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!

Co-requisite Reading & Gateway Content Courses

This PowerPoint as an eBook: http://issuu.com/tdkest1/docs/co-requisite_text_pdf

Reading/Content: www.readinggateway.pbworks.com Reading/Math: www.danjen.pbworks.com


Additional Reading - Dan Kesterson Co-Requisite Reading to Learn Model http://issuu.com/tdkest1/docs/mainstreaming Possibilities and Barriers to Completion http://issuu.com/tdkest1/docs/buildingco-requisitecourse Building Co-Requisite Reading Course http://issuu.com/tdkest1/docs/completion_agenda Rigor and Transfer Learning http://issuu.com/tdkest1/docs/rigorandtransferlearning Why Am I Doing This? http://issuu.com/tdkest1/docs/whyamidoingthis


Measure of Success !

Completion of a set of gateway courses for a program of study is a critical measure of success toward college completion. ! !

Students who complete at least three required “gateway� courses in a program of study within a year of enrollment are twice as likely to earn certificates or degrees. (Community College Research Center)


Why Sequences of Developmental Course Do Not Work

! College pipeline data for students beginning two levels down from college composition and tracked for three years:

! – – – – –

Do they pass the first course? 66% If they pass, do they enroll in the next course? 93% If they enroll, do they pass the second course? 75% If they pass, do they enroll in the college-level course? 91% If they enroll, do they pass the college-level course? 78%

Why continuing to tweak what we are doing will not work?

!

Why sequences of developmental courses will not work?

If they pass the first course ! (0.66)(0.93)(0.75)(0.91)(0.78) ! (0.75)(0.93)(0.75)(0.91)(0.78) ! (0.80)(0.93)(0.75)(0.91)(0.78) ! (0.90)(0.93)(0.75)(0.91)(0.78)

at different rates: =

33%

=

37%

=

40%

=

45%


Increase Challenge and Rigor Goals:

!

Transfer - learn in ways that make that learned useful: Apply in new situations, critical thinking, creative thinking, planning, decision-making, problem-solving, etc.

!

Make Learning Easier - make learning related information easier.

Reading Mental Processes !

• relevant to content course reading assignment • timely to student’s needs The shift: - from all the skills that the learner did not learn in the past ! - to learning mental processes for developing conceptual understanding in gateway content courses - transfer Learning


Core Mental Processes for Co-requisite Transfer Learning of Gateway Course Content ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

• • • • • •

calibration of risk and reward, problem-solving, prioritizing, thinking ahead, self-evaluation, long-term planning

3. reflecting; an internal conversation

First, the learner needs to be ! •

holding the new information in mind,

2. stepping back mentally

! •

stepping back mentally, !

Working Memory

and reflecting. 1. holding the new information in mind


Reflection Students do not spontaneously engage in metacognitive thinking unless they are explicitly encouraged to do so through carefully designed instructional activities. The common denominator and basis of all executive functioning (prefrontal cortex) is the ability to hold things in mind, step back, and reflect.


Second, within the process of reflecting, the learner needs to ensure that they are applying mental processes (later) that result in ! - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework ! - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application ! - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge

“A key finding in the learning and transfer literature is that organizing information into a conceptual framework allows for greater “transfer”; that is, it allows the student to apply what was learned in new situations and to learn related information more quickly.” (Bransford)

v v v

Working Memory


“Big Picture” - Conceptual Framework

Contrary to popular belief, learning basic facts is not a prerequisite for creative thinking and problem solving ! -- it's the other way around. ! Once you grasp the big concepts around a subject, good thinking will lead you to the important facts. (John Bransford)

“A key finding in the learning and transfer literature is that organizing information into a conceptual framework allows for greater “transfer”; that is, it allows the student to apply what was learned in new situations and to learn related information more quickly.” (Bransford)


Adults make decisions in the prefrontal cortex.

Teenagers make decisions in the back of the brain.

11-35 prune synaptic connections back to front getting to the prefrontal cortex around age 18 • • • • • •

calibration of risk and reward, problem-solving, prioritizing, thinking ahead, self-evaluation, long-term planning

Working Memory


Working Memory


Questioning in Reflection v

• • • • • •

Does this calibration of risk and reward, concept fit problem-solving, prioritizing, within the thinking ahead, self-evaluation, conceptual long-term planning framework?

Can I predict where this is going?

What do I already know?

Internal Dialogue Questions

v

v

Are there examples, explanations, or illustrations of the concepts?

How is what I am reading like or different Working that Memory what I already know?


Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

shared thinking examples

shared feeling examples

shared behaving Culture social & material objects of

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about culture? What do I know about shared thinking, feeling, and behavior? What do I know about material objects of thinking, feeling, behaving? Prediction: At some point, shared technology may come up. Conceptual Framework: Culture is shared thinking, feeling, behaving and behaving, and their social and material objects.

examples is common experience and mutual learning is not innate or physical traits

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about culture? What do I know about shared thinking, feeling, and behavior? What do I know about material objects of thinking, feeling, behaving? Prediction: At some point, shared technology will come up. Conceptual Framework: Culture is shared thinking, feeling, behaving and behaving.

