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S P A T I A L PO L IT I C S


TABLE OF CONTENTS Intent

_1

Framing From Policy to Space

_2

Design and Society

_3

Factors of Influence

_4

Design as Reform

_5

Locating Approach to Context

_6

History of Apartheid

_7

Spatial Apartheid Laws

_9

Analysis of Space Over Time

_10

Supporting Nature of the Program

_16

Referencing Red Location Museum of Struggle

_17

Atlas of Conflict

_18

Keast Park Community Pavilion

_19

Kimisagara Football for Hope Centre

_20

Soccer City Stadium

_21

Bibliography

_23


M

uch of our built environment is reflective of the current state of order and priorities of the world in which we live. From the way in which cities are laid out to the uneven distribution of public amenities, the correlation between social politics and spatial planning begins to reveal itself. With this notion, I seek to explore the built environment’s potential to influence the bridging of estranged groups that have been divided through politics’ influence on spatial organization. This thesis explores architecture’s role between the interdependent variables of politics and society.

1


F R A M I N G

FROM POLICY TO SPACE Thoughts and ideas are inventions of the mind. They only exist in fictitious, airy, and intangible forms within a vacuum until they are brought into the physical world in which we know. Once an idea is expressed physically, whether through material or action, it suddenly becomes absolute. This absoluteness is capable of influencing human relations. The power of the physical and its inherent connection to human interaction and thought is the foundation of this exploration into politics, society, and architecture. Ideas realized through planning or impromptu actions are what makes up our world. Within our greater society, certain spatial arrangements become capable of transforming the ethos, or mindset, of a community. As a conclusion, the built form reacts to or is indicative of society’s structure and in turn influences the small scale interactions and relations that are results of it.

Division of Berlin

2


DESIGN AND SOCIETY Regarding the discipline of architecture and design, I believe there to be a strong correlation between space and the social implications for the humans that inhabit it. A society that is not conducive to the inclusion and unity of its different parts becomes stagnant and susceptible to the formation of social ills within itself. A social ill or problem is a condition within a community that is deemed undesirable because it directly or indirectly affects its members. Cases of social problems include poverty, racism, war, and many others. Most social problems are symptoms of inequality within a social structure that harm a portion of a community. Some inequalities between groups are deepened through a lack of cooperation or forced alienation. I believe that architecture and planning has an effect on social relations and social problems, allowing for such problems to be better addressed despite political forces. In this study, the social problem that will be addressed through the understanding of a political environment is segregation, the separation of ethnic groups and races.

related to the greater community that lives in it; it is critical to understand how moves on a larger scale affect the opportunities for new ideas related to the betterment of social interaction. Many have written on architecture’s role or possible effect on society. In Architects without Frontiers, Esther Charlesworth discusses the various opinions of the architects’ socio-political role and whether or not it is a manipulative capitalist tool. She importantly notes Michael Foucault’s essay in which Foucault explicitly says that architecture cannot create social change, but it may have a positive influence if the “liberating intentions of the architects coincide with the real practice of people and the exercise of their freedom” (Charlesworth 2006, 45). Henri Lefebvre also has influential writings about citizens’ use of urban spaces, creating the phrase “right to the city”. He brings awareness to civil rights in the city towards underprivileged groups and makes it apparent that space and ownership of it is a tool often used for power (Charlesworth 2006, 45)

Individual buildings are important components that make up the larger reading of society’s inner workings, but a wider frame for the overall image is a city’s plan. A city’s plan is

3


F R A M I N G

FACTORS OF INFLUENCE There are factors that influence a design’s ability to make an impact on society within a political environment. The notion of influential design becomes more conceivable through the examination of the conditions in which such goals may be achieved. In Paul Goldberger’s Why Architecture Matters, he puts into perspective the limitations of the profession by expressing that “architects are not makers of public policy, and while they can design whatever they please, they can build only what a client can pay for. Society must be willing to address these problems before the architect can do his or her best work”(Goldgerger, 2009, 6). Therefore, the critical point at which a community can be effectively mended is when there is a general progression and willingness towards change. This change may be best reflected through political or government evolution. For example, in the 1930s, Cuba began to form an identity and address social issues left in the wake of their independence from Spanish colonial rule. As a result, the Pro-Urbanism Association formed in order to “reconstruct the civic sphere of the nation”(Hyde 2012, 97) after the drafting of a constitution.

4

A second key point is that aside from physical forms, appropriate programming can effectively influence social outcomes. Robert Gutman wrote Architecture from the Outside from a sociologists’ point of view. He writes that many architects assume the social consequences of their design schemes according to form, but rather “a wealth of sociological research has already shown that the shape of buildings and site plans is a relatively insignificant determinant of social interaction, compared, say, to the positive effect that follows from the provision of such amenities as a nursery school for the area, or a community hall” (Gutman 2010, 174). This insight suggests that program, in some cases, may be more influential than solely relying on forms to guide social change. How a programmatic piece plays into its existing context can become a pivotal move that supports or counteracts an environment formed by politics.


