduced. The future holds great promise for increasing our developmental students’ chances of completion.
September the 14, 2012, Dr. Jay Box invited all developmental educators to a developmental education forum at the System office to begin looking at what’s working and to begin the process of collecting information and data for developing comprehensive viable models that the System could support through out the state. This process will continue at each System institution and collectively until completion. v
Table of Contents Chapter 1 the Challenge • Section 1 Programs of Study • Section 2 The Plan and Milestone Contacts Chapter 2 Placement • Section 1 Placement Chapter 3 Time • Section 1 How are We Doing? • Section 2 Their Lives are Complex • Section 3 Models that Build in TIme • Section 4 Accelerated Models Transcend TIme and Exit Points Chapter 4 And Then There is Math • Section 1 Math: The Wrong Goal • Chapter 5 Gateway Course Support • Section 1 Support Can Not Stop Chapter 6 Skills Students Actually Need • Section 1 Flexibility Chapter 7 Providing Support for Faculty and Staff Needs • Section 1 Professional Development Chapter 8 Resources • Section 1 Quick Getting Up to Speed • Section 2 Literature and Research on Developmental Student Completion
C HAPTER 1
The Challenge At present developmental students face three levels of completion challenges. First, most developmental students have to complete a sequence of developmental courses, then they have to complete the entry-level courses in the developmental areas to which assessment testing has referred them, and lastly, they have to complete with a certificate(s) or degree. The research findings are clear. Of these three completion levels, completing sequences of developmental courses create the greatest barrier to completion. Efforts intended to catch students up are most often leaving them behind. The research is also clear; there are alternatives to the major barrier (time) for completing sequences of developmental courses. The most successful instructional models for removing this barrier are contextualized and co-requisite instruction.
S ECTION 1
Programs of Study
The Dominos of Completion Completion does not stand in a vacuum. Completion is about completing programs of study. One of the dominos of completion that is woefully under developed in Kentucky’s community and technical colleges are institutional structures for helping students commit early to a program of study. Too many students wonder aimless in our halls and classes. They come to us to get an education and for them that education is about getting a job. We continue to believe or at least act like that they will find themselves in our institutions through exploration. That today is a recipe for early exiting. “There is a new American majority on campus. Seventy-five percent of today’s students are juggling some combination of families, jobs, and school while commuting to class; according to the U.S. Department of Education. Colleges need to recognize that time is the enemy. With today’s student population,
more time and more choices often add up to less success. Being able to engage in an extended period of self-discovery or sample multiple courses out of catalogues the size of phone books might work for students who have the luxury of unlimited time and money. But this approach doesn’t work for the nearly 50 percent of students who work more than 20 hours a week or for the 25 percent of community college students who work more than 35 hours a week.” (Time is the Enemy, 2011) In Remediation: The Bridge to Nowhere, is the message for the need of committing to programs of study as a motivator for moving toward completion are clearly stated. “Most students come to our college campuses to gain the knowledge and skills necessary to ensure a good job and a better life. A logical first step is to commit to a program of study. Remarkably, many students never do — and broken remediation programs are often to blame. Committing to a program of study is much more than simply declaring a major. Anybody can declare a major, but completing the initial courses necessary to legitimately be on track in a program of study is a completely different matter. And it’s in these fragile, early stages of college when remediation programs do the most damage. Researchers at the Community College Research Center at Columbia University have found that students who complete at least three required “gateway” courses in a program of study within a year of enrollment are twice as likely to earn certificates or degrees. 8
Remediation programs, designed as prerequisite hurdles that must be jumped before getting to college-level classes, slow students’ progress into programs of study. Studies prove that being trapped in endless remediation sequences or being unable to pass associated gateway courses in math and English are the primary reasons students do not enter programs of study during their first year. And the longer it takes for students to commit to programs of study, the less likely they ever will. Worse, traditional remediation often seems irrelevant and disconnected from future ambitions, robbing students of precious time, money, and motivation. What’s the result? Many students veer off course onto another dropout exit ramp. Get students to commit to programs of study ASAP. Using placement scores, high school transcripts, and predictive tools to determine student aptitude, guide all students to choose among a limited number of first-year pathways — for example, health, business, liberal arts, or STEM — as soon as possible. Students should make the big choices of programs of study informed with an understanding of program requirements and available supports to achieve their career goals. Once they do, place them into structured program pathways constructed of relevant, sequenced courses chosen for them. establish “default” programs for students not ready to commit. No longer allow students to be considered “unclassified.” Upon enrollment, nudge them into first-year pathways — for example, health, business, liberal arts, or STEM. This ensures a coherent pathway from the beginning, with core college-
level credits that will count toward certificates and degrees. By doing so, students avoid excessive course-taking while wandering the curriculum, shortening the time it takes to graduate.” (Remediation, the Bridge to Nowwhere, 2011) The evidence continues to grow that committing to a program of study directly impacts completion rates. “Entering an academic or vocational program is strongly correlated with degree completion” (Community College Research Center). “Having clear goals, and being in programs with well-defined pathways, increased persistence, completion and transfer. We must provide institutional structures with more timely and deeply developed support for helping developmental students commit to programs of study. Programs of study are what make an education relevant and relevancy is the key motivator. Logical First Steps Complete College America recommends these first logical steps: • A logical first step is to commit to a program of study. • No longer allow students to be considered “unclassified.” • Nudge them into first-year pathways — for example, health, business, liberal arts, or STEM.
S ECTION 2
A Plan and Milestone Contacts Students say it clearly. They want clear plans and they want solid connections with reliable contacts that help guide them as they move through the milestones on the pathways of those plans that too often become exit points on the road to completion.