First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

shared thinking

shared feeling

Culture social & material objects of

shared behavior

Working Memory


!

Introduction to Business


Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

earn a profit examples

satisfy customer examples

providing a product Business

examples

tangible

intangible

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about business? What a some products that are ideas? Prediction: Revenue fits under profit somewhere. Conceptual Framework: The goal of business is earning a profit by providing a product to satisfy customer needs,

First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about business? What a some products that are ideas? Prediction: Revenue fits under profit somewhere. Conceptual Framework: The goal of business is earning a profit by providing a product to satisfy customer needs,

earn a profit

provide a product

Business satisfy customer needs

Working Memory


“A business tries to earn a profit by providing products that satisfy people’s needs. The outcome of its efforts are products that have both tangible and intangible characteristics that provide satisfaction and benefits. When you purchase a product, you are buying the benefits and satisfaction you think the product will provide. A Subway sandwich, for example, may be purchased to satisfy hunger; a Porsche Cayenne sport utility vehicle, to satisfy the need for transportation and desire to present a certain image.”

The Nature of Business

ss e sin product u B Po s rs at tangible pr ch isf of e ies it

cu intangible sto m er ne ed


“Most people associate the word product with tangible goods – an automobile, computer, loaf of bread, coat, or some other tangible item. However, a product can also be a service, which results when people or machines provide or process something of value to customers. Dry cleaning photo processing, a checkup by a doctor, a performance by a movie star or basketball player – these are examples of services. A product can also be an idea. Consultants and attorneys, for example, generate ideas for solving problems ” Note: What is interesting to note is that the reading selection under “The Nature of Business” heading is an introduction; however, it sets the reader up to be prepared for important information that will be explained in more depth later. Examples, product, profit, tangible and intangible needs.

The Nature of Business

ss e sin product u B pr of Pors me tangible it ch et e ne

ed intangible so rs at isf ie s


Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

earn a profit examples

satisfy customer examples

providing a product Business

examples

tangible

intangible

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about business? What a some products that are ideas? Prediction: Revenue fits under profit somewhere. Conceptual Framework: The goal of business is earning a profit by providing a product to satisfy customer needs,

First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about business? What a some products that are ideas? Prediction: Revenue fits under profit somewhere. Conceptual Framework: The goal of business is earning a profit by providing a product to satisfy customer needs,

earn a profit

provide a product

Business satisfy customer needs

Working Memory


Questioning in Reflection

Does this concept fit within the conceptual framework?

Can I predict where this is going?

What do I already know?

Internal Dialogue Questions

Are there examples, explanations, or illustrations of the concepts?

How is what I am reading like or different that what I already know?


Aligning Reading Mental Processes with Gateway Content What can the content instructor do to reinforce the reading to learn mental processes? ! First, help the learner understand the conceptual framework of the course, chapter, reading section, or reading assignment. What is the conceptual framework, which is made up of the systematically organized, broadly defined course concepts. ! Cultural Diversity

thinking

Building a conceptual framework for cultural diversity

social & material objects of

behaving

Culture: shared ways of

feeling

social & material objects of

social & material objects of

Shared innate or physical traits

NOT

IS

common experience and mutual learning

=

Narrowing the distance between others and ourselves


Aligning Reading Mental Processes with Gateway Content What can the content instructor do to reinforce the reading to learn mental processes? ! Second, help the learner over learn the conceptual framework. !

Cultural Diversity Over Learn: All learning activities involve re-exposure with elaboration.

thinking social & material objects of

behaving

Culture: shared ways of

feeling

social & material objects of

social & material objects of

Shared innate or physical traits

NOT

IS

common experience and mutual learning

=

Narrowing the distance between others and ourselves


Aligning Reading Mental Processes with Gateway Content What can the content instructor do to reinforce the reading to learn mental processes? ! Second, by always reinforcing how any new fact, idea, or concept is related to the larger conceptual framework.

Concepts: Individuals and identities: race and ethnicity

Cultural Diversity

thinking social & material objects of

behaving

Culture: shared ways of

feeling

social & material objects of

social & material objects of

Shared innate or physical traits

NOT

IS

common experience and mutual learning

=

Narrowing the distance between others and ourselves


Aligning Reading Mental Processes with Gateway Content What can the content instructor do to reinforce the reading to learn mental processes? ! Third, by helping the learner see how the relationship among all new facts, ideas or concepts are interconnected.

innate or physical traits

NOT

IS

common experience and mutual learning

learned not innate or physical enculturation shared society Narrowing the distance between others and ourselves

symbolic symbols integrated functionalism adaptive phy. adaptation- fast, intentional, free produced, practiced, circulated


Aligning Reading Mental Processes with Gateway Content What can the content instructor do to reinforce the reading to learn mental processes? ! Fourth, help consolidate facts, ideas, and concepts in long-term memory by creating opportunities for re-exposure with elaboration to this concepts. !

Enculturation: What behaviors do I have that were not learned?

Cultural Diversity

thinking social & material objects of

behaving

Culture: shared ways of

feeling

social & material objects of

social & material objects of

Shared innate or physical traits

NOT

IS

common experience and mutual learning !25

=

Narrowing the distance between others and ourselves


Aligning Reading Mental Processes with Gateway Content What can the content instructor do to reinforce the reading to learn mental processes?