DESIGN AS REFORM With the understanding that design is the means in which ideas are realized and that constructed space saturates our daily interactions, it is perceivable that design is able to support social reform and mending societies. The understanding and comprehension of space falls into the architect’s realm and should be utilized to address social ills and begin to mend fragmented societies. In Architects Without Frontiers, Esther Charlesworth inspires the profession through expressing that “architects should therefore be encouraged to adapt to an advocacy role, as in the Stadforums, to challenge dominant power structures, where needed, and to move beyond their usual activity as designers of mere ‘objects’ to engage in political action that affects both the spatial and social fabric of our cities” (Charlesworth 2006, 46).

Invisible Forces in Space

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LO C AT I N G

APPROACH TO CONTEXT My intent is to create architecture that lends itself to the mending of societies through the understanding of divisions in society brought about by politics. The context for this thesis requires a place that has been wrought by divide and will provide an opportunity for the design to help break down social boundaries. The world is fraught with countless examples of communities that are paralyzed by large rifts and divisions between their own people. The context of the potential program will be in an area with a severely apparent division. A factor that contributes to distinguishing possible sites from other areas is the history of the place. Places with a strong and recent history of divide will be an indicator that the separate nature of their culture may be reflected in the structure of their town or city. Historical examples that have been considered based on these criteria are ones such as America after the Civil Rights Movement’s segregation laws, Germany post the Berlin Wall that literally divided their nation, and South Africa post-apartheid in which the legal division of citizens was abolished.

The instance of politics and spatial divide that will be further examined in this thesis is the most recent case of South Africa and its struggle to reconcile its society and move beyond the dividing system of Apartheid. Specifically, the city of Johannesburg is a quintessential example of a city that has stagnant separation in the wake of a past filled with intentional delineation of space. The cultural context given by the heritage of South Africa is important because two distinctive cultures remain: one of European descendants and one of native South African descendants. The two cultures provide a platform for the thesis of mending a society through reacting to a city’s planning as a result of politics. The program will attempt to reflect a new South African culture and tradition, one that ties both groups to the common place that they inhabit now rather than the distinction between the cultures of their ancestors. The city of Johannesburg becomes the connector of the minority European descendants who reside in the north and the majority native South African decedents in the south.

Natives Seperated from Real “Homeland”

6


HISTORY OF APARTHEID In the mid-1600s, Dutch settlers moved to South Africa to set up trading companies. At that time, there were various native tribes living on the land and in small nomadic communities. In the late 1700s, gold was discovered and British settlers began to move into areas that the Dutch had settled because of the abundance of that natural resource. The Dutch, known as Boers or Afrikaans and the British, known as Anglos would later fight over territory around 1900. A peace treaty resulted in the Dutch losing their independence to the British and the British setting up their own government and policies for the region. Around 1910, the British government in South Africa began to propose laws that would create racial segregation in many aspects of life from citizenship to marriage. During the second World War, white South Africans were involved with the Allied Forces and as a result, South Africa’s economy grew with an increase in jobs. The country’s major cities became hubs and farmland on the outskirts saw a decrease in population.

The critical move that became the foundation of apartheid was the creation of townships on the outskirts of major cities and removal of all non-white ethnicities into them. Along with a host of structured apartheid laws that supported this organization, non-whites were banned from white areas and the inner city unless they contained permits to work in specified areas. Essentially, a minuscule percentage of land was put aside for a majority of the population to live on while a small amount of whites lived on a large part of the land. These laws further solidified the inequalities for non-whites such as no rights to own land, vote, receive proper education, or freely move from country to country. To counteract this, in the 1950s, The African National Congress was created and included many notable members, one being Nelson Mandela. A full movement for equal rights for all South Africans was led by this organization. The subsequent years were full of instances of resistance, arrests, trials, and deaths.

The National Party, an all-white political party, fully enacted severe apartheid after the election of 1948 that put Daniel Malan in office.

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LO C AT I N G

Leading into the 1970s, unrest within South Africa grew steadily and captured the attention of other nations around the world who began to question the apartheid system. The country saw disapproval through repercussions such as their removal from the United Nations and banning from the Olympic Games. Turmoil and violence within South Africa only increased with external political repercussions. For example, other Nations ceased to be economically involved with them, causing a deep depression. By 1990, the prime minister of the National Party released all apartheid prisoners and dismantled segregation laws while movements towards a settlement and peace negotiations began. In 1994, apartheid officially ended with the democratic election of Nelson Mandela as a president elected by the majority of South Africans.

