Conceptual Frameworks A review of literature from history education and cognitive research strongly suggests that conceptual frameworks, contribute to meaningful understanding and should be a major component of history education. Themes History and geography educators often speak in terms of "themes" that represent an interest in phenomena that are manifested across several historical periods and/or geographic locations, and thus may offer useful insights into how humans generally behave and how the world generally works. Chronological narrative Another type of conceptual framework is a chronological narrative that provides students with a broad view of historical development over time. "A coherent chronological narrative gives students a context within which to consider important themes and questions. Maps A map is another conceptual framework of the visual variety. Maps provide the spatial orientation that students must have in order to comprehend the workings of history Timelines A timeline is a conceptual framework that presents a chronological summary of history in visual form. Graphic organizers Graphic organizers are another type of conceptual framework that presents information in visual form. If a picture is worth a thousand words, graphic organizers attempt to harness the prodigious information-bearing capacity of visual images to transmit knowledge.
Co-requisite reading / gateway content course instruction.