!

Fifth, create problems for which the learner comesup with a possible solution(s) or justification using the facts, ideas and concepts of the subject.

! !

Model Problem-Solving Using Concepts of the Subject: help the learner move from organized facts to concepts and generalizations.

Enculturation: What behaviors do I have that were not learned?

Cultural Diversity

thinking social & material objects of

behaving

Culture: shared ways of

feeling

social & material objects of

social & material objects of

Shared innate or physical traits

NOT

IS

common experience and mutual learning

=

Narrowing the distance between others and ourselves


In the Definition of Reflection are the Mental Processes & Activities !

Part of the whole process of thinking is the ability to reflect— ! -to be in the present moment and aware of one’s place in time, ! -to make the effort to understand more holistically (to see how ideas fit together), ! -to take the time to revisit ideas and ! -to develop relevant questions and connections that will enhance one’s perspective and cognitive abilities. -to link a current experience to previous learnings (a process called scaffolding). ! -to draw forth cognitive and emotional information from several sources: visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile. ! -to act upon and process the information, synthesizing and evaluating the data. ! In the end, reflecting also means applying what we've learned to contexts beyond the original situations in which we learned something.


Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

social interaction

human groups

examples

examples

Culture Sociology

examples

knowledge, material objects, behavior, customs

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about human groups? What social interaction in human groups? knowledge, material objects, behavior, customs Prediction: Everything is going to be about social interaction in human groups. Conceptual Framework: Sociology is about social interaction in human groups.

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about human groups? What social interaction in human groups? Prediction: Everything is going to be about social interaction in human groups. Conceptual Framework: Sociology is about social interaction in human groups.

First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

human groups

social interaction

Sociology Culture: knowledge, material objects,

behavior, customs

Working Memory


Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

fraction

whole number

examples

examples

numerator, denominator

Fraction knowledge, material objects,

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about whole numbers? What do I know about fractions? Prediction: Wholes can be broken down into parts. Conceptual Framework: A mixed number is made up of a whole number, a fraction, numerator and denominator and a fraction bar.

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about whole numbers? What do I know about fractions? Prediction: Wholes can be broken down into parts. Conceptual Framework: A mixed number is made up behavior, customs of a whole number, a fraction, numerator and denominator and a fraction bar.

First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

whole number

fraction

Fractions numerator

denominator

Working Memory


Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

themes examples

chronological narratives

examples

timelines

History

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about themes, chronological narratives, maps, timelines, graphic organizers? knowledge, material objects, behavior, customs Prediction: narratives follow timeline. Conceptual Framework: the concepts making up history are organized around themes, chronological narratives, maps, graphic organizers and times.

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about themes, chronological narratives, maps, timelines, graphic organizers? Prediction: narratives follow timeline. Conceptual Framework: the concepts making up history are organized around themes, chronological narratives, maps, graphic organizers and times.

First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

chronological narratives

themes

History maps

graphic organizers

timelines

Working Memory


Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

cultural context

social context examples

examples

5 disciplines examples Intro to Humanities

historical context examples

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about the disciplines of the knowledge, material objects, behavior, customs humanities? Prediction: no disciplineis innate C on c ept ual F r amew or k: t h e concepts making up the humanities fall within social, cultural, and historical contexts.

First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about the disciplines of the humanities? Prediction: no disciplineis innate Conceptual Framework: the concepts making up the humanities fall within social, cultural, and historical contexts.

social context

cultural context

Intro to Humanities historical context

5 disciplines

Working Memory


Critical Learning for Critical Thinking and Transfer Learning

Learning Skills

Campus Resources

FYE: support the transition to college

Writing Center (services, location)

Reflection Prior knowledge: How well do I write? Prediction: Am I likely to need the service? Conceptual Framework: How does the writing center service relate to supporting my transition to college?

Instead of only 4 items being available in working memory, the whole neural network is available in working memory

Reflection

! I am having difficulty writing the paper for my class.

difficulty writing paper

Working Memory Facts and ideas understood and organized in the context of a conceptual framework build interconnected synaptic connections that are retrieved as a whole overriding the limitations of working memory, as well as faster retrieval.


Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

operating system

software

examples

examples

internet examples

hardware

CIT 105

examples

knowledge, material objects,

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about computer software, hardware, operating systems? Prediction: software will go to iCloud behavior,Conceptual customs Framework: the concepts making up history are organized around software, hardware, operating systems, internet.

First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about computer software, hardware, operating systems? Prediction: software will go to iCloud Conceptual Framework: the concepts making up history are organized around software, hardware, operating systems, internet.

hardware

software

CIT 105 operating systems

Working Memory

internet


!

Psychology: !

study about how the mind or brain affects behavior !

Psychological Disorders http://issuu.com/tdkest1/docs/psychologyandreading


Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders

!

Defining and Explaining Abnormal Behavior

!

What makes behavior “abnormal”? The American Psychiatric Association (2001, 2006) defines abnormal behavior in medical terms: a mental illness that affects or is manifested in a person’s brain and can affect the way the individual thinks, behaves, and interacts with with others. Three criteria help distinguish normal from abnormal behavior: Abnormal behavior is deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a long period of time. Let’s tale a closer look at what each of these characteristics of abnormal behavior entails.