Racial Turmoil in the 80s

8


SPATIAL APARTHEID LAWS The apartheid framework consisted of extensive laws and would ultimately shape the city planning and overall geography of South Africa. Below are a few monumental policies that established the order and social relations between citizens. South African Citizenship Act (1949): South Africa renounced common citizenship existing among members of the Commonwealth, essentially only leaving whites with citizenship. Population Registration Act (1950):This provided for the compilation of a register of the entire South African population. The South African population became divided into three racial groups: ‘White’, ‘Black’ (‘African’, ‘Native’ and/ or ‘Bantu’) and ‘Colored’ Group Areas Act (1950): According to this act, urban areas were to be divided into racially segregated zones where members of one specific race alone could live and work. Group areas were created for the exclusive ownership and occupation of a designated group.

White Group Area BUFFER ZONE

INDIAN TOWNSHIP Indi

rial

PH YS IC

Ind ust

E ON RZ FFE BU COLOREDTOWNSHIP

African Group Area

AL

BA

RR

IER

Model of Colonial Apartheid City

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LO C AT I N G

ANALYSIS OF SPACE OVER TIME The focus of politics and spatial order will be specifically analyzed using South Africa’s Johannesburg for a mapping study. The series of maps focuses on the locations of various ethnic groups in order to display the evolution of spatial boundaries before, during, and after apartheid. Through this analysis, the effect of politics on the city and human relations can be concluded. Taking the results into account, a design can better respond to the environment that has been created.

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In Framing the Disorderly City, Martin Murray begins to layout Johannesburg’s continued spatial politics that still define the city’s form. Post-apartheid, the segregation of the city is perpetuated by the layout and Murray points out the growing “paranoid urbanism” as the current mentality and the creation of fortified and walled spaces. (Murray 2011 ,61).


MINES

IN

1970s

Johannesburg

1990s

Johannesburg

2010s

Johannesburg

Johannesburg

South Africa

2010s Alexandra Township During Apartheid

2010 Johannesburg looks much like the Johannesburg of the apartheid era. The biggest shift is the new proportioning of land between the population groups of whites, Africans, and other ethnicities.

Gaugteng Province 0

5

Gold Mines

10

km

Ridges/ Mountains

0

Railroad

Town Borders

City Center: Johannesburg

5

African, Colored

10

0

km

Asian, and Townships

Ridges/ Mountains

City Center: Johannesburg

Railroad

Town Borders

White Suburbs

The conservative National Party came to power and implemented the policy of apartheid, banning all black opposition movements. Following this, coloreds living in Johannesburg were removed and resettled in townships on the outskirts of the city.

The growth of manufacturing in the 1930s and 1940s brought an even greater influx of blacks into the city and the black population doubled, with many of the new arrivals crowded into squatters' camps.

Sir John Barrow indicates on a map that gold is to be found in the approximate vicinity of either the Witwatersrand or the Magaliesberge

1802

City of Johannesburg

1886 Settlement of Johannesburg began in 1886. The government of the Transvaal, then a Boer republic, established a city at the site, and in the space of three years it became the largest settlement in South Africa

1910 Early in the century, the British colonial government began forcibly relocating blacks from the central city to areas on its outskirts.

1930

1948

5

Mostly African, and Colored

10

0

km

Asian, Areas

Ridges/ Mountains

City Center: Johannesburg

Highway

Town Borders

Mostly African, and Colored

Mostly White Areas

The official end of apartheid arrives through the disassembl of the policies and regulations that mad up apartheid.

Hundreds of thousands of blacks were relocated from Johannesburg to remote "homelands," and their movements were regulated by strict enforcement of pass laws.

1950

The Population Registration Act demanded that people be registered according to their racial group. This meant that the Department of Home Affairs would have a record of people according to whether they were White, Coloured, Black, Indian or Asian.

1960

1976

1990

5

10

km

Asian, Areas

Ridges/ Mountains

City Center: Johannesburg

Highway

Town Borders

Mostly White Areas

Also, many whites lived in the inner city in previous years, the 2010 map shows the white flight that occurred after apartheid. This change caused more enclosed communities north of the city, leaving inner Johannesburg with less economic stability and an increase in crime.

1994 South Africa’s first democratic elections are held and Neslson Manela is elected as president.

The black resistance movement that eventually overthrew apartheid and white dominance came on June 16, 1976, when South African police opened fire on a student protest in the black township of Soweto.

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LO C AT I N G

Based on the conclusion that Johannesburg’s spatial order has not evolved significantly enough to reflect the radical changes in its government and politics, the site location seeks to respond to this current trend. Between the enclaves formed by whites and blacks are void, and often un-programmed, spaces. The location of the civic program will seek to capitalize on the implied ethnic group buffer zones to provide new civic connections between isolated neighborhoods.