Students Want Connection and Direction What have we learned through the Community College Survey of Student Engagement? “It comes as a surprise to a lot of community college people that students consistently report that the service of most importance to them is academic planning and advising. When we have followed up, conducting focus groups with students, we have asked them to talk about why they place this level of importance on advising and academic planning. Typically, the first thing they say is that it’s not about someone just helping them to fill out their class schedule. Rather, it’s about creating a plan - defining a pathway, with milestones along the way, that shows them the route from where they are to a different place they want to be. Students have further explained that that plan and those milestones essentially then compete with all of the other issues and obligations in their often-complicated lives, giving them reasons to return to class the next week and the next semester.” -
Pathways to Student Success Keynote Address CCTI Summit, Kay McClenney, March 2006
Recommendation Advising, Education and Career Planning Has to Become Deeper and More Intrusive Colleges need to initiate supportive action by reaching out to students and bring or deliver the “advising and coaching” programs to students (rather than passively waiting and hoping that students will take advantage of it), thus increasing the likelihood that the program of support reaches all (or the vast majority of) students who would profit from it.” (Joe Cuseo) That means that there is a plan for ensuring that every developmental student has a program of study plan (even if it is a “default” plan). It also means that they have an assigned advisor or academic coaches that meet with and are responsible for ensuring that at every milestone defining the pathway to completion is available intrusively.
Recommendation • Developmental students need a higher ratio of assigned professional advisors and/or academic coaches.
“Effective retention programs have to come to understand that academic advising is the very core of successful institutional efforts to educate and retain students.” (Nutt) 10
C HAPTER 2
Placement The Criminal Enterprise Overhaul the current placement system. Current placement tests are not predictive. http://www.completecollege.org/docs/Time_Is_the_Enemy. pdf
There are high â€œsevereâ€? error rates using the placement test cutoffs. The severe error rate for English is 27 to 33 percent; i.e., three out of every ten students is severely misassigned. For math, the severe error rates are lower but still nontrivial. Using (additional tests) instead of placement tests or for example, using high school GPAs reduces the severe error rates by half across both English and math. http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/Publication.asp?UID=1030
S ECTION 1
Placement Do We Know What We Are Doing? “Since developmental education in community colleges has high costs and low success rates, it is worth asking whether academically underprepared students who place into and take developmental courses would have had better outcomes had they started directly in college-level courses. The answer varies considerably depending on the subject (mathematics, reading, or writing), how researchers control for prior academic preparation and other factors potentially correlated with both placement into developmental education and subsequent academic success, and how far below college level the developmental students place. Among Achieving the Dream students referred to developmental education, 72 percent of students who disregarded the referral to developmental education and went straight into a college-level course passed that course, while only 27 percent of those starting in a developmental course eventually passed the college-level course (Bailey et al., 2010, p. 261). This considerably higher success rate for students who skip developmental courses may reflect shortcomings in the developmental education placement process, or it may simply mean that these students believe they are more academically prepared than college advisors and academic policymakers recognize.” (The Completion Arch: Measuring
Community College Student Success: What the Research Tells Us: Developmental Education Placement) http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/advocacy/arch/Th e-Completion-Arch-Development-Education-Placement-What-Researc h-Tells-Us.pdf
Recommendation Research Suggestions
• Efforts such as Koyote in math • Diagnostic Tests • In-house tests • High School GPA The Future Diagnostic Tests: Assessments should be diagnostic, and should connect to colleges’ resources and programs. – Robert McCabe Placement in the future will most likely be diagnostic -identifying the cognitive skill deficits of the developmental student, but more important, those cognitive skill limitations will inform instruction and be in alignment with the skills needed in programs of instruction. Note: This will require that the cognitive skills needed in gateway courses in programs of study be identified to allow for more depth of instruction. Presently there is a shallow shotgun approach to remediation- too much needless breath and too little depth of learning. 12
C HAPTER 3
Time The single greatest barrier to developmental student completion is time. If the time problem is not solved the dominos of completion cascade one after the other. The concept that time is the single greatest barrier to developmental student success is not obvious nor is it easily incorporated into our thinking. Time permits too many exit points from which we lose capable students. The logic is that we cannot put developmental students in gateway courses for which they come unprepared. However, the logic is being defied by a number of contextualized and co-requisite models.
S ECTION 1
Students’ Lives are Complex
How are We Doing?
Part-time students rarely graduate even when given twice the time. 2-year associate within 3 years • Part-time: 2.2% and did I mention that full-time developmental students rarely graduate? • Full-time: 8.5%
How are We Doing? Kentucky Two-Year Colleges • 94.5% will not graduate within 3 years • 5.5% graduate within 3 years
These are just averages, how are the those student s three or more levels below college level doing? • 1 out of 5 or fewer referred to a sequence three or more levels below college level actually complete it. How are we doing as a whole? • Something has to change dramatically.
Developmental students do not complete their sequences of developmental courses. Why? • The longer it takes, the more life gets in the way. • The longer it takes, the less likely the student will complete.
Let’s Start with the Single Greatest Barrier to Student Completion - TIME
• 4 out of 10 students complete the entire sequence; however,
Developmental education promotes the cognitive and affective growth of all post secondary learners, at ALL LEVELS of the LEARNING CONTINUUM.
• Two thirds of students who fail to complete the sequence do so even while having passed all of the developmental courses in which they enrolled.
• Are we promoting cognitive and affective growth of all postsecondary learners, at all levels of the learning continuum?
Maybe they are capable of completing the sequences?
â€˘ Have we lost sight of the goal under placement policy?
All students are underprepared at some point on the learning continuum and need support.
S ECTION 2
Their Lives are Complex
The result is a yawning skills gap caused by too few trained workers for more high-skill jobs than ever. Incomes shrink. And America falls further behind.” (Time is the Enemy)
We Failed to Factor in “Time” in Our Developmental Programs “Colleges need to recognize that time is the enemy.
Who are Our Students? “More students are working, and they are working more hours than ever before. Many can afford to attend only part-time, extending the years until they graduate. (Part-time students graduate at the rate of 2.2 percent in 2-year degrees in three years.) More come to our campuses underprepared for college — and then get trapped in broken remedial approaches that don’t help, as time keeps slipping away. More are overwhelmed by too many choices and too little structure, causing aimless wandering and wasted semesters and years. All of this adds up to more and more time. As the clock runs and the calendar turns, we all know what happens: Students’ lives fill up with jobs, relationships, marriages, children, and mortgages; the list goes on and on. Not surprisingly, college often gets left behind: a few years of courses, no degree, and a lot of debt.
With today’s student population, more time and more choices often add up to less success. Being able to engage in an extended period of self-discovery or sample multiple courses out of catalogues the size of phone books might work for students who have the luxury of unlimited time and money. But this approach doesn’t work for the nearly 50 percent of students who work more than 20 hours a week or for the 25 percent of community college students who work more than 35 hours a week.” (Time is the Enemy) Our Assumptions We Flawed We assumed that students could not succeed in entry-level courses. We knew that the students were underprepared, yet we did not consider in our planning that students could succeed in gateway courses in programs of study if they were given support and placed programs of study reflecting their level of deficiency. Our new placement policy provides for letting students who are underprepared take gateway courses in programs of study if they get support.