!

Abnormal behavior is deviant. Abnormal behavior is certainly atypical or statistically unusual. For example, Oprah Winfrey, LeBron James, and Steve Jobs are atypical in many of their behaviors - and yet we do not categorize them as as abnormal. We do often consider atypical behavior abnormal, though, when it deviates from what is acceptable in a culture. A women who washes her hands three or four times an hour and takes seven showers a day is abnormal because her behavior deviates from what we see as acceptable.

! •

Abnormal behavior is maladaptive. Maladaptive behavior interferes with one’s ability to function effectively in the world. A man who believes that he can endanger others through his breathing may go to great lengths to isolate himself fro people for what he believes is their own good. His belief negatively affects his everyday functioning: thus, his behavior is maladaptive. Behavior that presents a danger to the person or those around him or her is also considered maladaptive (and abnormal).

! •

!

Abnormal behavior involves personal distress over a long period of time. The person engaging in the behavior finds it troubling. A woman who secretly makes herself vomit after every meal may never be seen by others as deviant (because they do not know about it), but this pattern of behavior may cause her to fee intense shame, guilt, and despair.

•Only

one of these criteria need be present for behavior to be labeled “abnormal”, but typically two or three may be present. When abnormal behavior persists, it may lead to the diagnosis of abnormal behavior.


p. 142

Psychologymind or brain affects behavior

Psychological Disorderabnormal behavior

personally distressful over time

Abnormal Behaviormental illness affecting behavior

deviant

3 Criteria distinguishing normal from abnormal behavior

atypical

maladaptive

danger

function effectively

x x


Big Picture Psychology brain affects behavior

abnormal behavior mental illness affects behavior

criteria for abnormal behavior deviant, maladaptive, personally distressful

Reflection •What do these facts or ideas have to do with the conceptual framework of subject at hand? •How does this relate to the concepts preceding the new facts, ideas, or concepts? •What do I already know about these new facts and ideas? •Do I understand what I just read? •Where do I think this is going? (predicting) •How is this like or different than what I already know?

Start here Maladaptive function effectively/ danger Breathing harms others


Anxiety Disorders ! Think about how you felt before a make-or-break exam or a big presentation – or perhaps as you noticed police lights flashing behind your speeding car. Did you feel jittery and nervous and experience tightness in your stomach? These are the feelings of a normal anxiety, an unpleasant feeling of fear and dread. In contrast, anxiety disorders involve fears that are uncontrollable, disproportionate to the actual danger the person might be in, and disruptive of ordinary life. They feature motor tension (jumpiness, trembling), hyperactivity (dizziness, a racing heart), and apprehensive expectations and thoughts. ! In this section we survey five types of anxiety disorders: ! deviant •Generalized anxiety disorders (atypical) •Panic disorders •Phobic disorders •Obsessive-compulsive disorders 3 •Post-traumatic disorders

Criteria

personally distressful (long period of time)

maladaptive (function); (danger)


fears that are uncontrollable

disruptive of ordinary life

Anxiety Disorder disproportionate to the actual danger the person might be in

deviant (atypical) personally distressful (long period of time)

3 criteria

maladaptive (function); (danger)


deviant (atypical)

Psychological Disorders personally distressful (long period of time)

maladaptive (function); (danger)

Willful effort activates the prefrontal cortex. uncontrollable

disproportionate

Anxiety Disorders disruptive

Reflection Part of the whole process of thinking is the ability to reflect—to be in the present moment and aware of one’s place in time, to make the effort to understand more holistically (to see how ideas fit together), to take the time to revisit ideas and develop relevant questions and connections that will enhance one’s perspective and cognitive abilities.


Generalized Anxiety Disorder !

When you are worrying about getting a speeding ticket, you know why you are anxious; there is a specific cause. !

Generalized Anxiety Disorder is different from such everyday feelings of anxiety in that suffers experience persistent anxiety for at least 6 months and are unable to specify the reasons for the anxiety (Kendler & Others, 2007). !

People with generalized anxiety disorder are nervous most of the time. They may worry about their work relationships, or health. That worry can take on  a physical tool and cause fatigue, muscle tension, stomach problems, and difficulty deviant sleeping. (atypical) personally distressful (long period of time)

3 criteria

maladaptive (function); (danger)


fears that are uncontrollable

disruptive of ordinary life

Anxiety Disorder disproportionate to the actual danger the person might be in

deviant (atypical)

3 personally distressful criteria (long period of time)

persistent anxiety 6 months

persistent anxiety 6 months

maladaptive (function); (danger)

Gen Anxiety Disorder

no cause

Gen Anxiety Disorder

no cause


Panic Disorder !

Much like everyone else, you might sometimes have a specific experience that sends you into a panic. For example, you work all night on a paper, only to have your computer crash before you saved your last changes or you are about to dash across a street when you see a large truck coming right at you. Your heart races, your hands shake, and you might break into a sweat. !