2010s

Johannesburg

ALEXANDRA TOWNSHIP

SANDOWN NEIGHBORHOOD

1

Township and middle class neighborhood

ROODEPOORT NEIGHBORHOOD

INDUSTRIAL WAREHOUSES

SOWETO TOWNSHIP

0

5

Mostly African, and Colored

12

10

2

km

Asian, Areas

Ridges/ Mountains

City Center: Johannesburg

Highway

Town Borders

Mostly White Areas

Interstates and industrial parks are dividing lines


The site chosen is the area between the famous township of Soweto and an middle class neighborhood, Roodepoort, which is slowly seeing new ethnic groups move in. The space between will be master planned to accommodate the public program that will facilitate the rehabilitation of this particular border condition.

Site Option 2 A

B

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S U P P O R T I N G

NATURE OF THE PROGRAM A society ripped by government policies in search of mending its separate social groups requires a reassessment of its evolving spatial organization. For a community to become unified, the lines between disparate groups should become blurred through the disappearance of spatial boundaries. This may be realized through a program that becomes available to user groups previously unable to benefit from them (schools, shared public spaces…ect). The program is one that provides opportunity for varying groups in a community to strengthen their contribution to the greater society, better reinstating them as important members within a whole. The divisive ridge between groups of people living together has a tendency to be reflected in the pattern of spaces of land they choose to inhabit. In understanding this, the function of the program needs to be relatable and have a positive effect on most of the parties involved. To contribute to a mending community, the physical space addressing the topic should create a civic realm and manifest an existing culture.

CREATING A CIVIC REALM A critical characteristic of the program will be its civic quality. A government change in segregation policies is a substantial way of ridding the obstacle of legal spatial separation. However, the shifting of written spatial barriers, like policies, becomes ineffective if there is no common ground upon which a new and inclusive society can rebuild. This translates to the necessity of public space being used as a tool to dissipate social differences. It is exactly this need that is expressed in Bank -- Architecture, Apartheid and After, where Lindsay Bremmer writes of the space struggle and the clarity of ongoing separation within South Africa when she says “These dynamics are producing an increasingly disparate, separated city. The gaps between the worlds of the township, the inner city and the suburb are widening. The chances that people of this city will develop a sense of shared space, of shared destiny grow slimmer by the day” (Judin and Vladislavic 1998, 23)

The Wall and Barrier Culture

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MANIFEST AN EXISTING CULTURE

PROGRAM RELATIVE TO LOCATING

The program type is better suited to be one that expresses an existing culture as a way to tie together a community. The program will be able to encapsulate regular activities that are characteristic of the customs or values within a place through drawing upon existing trends or needs that may be accommodated thorough the architecture. A program based on existing culture is one that sets the stage for a unified culture to be identified. Amongst instances of separated groups, it is important to discover an underlying related thread between the two parties. An example of merging a community through creating a new conglomerate culture was in Los Angeles when immigrants with varying nationalities living within a dense urban space unintentionally created a morphed new culture based on the simple reality that they shared one relative space. As a result, they were susceptible to becoming influenced by and learning from one another. (Soha 1996, 440). The approach to program of finding an evident instance of the meshing of two groups’ cultures and capitalizing on it may lead to architecture that better mends a society within a political climate.

The program that supports a mending society uses South Africa’s Johannesburg as an example of politics re-forming space. The physical manifestation of governmental policies reinforces the social structure. The experiential world contains spatial implications of a society’s structure and design can create a framework that supports or disassembles this. In the years post-apartheid, South Africa began to see new spatial implications through changes in policy. The new acknowledgment of blacks and coloreds as South African citizens created a shift between space and the people that occupy them. South Africans confined to townships on the outskirts of the city flooded back into the urban core and began to inhabit spaces not previously available to them like parks and sidewalks. For example, spontaneous street commerce and vending is occurring in downtown Johannesburg. The program is one that will respond to a changing spatial profile relative to government policy.

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S U P P O R T I N G

BUILDING TYPE A program that supports a mending society is one that provides a space to reconcile and re-establish fragmented groups within a society. The building typology is partial to location, the case example being Johannesburg, South Africa. Sports Center: A public realm that has the ability to bring a wide variety of people together is one that hosts an activity of leisure. A culture of sports, namely football, is deeply en-grained in South Africa and is a well-recognized pastime. The sport is casual and is able to be applied to a wide range of spaces from open and public fields, to narrow streets and urban corridors. The organic and unforced nature and rhythm of striking a ball contrasts the current disharmony and struggles within the greater city itself. The basis of such a sport is based on the strategic give and take between individual members that make a team. This basic practice of supportive and tolerant conduct is one that may be translated into a community seeking to reconcile its discordant past.

