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geography

GY3000CA COURSE AND ASSESSMENT GUIDE NCEA LEVEL 3

2015


geography gy3000

teacher contact details

When you first make contact with your teacher, please fill out their details below for future reference.

TEACHER’S NAME: TELEPHONE: 0800 65 99 88

EXT:

ALTERNATIVE TELEPHONE NUMBER: EMAIL ADDRESS: Private Bag 39992, Wellington Mail Centre, Lower Hutt 5045 Please keep your Geography (GY3000) Course and assessment guide in a safe place so that you can use it to plan your study and to record your assessment results. For further information about courses at this level, please refer to the Student Guide to Years 11–13 and the Student Guide to National Certificates, both available on the school website (www.tekura.school.nz).

Cover images Illustration: World on fork, © iStockphoto 20093390 Photo: Map on face, © iStockphoto 2768131 Copyright © 2013 Board of Trustees of Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu, Private Bag 39992, Wellington Mail Centre, Lower Hutt 5045, New Zealand. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu. © te ah o o te k u ra p ou n am u


contents 1

Welcome to GY3000

2

Getting started

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GY3000 course outline

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Assessment summary

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Additional course materials

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Assessment information

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Geographic concepts and glossary

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Suggested course plan

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My Geography assessment record (GY3000)

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welcome to gy3000 Welcome to the Level 3 Geography (GY3000) course offered by Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu.

overview of gy3000

Geography is the study of the environment as the home of people. It seeks to interpret the world and how it changes over time – past, present and future. It explores the relationships and connections between people and both natural and cultural environments. Geography investigates the ways in which features are arranged on the Earth’s surface. It describes and explains the patterns and processes that create them. Students learn to think spatially, and use maps, visual images and new technologies to obtain, present and analyse information. Geography students are better able to make sense of a complex and changing world and their place in it. In geography, students have the opportunity to: •• explore real and relevant contemporary contexts •• undertake fieldwork investigations and relate them to geographic issues that affect them •• develop an awareness of the connections between people and places. By studying geography, students are able to recognise the responsibilities they have in relation to other people, the environment, and the long-term sustainability of the planet. In this NCEA Level 3 course, students will advance their geographic skills and their understanding of the concepts which are the basis of this subject. They will study how interacting natural processes shape a New Zealand environment, as well as demonstrate how tourism development shapes an environment. The analysis of a contemporary event enables students to look at major regional, national or international events from a geographic perspective. In their research study there is the opportunity to conduct a survey, process the results, reach conclusions and critically evaluate their research findings. Students also have the opportunity to study planning and environmental issues from a variety of perspectives. Students are offered 26 credits towards the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) Level 3. There are three external standards worth 12 credits and four internal standards worth 14 credits. There may be an opportunity, when further resources are available, to study for an extra internal standard worth 3 credits. This course can be endorsed with Merit or Excellence if in a single year you gain 14 or more credits at Merit and/or Excellence within Level 3 Geography. At least three of these credits must be from externally assessed standards and three from internally assessed standards.

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getting started how this course is delivered

GY3000 is a print-based course, with course material and supplementary material accessed from the online teaching and learning environment (OTLE). Dual enrolled students are expected to access material from OTLE. Other enrolled students may request printed materials to be posted, accepting there will be a delay between enrolment and receiving the first posting. You will receive an email explaining how to log in to OTLE. This email includes a link to set your password if you have not logged into the OTLE before. You can access OTLE by clicking on www.tekura.school.nz/login. It is recommended that you bookmark this site in your browser. This will take you to a page with links to your courses. Your username and initial password is your Te Kura student ID number. You will be asked to set a new password when you first log in. After that, if you need to reset your password you can click on the ‘Forgot password’ link on the OTLE login page. If you have difficulties logging in, please email: helpdesk.otle@tekura.school.nz

organising your study

Plan a regular time to study. Some people learn best from frequent short sessions while others do better with fewer, longer sessions. It is important to have a plan or a timetable and to keep to it. There is a suggested course plan in the back of this guide to help you plan your programme of study. You may wish to consult with your subject teacher to help you decide on your plan. Getting your study underway is very important. Your first return of work should be two to three weeks after you received your initial work. If you have any issues returning your work within this time, please contact your subject teacher. For more information on how to study successfully, refer to the Student Guide to Years 11–13 (www.tekura.school.nz).

resources you need •• Te Kura booklets and inserts •• A4 refill paper •• pencil, ruler, coloured pencils •• a scientific calculator •• computer with internet access. It would also be useful to have access to an atlas and the internet, although maps and other resources are provided in most instances.