S ECTION 3
Models that Build In Time Not Being Naive It is clearly understood that some students are not likely to succeed by being placed into career and academic programs without more depth than just additional support. Our new placement policy provides for letting students who are underprepared take gateway courses in programs of study if those programs are tied to support. However, that is not enough for the goals we would put before us. Placement, Levels, and Support A number of very interesting and successful models have emerged and in one way or another they fit within the following recommendations: Consider three levels of co-requisite models (extra academic help is co-requisite, not prerequisite) and the levels. â€˘ For students with few academic deficiencies, place them into redesigned first-year, full- credit courses with co-requisite built-in support, just-in-time tutoring, self-paced computer labs with required attendance, and the like. The length of these courses
should mirror the ordinary gateway courses so students stay on track for on-time graduation. â€˘ For students needing more help, lengthen redesigned full-credit courses and consider providing built-in, co-requisite support for two semesters instead of one. Students get the same content but more time on task. â€˘ For students with the most significant academic needs, provide alternate pathways to high-quality career certificates by embedding remediation and adult basic skills development into their instruction. Look at Your Model and Check for TIme There are other models available, but those that include the goal of completion (certificates and degrees) have factored in eliminating the barrier of time. Note: There are many successful paths to increased retention and persistence built on tweaking sequences of developmental courses, but for most of our students time will catch them. Again, 5.5% graduate within 3 years and only a few percentages if we add a couple of more years. Tweaking will not be enough; it is going to require systemic change.
What are the Acceleration Models? Models for Accelerating Students’ Progress Through Developmental Education “Several models exist for accelerating students’ progress through developmental education. With a focus on providing instruction in a shorter time frame, some colleges have developed fast- track courses that compress the developmental education curriculum into several weeks or a half semester, allowing students to pass through multiple levels in a single semester. Alternately, other models focus on offering self-paced instruction through modularized courses. This approach creates multiple mini-courses that focus on particular skill sets rather than offering the whole curriculum in one continuous course; it allows students to strengthen particular weaknesses that they may have in a subject area while bypassing instruction in their areas of strength. A third model relies on the assumption that students who are deemed developmental-level are capable of the work in college-level courses, given extra assistance or a different curricular approach. This approach of mainstreaming students directly into college-level courses offers supplemental supports, such as tutoring or study skills courses, for the group of students who have greater academic needs. Each of these acceleration models and its accompanying research evidence is discussed below. Programs that show the greatest benefits with relatively rigorous documentation either mainstream developmental students into college-level courses with additional supports, pro-
vide modularized or compressed courses to allow remedial students to more quickly complete their developmental work, or offer contextualized remedial education within occupational and vocational programs. These strategies should be prioritized by educators and policymakers and should continue to receive attention from researchers, as none of them have yet been evaluated using an experimental design.” (Unlocking the Gate, 2011) http://www.mdrc.org/publications/601/full.pdf
Technology-Aided Approaches to Instruction “Computer-aided instruction poses a number of new avenues for developmental education instruction. Many colleges have integrated technology into developmental courses that have traditional content and curriculum. Computer programs like MyMathLab, Plato, ALEKS, and Math Zone are used to supplement classroom instruction by means of learning assistance centers or individualized tutoring sessions. Similarly, many colleges are using technology to provide online courses, where all learning takes place remotely, via software. More recently, practitioners have used technology to structure accelerated or modularized courses, which aim to help students progress more quickly through developmental education. In these reforms, software tutorial packages are used to help students focus on particular areas of weakness while allowing them to advance more quickly through other areas of strength. Technological packages have an additional advantage in that they are generally adaptive to diverse circumstances or can be preset 18
to create an individualized program of instruction for each student. While some efforts have been made to evaluate the use of technology in the classroom, little rigorous research exists documenting the effectiveness of these practices in improving developmental education studentsâ€™ outcomes.â€? (Unlocking the Gate, 2011) http://www.mdrc.org/publications/601/full.pdf
S ECTION 4
ACCELERATED MODELS Accelerated Models that Consider Time and Exit Points: Optimizing Completion Potential and Leaving Room for Aligning Skills with Programs of Study For optimization, skill levels need to be taken into account. Suggested levels are: • For students with few academic deficiencies, place them into redesigned first-year, full- credit courses with co-requisite builtin support, just-in-time tutoring, self-paced computer labs with required attendance, and the like. The length of these courses should mirror the ordinary gateway courses so students stay on track for on-time graduation.
Potential Co-Requisite Support Model for Students with Few Academic Deficiencies and for Students Needing More Help 1.
Note: the difference between instruction for these two groups is the length of time. Common refrain: We can not ask students to take a content course with support over two semesters, even if they need more help. Response: With our present model, only 5.5 percent will graduate in three years. Mainstream developmental students into collegelevel courses with additional support
Accelerated Learning Project at the Community College of Baltimore Based on four semesters of data and 227 students, compared to traditional developmental writing:
• For students needing more help, lengthen redesigned full-credit courses and consider providing built-in, co-requisite support for two semesters instead of one. Students get the same content but more time on task.
• ALP doubles the success rate.
• For students with the most significant academic needs, provide alternate pathways to high-quality career certificates by embedding remediation and adult basic skills development into their instruction. Successful programs such as I-Best at Washington State and Accelerated Kentucky Opportunity. (Complete College America)
• at slightly less cost per successful student
• cuts the attrition in half • does it in half the ALP time
Prior to ALP, 59 percent of students in the developmental English class passed the course, and only 37 percent moved on to English 101. Since ALP started, 81 percent pass the developmental class, and, because of simultaneous enrollment, there is no attrition rate between developmental English and English 101.
82% of ALP students passed ENGL 101 within one year, compared with 69% of non-ALP ENGL 052 students. More than a third (34%) of ALP students passed ENGL 102, compared with only 12% of the non-ALP ENGL 052 students. Compared to traditional remediation, ALP was significantly more cost-effective in helping students pass English requirements for an associate degree.