The program will cater to children between the ages of 5 and 16, recognizing that children comprise the future generation of South Africa and should have an opportunity to recreate their relationships with other races to become radically different than that of their parents. The location of the program will seek to be accessible to a wide array of ethnic groups and begin to bridge the fragmentation caused by decades of apartheid.

Sharing a Common Language

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R E F E R E N C I N G

PRECEDENTS PROJECT: Red Location Museum of Struggle LOCATION: Port Elizabeth, South Africa ARCHITECT: Noero Wolff Architects The project is located in a former township outside of Port Elizabeth. The area is notable for its deep history of struggle during the apartheid era and like many townships, its burden of poverty, crime, and a lack of jobs. Along with a museum, there was a general urban redevelopment plan to rehabilitate the area that included housing, a library, and communal spaces. The project’s intent was to reverse the segregation of the place by creating infrastructure that supported community growth and involvement. Even having locals assist in the building and gain valuable labor skills displays the attention given to how architecture and creation of new space can serve a community beyond the simple creation of four walls. The care for the development of an area as well as the individual structures and attention to the meaning of materials used shows a sensitivity towards the context in which the project was built (Museum of Modern Art,2013).

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R E F E R E N C I N G

PROJECT: Atlas of Conflict LOCATION: Palestine/Israel ARCHITECT: Malkit Shoshan Malkit Shoshan, an architect, wrote a book titled Atlas of Conflict in which she studies how politics can have a hand in the organization of cities and further government interest. She does extensive mapping of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict over a series of 100 years and looks at the maps through several lenses such as borders, settlements, treaties, and land ownership. Israel and Palestine have had an ongoing feud over territory and the book does well in highlighting the use of “spatial planning as a political instrument� (Grootens, 2010).

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PROJECT: Keast Park Community Pavilion LOCATION: Seaford, Australia ARCHITECT: Jackson Clements Burrows Architects The Keast Park Community Pavilion was designed to be a multipurpose community facility. A large public deck area connects the Bowls Club and other program to a park area beyond. An upper level portion of the building faces the shore and strengthens the permeability of the site to public passerby. Programmatic ally, the juxtaposition of different user groups in a public forum with intent of encouraging spontaneous interaction is a notable portion of the design. The strategy of creating a path through the building that is linked to an external public space is effective in interjecting paths of different people to one another (Archdaily, 2013).

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S U P P O R T I N G

PROJECT: Kimisagara Football for Hope Centre LOCATION: AFO with Architecture for Humanity ARCHITECT: Kimisagara, Rwanda A modest structure, the Kimisagara Football for Hope Centre is meant to bring together the torn history of Rwanda and its genocide through reconciliation and sports. The location of the centre is within a neighborhood that disadvantaged and in need of facilities that can contribute to the community. The program of the centre includes community gathering places, changing rooms, a football field, and educational spaces. The wide range of spaces and their uses allow for an area in which a variety community members can paticipate. The space is flexible in its use in allowing or the gathering places to be used for cultural events and traditions such as street vending. From a water collection system to usable community space, the Centre becomes a catatlyst for change and assists in uplifting a community through meeting needs and providing enjoyment (Archdaily, 2012).

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PROJECT: Soccer City Stadium LOCATION: Johannesburg, South Africa ARCHITECT: Boogertman Urbn Edge/Populous This soccer stadium was designed for the 2010 FIFA World Cup in which South Africa stepped into the world spotlight. The site is unique because it is a renovated stadium that is rich with history. The old soccer stadium was the site of Nelson Mandela’s speech immediately after he was released from prison. The revamping of a place that already had a deep significance in the journey of South Africa’s shedding of its divisive past and elevated its progression through a community centered event. The renovation of a historic soccer arena was not the only symbolism used in the design. The initial schematic design concept was to have the stadium express a symbolic form that is characteristic of African culture. As a result, a calabash, which is an African pot and meant to relate to the melting pot of the African continent. The stadium also takes into consideration the climate of Johannesburg through using passive design techniques. The skin of the stadium consists of panels and some of them are left out to allow for cross ventilation within the stadium. The light emitting through these voids are also meant to represent the starry African night sky. Soccer City Stadium, through its location and symbolism, is meant to represent a greater nation and attest to its conflicted past through offering unity and commradery.