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getting started

choosing topics and standards

NZQA advises that a one-year course should lead to 18–20 credits. You may only wish to study some topics. For example, you may want to do only internal standards for this course. You should look carefully at the course outline and make your choices. It is important to consider how well this will meet your learning goals (such as gaining enough credits to achieve your NCEA Level 3, or whether you are working towards course endorsement, or meeting the entry requirements for your tertiary course or any future study). To be awarded University Entrance you must have: •• NCEA Level 3 •• Three subjects – at Level 3 or above, made up of: –– 14 credits each, in three approved subjects •• Literacy – 10 credits at Level 2 or above, made up of: –– 5 credits in reading –– 5 credits in writing •• Numeracy – 10 credits at Level 1 or above made up of: –– achievement standards – specified achievement standards available through a range of subjects, or –– unit standards – package of three numeracy unit standards (26623, 26626, 26627 – all three required). To see the list of approved subjects refer to: www.nzqa.govt.nz/qualifications-standards/awards/university-entrance/approved-subjects/ To see the list of standards which count towards University Entrance literacy refer to: www.nzqa.govt.nz/qualifications-standards/awards/university-entrance/literacy-requirementsfor-university-entrance-from-2014/ To see the list of standards which count towards University Entrance numeracy refer to: www.nzqa.govt.nz/qualifications-standards/qualifications/ncea/subjects/literacy-andnumeracy/level-1-requirements/lit-num-subjects/ You should discuss your options with your teacher.

self-assessment

Many activities are self-assessed. You’ll find an Answer guide in each resource. Use these answers to mark your own work and make corrections where necessary. Self-assessment is important as it gives you instant feedback on how well you understand the ideas, concepts or information that have been covered.

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getting started

assessment

Students are required to send in their self-assessed and teacher-assessed work. Teachers return student work with feedback and advice in preparation for NCEA internal and external assessments. Internal assessments for this course are: •• open-book tests (GY3003Y1, GY3006Y1, GY3008Y1) •• a geographic research inquiry (GY3007Y1). The detailed criteria for Achievement Standards will be given in the relevant resources. They can also be found by searching the subject and level in the NCEA part of the NZQA website (www. nzqa.govt.nz) and then finding the relevant standard(s). External assessment preparation includes: •• teacher-marked activities •• Te Kura practice examinations.

time commitment

There are nine booklets in this course. Each booklet indicates how many study hours it is likely to require. For example, booklet GY3001 may take approximately 20 hours of work to complete at the normal pace, representing about two weeks of work at five hours per week. If you are to achieve at Excellence level, it is likely that you will have to study substantially more than the suggested guideline. Before deciding on the pace of learning, read through this Course and assessment guide and ask yourself the following: •• How much time can I set aside for study each week? •• Will I be attempting both externally and internally assessed standards? •• Will I be able to keep a steady pace of five hours of study each week? •• Do I intend to sit the external examination at the end of the year? •• Do I need specific external or internal credits for next year’s study or work?

normal pace of learning

As a guide, expect to do at least five hours work per week in this subject. This means completing three to four booklets each term so that you complete the course before the external examination at the end of the school year.

flexible pace of learning

If you have less than a year because you start later or need to finish earlier, you can decide the pace at which you work. You could still complete the whole course by devoting more time and effort to it. Your teacher can ensure that you receive the resources you need in time to do this.