How Does It Work? Students placed into the college’s upper-level developmental writing course (ENGL 052) are permitted to register for specially designated sections of ENGL 101. These sections have eight seats reserved for ALP students, with the other 12 seats open to students who place directly into ENGL 101. The eight ALP students also register for a section of an ALP companion course, which meets in the class period immediately following the ENGL 101 section in another room. The same instructor teaches both ENGL 101 and the ALP companion course. The purpose of the ALP course is to answer students’ questions, practice writing short papers, work on grammar and punctuation, or engage in any other activities needed to maximize ALP students’ likelihood of success in the ENGL 101 course. If students pass both courses, they take the next course in the writing sequence, ENGL 102. If they pass the companion course but not ENGL 101, they must take 101 again. If they fail both courses, they must either take the 101/ALP combination again or take the traditional ENGL 052
developmental writing course. The ALP approach is potentially important for accelerating the progress of CCBC students referred to developmental instruction in English because in the past, following state policy, the college barred students from enrolling in ENGL 101 until they completed the developmental sequence. While students do not receive degree credit for the ALP course, passing it does fulfill their developmental writing requirement under the college’s mandatory placement policy. ALP students pay tuition for six credits for the two courses. ENGL 101 counts as a three-credit course, but students do not receive credit toward a degree for the companion course. Faculty receive three on-load assignment credits for ENGL 101 but only two credits for the three-hour-perweek companion course. According to the program’s developers, faculty find this arrangement fair because ALP classes are small and do not require completely separate preparation from ENGL 101.
Resources Community Colleges Struggling with Spreading the Knowledge http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/education/jan-june12/ colleges_06-21.html
Adopting and Adapting Reforms: Replicating the Accelerated Learning Program: Click on PDF icon http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/Presentation.asp?uid=398
Preliminary Analysis of Effectiveness of the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) at the Community College of Baltimore County: Click PDF Icon
2. Potential Co-Requisite Support Model for Students with the Most Significant Academic Needs, provide alternate pathways to highquality career certificates by embedding remediation and adult basic skills development into their instruction. Successful programs such as I-Best at Washington State and Accelerated Kentucky Opportunity
http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/Presentation.asp?uid=351 A M o d e l f o r A c c e l e r a t i n g A c a d e m i c S u c c e s s of Community College Remedial English Students: Is the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) Effective and Affordable? http://www.aypf.org/forumbriefs/2010/documents/CCRC %20Evaluation%20of%20ALP%20Baltimore.pdf
Lengthen redesigned full-credit courses and consider providing built-in, co-requisite support for two semesters instead of one. Students get the same content but more time on task.
3. Alternative Adaptations of the ALP Model Accelerating Opportunity Kentucky Education & Training on the Fast Track Accelerating Opportunity is a technical training program that combines basic skills education (math, reading and writing) with technical skills training to prepare students for a high demand job or to continue on for a longer certificate or degree in a related field. In Accelerating Opportunity, basic skills are taught in the technical program with two instructors working together in the class room. By having two instructors in the classroom, students will receive more personalized 22
attention and support. Accelerating Opportunity students will also take support classes with an adult education instructor to get the math, reading and/or math skills needed to be successful in their technical courses. These classes will also assist participants with b e c o m i n g c o l l e g e r e a d y s o t h e y c a n b y p a s s developmental education or decrease the number of developmental education classes students need to enroll in upon completing Accelerating Opportunity.
The purpose of the Career Coach is to help students get a good paying job once they earn their certificates through Accelerating Opportunity. The Career Coach will help • resume writing • job search activities • training services • career exploration and counseling • job referrals
4. Contextualized within Occupational and Vocational Programs – eliminate exit points
Accelerating Opportunity students will also be working with a Success Coach and a Career Coach while they are in the initiative.
The purpose of the Success Coach is to help Accelerating Opportunity students succeed in school and serves as the main point of contact for students. the Success Coach can assist with: enrolling in Accelerating Opportunity applying for financial aid (for those who qualify) program orientation and requirements academic advising and planning one-on-one support provide information on relevant workshops and special events • develop plans for students to meet their goals • track student progress • campus and community referrals • • • • • •
Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training (I-BEST) is an innovative program and strategy developed by the Washington (WA) State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC). Its goal is to increase the rate at which adult basic education and English-as-a-second-language students advance to college-level occupational programs and complete postsecondary credentials in fields offering good wages and career advancement. In the I-BEST model, basic skills instructors and professionaltechnical faculty jointly design and teach college-level occupational classes that admit basic skills-level students. IBEST courses must be part of a coherent program of study leading to college credentials and jobs in demand, thus providing a structured pathway to completion and career-path 23
employment so students do not have to “find their way on their own.” Findings Positive outcomes: Increased progress into credit-bearing courses; higher persistence rates; earned more credits that counted toward a credential; higher rate of earning occupational certificates; learning gains on basic skills tests. -Jenkins, Zeidenberg, and Kienzl (2009) • Contextualized instructional models progress more quickly through their developmental skill building while engaging directly with their academic or vocational field of interest earned an average of 14 more college credits than non-I-BEST students • higher probability of persisting into the second year (17 percent) and earning an occupational certificate (40 percent).
What Is It? The technical and basic skills instructors jointly identify the basic skills that are needed to succeed in the course, which are then taught separately. The basic skills instructor assumes a support role, but the course content now includes more focus on basic skills in addition to the professional- technical content.
I-Best Cohort • Student did not meet program requirements • Student functioning at lower levels
Resources Not One-Size-Fits-All: I-Best Variations http://www.cccie.org/images/stories/ HACU_AlamoIBEST_part_2.pdf
5. An Accelerated Developmental Reading Plan One accelerated developmental reading plan might be modeled after the Accelerated Learning Project at the Community College of Baltimore in which developmental reading students with few reading skill deficiencies are enrolled in regular content courses. The regular content courses would reserve eight seats for the developmental reading students and an hour developmental reading course would be scheduled immediately after the content course for the eight students. A summary of the model for writing is below. Substitute reading for writing and incorporate the reading content and skills suggested in this work.
6. Second Generation Co-Requisite Math Model (Traditional algebra-intensive, pre-calculus-focused) â€˘ Mixing developmental and college-ready students in classes. â€˘ Designed for students who are are close to college level but need extra help. â€˘ Pair a college-level course with the highest level of developmental course.