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C I T I N G

BIBLIOGRAPHY ArchDaily, 2013. “Keast Community Pavilion/Jackson Clements Burrows Architects”. Accessed November 25, 2013. http://www.archdaily.com/321636/. ArchDaily, 2012. “Kimisagara Football for Hope Centre”. Accessed November 20, 2013. http://www.archdaily.com/267440/kimisagara-football-for-hope-centre-kdap/. ArchDaily, 2009. “South Africa 2010 Soccer City Stadium”. Accessed November 30, 2013. http://www.archdaily.com/32004/south-africa-world-cup-2010-soccer-city-stadium/. Blank-- : Architecture, Apartheid and After. 1998.Hilton Judin, Nederlands Architectuurinstituut. Rotterdam: New York: Rotter dam : NAi ; New York : Distributor, D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers. Confronting Fragmentation: Housing and Urban Development in a Democratizing Society. 2003. Marie Huchzermeyer, Mzwan ele Mayekiso. Lansdowne, Cape Town: Lansdowne, Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press. Bollens, Scott A. 2012. City and Soul in Divided Societies. Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge. Butler, Chris, Dr. 2010. Henri Lefebvre: Spatial politics, Everyday Life and the Right to the City. London: London: RoutledgeCavendish. Charlesworth, Esther Ruth. 2006. Architects without Frontiers: War, Reconstruction and Design Responsibility. Amsterdam; Boston; London: Amsterdam ; Boston ; London : Architectural Press. Christopher, A. J. 2001. The Atlas of Changing South Africa. Electronic Resource. A. J. Christopher. London; London; New York: London : Routledge. Coetzer, Nic. 2013. Building Apartheid: On Architecture and Order in Imperial Cape Town. Farnham, Surrey; Burlington: Ashgate. Court Theatre, 2013. “A Short History of Apartheid.” Accessed December 1, 2013. http://www.courttheatre.org/season/article/a_short_history_of_apartheid/. Desire Lines : Space, Memory and Identity in the Post-Apartheid City. 2007 . London ; New York: London ; New York : Routledge. Goldberger, Paul. 2009. Why Architecture Matters. New Haven: New Haven: Yale University Press. Governing by Design Architecture, Economy, and Politics in the Twentieth Century. 2012.Timothy Hyde, Project Muse. Pitts burgh: Pittsburgh : University of Pittsburgh Press.

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Grootens Joost, 2010. “Atlas of the Conflict.” Accessed November 28, 2013. http://www.grootens.nl/2/10/11/881.html. Gutman, Robert. 2010. Architecture from the Outside In: Selected Essays. John Wriedt. New York: New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Johannesburg : The Elusive Metropolis. 2008. Sarah Nuttall. Durham: Durham : Duke University Press. Lefebvre, Henri. 1984. The Production of Space. D. Nicholson-Smith trans. Cambridge MA: Basil Blackwell. Murray, Martin J. 2011. City of Extremes: The Spatial Politics of Johannesburg. Durham: Durham: Duke University Press. Museum of Modern Art. 2013. “Small Scale Big Change.” Accessed December 2, 2013. http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2010/smallscalebigchange/credits. Nelson Mandela Center of Memory, 2013. “O’Malley the Heart of Hope.” Accessed December 5, 2013. http://www.nelsonmandela.org/omalley/index.php/site/q/03lv01538/04lv01828/05lv01829/06lv01836.htm. Remaking Urban Citizenship : Organizations, Institutions, and the Right to the City. 2012. Michael P. Smith, Michael McQuarrie. New Brunswick: New Brunswick : Transaction Publishers. Taming the Disorderly City: The Spatial Landscape of Johannesburg after Apartheid. 2008. Ithaca: Ithaca: Cornell University Press. The Politics of Public Space. 2006. Setha M. Low. New York: New York: Routledge. Noble, Jonathan Alfred. 2011. African Identity in Post-Apartheid Public Architecture: White Skin, Black Masks. Farnham ; Burl ington, VT: Farnham ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate Pub. Soha, Edward.1996. Los Angeles: From Crisis Generated Restructuring to Restructuring-Generating Crisis. University of Cali fornia Press. Tonkiss, Fran. 2005. Space, the City and Social Theory: Social Relations and Urban Forms. Cambridge: Cambridge: Polity. Where Are the Utopian Visionaries? : Architecture of Social Exchange. 2012. Hansy Better Barraza. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh : Peri scope Publishing. Zeisel, John. 1975. Sociology and Architectural Design. New York: New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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I

n the specific instance of Johannesburg, the program reacts to the influence of apartheid through addressing resource distribution relative to the spatial order created through politics, namely the resource of water. The resultant project seeks to address the issues of neighborhood barriers whilst reclaiming a space with a valuable resource and distributing it to adjacent communities.


portunities that counteract the spatial remnants of apartheid.