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getting started

cover sheets

The back cover of the booklet becomes the cover sheet for your work. Fill it in, sign it and attach it to the front of your work before sending it back to Te Kura. If applicable, your supervisor also signs the cover sheet as part of our authenticity requirements. All students are encouraged to submit as much as possible of their work online via the OTLE Dropbox. When work requires authentication, students will follow the instructions provided in OTLE.

te kura codes

Your course code is: GY3000. GY is the code for Geography and 3 refers to Level 3. ‘GY’ refers to a booklet that covers a particular learning topic in the GY3000 course. ‘GY3003Y1’ refers to the first assessment for an Achievement Standard (AS91432) for Geography. ‘AS’ is the code for Achievement Standard.

queries about your work

It is important to contact your teacher if you have any queries about your work. It helps to have your ID number, booklet code (for example, GY3001) and the activity or question number when you contact your teacher, but it is not essential.

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gy3000 course outline Course item/ booklet

Title

Learning focus

Standard

GY3000CA

Course and assessment guide

Outline and planning for the course

All standards

GY3000S

Skills supplement – Level 3

GY1001S

Skills supplement

GY3001 GY3001A GY3001W

Cultural process: Rotorua

Demonstrate understanding of how a cultural process shapes geographic environment(s)

Working towards AS91427

GY3002 GY3002A

Cultural process: Bali

Demonstrate understanding of how a cultural process shapes geographic environment(s)

Working towards AS91427

GY3003 GY3003A GY3003W

Tourist destinations: a global topic

Analyse aspects of a geographic topic at a global scale

AS91432

GY3004 GY3004A GY3004W

Tongariro: a natural landscape 1

Demonstrate understanding of how interacting natural processes shape a New Zealand geographic environment

Working towards AS91426

GY3005 GY3005B GY3005W

Tongariro: a natural landscape 2

Demonstrate understanding of how interacting natural processes shape a New Zealand geographic environment

Working towards AS91426

GY3006 GY3006Y1

Contemporary geography issue

Analyse aspects of a contemporary geographic issue

AS91431

GY3007 GY3007Y1

Geographic research

Conduct geographic research with consultation

AS91430

GY3008 GY3008W

Significant contemporary event

Analyse a significant contemporary event from a geographic perspective

AS91428

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assessment summary credits offered: 26

ncea level 3 geography (gy3000)

Standard number

Standard title

Study material/ resources

Further assessment opportunity

AS91426 Geography 3.1

Demonstrate understanding of how interacting natural processes shape a New Zealand geographic environment

GY3004 GY3004A GY3004W

No

AS91427 Geography 3.2

AS91428 Geography 3.3

External, 4 credits

GY3005 GY3005A GY3005W

Demonstrate understanding of how a cultural process shapes geographic environment(s)

GY3001 GY3001A GY3001W

External, 4 credits

GY3002 GY3002A

Analyse a significant contemporary event from a geographic perspective

GY3008 GY3008W GY3008Y1

No

GY3000S GY1001S All booklets

No

GY3007 GY3007A

No

GY3006 GY3006Y1

No

GY3003 GY3003A GY3003W GY3003Y1

No

No

Internal, 3 credits AS91429 Geography 3.4

Demonstrate understanding of a given environment(s) through selection and application of geographic concepts and skills External, 4 credits

AS91430 Geography 3.5

Conduct geographic research with consultation Internal, 5 credits

AS91431 Geography 3.6

Analyse aspects of a contemporary geographic issue Internal, 3 credits

AS91432 Geography 3.7

Analyse aspects of a geographic topic at a global scale Internal, 3 credits

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additional course materials online resources Resources

Description

Website

OTLE

The Te Kura online learning site for Level 3 Geography.

www.tekura.school.nz

NZQA website

Information about the standards, conditions of assessment, past exams and assessment schedules. Includes exemplars of student work.

www.nzqa.govt.nz/qualificationsstandards/qualifications/ncea/ subjects/geography/levels/

Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI) website

Exemplars of internal assessments, with examples of suggested answers.

www.ncea.tki.org.nz/Resources-foraligned-standards/Social-sciences/ Geography

Studyit website

A student help site with information to support NCEA students. Focuses on Science, Mathematics and English but the general advice, information and forum are useful for Geography students.

www.studyit.org.nz

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assessment information standards