S ECTION 5
The Emporium Model The Emporium Model
There Are Many Variations of the Emporium Model For example, (Traditional algebra-intensive, pre-calculus-focused)
• Eliminates all lectures and replaces them with a learning resource center model featuring interactive software and on-demand personalized assistance.
• Students spend a certain amount of time in lectures, • Then move to another room where they work through math problems in small groups.
• Depends heavily on instructional software, including interactive tutorials, practice exercises, solutions to frequently asked questions, and online quizzes and tests. • Allows students to choose what types of learning materials to use depending on their needs, and how quickly to work through the materials. • Uses a staffing model that combines faculty, GTAs, peer tutors and others who respond directly to students’ specific needs and direct them to resources from which they can learn. • May require a significant commitment of space and equipment.
• Then, they move to a third room, where they work through more problems on computers, with instructors on hand to answer questions.
Success Rates: 42% to 55% to 62%
- Oklahoma City CC
Emporium Model and Conceptual Understanding Western Kentucky Community and Technical College is experimenting with the emporium model and are building in safeguards to ensure conceptual understanding.
Embedding Conceptual Understanding in the Math Emporium Model
• More than one course can be taught in an emporium, thus leveraging the initial investment.
At WKCTC they use the emporium model for their developmental math courses:
They wanted to provide a few basic examples of things that are on our modules which require deep thinking.
different student ability levels: Basic Reading and Developmental Reading.
• "Explain in your own words how you will recognize that rational expressions have opposite denominators."
Using the Emporium Model, the redesigned reading course will use technology and provide individual assistance in a structured Reading Center. It will move from the traditional course delivery to a learner-centered, active-learning mode supported by high-quality, web-based, interactive, modularized learning software. Each semester, one large section of all enrolled students will replace the traditional small sections. Two full-time faculty members will share the duties of course planning and preparation, monitor student learning progress and provide individual assistance and remediation to students as needed. The redesigned course will eliminate all adjunct course instructors. Four Reading Center assistants and four peer tutors will be used in the Reading Center to provide students with individual assistance and tutoring.
• "Create your own example for subtracting rational expressions with like denominators and work it here" • "Tell how to find the discriminant and what does it tell us about the number of solutions of a quadratic equation." • We require them to work problems and explain the steps. • We require them to write definitions in their own words. • We require them to provide examples of items they have recently learned the definition of. • All these things help us to see if they students it truly understanding the concepts. • Even the problems are set up to find common mistakes.
For example: Simplify: -3^2 and (-3)^2 are each asked to be sure that students understand the concept of the negative sign being included under the exponent if it is inside the parenthesis.
Emporium Model and Reading Northeast State Technical Community College (NSTCC) plans to redesign its Basic and Developmental Reading course. Historically, NSTCC offered two reading courses to accommodate
Modularized course content, using MyReadingLab, coupled with diagnostic assessment, will support individual learning plans and flexible progress through the material. Web-based software will provide automated and immediate feedback to better focus student attention on skills yet to be mastered, and online learning materials will be continuously accessible to students seven days a week. Individualized assistance will be available in the Reading Center targeted on specific learning needs, and students will be required to spend at least three hours each week in the Center.
There is little research to support the use of this approach in reading. Modified versions offer the most hope and are being experimented with at Western Kentucky Community and Technical College. In their versions they spend more time with the student in class working with actual textbook examples.
C HAPTER 4
And Then There is Math From A Conversation With Bill Gates About the Future of Higher Education Jeffrey R. Young 6/25/2012 The Chronicle of Higher Education A Response by Gates: “Take remedial math, which is an absolute disaster. What destroys more selfconfidence than any other educational thing in America is being assigned to some remedial math when you get into some college, and then it's not taught very well and you end up with this sense of, Hey, I can't really figure those things out. If we can take and bring the right technical things and people things to that, then that would make a huge difference.” (Bill Gates Interview, 2012) http://legacy.kctcs.edu/todaysnews/index.cfm?tn_dat e=2012-06-26#35840
S ECTION 1
Math: the Goal is Wrong Early college mathematics should: • focus on preparing students for their programs of study,
Not Reteaching a Full High School Curriculum. -(Clarifying the Co-Requisite Math Model, Dana Center) Traditional algebra-intensive, pre-calculus-focused developmental sequence has the wrong goals for students not bound for STEM majors.
The Math Pathways Conversation The conversation seems to be bouncing between: • No way should students get a degree that does not have an intensive algebra curriculum and, • Math pathways, especially a statistics pathways, make the most sense.
What are the Alternatives? • Mathways, Statway, and Quantway
What is Mathways? Community colleges in Texas will adopt a radical redesign of developmental math, reports Inside Higher Ed. The Carnegie Foundation and the Dana Center at the University of Texas have developed Mathways, a new approach to helping community college students get up to speed in the math skills they’ll need to complete a credential. • . . . remedial students who intend on majoring in a science- or math-based field will still take a traditional, algebra-based developmental course. But other students might take classes in statistics or quantitative reasoning, subsets of math that could prove more relevant to their careers and present less of a barrier to emerging from remedial education. Students who are undecided on a major are likely to be steered toward statistics, with “bridge courses” available later on if they select a science or math major. • “Not having algebra doesn’t mean you haven’t had rigorous preparation,” said Rey Garcia, president and CEO of the Texas Association of Community Colleges. “What’s the point of taking a course that isn’t going to be useful to you in your work life? As long as we maintain high standards for rigor, that pathway is as meaningful as an algebra-based pathway.”
Statway is intended for • occupational programs: allied health sciences and public safety or • academic programs: liberal arts, business, and social sciences. 30
The Texas Example: Remediation for Remedial Math By Mitch Smith (2012) “Too many students are failing their remedial math classes, and those who succeed often have little use for the advanced algebra on which those classes focus. Acknowledging that, and hoping to replicate local successes, officials from all 50 Texas community colleges have endorsed a multiyear project designed to fundamentally change remedial math. In Texas, students referred to developmental classes are 50 percent less likely than their peers to earn a credential or transfer to a four-year college. Math is often their biggest hurdle, and students are steered into algebra-based remediation regardless of their majors. Despite wide acknowledgment of problems nationally, systemic changes to remedial education have been slow to materialize. On the micro level, projects from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and others have shepherded more students through remedial classes and into college-level courses. But many of these projects reach relatively small numbers of students, and there have been few efforts to "scale up" these ideas. Texas appears to be the first state to adopt such a drastic rethinking of remedial math in all its community colleges.