WATER PURIFICATION PAVILION JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA Barrier Zone

ROODEPOORT

ROBERTVILLE

JOHANNESBURG

SOWETO

Downtown Johannesburg

Soccer City Stadium

Freedom Park

Government and policies have the power to give order to human relations, but they also have the power to manipulate the physical order of the spaces we inhabit. Instances of political power on space is evident in every community, although there are extreme cases such as the Berlin Wall and the Palestinian Conflict. With many of these extreme examples, the built environment morphs in order to reflect the evolution of human relations as a result of political influence. With this inherent force of politics, how can architecture and planning begin to unravel an established rigid social order? This thesis seeks to explore the relationship between architecture and spatial tensions created by politics on an urban planning and building scale. The research examines the spatial planning of Johannesburg, South Africa in relation to apartheid. The chosen site is situated in a former apartheid “barrier zone”, a barren space intended to separate different ethnic groups from one another. Such barrier zones between neighborhoods are the existing scars of the apartheid era that dictated the order of South African cities.

Map Showing Locations of Johannesburg’s Gold Mines

Orlando Towers

Government and policies have the power to give order to human relations, but they also have the power to manipulate the physical order of the spaces we inhabit. Instances of political power on space is evident in every community, although there are extreme cases such as the Berlin Wall and the Palestinian Conflict. With many of these extreme examples, the built environment morphs in order to reflect the evolution of human relations as a result of political influence. With this inherent force of politics, how can architecture and planning begin to unravel an established rigid social order? This thesis seeks to explore the relationship between architecture and spatial tensions created by politics on an urban planning and building scale. The research examines the spatial

In the specific instance of Johannesburg, the program reacts to the influence of apartheid through addressing resource distribution relative to the spatial order created through politics, namely the resource of water. The resultant project seeks to address the issues of neighborhood barriers whilst reclaiming a space with a valuable resource and distributing it to adjacent communities.

planning of Johannesburg, South Africa in relation to apartheid. The chosen site is situated in a former apartheid “barrier zone”, a barren space intended to separate different ethnic groups from one another. Such barrier zones between neighborhoods are the existing scars of the apartheid era that dictated the order of South African cities. In the specific instance of Johannesburg, the program reacts to the influence of apartheid through addressing resource distribution relative to the spatial order created through politics, namely the resource of water. The resultant project seeks to address the issues of neighborhood barriers whilst reclaiming a space with a valuable resource and distributing it to adjacent communities.


ust ri Ind

GOLD MINES

Self Directed Thesis Tabitha Darko

Settlement of Johannesburg began in 1886. The government of the Transvaal, then a Boer republic, established a city at the site, and in the space of three years it became the largest settlement in South Africa. MINES in Johannesburg 0

5

10

RR

IER

African Group Area

Sir John Barrow indicates on a map that gold is to be found in the approximate vicinity of either the Witwatersrand or the Magaliesberge. In the 1970s, Johannesburg was in the midts of Apartheid. This map shows the designated townships in which colored South Africanss were to live relative to white South Africans.

Diagram of the typical apartheid city. Decades after Europeans began to settle areas of South Africa for resources, their existing governments also began to implement patterns of urban planning that separated various ethnic groups.

1970s Johannesburg

km

Blacks required “passports” in oder to work in white controlled areas like Downtown Johannesburg.

White Group Area

South Africa

Guateng Province

Johannesburg BUFFER ZONE

1970s Johannesburg

REMNANTS of the “Barrier Zone”

Indian Township NE ZO FFERColored

Indian Township

PH YS

ICA

FUTURE Johannesburg

LB

Indu

GOLD MINES

Township

stria l

BU

African Group Area

ARR

IER

Sir John Barrow indicates on a map that gold is to be found in the approximate vicinity of either the Witwatersrand or the Magaliesberge. Settlement of Johannesburg began in 1886. The government of the Transvaal, then a Boer republic, established a city at the site, and in the space of three years it became the largest settlement in South Africa. 10

km

1970s Johannesburg

Based on the conclusion that Johannesburg’s spatial order has not evolved significantly enough to reflect the radical changes in its government and politics, the site location seeks to respond to this current trend.

Barrier Zone

After the appeal of Apartheid in 1991, there was a liberation of space in Johannesburg and no restriction on who could inabit any area. As a result, the map reflects a trend of white South Africans forming an enclave north of the city’s center. Their presence in inner Johannesburg has been replaced with lower income blacks, causing a reversal of what had been in the 1970s.

Between the enclaves formed by whites and blacks are void, and often un-programmed, areas of land. The location of the program capitalize on the implied ethnic group barrier zones to provide opportunities that counteract the spatial remnants of apartheid.

Based on the conclusion that Johannesburg’s spatial order has not evolved significantly enough to reflect the radical changes in its government and politics, the site location seeks to respond to this current trend.

After the appeal of Apartheid in 1991, there was a liberation of space in Johannesburg and no restriction on who could inabit any area. As a result, the map reflects a trend of white South Africans forming an enclave north of the city’s center. Their presence in inner Johannesburg has been replaced with lower income blacks, causing a reversal of what had been in the 1970s.