GY3000 offers credits from Achievement Standards which count towards NCEA Level 3. Please refer to our Student Guide to National Certificates or Te Kura and New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA) websites for more information about National Certificates of Educational Achievement and assessment: •• www.nzqa.govt.nz •• www.tekura.school.nz

internal assessment

GY3000 offers four Achievement Standards that are internally assessed. This means that your teacher sets and marks all assessments that count towards credits gained for these standards. The assessment opportunity for an Achievement Standard is coded ‘Y1’ and if there is a second assessment opportunity offered, this is coded ‘Y2’. For example, GY3003Y1 is the assessment for AS91432.

external assessment

External assessment means that an external examiner marks your assessment work. This may be through the NZQA examinations at the end of the year or (for subjects such as Design and Visual Communication, Technology and Art) by submitting a portfolio or project. You will be able to complete practice assessments and Te Kura practice examinations for external standards.

te kura practice examinations

You should complete the Te Kura practice examinations or work towards assembling a portfolio for any external standards with an end of year examination or portfolio submission you have entered. It is important that you complete all practice external assessments and examinations. If for some reason, such as illness, you are unable to sit the NZQA examinations at the end of the year you will only be eligible for consideration for a derived grade (compassionate consideration) if you have completed the Te Kura practice examinations.

resubmissions for internal assessments

If you have made mistakes in your standard assessment activity, your teacher may offer you one resubmission opportunity. This means you have made errors that you are capable of discovering and correcting by yourself. A resubmission allows you to correct your errors and improve your result.

further assessment opportunities for internal assessments For some standards, you may be able to complete a second assessment called a ‘further assessment opportunity’ to improve your results. These standards are indicated in the assessment summary. You should take this opportunity where it is available.

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assessment information

authenticity

Authenticity means that students complete and submit work that is their own. When you submit work to Te Kura, you sign an authentication declaration that the work you are submitting is your own work and was done under the required assessment conditions. Where applicable, your supervisor signs to confirm this declaration. When submitting work online via the OTLE Dropbox, if it requires authentication, students must follow the instructions provided in OTLE.

derived grades (compassionate consideration)

If for any unexpected reason you are not able to sit your end of year examination or to submit final work towards an external standard (portfolios or projects), you may be eligible for a derived grade. Please refer to the Student Guide to National Certificates and contact your teacher as soon as possible to find out more should you feel this is necessary.

appeals

You have the right to query an assessment result if you want further clarification or disagree with the result. If you are still not satisfied, you may appeal. Refer to the Student Guide to National Certificates for more information. You can also appeal any other decisions, procedures or policies about assessments. Contact your teacher if you wish to appeal. Further information and a form that students can use to appeal is available on the Te Kura website in the Student toolkit area (www.tekura.school.nz and go to Student toolkit).

new zealand scholarship

New Zealand Scholarship examinations are designed to extend very high achieving Level 3 NCEA students. Students who wish to enter for the NZ Scholarship examinations must discuss this option with their Te Kura subject teacher. The list of subjects available for NZ Scholarship can be found at: www.nzqa.govt.nz/qualifications-standards/awards/scholarship/scholarship-subjects/

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geographic concepts and glossary key geographic concepts

Key concepts are the big ideas and understandings that allow geographers to explore the relationships and connections between people and both natural and cultural environments.

environments May be natural and/or cultural environments. They have particular characteristics and features which can be the result of natural and/or cultural processes. •• Natural features have been created by nature, not people. For example: landforms, indigenous vegetation, lakes and rivers. •• Cultural features exist because people have put them there (they have been created by people). For example: roads, railways, buildings, plantations, factories, fences, dairy herds.

perspectives The way people view and interpret environments. Perspectives and values may be influenced by culture, the environment, social systems, technology, economic and political ideology. They may influence how people interact with environments and the decisions and responses that they make.

processes A sequence of actions, natural and/or cultural, that shape and change environments, places and societies. For example: faulting, erosion and migration.

patterns The arrangement and distribution of natural and cultural features on the earth’s surface. May be spatial: the arrangement of features on the earth’s surface; or temporal: how characteristics differ over time in recognisable ways.