When the new system, dubbed Mathways, is fully in place, remedial students who intend on majoring in a science- or math-based field will still take a traditional, algebra-based developmental course. But other students might take classes in statistics or quantitative reasoning, subsets of math that could prove more relevant to their careers and present less of a barrier to emerging from remedial education. Students who are undecided on a major are likely to be steered toward statistics, with “bridge courses” available later on if they select a science or math major. “Not having algebra doesn’t mean you haven’t had rigorous preparation,” said Rey Garcia, president and CEO of the Texas Association of Community Colleges. “What’s the point of taking a course that isn’t going to be useful to you in your work life? As long as we maintain high standards for rigor, that pathway is as meaningful as an algebra-based pathway.” Starting this fall, six or seven Texas community colleges will start offering the statistics program. The state community college association will provide professional development for instructors and help develop course materials with the goal of spreading that program to all 50 colleges by fall 2013. (El Paso and Houston Community Colleges started offering a similar statistics remediation last fall as part as of a Carnegie pilot project.) The quantitative reasoning program and a reimagined algebra-based remediation will be rolled out in subsequent years, first in small batches and then statewide. 31
Garcia said the first-year cost of the project will be around $2 million, a figure that doesn't include instructor salaries. The Texas Community College Association will contribute $300,000, with donors and individual colleges making up the balance. Glenda Barron, president of Temple Community College, is optimistic that the program will be successful. About 60 percent of Temple students require remediation, with the bulk of those needing help in math. Too often, she said, students are discouraged from pursuing higher education because they are slow to master math skills that might not be very relevant to their career. “We all struggle with how to help those students best,” Barron said. “Mathways, with the three versions to be created, really gives us some hope because it gets students in line to get what they need” and moves them through remediation quickly. Students now often require two or three to students to emerge from remediation, if they’re ever able to at all. Mathways aims to advance many students after a year or less. The Texas project is inspired by the Carnegie Foundation’s work, developed with the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin, in which students needing math remediation weren’t all put on a path toward calculus. But while that work was exciting on its relatively limited basis, Garcia said there was a sense Texas needed to offer a similar program statewide. “We need to do something at scale,” he said. “We can’t just keep nibbling along the edges.”
Working with the Dana Center, the community college association was able to get all 50 two-year college presidents to sign on. Kay McClenney is a University of Texas at Austin project director who helped develop a recent report showing the scope of the remediation problem at the state’s community colleges. She wasn’t directly involved in developing Mathways, but believes the project could mark a dramatic shift in a remediation program that was consistently failing students. By having every Texas community college on board – hard to achieve in a large state in which each two-year institution is governed separately – she said there could be other benefits. “If you redesign developmental mathematics statewide,” McClenney said, “you have as a sector a greater possibility of leveraging some state policy goals that will support rather than thwart this at scale.” The idea seems to be catching on nationally. Bernadine Fong, who heads the Carnegie Foundation’s work with community colleges, said “several” states are considering working with her organization, and Garcia said Texas’ effort could one day be a national model. But first, he said, Texas is focused on moving more of its own students out of remedial education and onto a path toward a credential and a career.
“It’s ambitious, but our presidents and chancellors felt very strongly that it’s a problem that required an ambitious plan,” Garcia said. “I think everyone’s patience with this issue is running thin and they’re ready to proceed on something at a large scale.” http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/05/09/texas-co mmunity-colleges-reinvent-developmental-math#ixzz26ZV34 hSC
Here’s a Dana Center Webinar on Mathways: http://communitycollegespotlight.org/tags/statways/
Here is the New Mathways Project: Implementation Guide: http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathways/downloads/newmathways-implementation-2012april16.pdf
For more information about the New Mathways Project, contact email@example.com or see http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathways/ index.php
C HAPTER 5
Gateway Course Support
Letâ€™s return to the idea that placement testing, instruction, and support should be geared to help students make a difference in their learning and success, and ultimately their completion. All students should have support in their program of study, especially gateway courses in programs of study.
S ECTION 1
Support Can Not Stop The Goal is Completion Let’s return to what developmental education is all about. Developmental education promotes the cognitive and affective growth of all post secondary learners, at ALL LEVELS of the LEARNING CONTINUUM. • Are we promoting cognitive and affective growth of all postsecondary learners, at all levels of the learning continuum? • Have we lost sight of the goal under placement policy?
All students are underprepared at some point on the learning continuum and need support. Developmental education does not stop upon acquiring the skills to pass the gateway courses in a program of study. Just as gen-ed competencies exist to ensure that certain competencies are being delivered as the student progresses toward graduation, developmental cognitive and affective skills are needed at many points along the learning continuum. Remember,the goal is completion.
NADE DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION GOALS & DEFINITION Developmental Education is a field of practice and research within higher education with a theoretical foundation in developmental psychology and learning theory. It promotes the cognitive and affective growth of all post secondary learners, at all levels of the learning continuum. Developmental Education is sensitive and responsive to the individual differences and special needs among learners. Developmental education programs and services commonly address academic preparedness, diagnostic assessment and placement -affective barriers to learning and development of general and discipline-specific learning strategies. 1. To preserve and make possible educational opportunity for each post secondary learner. 2. To develop in each learner the skills and attitudes necessary for the attainment of academic career and life goals. 3. To ensure proper placement by assessing each learner's level of preparedness for college course work. 4. To maintain academic standards by enabling learners to acquire competencies needed for success in mainstream college courses. 5.
To enhance the retention of students.
6. To promote the continued development and application of cognitive and affective learning theory. 35
C HAPTER 6
Skills Students Actually Need A question I am frequently asked, “Do I need to make sure that students learn all the core common standards the student did not learn during their twelve road to us?” or another version of the question, “There are competencies in the reading or math course for succeeding in the student’s program of study. Do I have to teach all these standards?” Depends, “is your course a support course for a co-requisite entry-level course in a program of study?” “Has your college system adopted a math pathway that aligns with students’ programs of study?”