In panic disorder, however, a person experiences recurrent, sudden onsets of intense terror, often without warning and with not specific cause. deviant (atypical)

personally distressful (long period of time)

3 criteria

maladaptive (function); (danger)


deviant (atypical)

Psychological Disorders personally distressful (long period of time)

maladaptive (function); (danger)

Willful effort activates ! the prefrontal cortex. wedding dress

getting married

Panic Disorder eating very little

Reflection Part of the whole process of thinking is the ability to reflect—to be in the present moment and aware of one’s place in time, to make the effort to understand more holistically (to see how ideas fit together), to take the time to revisit ideas and develop relevant questions and connections that will enhance one’s perspective and cognitive abilities.


deviant (atypical)

Phobic Disorder !

personally distressful (long period of time)

3 criteria

maladaptive (function); (danger)

Many people are afraid of spiders and snakes, indeed, thinking about letting a tarantula crawl over one’s face is likely to give anyone the willies. It is not uncommon to be afraid of particular objects or specific environments such as extreme heights. For most of us, these fears do not interfere with daily life. !

Some of us, however, have an irrational, overwhelming, persistent fear of a particular object or situation - and anxiety disorder called a phobic disorder (phobia). !

Whereas generalized anxiety disorder cannot pinpoint the cause of their nervous feelings. Individuals with phobias can.


Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder !

Just before leaving on a a long road trip, you find yourself checking to be sure locked the front door. As you pull away in your car, you are stricken with the thought that you forgot to turn off the coffeemaker. This kind of checking behavior is normal. !

In contrast, the anxiety disorder known a obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) features anxiety provoking thoughts that will not go away and/or urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future deviant situation. (atypical) personally distressful (long period of time)

3 criteria

maladaptive (function); (danger)


Transfer - Application Problem You are a psychologist. Sue’s mother has referred her to you because she is worried that Sue has an eating disorder. Sue is to be married in two months. She is eating as little as she can because she wants to fit into her wedding dress. ! With this information, does she have a psychological disorder or an eating disorder based on the criteria for abnormal behavior, which would make it a mental illness affecting her behavior? ! What questions would you ask Sue to refine whether she has an eating disorder or not. deviant (atypical) personally distressful (long period of time)

3 criteria

maladaptive (function); (danger)


deviant (atypical)

Psychological Disorders personally distressful (long period of time)

maladaptive (function); (danger)

Willful effort activates the prefrontal cortex. wedding dress

getting married

Sue’s eating eating very little


p. 148 model

An Anxiety Disorder Panic Disorder Example: Modeling and Class Dialogue Ongoing reflection !

• What

do I already know? • Where is this going? • How does everything relate to the conceptual framework for psychological disorders.


!

Introduction to Sociology

http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/anthropology/21a-245j-power-interpersonalorganizational-and-global-dimensions-fall-2005/study-materials/basic_conc.pdf


http://issuu.com/tdkest1/docs/sociologyandreading Sociology

iPhone

human groups social interaction material objects

knowledge culture

customs

behavior norms

society socialization

folkways

mores


The ! Family

Nuclear Family

What is! the! Family?

Extended Family

Global! View of ! the! Family

Form ! of ! Marriage

monogamy

polygamy

Authority Patterns: Who Rules?

polygyny polyandry

serial monogamy

one woman, one man married to each other


Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

social interaction

human groups

examples

examples

Culture Sociology

examples

knowledge, material objects, behavior, customs

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about human groups? What social interaction in human groups? knowledge, material objects, behavior, customs Prediction: Everything is going to be about social interaction in human groups. Conceptual Framework: Sociology is about social interaction in human groups.

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about human groups? What social interaction in human groups? Prediction: Everything is going to be about social interaction in human groups. Conceptual Framework: Sociology is about social interaction in human groups.

First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

human groups

social interaction

Sociology Culture: knowledge, material objects,

behavior, customs

Working Memory


!

Cultural Anthropology


If we look at chapter 2, we see that it is about “Understanding and Studying Culture.”

!

Looks like a great place to start building the conceptual framework for cultural anthropology, as “culture” is the most central concept in cultural anthropology and given that cultural anthropology is about “Diversity of learned and shared thought and behavior (culture) in the present.”

On page 20, Eller defines culture as “Culture then can be understood as those ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving, and the social and material products of those ways, which are shared among a group of people not on the basis innate or physical traits but rather on the basis of common experience and mutual learning.”

thinking

Building a conceptual framework for culture.

behaving

social & material objects of

Culture: shared ways of

social & material objects of

feeling social & material objects of

Shared innate or physical traits

NOT

IS

common experience and mutual learning


First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

Culture

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about culture? What do I know about shared thinking, feeling, and behavior? What do I know about material objects of thinking, feeling, behaving? Prediction: At some point, shared technology will come up. Conceptual Framework: Culture is shared thinking, feeling, behaving and behaving, and their social and material objects.

shared thinking

shared feeling

Culture social & material objects

shared behavior

Working Memory


thinking

Continuing to build a conceptual framework for culture.

behaving

social & material objects of

Culture: shared ways of

feeling

social & material objects of

innate or physical traits

social & material objects of

NOT

IS

common experience and mutual learning

learned not innate or physical enculturation shared society symbolic symbols integrated functionalism adaptive phy. adaptation- fast, intentional, free produced, practiced, circulated