interaction Involves elements of an environment affecting each other and being linked together. Interaction involves movement, flows, connections, links and interrelationships. Landscapes are the visible outcome of interactions. Interaction can bring about environmental change.

change

Involves any alteration to the natural or cultural environment. Change can be spatial and/or temporal. Change is a normal process in both natural and cultural environments. It occurs at varying rates, at different times and in different places. Some changes are predictable, recurrent or cyclic while others are unpredictable.

sustainability Means the ability to endure. For humans sustainability is the long-term maintenance of productive, healthy environments and the management of human use of resources. Sustainability is the ability to meet the needs of the present without harming future needs.

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geographic concepts and glossary

Additional spatial concepts may be studied, such as: •• Location – where people or features are sited or positioned. •• Distance – how far away or apart, people or features are, the space between points or features. •• Accessibility – how easy it is for people, ideas or things to move around. •• Region – an area with distinctive natural and/or cultural features. Regions may vary in size and characteristics and are continually changing.

māori concepts

Kaitiakitanga: protection and preservation of the environment for future generations. Manaakitanga: behaviour that acknowledges the mana of others through hospitality, generosity, care and welfare.

glossary

The following are geographic terms used in the course and their definition. These are words which are likely to be used in assessments. These are the words that are likely to be used in assessment resources and questions. More technical words are introduced in the appropriate topics. Develop a separate glossary for these terms. accessibility

how easy it is for people, ideas or things to move around

altitude

the height of land above sea level

climate

t he average weather conditions over a long period of time. The elements of climate include rainfall, temperature, sunshine and wind

climatic processes natural processes that originate in the Earth’s atmosphere, such as the processes that result in orographic rain or produce winds concentration

features located close together in a relatively small area

conservation

preserving the natural environment

core an area of concentration (core) such as the city of Auckland which dominates a surrounding (periphery) area from which it draws people, ideas and materials culture/cultural

refers to the customs, beliefs and traditions of a group of people

demographics the scientific and statistical study of population denudation

the wearing away of the land by natural agents

deposition

the laying down of eroded material

dynamic

constantly changing and evolving

ecosystem a system of interrelating natural elements and processes in a natural environment © te ah o o t e k ur a p o un a m u

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geographic concepts and glossary

economic processes cultural activities which produce products or services from which money or capital can be earned. Tourism, retailing and transport are examples element(s)

components of an environment or process that may interact

environment a distinctive area or region that is formed by the interaction of natural and/or cultural processes. For example, desert, alpine or urban environments erosion the wearing down and transporting away of the Earth’s surface by agents of wind, water and ice fault a break or fracture in the Earth’s crust along which there has been land movement; a part of the natural or cultural environment that can be seen. A natural feature is something that has been created by nature, for example, a mountain. A cultural feature is something placed there by people, such as a bridge or a house – it has been created by people (see phenomena) fluvial

relates to the processes of rivers and streams

geology

the structure and composition of the Earth’s crust

geological processes natural processes that originate inside the Earth’s surface and operate to build up the land, for example volcanism and folding and faulting glaciation

the processes of erosion and deposition by glaciers

hypothesis a statement about a topic which may be tested to see if it is right or wrong infrastructure the network of services that enable an economy to operate. It includes provision of transport, communications and power facilities, for example, networks of roads, railway and power lines interaction the way in which elements of the landscape affect and are affected by one another. For example relief can affect climate by producing orographic rain, which in turn affects relief by erosion landform a particular feature related to the shape of the Earth’s surface such as a volcanic cone or river valley landscape an area with particular identifiable features. For example, desert, city mass movement

a gravity induced erosion process whereby soil or rock slip down a slope

migration

the movement of people from one country or region to another

mountains

steep land usually over 1000 metres in elevation from summit to base

natural physical and biological phenomena such as rain, rivers, sun, tussock grasslands patterns the repeated or regular way things are done or organized such as the patterns of natural vegetation or grid pattern of roads perception how people feel about features, events and issues