S ECTION 1
Flexibility The preceding questions beg the question, “What are we teaching in developmental education and is it in line with the goal of completion?” These common sense questions are the best argument for aligning cognitives and affective skills with gateway courses in programs of study. Yes, the Core Common Standards are important and are the best source for cognitive standards for designing an instructional program. This does not mean that every standard that students have not learned should be taught in developmental courses or other support. What does the student need to succeed in their program of study?
Always Answer the Following Question — is what’s being taught in developmental education what students really need? Math: focus on preparing students for their programs of study
We Need a Flexible Developmental Reading Course and a Flexible Writing Course We need a flexible developmental reading course that allow for the selection of cognitive strategies and habits of mind that can be quickly aligned with the students’ programs of study. The KCTCS placement policy placement workgroup opened the door for developmental instruction programs within their colleges to explore instructional redesign based on support of entry level classes. Deep Not Broad In order for any cognitive skill to become stored in the prefrontal cortex where it becomes automatic in making executive decisions such as problem-solving, decision-making, or application in new situations, it must be deliberately and repetitively practiced. It is essential for deep learning. The present approach with standards that have to be learned whether needed or not in a student’s program of study does not allow time for the kind of deep and repetitively practice needed whether the course is a stand-alone course or a support course in a corequisite pairing or providing contextualized instruction in a career program.
Reading: developing competence using gateway course materials for programs of study Writing: writing to learn and communicating aligned with the students’ majors or careers 37
C HAPTER 7
Providing Support for Faculty and Staff Needs Who needs proactive and intrusive support? • Developmental Instructors
• Content Instructors
• All Academic and Student Support Services
S ECTION 1
Professional Development Adjunct or Part-time Faculty Often disconnected from • departmental decision-making and • the piloting of new programmatic strategies.
Developmental Education Instructors Whether they teach full or part time — tend to have limited training in instructing basic skills students.
Developmental and Content Instructors Developmental and content instructors tend to teach as if we have not learned that for what is being learned to transfer to new situations and make related learning deeper and easier to learn the learner needs to • Develop a deep foundation of factual knowledge
Advisors and Academic Coaches The hardest thing the brain tries to do is unlearn what it has re-exposed itself to until it has become automatic. Developmental education advisors and academic coaches need professional development on how to develop programs that proactively and intrusively ensure that students have a program of study and have contact at every milestone along the way to completion.
Leadership At every level of leadership, it must be understood that significant completion success for their colleges is built on instruction and support of developmental students all the way to completion (certificates and degrees).
All Academic and Student Support Services All academic and student support services need to have an action plan for proactively and intrusively targeting their support within the completion framework for developmental students and especially targeting older returning students, minorities, single mothers and ESL students.
• Understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework. • Organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application 39
C HAPTER 8
Literature and Research It is not possible to keep up with the research on developmental students and completion alone. Every college should form a professional learning community in which its members (every area of the college) regularly meet and share what they have read and learned about how to bring developmental students to completion.
S ECTION 1
Quick Getting Up To Speed
Testimony at Hearing by Stan Jones Watch the hearing. <http://cl.s4.exct.net/?qs=fb524b1e1eeb7ec6ddf6b102b 7ea3630d67843285251daf48069e3547b260450>
What would be a good reading recommendation for building a conceptual framework within which to understand the related ideas about developmental students and completion? Unlocking the Gate: What We Know about Improving Developmental Education - Rutschow and Scheider - 2011 http://www.postsecondaryresearch.org/i/a/document/18000 _unlockingFull.pdf Time is the Enemy
Read the testimony. <http://cl.s4.exct.net/?qs=fb524b1e1eeb7ec6a9986df46 85d41b1f326bc2b07ecd125609a04b0ce39803d> Learn what your state can do. <http://cl.s4.exct.net/?qs=fb524b1e1eeb7ec6abf8c6559a c8fbc1dfc2faca49bb31f2343be8d116af2fd8>
http://www.completecollege.org/docs/Time_Is_the_Enemy. pdf Remediation The Bridge to Nowhere http://www.completecollege.org/docs/CCA-Remediation-su mmary.pdf Referral, Enrollment, and Completion in Developmental Education Sequences in Community Colleges - Thomas Bailey Dong Wook Jeong Sung-Woo Cho December 2008 http://www.jchea.org/summits/Math/2009docs/Supporting Research/ReferralEnrollmentCompletionDevEd.pdf 41
S ECTION 2
Literature and Research on Developmental Student Completion
Going the Distance in Adult College Completion: Lessons from the Non-traditional No More Project http://www.adultcollegecompletion.org/sites/files/documents/ntnmS tateCaseStudies.pdf Testimony at Hearing by Stan Jones
PRESENT DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION NOT WORKING
Watch the hearing.
Unlocking the Gate: What We Know about Improving Developmental Education - Rutschow and Scheider - 2011
Read the testimony.
Time is the Enemy http://www.completecollege.org/docs/Time_Is_the_Enemy.pdf
Remediation The Bridge to Nowhere
http://www.completecollege.org/docs/CCA-Remediation-summary.pd f Accelerating the Academic Achievement of Students Referred to Developmental Education, Nikki Edgecombe, February 2011 http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/Publication.asp?UID=867 Referral, Enrollment, and Completion in Developmental Education Sequences in Community Colleges - Thomas Bailey Dong Wook Jeong Sung-Woo Cho - December 2008 http://www.jchea.org/summits/Math/2009docs/SupportingResearch /ReferralEnrollmentCompletionDevEd.pdf
Learn what your state can do. <http://cl.s4.exct.net/?qs=fb524b1e1eeb7ec6abf8c6559ac8fbc1d fc2faca49bb31f2343be8d116af2fd8> College Board Advocacy & Policy Center - The College Comp l e t i o n A g e n d a . http://completionagenda.collegeboard.org/ R e m e d i a t i o n http://www.completecollege.org/docs/CCA%20Policy%20Deck%20Re mediation%20Final%20(2)(1).pdf PLACEMENT The Completion Arch: Measuring Community College Student Success: What the Research Tells Us: Developmental Education Placement 42
http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/advocacy/arch/Th e-Completion-Arch-Development-Education-Placement-What-Researc h-Tells-Us.pdf
Again the video below is very good and makes the completion connection clearly. It is especially helpful in looking at quality assessment and keeping standards.