First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

symbolic, integrated

learned, shared examples

examples

produced, practiced,

adaptive examples

Culture

social & material objects of Narrowing the distance between others and ourselves

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about culture being: • shared • learned • adaptive • symbolic • practiced • produced • integrated Prediction: I almost know-nothing that is not learned. Conceptual Framework: Culture is shared thinking, feeling, behaving and behaving, and their social and material objects.

examples

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about culture being: • shared • learned • adaptive • symbolic • practiced • produced • integrated Prediction: I almost know-nothing that is not learned. Conceptual Framework: Culture is shared thinking, feeling, behaving and behaving, and their social and material objects.

learned, shared

symbolic,integrated

Culture produced, practiced, circulated

Working Memory


!

First Year Experience


!

The Heart of FYE 105 is !

Critical Thinking !

and !

Problem Solving

http://issuu.com/tdkest1/docs/fye_critical_thinking_pdf


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Information alone without the mental processes of critical thinking and problem solving limits the application potential of that information. !

Along with the information, the FYE learner needs to be able to use the information to: !

• evaluate

choices, • calibrate of risk and reward, • solve problems • prioritize • thinking ahead, • do long-term planning !

The mental processes for doing so have to be taught along with the content information for most FYE learners.


What does this mental process look like:

• • • • • •

calibration of risk and reward, problem-solving, prioritizing, thinking ahead, self-evaluation, long-term planning

3. reflecting; an internal conversation

2. stepping back mentally

Working Memory 1. holding the new information in mind


The Overarching Conceptual Framework: !

What is the Overarching Goal of FYE 105? !

We want the learner to be able to think critically and be able to solve problems as they negotiate the complex world of college. !

What do we want the learner to take from this unit about campus resources? !

We want the learner to be able to think critically and be able to make decisions as they find the need to call upon campus resources.


A Simple Example for Practice: FYE introduces students to campus resources to support the transition to college life and learning.

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There are some facts, such as the campus resources available, what services the resources offer, and their location, but that is merely isolated information.

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For future critical thinking and problem solving to occur, the learner needs to not only hold this information in mind, step back, and reflect as they learn about each campus resource, but they must also begin understanding what they are learning in the context of the conceptual framework of the course.

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For example, the Writing Center, its location, and services need to be understood and organized around the conceptual framework of the FYE course if the learner wants to be able to think critically and be able to make decisions as they find the need to call upon campus resources. Writing Center Location FYE support the transition to college

Services Campus Resources

Learning skills

Reflection Prior knowledge: How well do I write? Prediction: Am I likely to need help? Conceptual Framework: How do the writing center services relate to supporting my transition to and success in college.


Critical Learning for Critical Thinking and Transfer Learning

Campus Resources

Learning Skills

FYE: support the transition to college

Reflection Prior knowledge: How well do I write? Prediction: Am I likely to need the service? How is my grammar and spelling or punctuation? Conceptual Framework: How does the writing center services relate to supporting my transition to college?

Writing Center (services, location)

Reflection Prior knowledge: How well do I write? Prediction: Am I likely to need the service? Conceptual Framework: How does the writing center service relate to supporting my transition to college?

campus resources

services

FYE transition to college Writing Center

Working Memory


Critical Learning for Critical Thinking and Transfer Learning

Learning Skills

Campus Resources

FYE: support the transition to college

Writing Center (services, location)

Reflection Prior knowledge: How well do I write? Prediction: Am I likely to need the service? Conceptual Framework: How does the writing center service relate to supporting my transition to college?

Instead of only 4 items being available in working memory, the whole neural network is available in working memory

Reflection

! I am having difficulty writing the paper for my class.

difficulty writing paper

Working Memory Facts and ideas understood and organized in the context of a conceptual framework build interconnected synaptic connections that are retrieved as a whole overriding the limitations of working memory, as well as faster retrieval.


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Reading and Writing: !

make thinking visible & intermediate skills


One of the challenges for gateway content course learners that is only being sparsely addressed is writing to learn and communicate about the content of gateway content courses. As we hear on this listserv, neither developmental nor many non developmental learners taking gateway content courses are able to write to read critically critically, thinking logically, respond to texts.

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I am exploring possibilities for a one-level-up ENC 91 where learners testing into ENC 91 are placed in ENG 101 with intermediate writing skill support and co-requisite reading skill support in which the skills support conceptual understanding and transfer learning of gateway course content.

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The ENG 101 writing skills would focus on writing to communicate around conceptual understanding of the content of gateway content courses. The intermediate co-requisite writing skills would focus on writing to learn and writing to communicate. The intermediate reading skills would focus on reading to learn.

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The literature: “Let’s use the words of Bass and Eynon to reinforce this thought. “What are the “intermediate processes,” the steps in the learning process that are often invisible but critical to development. All too often in education, we are focused only on final products: the final exam, the grade, the perfect research paper, mastery of a subject. But how do we get students from here to there? What are the intermediate stages that help students develop the skills and habits of master learners in our disciplines? What kinds of scaffolding enable students to move forward, step by step? How do we, as educators, recognize and support the slow process of progressively deepening students’ abilities to think like historians and scholars?” (Randy Bass and Bret Eynon (2009), Capturing the Visible Evidence of Invisible Learning.) 