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geographic concepts and glossary

periphery the area dependent on a core area (see core). It interacts with the core by supplying the core raw materials and is dependent on the core for many of its processed goods and services phenomena features or things that can be seen or measured in the environment. They can be natural (like fault lines) or cultural (like airports) plate tectonics the processes by which large sections (plates) of the Earth’s crust are moved by convection currents. These plate movements result in continental drift, earthquakes, volcanoes and fold mountains process a series of related events that modify or maintain an environment and thus bring about change. Processes may be internal, for example, subduction, or external weathering region

a distinctive area of a country or continent

regulators groups who make decisions about how processes like tourism or migration operate. For example, DOC (Department of Conservation) controls access to national parks, while government policies determine the number of migrants relief

the height and shape of the land

spatial variations differences between one place and another that can be seen or measured. For instance, you can see different types of vegetation at different altitudes on a mountain like Mt Cook/Aoraki. You can measure and map differences in income within a region like Auckland. Spatial variations result in patterns subduction the process whereby one crustal plate slides beneath another and merges into the Earth’s mantle system a series of elements or components that link together, interacting to form a distinctive entity, for example, a river system or a factory system tourism the temporary movement of people to destinations outside places where they normally live for leisure purposes volcanism a natural process which results in the formation of volcanoes and associated landforms weather atmospheric conditions, for example, rain, sunshine, wind, temperature at a certain point in time weathering is a process involving the decay and breakdown of surface rocks exposed to the elements of climate

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suggested course plan Here is a suggested one year plan. The suggestions are based on the assumption that you are going to be enrolled for a full year course at the beginning of the school year. We offer 26 credits at this level but a full-time student would generally complete 18 to 20 credits in a year. However, you may enroll with Te Kura part way through the year and continue your studies the following year. You may choose to select only some of the topics and standards depending on your circumstances. Feel free to discuss your individual programme with your subject teacher who will be willing to adjust the programme to suit your needs. Term 1

2

3

4

Suggested Plan

Time (approximate)

Read GY3000CA and consult your teacher

1 week

GY3006 Contemporary geographic issue

2–3 weeks

GY3006Y1 Complete the internal assessment

2–3 weeks

Start GY3001 Cultural process: Tourism development Rotorua

3 weeks

GY3002 Cultural process: Tourism development Bali

2–3 weeks

GY3003 Tourist destinations: a global topic

2 weeks

GY3003Y1 Complete the internal assessment

1 weeks

GY3004 Tongariro: a natural landscape 1

2 weeks

GY3004 Tongariro: a natural landscape 2

2–3 weeks

GY3007 Geographic research

1 week

GY3007Y1 Complete the internal assessment

3 weeks

GY3008 Significant contemporary event

1 week

GY3008Y1 Complete the internal assessment

3 weeks

Revision and Exam practice

2–3 weeks

Complete unfinished work and/or resubmissions.

3–4 weeks

Revision – your teacher will let you know what to revise and the degree of detail examiners require for merit/excellence grades. With this information you will be able to decide the detail, in terms of the statistics and case studies you need. Access NZQA website for past exam papers and answers.

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my geography assessment record (gy3000) Standard number

Standard title

AS91426 Geography 3.1

Demonstrate understanding of how interacting natural processes shape a New Zealand geographic environment

November exam*

Demonstrate understanding of how a cultural process shapes geographic environment(s)

November exam*

External 4 credits AS91427 Geography 3.2 External 4 credits AS91428 Geography 3.3 Internal 3 credits AS91429 Geography 3.4 External 4 credits

AS91430 Geography 3.5 Internal 5 credits AS91431 Geography 3.6 Internal 3 credits AS91432 Geography 3.7 Internal 3 credits

Exam/Assessment due date

Analyse a significant contemporary event from a geographic perspective Demonstrate understanding of a given environment(s) through selection and application of geographic concepts and skills

November exam*

Conduct geographic research with consultation

Analyse aspects of a contemporary geographic issue

Analyse aspects of a geographic topic at a global scale

*NZQA examination results available in January.

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Grade awarded

Credits achieved



GY3000CA 2015