The Opposing Forces that Shape Developmental Education: Assessment, Placement, and Progression at CUNY Community Colleges (CCRC Working Paper No. 36), By: Shanna Smith Jaggars & Michelle Hodara — November 2011. New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University
http://www.collegeproductivity.org/blogs/completion-agenda-and-per formance-funding-conversation-video Tying Funding to Community College Outcomes: Models, Tools, and Recommendations for States
Eric Fingerhut and Richard Kazis; edited by David Altstadt, April 2012
Study on College Placement Exams Energizes Debate about Their Effectiveness
PROMISING STATEWIDE DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION PLANS
Confessions of a Community College Dean
Texas Statewide Developmental Education Plan 2010-2011 Biennium
http://suburbdad.blogspot.com/2011/04/remedial-levels.html C o l l e g e D e g r e e s , Designed by the Numbers By Marc Parr, from The Chronicle. http://chronicle.com/article/College-Degrees-Designed-by/132945/ PERFORMANCE FUNDING Performance-Based Funding of Higher Education: A Detailed Look at Best Practices in 6 States. http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2012/08/performance_base d_ed.html
http://www.thecb.texas.gov/files/dmfile/DevelopmentalEducationPla n.pdf BEGIN ACADEMIC OR CAREER PROGRAM EARLY To Improve Completion Rates, Community Colleges Need to Help Students "Get with the Program" (Community College Research Center, 2011) http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/Publication.asp?uid=967 Toward a New Understanding of Non-Academic Student Support: Four Mechanisms Encouraging Positive Student Outcomes in the Community College (CCRC Working Paper No. 28, Assessment of Evidence Series, 2011) 43
I-Best, Bridge Programs, and Contextualized Curricula
Facing Facts -Learning
All Learning is Learning: Contextual Approaches to Developmental Education – Speech by Dolores Perin, James Jacobs & Elaine DeLott Baker - 03/2008.
http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/05/29/taking-stock-com pletion-agendas-benefits-and-limits Critical Thinking and the Acceleration Model http://www.samford.edu/how-to-study/ ADVISING and CONTACT TO COMPLETION Intrusive Advising of Freshmen http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/clearinghouse/AdvisingIssues/Intrusive_ advising.htm Connection and Direction http://valenciacc.edu/lci/essays/Goal2Essay.htm CONTEXTUALIZATION Breaking Through: Contextualization Toolkit
http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/Publication.asp?uid=583 Facilitating Student Learning Through Contextualization: A Review of Evidence - Journal Article by: Dolores Perin - 07/ 2011. http://crw.sagepub.com/content/early/2011/07/22/009155211141622 7.full.pdf+html A Contextualized Intervention for Community College Developmental Reading and Writing Students (CCRC Working Paper No. 38) Paper by: Dolores Perin, Rachel Hare Bork, Stephen T. Peverly, Linda H. Mason & Megan Vaselewski - 01/2012. http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/Publication.asp?uid=1007
Breaking Through Practice Guide
Contextualized Teaching & Learning: A Faculty Primer - A Review of Literature and Faculty Practices with Implications for California Community College Practitioners - Spring 2009
The Breaking Through Practice Guide - JFF, Spring 2010
Contextual Learning in Adult Education, - Imel - 2000
Teaching Math Contextually 44
How People Learn, John Bransford, 2000
Contextualization, by Perin, 2011
CO-REQUISITE COURSES Transform Remediation: The Co-Requisite Course Model http://www.completecollege.org/docs/CCA%20Co-Req%20Model%20 -%20Transform%20Remediation%20for%20Chicago%20final(1).pdf Co-requisite Model http://gettingpastgo.org/blog/2011/03/21/co-requisite-model/
Pathways to College Access and Success Paper by: Katherine L. Hughes, Melinda Mechur Karp, Baranda Fermin & Thomas Bailey - 10/2005. http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/PublicatioSaven.asp?uid=340 C o l l e g e D e g r e e s , Designed by the Numbers By Marc Parr, from The Chronicle. http://chronicle.com/article/College-Degrees-Designed-by/132945/
Building Pathways to Success for Low-Skill Students:Lessons for Community College Policy and Practice - The “Tipping P o i n t ” R e s e a r c h , D . P r i n c e a n d D . J e n k i n s CCRC 2005
Enhanced Mathematics—A Co-requisite Approach to Developmental Mathematics
Sinclair Community College MAP for Student Success http://www.league.org/blog/post.cfm/istream-sneak-peeks?utm_sour ce=2012_07+League+Connections&utm_campaign=July+2012+Leag ue+Connections&utm_medium=email
Remediation: the Bridge to Nowhere http://www.edpath.com/remedialeducation.html Transform Remediation http://www.completecollege.org/docs/CCA%20Essential%20Steps%2 0Remediation%20Sept%202011.pdf
“ W i t h i n “ A S o c i e t a l I m p e r a t i v e : Changing the way we think about community colleges”, is a section on Sandy Shugart that is worth out time. http://www.highereducation.org/crosstalk/ct1209/voices1209-burdm an.shtml
COMPETENCY SKILLS IN AN AREA OF INQUIRY 45
NEED FOR BROAD DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION REFORM Series Lays Out Blueprint for Increasing Graduation Rates at 2-Year Colleges - By Jennifer Gonzalez – 2011 http://chronicle.com/article/Series-Lays-Out-Blueprint-for/125996/ MATH PATHWAYS
The New Mathways Project Implementation Guide. We are making our initial version of an implementation guide available for institutions interested in the New Mathways Project. This guide helps institutions think through the implementation process. We will continue to develop tools and services to support implementation. http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathways/downloads/new-mathways-i mplementation-2012april16.pdf
Remediation for Remedial Math http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/05/09/texas-community -colleges-reinvent-developmental-math#ixzz26ZV34hSC Here’s a Dana Center Webinar on Mathways: http://communitycollegespotlight.org/tags/statways/ Here is the New Mathways Project: Implementation Guide: http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathways/downloads/new-mathwaysimplementation-2012april16.pdf For more information about the New Mathways Project, contact firstname.lastname@example.org or see http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathways/index.php The Dana Center Quantitative Literacy Pathway serves students focused on developing quantitative literacy skills through a transferable, credit-bearing general education mathematics course that will be meaningful for their professional, civic, and personal lives. http://www.utdanacenter.org/mathways/quantitative-pathway.php