! Reading to learn mental processes (intermediate processes):

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First, the learner needs to be holding the new information in mind, stepping back mentally, and reflecting.

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Second, within the process of reflecting, the learner needs to ensure that they are applying mental processes (later) that result in

! ! !

Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework

Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application

Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge

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What I don’t know: Does the following description of ENG 101 allow for using a focus on gateway content course writing? ENG 101 COURSE DESCRIPTION: A course in writing emphasizing argument. Instruction and practice in reading critically, thinking logically, responding to texts, developing research skills, writing substantial essays through systematic revision, addressing specific audiences, expressing ideas in standard and correct English. Includes grammar and mechanics review.


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Reading and Math


Transfer Learning, Reflection, Communication and Math

! Communication is an essential part of mathematics and mathematics education. ! It is a way of sharing ideas and clarifying understanding. ! Through communication, ideas become objects of reflection, refinement, discussion, and amendment. ! The communication process also helps build meaning and permanence for ideas and makes them public. ! Because mathematics is so often conveyed in symbols, oral and written communication about mathematical ideas is not always recognized as an important part of mathematics education. Students do not necessarily talk about mathematics naturally; teachers need to help them learn how to do so.


Strategy for developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge.

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Create a mind map that organizes the math concepts (math vocabulary) with illustrations of each concept.

Example: Under “Definition of Mixed Fractions�, we encounter the following math vocabulary: whole number, fraction, numerator, denominator, fraction bar,

frac tion

ol h W

b ar

ator n i m deno

be m u en

r

o parts n h t i w Number Ex. 1 whole apple

io n t c a fr whole divided in to equal

Definition parts of a mixed fraction numerato r

Ex. c ir into cle divid 4 pa ed rts


Change 3 1/2 to an improper fraction

3 1/2


Strategy for understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework and organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application.

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Create a mind map that organizes the math concepts (math vocabulary) with illustrations of each concept.

Example: Under “Changing Mixed Number to an Improper Fraction,� we encounter the following math vocabulary (concepts), and operations (multiplication and addition) for the steps in procedure of making the change for 3 1/2:

r by e b m u n e l who 1. Multiply tor denomina 3x2=6 product)

result e h t e c 3. Pla over 2 p e t s f (sum) o inator m o n e d the 7/2

Changing Mixed Number to Improper Fraction

(6 is the

ct) u d ro

(p t l u r es r e h t a to d r e d 2. A e num h to t 6 + 1 = 7 (7 is the sum)


Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

fraction

whole number

examples

examples

numerator, denominator

Fraction knowledge, material objects,

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about whole numbers? What do I know about fractions? Prediction: Wholes can be broken down into parts. Conceptual Framework: A mixed number is made up of a whole number, a fraction, numerator and denominator and a fraction bar.

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about whole numbers? What do I know about fractions? Prediction: Wholes can be broken down into parts. Conceptual Framework: A mixed number is made up behavior, customs of a whole number, a fraction, numerator and denominator and a fraction bar.

First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

whole number

fraction

Fractions numerator

denominator

Working Memory


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Anatomy & Physiology


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History

Conceptual frameworks may go by a number of different names such as cognitive frameworks, core concepts, mental structures, mental models, scaffolding, schemas or big ideas. The Bradley Commission on History in Schools has said, "To develop judgment and perspective, historical study must often focus upon broad, significant themes and questions, rather than shortlived memorization of facts without context.�

History educators often speak in terms of "themes" that represent an interest in phenomena that are manifested across several historical periods and/or geographic locations, and thus may offer useful insights into how humans generally behave and how the world generally works.


Conceptual Frameworks A review of literature from history education and cognitive research strongly suggests that conceptual frameworks, contribute to meaningful understanding and should be a major component of history education. Themes History and geography educators often speak in terms of "themes" that represent an interest in phenomena that are manifested across several historical periods and/or geographic locations, and thus may offer useful insights into how humans generally behave and how the world generally works. Chronological narrative Another type of conceptual framework is a chronological narrative that provides students with a broad view of historical development over time. "A coherent chronological narrative gives students a context within which to consider important themes and questions. Maps A map is another conceptual framework of the visual variety. Maps provide the spatial orientation that students must have in order to comprehend the workings of history Timelines A timeline is a conceptual framework that presents a chronological summary of history in visual form. Graphic organizers Graphic organizers are another type of conceptual framework that presents information in visual form. If a picture is worth a thousand words, graphic organizers attempt to harness the prodigious information-bearing capacity of visual images to transmit knowledge.