Between the enclaves formed by whites and blacks are void, and often un-programmed, areas of land. The location of the program capitalize on the implied ethnic group barrier zones to provide opportunities that counteract the spatial remnants of apartheid.

ROODEPOORT

Barrier Zone

Town Borders

Blacks required “passports” in oder to work in white controlled areas like Downtown Johannesburg.

FUTURE Johannesburg

REMNANTS of the “Barrier Zone”

ROODEPOORT

ROBERTVILLE

Barrier Zone

1990s Johannesburg

5

Barrier Zone

0

In the 1970s, Johannesburg was in the midts of Apartheid. This map shows the designated townships in which colored South Africanss were to live relative to white South Africans.

Diagram of the typical apartheid city. Decades after Europeans began to settle areas of South Africa for resources, their existing governments also began to implement patterns of urban planning that separated various ethnic groups.

JOHANNESBURG

ROBERTVILLE

SOWETO

SOWETO

JOHANNESBURG

Town Borders


ROBERTVILLE

ROODEPOORT

EXISTING NEIGHBORHOOD

ROBERTVILLE

INDUSTRIAL

Upper Class Home

ROODEPOORT

EXISTING NEIGHBORHOOD

EXISTING NEIGHBORHOOD

SOWETO

INDUSTRIAL Upper Class Home EXISTING NEIGHBORHOOD

SOWETO

Constructed wetlands within the park are in strategic areas where runoff from the mine dumps enter the site,

2

Constructed wetlands within the park are in strategic areas where runoff from the mine dumps enter the site,

Runoff from mine dumps surrounding the site causes the reservoir to contain heavy metals and other elements.

Main Reef Road

One of several strategies to reduce the pollution coming into the lake is to have constructed wetlands in the areas where the runoff is coming so that the slow moving water in the wetlands allows the other sediments to settle at the bottom of the pond.

Runoff from mine dumps surrounding the site causes the reservoir to contain heavy metals and other elements.

Main Reef Road

One of several strategies to reduce the pollution coming into the lake is to have constructed wetlands in the areas where the runoff is coming so that the slow moving water in the wetlands allows the other sediments to settle at the bottom of the pond.

low income

high income middle income

The site contains neighborhoods with people from various economic levels and this diagram shows the projected extension of these areas. The design of the park seeks to create connections between the neighborhoods whilst also reclaiming the natural resource water lowofincome for the surrounding residents.

high income

mai

n re

ef ro

This bridge connection in the park has a playful form and sits close to the water’s surface to allow moments of interaction with water. The tilting of the form allows for it to create seating for reflection or fishing on the bridge.

middle income

ad

The site contains neighborhoods with people from various economic levels and this diagram shows the projected extension of these areas. The design of the park seeks to create connections between the neighborhoods whilst also reclaiming the natural resource of water for the surrounding residents.

Fleurhof Lake

8 mai

n re

ef ro

ad

sow eto hi

ghw ay

There are two parallel main roads near the lake. The site proposes a new connection that ties both of them together, with the park as a point of interest between.

This bridge connection in the park has a playful form and sits close to the water’s surface to allow moments of interaction with water. The tilting of the form allows for it to create seating for reflection or fishing on the bridge.

Fleurhof Lake


This bridge connection in the park has a playful form and sits close to the water’s surface to allow moments of interaction with water. The tilting of the form allows for it to create seating for reflection or fishing on the bridge.

Fleurhof Lake

llel main roads near roposes a new conth of them together, point of interest be-

paths and bridges ormer “barrier zone”

Mine Dumps

7

A weir doubles as a landscape feature to depollute the water moving downstream as well a bridge that connects the surrounding areas. The bridge also offers moments for people to connect with water and appreciate the resource during their daily lives.

1 Middle Class Home

FLEURHOF LAKE 1

water bank

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constructed wetlands

3

tennis courts

4

market plaza

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soccer fields

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bioswale

2

6 4

3

7

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SOWETO


The program of the water bank is about design being informed through the understanding of how government policies are translated into the physical realm.

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The need stems from Johannesburg’s recent issues with water supply to its lower income citizens. The city allows for a set amount of free water through a meter for families in need. In recent years, the issue has been raised that the amount of free monthly water is not nearly enough to accommodate a family, resulting in the rigging of meters and illegal consumption of water.


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

The proposal for the water bank is about the equity of resource and land use despite the inherent influence of politics in land distribution. Through addressing the problem of runoff from mine tailing dumps, a resource in Soweto’s backyard can be reclaimed. The culmination of the park with its natural filtration features and strategies is the water bank that takes water from the lake and makes it potable for the community. Water is celebrated and made a ritual in the design in order to bring together people from various economic and social classes.

Thesis_Spatial Politics  
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