A review of literature from history education and cognitive research strongly suggests that conceptual frameworks, by whatever name, contribute to meaningful understanding and should be a major component of history education. This is especially true in world history classrooms where the volume of potential content to be assimilated can be overwhelming. Students need conceptual frameworks to make sense of history, to give it meaning and to make it usable. Research on conceptual frameworks In 1999, the National Research Council (NRC) released a major study titled How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. The central theme of this report was that the mind uses experience to "develop coherent structures of information" that are meaningful to the learner and are stored in memory where these structures form the basis of understanding, thinking and problem solving. The NRC report cited research studies that compared the thinking of experts to the thinking of novices, not because teachers expect their students to become experts, but because experts solve problems better than novices do. Researchers wanted to know what it is about experts that makes them good at thinking and problem solving. According to the NRC report, expert knowledge "is not simply a list of facts and formulas that are relevant to their domain (area of expertise); instead, their knowledge is organized around core concepts or 'big ideas' that guide their thinking about their domains." The NRC report cited a study by Sam Wineburg in which a group of history experts and a group of highachieving advanced placement high school seniors were given the task of making sense of primary source documents from American history. Although several of the students outscored several of the historians on a factual test of American history, the historians excelled at evaluating and understanding the documents because they possessed useful conceptual frameworks. The students "had no systematic way of making sense of contradictory claims...They lacked the experts' deep understanding of how to formulate reasoned interpretations of sets of historical documents. Experts in other social sciences also organize their problem solving around big ideas.� http://www.studentsfriend.com/onhist/frame.html


Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

themes examples

chronological narratives

examples

timelines

History

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about themes, chronological narratives, maps, timelines, graphic organizers? knowledge, material objects, behavior, customs Prediction: narratives follow timeline. Conceptual Framework: the concepts making up history are organized around themes, chronological narratives, maps, graphic organizers and times.

First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about themes, chronological narratives, maps, timelines, graphic organizers? Prediction: narratives follow timeline. Conceptual Framework: the concepts making up history are organized around themes, chronological narratives, maps, graphic organizers and times.

chronological narratives

themes

History maps

graphic organizers

timelines

Working Memory


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Humanities 102 Introduction to the Humanities “Humanities” comes from the Latin “humanitas,” meaning those powers or capacities regarded as common to or characteristic of human beings and the cultivation of these aspects of human nature. According to the 1965 National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act, the term “humanities” includes, but is not limited to, the study of language (both modern and classical), linguistics, literature, history, jurisprudence, philosophy, archaeology, comparative religion, and ethics. It also includes the history, criticism, and theory of the arts; those aspects of social sciences which have humanistic content and employ humanistic methods; and the study and application of the humanities to the human environment with particular attention to reflecting our diverse heritage, traditions, and history and to the relevance of the humanities to the current conditions of national life.

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“Intro to the Humanities” surveys Western thought, literature, and the arts from antiquity to the present, focusing on philosophy, religion, painting, sculpture, architecture, theater, dance, literature, and film. These “humanities” are the core of the dominant ideals of Western tradition, and they characterize Western thought and the cultural concerns known as the Humanities. Humanities 120 seeks to synthesize our knowledge of these arts and traditions in order to improve our own aesthetic tastes and moral awareness. This is not a class about dates. It is a course about ideas, and your preconceptions will be questioned and questioned vigorously. This is not a course solely about memorizing and regurgitating; it is also a course about understanding and reasoning. Students are expected to think about course material, make connections, and form opinions.


CIT 105 Introduction to Computing An overview of computer information systems. Concepts include terminology, computer hardware, software, and networks as well as the impact of computers on society, ethical issues in computing, and trends in information processing.

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Course Competencies Upon successful completion of this course, the student can: 1. Utilize computer technology as a tool to access and prepare information. 2. Describe basic computer functions and use correct computer terminology. 3. Describe trends in information processing. 4. Explain the impact of computers upon society. 5. Explain the difference between system, application, and programming software. 6. Use a graphical user interface-based operating system to manage files, folders and disks. 7. Discuss ethical issues such as copyright, privacy, and security as related to computing. 8. Use a word processing software package to prepare elementary documents. 9. Use a spreadsheet program to prepare elementary financial reports. 10. Use a database software package to develop an elementary database and generate reports on the data. 11. Use a web page editor to create web pages. 12. Use basic data communications applications and networks. 13. Use the Internet and understand its capabilities.

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Course Outline I. Computer System Fundamentals A. Impact of Computers on Society B. Information Processing C. Ethical Issues, Security, and Privacy

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II. Computer Hardware A. Input and Output Hardware B. Processing Hardware C. Storage Hardware D. Communications and Networking

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III. Computer Software A. Operating Systems B. Word Processing C. Electronic Spreadsheets D. Database Management E. Web Publishing


Second, - Understanding facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework - Organizing knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application - Developing a deep foundation of factual knowledge (re-exposure/ elaboration)

Computer System Fundamentals

Computer Hardware examples

examples

Computer Software

Computer Information

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about computer hardware and software? knowledge, material objects, behavior, customs Prediction: Software runs on hardware. Conceptual Framework: Understanding computers involves computer system fundamentals, computer hardware and software.

Reflection Prior knowledge: What do I know about computer hardware and software? Prediction: Software runs on hardware. Conceptual Framework: Understanding computers involves computer system fundamentals, computer hardware and software.

First, Hold in working memory, Step back, Reflect Computer System Fundamentals

Computer Hardware

Introduction to Computers Computer Software

Working Memory


Co requisite text pdf